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4 vues13 pagesReed–Solomon (RS) codes are widely used in digital communication and storage
systems. Algebraic soft decision decoding (ASD) of RS codes can obtain significant coding gain
over the hard-decision decoding (HDD). Compared with other ASD algorithms, the low-complexity
Chase (LCC) decoding algorithm needs less computation complexity with similar or higher coding
gain. Besides employing complicated interpolation algorithm, the LCC decoding can also be
implemented based on the HDD. However, the previous syndrome computation for 2η test vectors
and the key equation solver (KES) in the HDD requires long latency and remarkable hardware. In
this brief, a unified syndrome computation algorithm and the corresponding architecture are
proposed. Cooperating with the KES in the reduced inversion-free Berlekamp- Messy algorithm, the
reduced complexity LCC RS decoder can speed up by 57% and the area will be reduced to 62%
compared with the original design for η = 3.

Jul 18, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Reed–Solomon (RS) codes are widely used in digital communication and storage
systems. Algebraic soft decision decoding (ASD) of RS codes can obtain significant coding gain
over the hard-decision decoding (HDD). Compared with other ASD algorithms, the low-complexity
Chase (LCC) decoding algorithm needs less computation complexity with similar or higher coding
gain. Besides employing complicated interpolation algorithm, the LCC decoding can also be
implemented based on the HDD. However, the previous syndrome computation for 2η test vectors
and the key equation solver (KES) in the HDD requires long latency and remarkable hardware. In
this brief, a unified syndrome computation algorithm and the corresponding architecture are
proposed. Cooperating with the KES in the reduced inversion-free Berlekamp- Messy algorithm, the
reduced complexity LCC RS decoder can speed up by 57% and the area will be reduced to 62%
compared with the original design for η = 3.

© All Rights Reserved

4 vues

Reed–Solomon (RS) codes are widely used in digital communication and storage
systems. Algebraic soft decision decoding (ASD) of RS codes can obtain significant coding gain
over the hard-decision decoding (HDD). Compared with other ASD algorithms, the low-complexity
Chase (LCC) decoding algorithm needs less computation complexity with similar or higher coding
gain. Besides employing complicated interpolation algorithm, the LCC decoding can also be
implemented based on the HDD. However, the previous syndrome computation for 2η test vectors
and the key equation solver (KES) in the HDD requires long latency and remarkable hardware. In
this brief, a unified syndrome computation algorithm and the corresponding architecture are
proposed. Cooperating with the KES in the reduced inversion-free Berlekamp- Messy algorithm, the
reduced complexity LCC RS decoder can speed up by 57% and the area will be reduced to 62%
compared with the original design for η = 3.

© All Rights Reserved

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711

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p-ISSN: 2393-8161

and Research

www.ijmter.com

DECODING BASED ON USC

G.Meenakshi1, V.Leela.Satyanaraya2,

M.tech_VLSI/SD1, Assistant.Professor, Dept.of E.C.E.2

ECE, Nimra college of Engineering and technology1,2

Abstract---- ReedSolomon (RS) codes are widely used in digital communication and storage

systems. Algebraic soft decision decoding (ASD) of RS codes can obtain significant coding gain

over the hard-decision decoding (HDD). Compared with other ASD algorithms, the low-complexity

Chase (LCC) decoding algorithm needs less computation complexity with similar or higher coding

gain. Besides employing complicated interpolation algorithm, the LCC decoding can also be

implemented based on the HDD. However, the previous syndrome computation for 2 test vectors

and the key equation solver (KES) in the HDD requires long latency and remarkable hardware. In

this brief, a unified syndrome computation algorithm and the corresponding architecture are

proposed. Cooperating with the KES in the reduced inversion-free Berlekamp- Messy algorithm, the

reduced complexity LCC RS decoder can speed up by 57% and the area will be reduced to 62%

compared with the original design for = 3.

Keywords: ASD (Algebraic soft decision), LCC (Low Complexity Chase Decoding), USD (Unified

Syndrome Computation),RS (Reed Solomon Codes)

I. INTRODUCTION

ReedSolomon (RS) codes are widely employed as the error control code in numerous digital

communication and storage systems. Berlekamp developed the first practical decoding procedure for

RS codes in 1968. In recent years, the error control capability was improved by Koetter and Vardy,

by incorporating the reliability information from the channel into the algebraic soft-decision (ASD)

decoding process. Among all ASD algorithms, the low-complexity Chase (LCC) decoding needs to

interpolate 2 test vectors with maximum multiplicity one. Hence, the LCC decoding has less

computation complexity and similar or higher coding gain compared with other ASD algorithms.

Usually, the interpolation is the common method in the LCC decoding algorithm to get the error

locator and the evaluator polynomial.

A reduced-complexity LCC decoding based on the unified syndrome computation (USC) algorithm

is proposed in which the syndromes of one test vector can be obtained from the syndromes of

previous test vector, and an efficient architecture of the USC is also given. The KES in the reduced

iBM (RiBM) algorithm is adopted to match the speed of the USC, and a modified polynomial

selection architecture is employed to choose the right error locator polynomial. As the result, the

decoding latency and the area are reduced to 64% and 62% for = 3, respectively, which leads to 2.5

times speed over area ratio than the decoder in[12] .

Further analysis shows the area of the proposed decoder is 69% of the decoder based on

RCMI for = 5, with 13% speed up. The interpolation polynomials of 2 test vectors, the

@IJMTER-2014, All rights Reserved

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polynomial selection algorithm is required to select the correct interpolation polynomial for the

successful decoding. The error locator polynomial in the interpolation polynomial indicates the error

number in the codeword. By comparing the degree of the error location polynomial and its roots

number, the correct interpolation result can be selected. If the degree equals the root number, this

polynomial will be regarded as the right interpolation result. After the polynomial selection, the

Chien search and Forney algorithm (CSFA) could be applied to correct the error symbols in the

codeword. Finally, an erasure decoding is used to recover the whole codeword.

II. PROPOSED SYSTEM

Among all ASD algorithms, the low-complexity Chase (LCC) decoding needs to interpolate

2 test vectors with maximum multiplicity one. ReedSolomon (RS) codes are widely used in digital

communication and storage systems. Algebraic soft decision decoding (ASD) of RS codes can obtain

significant coding gain over the hard-decision decoding (HDD). Compared with other ASD

algorithms, the low-complexity Chase (LCC) decoding algorithm needs less computation complexity

with similar or higher coding gain. Besides employing complicated interpolation algorithm, the LCC

decoding can also be implemented based on the HDD. However, the previous syndrome computation

for 2 test vectors and the key equation solver (KES) in the HDD requires long latency and

remarkable hardware. In this brief, a unified syndrome computation algorithm and the corresponding

architecture are proposed.

2.1 Proposed system explanation

The architecture of the USC consists of the syndrome calculation architecture and the

syndrome update architecture. They are separated into different pipelining stages. The block diagram

of the reduced-complexity LCC decoder based on the USC algorithm is given in Fig.1. For the

syndrome calculation architecture, it is the same as ordinary syndrome architecture in HDD decoders

as shown in Fig. 3. The syndromes of the first test vector are calculated and stored in registers from

S1 to S2t, and later pass the syndrome update module in order.

At the same time, the positions of unreliable points with their ri_HD and ri_2HD, i Z, are also

stored. The syndrome update module is shown in Fig. 4. It works simultaneously with the KES

module. Since the KES algorithm and architecture in the RiBM require 2t clock periods to get the

error locator and the evaluation polynomial, the syndrome update module has to finish the syndrome

update in 2t clock periods to provide the syndromes of next test vector to the KES. This selected

point is the only different point between the current test vector and the next one. The difference of

r_HD and r_2HD is calculated by sending them into a GF (28) adder and stored in D2.

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In the syndrome computation with the HDD algorithm, 2t syndromes of the received

codeword rHD(x) are computed as

Sj=

Where is the distinct element of GF(2q ). For the LCC decoding based on the HDD, the syndromes

of all 2 test vectors are required. For the th test vector, the symbol in position i , i Z, can be

ri_HD or ri_2HD and this choice is denoted as i_ . i_ is HD or 2HD according to the different

point selection in the th test vector. For i that is not included in Z, i_ = HD

Sj_r=

The syndrome computation algorithm proposed. first calculate the syndrome sum of reliable points in

R as the common syndrome s j_com, 1 j 2t, which is shared by all test vectors. Then, every

separated syndrome of the points in position i , i Z for both ri_HD and ri_2HD is calculated

independently and denoted as s j_l_HD and s j_l_2HD, 1 j 2t and 1 l . l is used to count the

number of points in Z. The final syndrome of the test vector can be got by adding the common

syndrome and separated syndromes together. However, if all the test vectors are arranged in an order

in which adjacent test vectors only have one different symbol, the syndromes can be calculated

directly from the previous result. For the first test vector, which selects all ri_HD, i Z

Sj_1 =

For the rest test vectors, since there is only one different symbol in adjacent two test vectors, the

syndromes of the th test vector can be calculated from the result of the ( 1)th test vector

Sj_ =

ri _i_ ij , for j = 1 to 2t

Sj_ = Sj_(1)

ri_i_(1) ij +

= Sj_(1) +

(ri_ ri_(1))ij

ri _i_ ij

There is only one different symbol between the ( 1)th and the th test vectors and its position is

denoted as

Sj_ = Sj_(1) + (r__ r __(1)).j One of r__ and r__(1)

must be r_HD and the other must be r_2HD in symbol position in Z. (r__r__(1))

j can be regarded as the syndrome difference between the and

( 1) test vectors. So, as shown in Algorithm 1, the USC algorithm only requires calculating the

syndromes for the first test vector. After that, syndromes for other test vectors can be updated based

on the result of the first test vector by adding the syndrome difference.

2.1.2. USC Architecture

The architecture of the USC consists of the syndrome calculation architecture and the

syndrome update architecture. They are separated into different pipelining stages. The block diagram

of the reduced-complexity LCC decoder based on the USC algorithm is given in Fig. 1For the

syndrome calculation architecture, it is the same as ordinary syndrome architecture in HDD decoders

. The syndromes of the first test vector are calculated and stored in registers from S1 to S2t, and later

pass the syndrome update module in order. At the same time, the positions of unreliable points

with their ri_HD and ri_2HD, i Z, are also stored.

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2.1.4.1 Ribm Algorithm

Different from the IBM employed in [12], the KES in the RiBM in [13] is selected by the

decoder presented in this brief. The RiBM algorithm introduces the (x) and _(x), where (x) = 3t

x3t+3t1x3t1+ +1x+0 and _(x) = 3t x3t +3t1x3t1+ +1x+0. Both (x) and

(x) load the Sj (x), then the RiBM simultaneously updates these two polynomials. After 2t iterations,

the error locator polynomial (x) and error evaluator polynomial (x) can be obtained from the

coefficients of the (x) polynomial. Key architecture of the RiBM . The advantage of the RiBM is

that each step in the KES algorithm of the RiBM can be implemented simultaneously. Consequently,

there is no free clock period for each unit in the KES module and no KES architecture needs to be

shared as in although the RiBM requires more registers and multipliers than the IBM, it provides

higher throughput which increase the decoding speed of the whole decoder. Moreover, the KES can

match the speed of the syndrome update perfectly.

3.1. Syndrome Calculation Architecture

The syndrome calculation architecture, it is the same as ordinary syndrome architecture in HDD

decoders. The syndromes of the first test vector are calculated and stored in registers from S1 to S2t,

and later pass the syndrome update module in order. At the same time, the positions of unreliable

points with their ri HD and ri 2HD, i Z, are also stored.

177

Volume 01, Issue 05, [November - 2014] e-ISSN: 2349-9745, p-ISSN: 2393-8161

The syndrome update module is worked simultaneously with the KES module. Since the KES

algorithm and architecture in the RiBM require 2t clock periods to get the error locator and the

evaluation polynomial, the syndrome update module has to finish the syndrome update in 2t clock

periods to provide the syndromes of next test vector to the to the KES.

The KES in the RiBM is selected by the decoder presented in this brief. The RiBM algorithm

introduces the (x) and (x), then the RiBM simultaneously updates these two polynomials. After 2t

iterations, the error locator polynomial (x) and error evaluator polynomial (x) can be obtained

from the coefficients of the (x) polynomial. Key architecture of the RiBM The advantage of the

RiBM is that each step in the KES algorithm of the RiBM can be implemented simultaneously.

Consequently, there is no free clock period for each unit in the KES module and no KES architecture

needs to be shared. Although the RiBM requires more registers and multipliers than the IBM, it

provides higher throughput which increase the decoding speed of the whole decoder. Moreover, the

KES can match the speed of the syndrome update perfectly.

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The polynomial selection is based on the Chine search algorithm. To reduce extra storage for

all error locators and evaluation polynomials, the Chine search architecture is employed to find the

root number of the candidate error locator polynomial.

3.4 Chien search and forney algorithm with error correction block

After the KES block, the error locator polynomial and the error value polynomial are fed into the

Chien search block, which calculates the roots of the error locator polynomial. The Forney algorithm

block works in parallel with the Chien search block to calculate the magnitude of the error symbol at

each error location. Let the error locator polynomial of the degree over be defined where the

coefficients. It is well known that Chien search algorithm can be used to determine the roots of an

@IJMTER-2014, All rights Reserved

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Volume 01, Issue 05, [November - 2014] e-ISSN: 2349-9745, p-ISSN: 2393-8161

error locator polynomial of degree in , where is the maximum number of errors that can be corrected

in the RS code. the Chien search block, the Forney algorithm and the error correction blocks, which

generate the error value and then the corrected symbol.

As each error value is calculated, the corresponding received symbol is fetched from a FIFO

memory, which buffers the received symbols during the decoding process. Each error value is simply

added to the received symbol to produce a corrected symbol. At the locations where no errors have

occurred, the error values are zero and there is no change in the received polynomial at those

locations when added.

IV. IMPLEMANTATION RESULTS

4.1 Encoder

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4.6 PISO

4.7 SIPO

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4.9 Decoder

V. CONCLUSION

USC algorithm was proposed in this brief and the improved LCC RS decoder, based on the USC

gives better performance on speed and area. The proposed decoder is significantly more efficient

than prior designs. Next, we will focus on further improving the throughput of the LCC RS decoder.

The proposed LCC decoder for RS(255 239) code with = 3 has been modeled with Verilog HDL

and implemented in a XC3S400PQ208 Spartan3 FPGA device with ISE 13.2 t.

REFERENCES

[1] E. Berlekamp, Nonbinary BCH decoding, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 14, no. 2, p. 242, Mar. 1968.

[2] R. Koetter and A. Vardy, Algebraic soft-decision decoding of Reed Solomon codes, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.

49, no. 11, pp. 2809 2825, Nov. 2003

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[3] J. Bellorado and A. Kavcic, A low-complexity method for Chase-type decoding of ReedSolomon codes, in Proc.

IEEE Int. Symp. Inf. Theory, Seattle, WA, Jul. 2006, pp. 20372041.

[4] W. J. Gross, F. R. Kschischang, R. Koetter, and P. Gulak, A VLSI architecture for interpolation in soft-decision

decoding of ReedSolomon codes, in Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Process. Syst., San Diego, CA, Oct. 2002, pp. 39

44.

[5] R. Koetter and A. Vardy, A complexity reducing transformation in algebraic list decoding of ReedSolomon codes,

in Proc. IEEE Inf. Theory Workshop, Paris, France, Mar. 2003, pp. 1013.

[6] J. Zhu and X. Zhang, High-speed re-encoder design for algebraic soft decision ReedSolomon decoding, in Proc.

IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., New Orleans, LA, May, 2010, pp. 465468.

[7] Z. Wang and J. Ma, High-speed interpolation architecture for soft decision decoding of ReedSolomon codes,

IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 937950, Sep. 2006.

[8] X. Zhang, Reduced complexity interpolation architecture for soft decision ReedSolomon decoding, IEEE Trans.

Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 11561161, Oct. 2006.

[9] J. Zhu, X. Zhang, and Z. Wang, Backward interpolation architecture for algebraic soft-decision ReedSolomon

decoding, IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integr. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 16021615, Nov. 2009.

[10] J. Zhu, X. Zhang, and Z. Wang, Combined interpolation architecture for soft-decision decoding of ReedSolomon

codes, in Proc. IEEE Conf. Comput. Design, Lake Tahoe, CA, Oct. 2008, pp. 526531.

[11] X. Zhang and J. Zhu, Algebraic soft-decision decoder architectures for long ReedSolomon codes, IEEE Trans.

Circuits Syst. II, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 787792, Oct. 2010.

[12] F. Garcia-Herrero, J. Valls, and P. K. Meher, High speed RS(255, 239) decoder based on LCC decoding, Circuits

Syst. Signal Process., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 16431669. Jun. 2011.

[13] D. V. Sarwate and N. R. Shanbhag, High-speed architecture for Reed Solomon decoders, IEEE Trans. Very

Large Scale Integer. (VLSI) Syst., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 641655, Oct. 2001.

[14] X. Zhang and J. Zhu, Reduced-complexity multi-interpolator algebraic soft-decision ReedSolomon decoder, in

Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Process. Syst., San Francisco, CA, Oct. 2010, pp. 398403.

[15] J. Zhu and X. Zhang, Factorization-free low-complex.

184

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