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EngineeringMaterials

PlasticTheoryofBending
DescribesBendingabovetheyieldStressforelasticmaterials(MildSteel).

Introduction
BendingBeyondTheYieldStress.
MostEngineeringdesignisbasedonthe"ElasticTheoryofBending"andthemethodistocalculatethemaximum
Stresseswhichoccur,andtothenkeepthemwithintheworkingStressesinbothcompressionandTension.These
workingStressesarecalculatedfromtheYield(orultimate)StressandaFactorofSafety.Thisapproachisalittle
unrealisticsinceMildSteelStructuresdonotfailwhentheedgeStressofanycrosssectionreachestheYieldpoint,and
willcontinuetowithstandtheloadaslongasthecentralcoreofthesectionremainswithintheElasticState.

Contents
1. Introduction
2. AssumptionsInThePlastic
Theory.
3. TheMomentOfResistance
AtAPlasticHinge.
4. MomentsOfResistanceFor
VariousCrosssections.
5. CollapseLoads
6. CombinedBendingAnd

PlasticBendingOfBeams
Astheloadonaparticularbeamisgraduallyincreased,thegreatestStresseswilloccurattheextremefibresofthe
"weakest"section(Note:InsomeSteelswhentheelasticlimitisreachedthereisamarkedreductioninStressandin
anycalculationsthelowerYieldStressistakenSeegraph).Theseouterfibresaresaidtobeintheplasticstate,and
anyincreaseinloadingwillresultinaconsiderableincreaseinStrainandhencedeflectionatthatsectionoftheBeam.
TherewillalsobearedistributionofStress.WithMildSteelthisincreaseinStraincantakeplacewithouttheStressrising
abovetheyieldpoint(i.e.anyStrainHardeningeffectscanbeneglectedandtheplasticStrainatyieldisintheorderof
1020timestheElasticStrain).
ItcanthereforebeassumedthattheStressintheplasticregionisConstant.Whenthewholecrosssectionatanypoint
inastructurebecomesPlastic,nofurtherincreaseinthemomentofresistanceispossiblewithoutexcessiveStrain
(equivalenttoanincreaseintheCurvatureatthatsection)andaplastichingehasbeendevelopedoneormoresuch
hingesarerequiredforacompletecollapse.Thenumberdependsuponthetypeofstructureandwhetheritis,for
example,asimplysupportedbeam,abuiltinbeamorarigidframe.Thevalueoftheloadrequiredtoproducethisstateis
calledtheCollapseLoad,andtheratiooftheCollapseLoadtotheWorkingLoadiscalledtheLoadFactor.Inplastic
designthisfactorisusedinsteadofthenormalFactorofSafety.

AssumptionsInThePlasticTheory.
TherequirementistocalculatetheBendingMomentneededtoformaPlastichingeinanyparticularcrosssection,andto
determinethedistributionofBendingMomentalongthebeamattheCollapseLoad.Todothisitisnormaltomakethe
followingassumptions:

ThatthematerialexhibitsamarkedyieldandcanundergoconsiderableStrainatYieldwithoutanyfurtherincreasein
Stress.IneffectthislimitsthetheorytoapplicationsusingMildSteelsasthematerialhasadropinStressatYield.The
loweryieldstressisusedincalculations.
TheYieldStressisthesameinTensionandCompression.
TransversecrosssectionsremainplanesothattheStrainisproportionaltothedistancefromtheNeutralAxis.However,
inthePlasticregiontheStresswillremainConstantandisnotproportionaltotheStrain.
OnceaPlasticHingehasdevelopedatanycrosssection,theMomentofResistanceatthatpointwillremainConstant
untilthecollapseofthewholestructurehastakeneffect.ThiswillonlyhappenwhentherequirednumberofPlastic
Hingesatotherpointshavedeveloped.

TheMomentOfResistanceAtAPlasticHinge.
ThediagramshowsthevariationsinStressandStraininabeamofsymmetricalcrosssectionsubjectedtoaworkingload.

DirectStress
7. CollapseLoadsInPortal
Frames
8. PageComments

(a)UsingtheformulafromtheSimpleTheoryofBending,themaximumworkingStressis
StrainareproportionaltothedistancefromtheNeutralAxis.

.NotethattheStressand

(b)TheloadhasbeenincreasedsothattheextremefibresYieldandthebeamisinapartialPlasticstate.Notethat
isthelowerYieldStress.
(c)TheLoadisincreasedfurtheruntilafullyPlasticStateisobtained.Itisnowassumedthatthestress isuniform
overthewholecrosssection.Infactthisisnotstrictlytrue,sincetherewillbeaverysmallelasticregionaroundthe
NeutralAxis(shownonthediagram)buttheeffectofthisonthevalueoftheMomentofResistanceisverysmalland
canbeneglected.

MomentsOfResistanceForVariousCrosssections.
a)RectangularSection
IfthewidthisbandthedepthdthentheTotalloadsaboveandbelowtheNeutralAxisareboth
fromtheNeutralAxis.Hence,thePlasticMomentisgivenby:

eachactingat

(2)
ThiscanbecomparedwithaWorkingMomentof:

(3)
ThishasbeencalculatedfromtheElasticTheoryfromwhich:

(4)
AndZistheNormalSectionModulus.
Theratio
iscalledtheShapeFactorSsinceitdependsonlyupontheShapeofthecrosssection.Forarectangular
section,fromequations(1)and(3):
(5)
Andfromequations(2)and(3)TheNormalFactorofSafetybasedontheinitialYieldequals:

(6)
Andfrom(1)and(2)

(7)
Notethattheequations(5)and(6)applytoanycrosssection.
b)Isection
TheShapefactorwillvaryslightlywiththeproportionsofflangetoweb.TheaveragevalueforSisabout1.15.
c)UnsymmetricalSections
IfAistheTotalAreaofacrosssection,thenitisclearthatforpurePlasticBendingthe"NeutralAxis"mustdividetheareain
half.IftheCentroidsofthesehalvesare
atadistanceapartof
,
then:

(8)

Butatfirstyield.
(9)

(10)

ExampleMomentsOfResistanceForRectangularCross
sections
Problem

ASteelbarofrectangularcrosssection3in.by1.25in.isusedasasimply
supportedbeamoveraspanof48in.withacentralload.IftheyieldStressis18tons/sq.in.andthelongedgesof
thesectionarevertical,(a)findtheloadwhenyieldingfirstoccurs.

[imperial]

Assumingthatafurtherincreaseinloadcausesyieldingtospreadinwardstowardstheneutralaxis,withthestressinthe
yieldedpartremainingat18tons/sq.in.,(b)findtheloadrequiredtocauseyieldingtoadepthof0.5in.atthetopand
bottomofthesectionatmidspan.(c)Findalsothelengthofbeamoverwhichyieldinghasoccurred.(U.L.)
Workings

If

tonsistheloadatfirstyield,thenfromequation(3):

(1)

(2)
(3)
UnderahigherloadWthecentralsectionofthebeamisinapartiallyPlasticstate,thestressdistributionbeing
similartotheouter1/2in.oneachsideoftheneutralaxisbeingunderconstantstressof18tons/sq.in.withnodropof
stressatyield.TheMomentofResistancecalculatedfromthestressdiagramis:

(4)

(5)
(6)
Usingequation(12).AtfirstyieldtheMomentofResistanceis

andif

thisoccursatadistancexfromeitherendunderacentralloadWthen:

(7)
Thelengthofbeamoverwhichyieldingoccurs

Solution

(a)
(b)
(c)Thelengthofbeamoverwhichyieldingoccurs

CollapseLoads
OncetheMomentsofResistanceataplastichingeinasectionofabeamhasbeenfounditisnecessarytodecidefromthe
conditionsatthesupports,howmanyhingesarerequiredtocauseCollapse.Ifthereareanumberofpointsof"local"
maximumbendingmomentsalongthebeam(Underworkingloadconditions),itisclearthatthefirstplastichingewilloccurat
thenumericalmaximumpoint.Iffurtherplastichingesarerequiredforcollapse,thenthesewilloccuratthenextlowervalue
chosenfromtheremaininglocalmaxima.Whensufficientplastichingeshavebeenformedtoconvertthestructureintoa
mechanism(i.e.thehingesareconsideredtobepinjoints),thencollapsewilloccur.
Thecaseofasinglebeamsupportedinthreedifferentwayswillnowbeexamined.
a)ASimplySupportedBeam.
Lettheloaddividethelengthintheratioofa:b.ThereisonlyonepointofMaximumBendingMoment(i.e.Wab/lunderthe
load)andthecollapseconditionswillbereachedwhenaPlasticHingeisformedatthispoint,

Example:

1 2 3

TheBendingMomentatthehingeis

,andhencethecollapseLoadisgivenby:

(11)
UsingEquation(#6)

(12)
But

whereWistheworkingLoad.

Rearranging:

(13)

(14)
Thisisthesimpleresultwhichwillalwaysbeobtainedwhenonlyoneplastichingeisrequiredforcollapse.Foragivenmaterial
andworkingstressitcanbeseenthattheloadfactorisgreaterbytheShapeFactor,thanthenormalfactorofsafetyusedon
elasticdesign(thisconsidersthatfailureoccursatfirstyield).ItcanalsobeseenthatdifferentloadFactorswillbeobtained
from,say,rectangularandIsections,evenunderthesamesystemofloading.Alternatively,bybasingthedesignona
constantloadfactortheworkingStressmaybevariedtosuittheparticularsection.

(15)

(16)

(17)
Theresultsobtainedfordistributedloadsandforsimplecantileversarealsoasinequations(29and(30).
b)ProppedCantilever
ThefollowingdiagramshowsacantileverwhichiscarryingacentralloadW,andwhichisproppedatthefreeendtothesame
heightasthefixedend.

Theloadonthepropunderelasticconditionsis
(Seepagesonthedeflectionofbeams).TheBendingMoment
diagramisshownimmediatelyunderneath.Therearelocalmaximaatthefixedendandundertheload,andagradualincrease
inloadwillcauseaplastichingetoformatthefixedendfirstasthecentralB.M.issomewhatless.However,duetothe
supportatthefreeend,collapseconditionswillnotbereacheduntilasecondplastichingehasformedundertheload.Atthat
pointtheB.M.'satthecentreandfixedendwillbethesameandnumericallyequalto
.Thedistributionisshownonthe
lowerdiagram.NotethattheshapeoftheB.M.diagramatthecollapseconditionsisnotsimilartothatatWorkingconditions.
ThisisduetotheredistributionofStressandStrainwhenaplastichingeisformed.Thevalueof
isassumedtobethe
sameateachhinge.IfPistheloadonthepropatcollapse,thenequatingthenumericalvalueoftheB.M.'satthefixedend
andthecentregives:

(18)

(19)

(20)
UnderworkingconditionsthemaximumBendingMomentis:

(21)
Usingequation(#27)

(22)
andfromequation(6)

(23)
Substitutingfromequation(#28)

(24)
HencetheLoadFactorLis:

(25)
Thisisanincreaseof9:8overasimplysupportedbeamunderthesameworkingconditions.
c)BuiltinBeamwithaUniformlydistributedLoad.
ForcollapsetooccurthreePlasticHingesmustbeformed,andastheloadingissymmetrical,thesewillbeateitherendandin
thecentre.TheBendingMomentdiagramatcollapseisthenconstructedbymakingthevaluesatthesepointsequalto
.
Byinspectionitcanbeseenthatthereactionsattheendsare

andhenceatthecentre:

(26)
fromwhich:

(27)

Fromtheelastictheory:

(28)
Substitutinginequation(#34)

(29)
Substitutingfromequation(#35)

(30)

(31)
Forallcasesofbuiltinbeamsthecollapseloadisnotalwaysaffectedbyanysinkingofthesupportsorlackofrigidityatthe
fixedends,providedthattherigidityissufficienttoallowthefullyplasticmomenttodevelop.

ExampleApplicationofCollapseLoads

[imperial]

Problem

A12in.by4in.BritishStandardBeamiscarriedoveraspanof20ft.andhasrigidlybuiltinends.Findthemaximumpoint
loadwhichcanbecarriedat8ft.fromoneendandthemaximumworkingstresswhichwillhavebeensetup.
Workings

(8)
UnderElasticconditionsthemaximumBendingMomentwillbeattheendnearesttotheload.Hence:

(9)
Atcollapsehingesmustbeformedateachendandundertheloadanditcanbeseenthatthecollapseload
equatingthenumericalvalueoftheBendingMoments.

isfoundby

(10)

(11)
Sincetheloadfactoris1.8xWorkingLoad.

(12)
fromequation(40)

(13)

(14)

Example:

(15)
ItisnowpossibletocalculatetheworkingStressfrom:

(16)

(17)
Solution

CombinedBendingAndDirectStress
WhenaBeamorColumnissubjectedtoanaxialStressaswellasaBendingStress,theneutralaxiswillbedisplacedtoone
sideofthecentroid.(a)inthefollowingdiagramshowsthevariationinworkingStress.Anincreaseinloadwillcausethestress
toreachtheYieldPointononesidefirstandthentospreadacrossthesectiontogiveafullyplasticstate(c).

Itcanbeseenthatthedisplacementoftheneutralaxisintheplasticstateisgivenbyh,where:
(32)
Wherebisthewidthofthesectionneartothecentroidaxis.Theplasticmomentofresistanceisgivenby:
(33)
(34)

(35)
Comparingthistoequation(6)itcanbeseenthattheplasticmomenthasbeenreducedbyatermdependingupontheAxial
Load,theLoadFactorandtheShapeofthesection.Thepermissibleworkingmomentforasinglehingeisthenobtainedfrom
bydividingbytheLoadFactorL.

(36)

ExampleApplicationofCombinedBendingAndDirectStress

[imperial]

Problem

A12in.by5in.BritishStandardBeamhastowithstandanaxialloadof10tons.Ifaloadfactorof1.8istobeapplied,
determinethemaximumpermissibleBendingMoment.
Workings

(18)
AtCollapsetheaxialloadis1.8X10=18tonswhichrequiresadepthofWebof
spacedequallyaaboutthecentroidi.e.1.705oneitherside(hofequation(#49)).

.Thiswillbe

Thereductionin
isgivenbytheproductofhalftheaxialloadandthedistancebetweenthecentresofareasofeach
halfload(i.e.GHCDJKintheabovediagram)
(19)

Example:

1 2

(20)

(21)
Notethatthereductionin
inthiscaseisonlyabout
tons/sq.in.,thepermissibleBendingStressisgivenby:

%,whereasontheelastictheory,withaworkingstressof10

(22)
(23)
Andthereductionin

duetotheexistenceoftheaxialloadis:

(24)
Solution

CollapseLoadsInPortalFrames
Inaframeworkwithrigidjoints,underanyappliedload,pointsofmaximumBendingMomentwilloccuratthejoints.Atcollapse
someorallofthejointswillbecomePlasticHinges.
Thediagramshowsaportalframeofheighthandspanl.ItisunderacentralverticalloadVandahorizontalloadH.Plastic
hingesmayforminanycombinationatthepointsABCDandE.ItshouldbenotedthatifAandEarepinjointed,theywill
rotateunderzeroBendingMoment.

Acollapseconditionisreachedwhensufficienthingesareformedtocreatea"mechanism".Theonlythreeformsofcollapse
mechanismare:
BeamCollapsewithhingesatB,CandD.
SwayCollapsewithhingesatA,B,DandE
CombinedCollapsewithhingesatA,C,D,andE
Ifonelinkofthemechanismisgivenarotationof (undertheactionoftheplasticmoment
),thenthevalueofthe
collapseloadcanbecalculatedbytheprincipleofwork,choosingtheleastloadforallthepossiblemechanisms.
Somestandardcasesareconsideredbelow.Toallowfordifferentsectionbeamstheplasticmomentswillbeindicatedas
follows:
forthestanchionsABandDE.
forthebeamBD
forthecornersBandD.
a)HingedBasePortal
VerticalLoadonly.ThesymmetricalBeamCollapsewillapply.Ajointrotationof willoccuratBandDwhichequates
to
atC.IfitisassumedthatthewholeStraintakesplaceunderaconstantcollapseloadandneglectingany
elasticstrain,thentheworkdonebytheLoadis
,andtheenergydissipatedintheplastichingesis
.ButworkdonemustequalEnergydissipated.

HorizontalLoadonly.Thiswillproducea"SwayCollapsewithrotationsof occurringatBandD.EquatingtheWork
donebytheloadandattheplastichinges:
(37)

(38)
CombinedLoad.GenerallytherewillbenorotationatthepointBandcollapsewillbebyformingplastichingesatCand
D.TheworkEnergyequationnowbecomes:

(39)

(40)
Itcanbeshownthatifthesectionisuniformthroughout,thenif
loadisgivenbyequation(#62)

,collapsewilloccurbySway.TheCollapse

b)FixedBasePortal
VerticalLoadingonly.Thebeamcollapsesinthesamewayasthehingedbaseportalframe.Hence:

(41)
HorizontalLoadOnly.Swaycollapsenowrequirestheformationof4hingesandtheworkequationis:
(42)

(43)
CombinedLoading.Thecombinedcollapsemechanismgives:

(44)

(45)
Foraneconomicaldesignequation(#69)andeither(#67)or(#65)shouldbesatisfiedsimultaneously.

ExampleCollapseLoadsInHingedBasePortalFrames

[imperial]

Problem

Ifintheabovediagram
whenthePlasticmoment

obtainanexpressionforthehorizontalandverticalcollapseloads
isthesameforthebeamandthestanchions.

Workings

Fromequation(#69)

(25)

(26)

(27)
Iftheothertwomodesofcollapsearecheckedthenitwillbefoundthattheybothrequirehighercollapseloadsand
consequentlythecombinedcollapsemechanismgivestheleastload.
Themosteconomicalsectionsforagivenloadarecalculatedbysatisfyingequations(#67)and(#69)simultaneously.
Solution

LastModified:24Nov11@14:40PageRendered:2014021016:44:08

Example:

1 2 3