Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 161

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvmt

AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


= Wv. †gvnv¤§v` BDbyQ

Abyev`t
Gg. Lvqi
j nvmvb (gybœv)
we.G. (m¤§vb), Bs‡iwR
Rvnv½xibMi wek¦we`¨vjq, XvKv|

m¤úv`bv:
Av.R.g. Iev‡q`yj­vn
‡Pqvig¨vb, ÷z‡W›U G¨dvqvm© wWwfkb
Avš—Rv© wZK Bmjvgx wek¦we`¨vjq PÆMÖvg

cÖKvkt
Iqvì© G‡m¤^jx Ae gymwig Bq_ (Iqvgx)
B÷vb© ‡cÖvwfÝ, `v¤§vg
‡m․w` Avivweqv
1 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm t AZxZ I eZ©gvb
Wv.‡gvnv¤§` BDbyQ

cÖ_g cÖKvk (evsjv ms¯‥iY):


‡m‡Þ¤^i 2008

cÖKvkK
Iqvì G‡m¤^jx Ae gymwjg Bq_ (Iqvgx)
B÷vb© †cÖvwfÝ,
‡cvó e· bs-31413, `v¤§vg
‡m․w`Avivweqv|

g~j¨:
180 UvKv gvÎ ($ 4 USD)
___________________________
Arakaner Eitihash : Autit O Bartaman (A History of Arakan :
Past & Present) Writen by: Dr. Mohammed Yunus,
Published by: World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY)
Eastern Province, Dammad, K.S.A.

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 2


ÒZviv (Awek¦vmxiv) Zv‡`i gy‡Li dzrKv‡i
Avj­vni †R¨vwZ‡K wbwf‡q w`‡Z Pvq|
wKš‧ Avj­vn Zuvi †R¨vwZ‡K cÖ¾¡wjZ
Ki‡ebB, hw`I Awek¦vmxiv Zv AcQ›`
K‡i|Ó
Avj-KziAvb 61:8

3 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gyLeÜ
†ivwn½v mwjWvwiwU A‡M©bvB‡Rkb (RSO) mfvcwZ Wvt †gvnv¤§v` BDbyQ
KZ©K„ cÖYxZ ÒAvivKv‡bi BwZnvm t AZxZ Ges eZ©gvbÓ MÖš
Lvwb AvivKvb
Ges Zvi cÖwZ‡ekx ivóª- evg©v (eZ©gv‡b gvqvbgvi) I e‡½i mv‡_ Af¨š—ixY
m¤úK© BwZnvm welqK Avgv‡`i eZ©gvb Ávb fvÊv‡ii mv‡_ GK cÖxwZKi
ms‡hvRb|

cÖavbZt G MÖš
Lvwb‡Z weMZ AvUkZ eQ‡i AvivKv‡b Bmjv‡gi Avwef©ve Ges


mKj cwiw¯
wZ‡Z †ivwn½v m¤cÖ`v‡qi gva¨‡g ‡m †`‡k Bmjv‡gi µgea©gvb
m¤cÖmviY wel‡q Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡q‡Q|

‡h †KDB wbwØ©avq GK_v ej‡Z cvi‡e †h, Wvt †gvnv¤§v` BDbyQ cÖ_g ev‡ii
gZ AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½v m¤cÖ`v‡qi AZxZ †_‡K eZ©gvb mg‡qi GKwU
wbiwew‪Qbœ I Pjgvb BwZnvm mv_©Kfv‡e Dc¯
vcb Ki‡Z mg_© n‡q‡Qb| wZwb
ü`qMÖvnx me Z_¨ fvÊvi n‡Z Zuvi †jLwbi eûgvwÎK bZzb DcwRe¨¸‡jv Zy‡j
Avbvi Rb¨ Ávb iv‡R¨i GK AKyj cv_v‡i hvÎv ïi
 K‡i‡Qb| G Kv‡Ri
g‡a¨ Zvi wbqš¿Yvaxb mKj Z_¨-DcvË Ggb cy‫‫‬Lvbycy‫‫‬L e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q hv
`w¶Y-c~e© Gwkqvq Bmjvgx mf¨Zvi cÖfv‡e cÖfvweZ †ivwn½v gymwjg
m¤cÖ`v‡qi GK bZzb BwZnvm Aa¨q‡biB Bw½Z cÖ`vb K‡i| welqwU mwe‡kl
cÖksmvi `vex iv‡L| GUv ïay evg©v ev gvqvbgv‡ii RvZxq I ivR‣bwZK
BwZnv‡mi GKwU Ask we‡k‡li we‡ePbvq bq eis mvgwMÖKZvq|

ev¯—ec‡¶, Avgiv hLb `w¶Y-c~e© Gwkqvi mvwe©K cwiw¯
wZ wb‡q Mfxi fv‡e
ch©‡e¶b Kwi Ges †`L‡Z cvB ‡h, †mLv‡b gymjgvb‡`i msL¨v †mLvbKvi
†MvUv RbmsL¨vi (50%) cÂvk fvM AwZµg K‡i‡Q ZLb Avgiv Lye
mn‡RB †mLvbKvi wewfbœ GjvKvq emevmiZ gymwjg m¤cÖ`v‡qi BwZnv‡mi
¸i
Z¡ I Zvrch© Dcjwä Ki‡Z cvwi| KviY, hw`I AvivKv‡bi gymjgv‡biv
_vBj¨vÊ, wdwjcvBb&m, K‡¤^vwWqv I wf‡qZbv‡gi gymjgvb‡`i gZ wewfbœ

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 4


mg‡q wbQK Dc-‡Mvôx¸‡jvi mv¤cÖ`vwqK kÎ
Zvi †Ri a‡i wbh©vwZZ I
wb‡®úwlZ n‡q‡Q, GZ`m‡Ë¡I Avgiv Dcjwä Kwi †h, †mB mKj GjvKvq
gnvb Bmjvgx mf¨Zvq wPiš—b cÖfve ¯
vqxfv‡e cÖwZdwjZ n‡q‡Q|

AvivKv‡bi gymwjg m¤cÖ`v‡qi BwZnvm QvovI Wv. BDbym ‡`wL‡q‡Qb †h, G


AmvaviY mg„×kvjx I De©i f~wg hv †f․‡MvwjK fv‡e e½ msjMœ Ges GKB
agx©q †kªYxf~³ evg©vi g‡a¨ ¯§iYvZxZ Kvj †_‡K GKUv weev‡`i welq n‡q
`uvwo‡q‡Q, hv gyL©Zvi mv‡_ AcÖ‡qvRbxq Ges Ab¨vq fv‡e †ivwn½v gymwjg
m¤úª`v‡qi Dci cvkweK wnsmªZvi mv‡_ AvµgY K‡iwQj| Gfv‡e AvivKvb
GjvKvi msL¨v Mwiô m¤cÖ`v‡qi wf‡UgvwU ZQbQ K‡i A‡bK‡KB Zv‡`i f~wg
†_‡K weZvwoZ K‡iwQj|

G Aa¨q‡b †jLK Ggb wKQz AgxgvswmZ wel‡qi AeZviYv K‡i‡Qb hv


M‡elK‡`i‡K 1404 mv‡j ivRv bi‡gLjvi AvivKvb †_‡K e‡½ cjvq‡bi
cÖK…Z KviY LyR‡Z AvMÖnx I AwfmwÜrmy K‡i|

GUv wK mv¤cÖ`vqxK Ø›Ø A_ev wbQK evg©v ivRvi ivR‣bwZK AvMªvm‡bi Kvi‡Y
n‡qwQj? M‡elK‡`i `„wó AvKl©K Ab¨ GKwU AgxgvswmZ welq n‡‪Q - 1430
mvj †_‡K 1531 mvj ch©š— mg‡qi g‡a¨ AvivKvbxq 11Rb ivRv Zv‡`i
AvivKvbx bv‡gi mv‡_ gymwjg bvg ms‡hvR‡bi cÖK…Z inm¨| GUv wK
Bmjvg‡K ag© wn‡m‡e MÖnY Kivi Kvi‡Y bvwK wQj wbQK ivR‣bwZK †K․kj?

Z„Zxq Ab¨ GKwU welq n‡‪Q - AvivKvb Ges evg©v Z_v gvqvbgv‡ii
gymjgvb‡`i e¨vcK Rb‡Mvôx, gymwjg ms¯‥w… Z I cÖkvmwbK cÖfve _vKv m‡Ë¡I
ivR‣bwZK fv‡e gymjgvb‡`i e¨_©Zvi wbM~p inm¨ D˜NvUb Kiv| Ávb ivR¨
ev KzU‡bwZK †¶‡Î e¨_©Zv bvwK m¤ú‡`i †jvf?

ïaygvÎ G ai‡bi GKwU cwic~Y© msex¶YB AvivKvb Ges gvqvbgv‡ii


gymjgvb m¤cÖ`vq‡K wmjb, d«vÝ, c~e© evsjv Z_v evsjv‡`‡ki gymjgvb‡`i

5 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


b¨vq GKwU mymvgÄm¨c~Y© ivR‣bwZK gZv`k© Aej¤^‡bi gva¨‡g †`‡ki I
†`‡ki evB‡i kvwš—c~Y© I Avb›`gyLi GKwU Rxeb hvc‡bi cÖwZ ev¯—eagx©
`„wófw½ •Zix Ki‡Z me©vZ¥K mnvqZv K‡i| ci¶‡Y Avgiv G mKj wel‡q
Av‡iv Mfxi I we¯—vwiZ AbymÜvb I M‡elYvi Rb¨ cÖZ¨vwkZ fv‡e mvg‡b
AMÖmi n‡Z cvwi|

msKjb †Kw›`ªK wKQz †QvU-LvU `yej


© Zv m‡Ë¡I BwZnvm welqK G cy¯—KLvwb
e¨vcK RbwcÖqZvi `vex iv‡L| Avwg wbwðZ K‡i ej‡Z cvwi †h , ÒAvivKvbt
AZxZ Ges eZ©gvbÓ kxl©K eB Lvwb we‡k¦i mKj we‡klÁ I mvaviY cvV‡Ki
gv‡S Gi †ZRw¯^Zv cÖgv‡Y mv_©K n‡e|

Wt gyCb DwÏb Avn&g` Lvb


Aa¨vcK,
Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm I ms¯‥…wZ
PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vjq
PÆMÖvg, evsjv‡`k|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 6


t Avgvi g‡Z t

G cÖ_gev‡ii gZ Avgiv AvivKv‡bi myweb¨¯— I mgwš^Z GKwU BwZnvm †c‡Z


hvw‪Q| Wvt gynv¤§` BDbyQ‡K AvivKv‡bi †M․iegq AZxZ msKjb Kivi Rb¨
GKwU `xN© I Mfxi AbymÜvb Pvjv‡Z n‡q‡Q| †hLv‡b `yÕwU fvZ…cÖwZg
RvwZ‡Mvwô- †ivwn½v I ivLvBb, Lye kvwš— I †m․nv‡`©i gv‡S emevm KiwQj|

Avwg g‡b Kwi, G MÖš
Lvwb AvivKv‡bi RbM‡Yi Rb¨ Zv‡`i ¯^vaxbZv


Av‡›`vj‡b gvBjdjK wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡e, †Kbbv BwZnv‡mi wk¶v GKwU
RvwZ‡K ¯^vaxbZv jv‡fi Rb¨ Ges ¯^vaxbZvi dj AvniY Kivi Rb¨ e¨vcK
fv‡e Aby‡cÖiYv †RvMvq| Avwg g‡b Kwi ¯^vaxbZvKvgx †ivwn½v Rb‡Mvôx‡K G
HwZnvwmK MÖš
Lvwb Aek¨B co‡Z n‡e Ges GKwU K‡i Abywjwc Zv‡`i
msMÖ‡n ivL‡Z n‡e|

mywd G.Gg. Iqvwn`


mv‡eK we`y¨r Dc‡`óv Ges
†Pqvig¨vb,
we`y¨r jvB‡mÝ †evW©
evsjv‡`k miKvi|

7 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gZvgZ

AvivKvb (†ivwn½v) gymjgvb‡`i mKj Z_¨-DcvË mgš^‡q ÒAvivKv‡bi


BwZnvmt AZxZ Ges eZ©gvbÓ wk‡ivbv‡g GKLvbv HwZnvwmK MÖš
 cÖKvwkZ
n‡Z hv‡‪Q †R‡b Avwg LyeB Avbw›`Z| †ivwn½v mwjWvwiwU A‡M©bvB‡Rkb
(AviGmI) Gi mfvcwZ I AvivKvb gymjgvb‡`i Awemsevw`Z †bZv Wvt
†gvnv¤§` BDbyQ Gi G gnwZ D‡`¨vM ev¯—weK c‡¶B Zv‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨
Pjgvb RvZxq Av‡›`vj‡bi c‡¶ GKwU mg‡qvc‡hvMx Ae`vb|

Avwg G cy¯—KLvwbi mdj cÖKvk I e¨vcK cÖmvi Kvgbv KiwQ Ges GKB
mv‡_ cy¯—KLvwbi †jL‡Ki `xN© I myLx Rxeb Kvgbv KiwQ|

Wt Avjx Avng` (Gg.G,


wc.GBP.wW)
Aa¨vcK,
Bmjv‡gi BwZnvm I ms¯‥„wZ wefvM
PÆMÖvg wek¦we`¨vjq,
PÆMÖvg, evsjv‡`k|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 8


‫بسن اهلل الرحون الرحين‬
‫الحود هلل رب العالوين والصالة والسالم على رسوله سيدنا ونبينا هحود وآله وصحبه‬
! ‫ وبعد‬،‫أجوعين‬

t cÖvK K_b t
`yÕk eQ‡ii †ekx mgq a‡i Dcwb‡ewkK kvm‡bi ci AvivKvb GLb cÖvq
we¯§„Z GKwU †`‡k cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| †h AvivKvb GK mgq XvKv, my›`ieb
†_‡K ïi
 K‡i gvIjwg‡qb ch©š— we¯—…Z nvRvi gvBj `xN© I 200 gvBj cÖk¯—
mgy`ª DcZ‚jxq gymwjg mvjZvbvZ wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ wQj| cÖnmb n‡‪Q †h GLb
ch©š— †Kvb wbi‡c¶ HwZnvwmK KZ…K © AvivKv‡bi GKwU c~Yv©½ I mgwš^Z
BwZnvm iwPZ nqwb|

hvB †nvK, AvivKv‡b msNwUZ wewfbœ NUbv m¤ú‡K© AvaywbK HwZnvwmKMY


KZ©K
„ wjwLZ Z_¨-Dcv˸‡jv Avgiv cvB BwZnv‡mi eB¸‡jvi wewfbœ Aa¨v‡q,
A_ev AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡mi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡L wjwLZ wewfbœ ai‡bi gyL‡ivPK
Mí-Kvwnbxi g‡a¨|

cyi‡Yv AvivKvbx KvjcwÄ Ges egx© fvlvq iwPZ wewfbœ †jL‡Ki eB cy¯—K I
cÖeÜivwR wQ‡jv weZwK©Z Ges gv‡S g‡a¨ †m¸‡jv mZ¨ †_‡K wePy¨Z n‡q
A‡bK `~‡i Ae¯
vb KiZ| GK †kªYxi ¯^v_©ci I ¶gZv‡jvfx †jv‡Ki Øviv
AvivKv‡ib BwZnvm - HwZ‡n¨ weK…wZ mva‡bi my`„p cÖgvY i‡q‡Q|

†h ev¯—eZv GK mg‡q AvivKv‡bi Rb-gvby‡li Rxeb‡K kvmb KiZ †m


e¨vcv‡i wek¦vmx GLb ch©š— Kg‡ekx| we‡klfv‡e mgmvgwqK fviZ, e½,
wÎcyiv, evg©v I `w¶Y-c~e© Gwkqv, mvaviYfv‡e Bmjvgx we‡k¦i BwZnvm Mfxi
fv‡e Aa¨qb bv K‡i †KDB AvivKv‡bi †jvKR‡bi Av_©-mvgvwRK, ivR‣bwZK
I agx©q Rxe‡bi e¨vcv‡i mwVK Dcmsnvi Uvb‡Z cv‡ib bv|

†Kbbv `xN© w`b hver †h welq¸‡jv AvivKv‡bi mv‡_ IZ‡cÖvZfv‡e GKxf~Z


wQj wek¦v‡mi Mfx‡i †cu․Qvi Rb¨ KwZcq wel‡q Aa¨qb Kiv LyeB Ri
ix|

9 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


†m¸‡jv n‡jv wewfbœ ai‡bi KvjvbyµwgK NUbvcwÄ hv Kvj, gy`ªv Ges Ab¨vb¨
cÖZœZvwË¡K DcvË wel‡q wjwLZ, ¯§„wZ-‡m․a Ges MxR©v, fvlv-wjwc Ges ¯
v‡bi
bvg, b`x Ges ce©Zgvjv BZ¨vw`, †h¸‡jv AvivKvb BwZnv‡mi D‡j­L‡hvM¨
cÖwZ‪Qwe enb K‡i|

G e¨vcv‡i we›`ygvÎ m‡›`‡ni AeKvk †bB †h, hviv AvivKvb `Lj K‡iwQj
Ges ¯
vqxfv‡e †mLv‡b Dcwb‡ek ¯
vc‡bi B‪Qv K‡iwQj, ZvivB gyjZt Zv‡`i
nxb ¯^v_© PwiZv_© Kivi Rb¨ wbwØ©avq BwZnv‡mi weK…wZ NwU‡qwQj| Zviv
AvivKvbevmx‡K fyj c‡_ cwiPvwjZ Kivi Rb¨ Ges Zv‡`i `yÕm¤cÖ`v‡qi
g‡a¨ wefw³ m„wói Rb¨ mKj cÖKvi A‡¯¿i mdj e¨envi K‡iwQj| Zv‡`i
AcK‡g©i †m mKj A¯¿¸‡jv wQj mv¤cÖ`vwqK, agx©q, ivR‣bwZK, A_©‣bwZK
Ges cÖcvMvÛvg~jK| AvR‡K Zviv AZ¨š— wbj©¾fv‡e `vex Ki‡Q †h,
gvqvbgv‡i (evg©v) G ai‡bi †Kvb †ivnvs I †ivwn½v m¤cÖ`vq †bB, eis GUv
KwZcq we‡`ªvnx m¤cÖ`v‡qi D™¢veb| †h‡nZz G M‡elYvg~jK Av‡jvPbv MÖ‡š
i
cvZvmg~n D‡b¥vP‡bi ga¨ w`‡q GUv Avkv Kiv hvq †h, mKj cÖKvi fyj
eySveywS, gwZweåg, fyj aviYv Ges wec_Mvgx e¨vL¨v G me wKQzB wbi‡c¶
cvV‡Ki gb †_‡K `~ixfyZ n‡e|

AvivKv‡bi Dcwb‡ewkKiv Ges Zv‡`i †Muvov mn‡hvMxiv wbixn †jvK‡`i


wec_Mvgx Kivi gva¨‡g Avgv‡`i RvZxi e¨vcK ¶wZ mvab K‡i‡Q|
Kvjv`v‡b A‡bK cvwb cÖevwnZ n‡q‡Q| AZx‡Zi wZ³ AwfÁZv †_‡K wk¶v
wb‡q, kÎ
‡`i KzU-‡K․kj Dcjwä K‡i Ges wb‡R‡`i fyj `„wófw½i mwVK
myivnvi gva¨‡g, cvi®úvwiK †h․_ cÖ‡Póvq wb‡R‡`i †M․iegq AZxZ cybivq
wdwi‡q Avb‡Z `y fwMœ-cÖwZg m¤cÖ`vq m¶g n‡e| Ges GLbB Zvi Dchy³
mgq| Avwg Avkv Kwi, G gnr KvRwU Avgv‡`i fwMœ-cÖwZg m¤cÖ`vq `yÕwUi
Rb¨ P¶z D‡b¥vP‡Ki f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡e| kÎ
MY KZ©„K Avgv‡`i AZx‡Zi
mZ¨ BwZnvm cy‡ivcywi gy‡Q †djvi e¨_©Zv Ges cÖvPxb b„‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e
Avgv‡`i cwiPq‡eva AvivKv‡bi Dci msw¶ß BwZnvm iPbvi †cÖiYv‡K Av‡iv
†Rvi`vi K‡i‡Q| GLv‡b D‡j­L Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h Avwg †ckv MZ †Kvb
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 10
HwZnvwmK bB, †KejgvÎ Pjgvb cwiw¯
wZi Kvi‡YB eva¨ n‡q Avgv‡K G
Kv‡R nvZ w`‡Z n‡q‡Q|

bvbv mxgve×Zv Ges ZË¡-Dcv‡Ëi AcÖZzjZv _vKv m‡Ë¡I G KvRwU Avwg


m¤úv`b Kivi D‡`¨vM wb‡qwQ G Avkvq †h, AvivKv‡b GwU m‡Z¨i AMÖ`~Z
wn‡m‡e f~wgKv ivL‡e|
GKwU RvwZi BwZnvm wb‡q we‡k­lY I M‡elYv Kiv GKRb gvÎ e¨w³i KvR
bq, eis GwU RvwZi mKj †jv‡Ki mgwš^Z I Pjgvb `vwqZ¡ I KiYxq| G
gnr KvRwU hw` AvivKvb BwZnv‡mi fwel¨r M‡elK‡`i Rb¨ GKwU Z_¨m~Î
wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i Zvn‡jB Avwg wb‡R‡K GKRb †m․fvM¨evb †jLK wn‡m‡e
we‡ePbv Kie| hviv Avgvi G KvRwU‡K mdjfv‡e m¤úv`b Kivi Rb¨ mvnvh¨
mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Qb, Avwg Zv‡`i mevB‡K ab¨ev` I K…ZÁZv RvbvB| Avwg
Avgvi mnKgx© Wt †gvnv¤§` Avjx bvg wjwce× Ki‡Z PvB| whwb me© cÖ_g
Avgv‡K wewfbœ Z_¨ DcvË w`‡q mn‡hvwMZv K‡i‡Qb| Avwg Avgvi K…ZÁ
wP‡Ëi ab¨ev` w`‡Z PvB fvB Aa¨vcK †gvnv¤§` hvKvwiqv I fvB mvC`yi
ingvb‡K hviv cÖwZ gyn~‡Z© Avgv‡K Aby‡cÖiYv Ges Dc‡`k w`‡q mn‡hvwMZv
K‡i‡Qb| Avwg Avgvi Avš—wiK ab¨ev` RvbvB fvB ikx` Avn&‡g`‡K whwb
Zvi kZ e¨¯—Zvi gv‡SI Avgvi MÖš
Lvbv K‡¤úvR K‡i‡Qb|

Avwg ab¨ev` Rvbv‡Z PvB Zv‡`i‡K hviv Avgvi G MÖš
Lvbv c‡o‡Qb Ges
g~j¨evb civgk© w`‡q‡Qb| Avj­vn Zv‡`i Dci Zvi AevwiZ kvwš— bvwhj
Ki
b|

m‡e©vcwi mKj cÖksmv I K…ZÁZv †mB gnvb Avj-vn myenvbvû Iqv Zvqvjvi
Rb¨ huvi Adziš— `qv I Ki
Yv Qvov G KvR Kivi mvnmB †cZvg bv| Avwg
Avi wKQzB cÖZ¨vkv Kwi bv eis G Kv‡Ri †cQ‡b †hb Avj­vn me©kw³gv‡bi
mve©¶wYK Acvi AbyMÖn _v‡K| wZwbB DËg fwel¨r `ªóv|

Wvt †gvnv¤§` BDbyQ|

11 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


m~PxcÎ
W. Gg. Avng` Lv‡bi gš—e¨
m~dx G. Gg. Iqvwn‡`i AwfgZ
W. Avjx Avng‡`i AwfgZ
cÖvK K_b
f~wgKv

cÖ_g Aa¨vq:
f~wg Ges RbMY
†f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
v
AvivKv‡bi eyrcwË
†ivqvs/†ivnvs/†ivmvs (cÖvPxb AvivKvb)
AvivKv‡bi RbMY
†ivwn½v m¤cÖ`vq
gM m¤úª`vq (ivLvBb)

wØZxq Aa¨vq:
cÖv_wgK BwZnvm
abvewZ ivR¨
†fmvjx ivR¨
AvivKv‡b Bmjv‡gi AvMgb
AvivKv‡b gvMv`vn †e․ׇ`i AbycÖ‡ek
†gv½jxq AvµgY

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 12


Z…Zxq Aa¨vq:
AvivKv‡b gymwjg weRq
AvivKv‡bi cÖv_wgK gªK-D ivRv MY
†ReyK kvn (1531-1553)
e‡½i myjZvb KZ…©K AvivKv‡b wØZxq weRq
wmKv›`vi kvn (1571-1593)
†mwjg kvn (1593-1612)
ûmvBb kvn (1612-1622)
†mwjg kvn wØZxq (1622-1638)

PZz_© Aa¨vq:
AvivKvb iv‡R¨i n«vm I cZb
bicwZ KZ…©K AvivKvb wmsnvmb Rei`Lj
_v‡Wvwg›Uªv Ges m›`v _y`v¤§v
AvivKv‡b kvn myRvi cjvqb
†gvNj‡`i PÆMÖvg weRq
†evacvqv KZ…©K AvivKvb `Lj

cÂg Aa¨vq
gªK-D mgqKvi mvgvwRK I agx©q Rxeb

lô Aa¨vq:
†eacvqvi Aax‡b AvivKvb

13 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


mßg Aa¨vq:
weªwUk‡`i `L‡j AvivKvb
cÖ_g G¨vs‡jv-evg©vb hy× (1823-1825)
AvivKv‡bi Dci weªwUk kvmb (1525-1947)
Dcwb‡ek we‡ivax evwg©R RvZxqZvev`x Av‡›`vjb
1942 mv‡ji gymwjg nZ¨vhÁ
eyw_Ws Gi msNl©- µvwš—jMœ
AvivKv‡b cybivq weªwUk AbycÖ‡ek
evg©vi ¯^vaxbZvi cÖv°v‡j AvivKvb

Aóg Aa¨vq:
AvivKvbxiv †Kb Ò‡÷BUÓ gh©v`v AR©b Ki‡Z cvij bv

beg Aa¨vq:
¯^vaxbZv cieZx© evg©vi Aax‡b AvivKvb
gyRvwn` Av‡›`vjb
msm`xq MbZš¿Kvjxb mg‡q AvivKvbx‡`i ivR‣bwZK Kg©©KvÊ
(1948-1962)

`kg Aa¨vq
†mbv kvm‡bi Aax‡b AvivKvb
AvivKv‡b †mbv Af~¨Ìv‡bi cÖfve
we.Gm.wc.wc miKvi KZ…©K AvivKvb‡K Ò‡÷BUÓ Aby‡gv`b
wKs WªvMb Acv‡ikb (1978)
†b DB‡bi bZzb bvMwiKZ¡ AvBb
AvivKv‡b Gm.Gj.I.Avi.wm Gi wbh©vZb
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 14
f~wgKv:-

evg©vi eZ©gvb kvmK †kªYx `vex K‡i †h Gi cÖK…Z Avw`evmx b„-†Mvôx


g‡½vjxq RvwZ †Mvôx n‡Z D™¢~Z n‡q‡Q| eZ©gvb evg©vq cÖavbZ AvUwU
b„-m¤cÖ`vq i‡q‡Q| †hgb- eg©x, kvb, KvPxb, Kv‡ib, Kvqv, †gvb, wPb
Ges ivLvBb (AvivKvbx †eŠ×)| Giv Avevi wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ 135 wU b„
†Mvôx‡Z wef³| evg©vq G¨vwi‡qbxq †Kvb b„-‡Mvôx wQj, GgbwK †ivwn½v
m¤cÖ`vq (AvivKvbx gymwjg) †K ch©š— Giv cwi®‥vi fv‡e A¯^xKvi
K‡i| eZ©gvb mg‡q evg©vq hv‡`i g‡a¨B fviZxq ‣ewkó¨ Av‡Q
Zv‡`i‡K we‡`kx A_ev we‡`kx es‡kv™¢Zy ev ÔKvjvÕ wn‡m‡e AvL¨v †`qv
nq| Zviv KZw`b a‡i †mLv‡b emevm Ki‡Q Zv †`Lv n‡‪Q bv| e„wUk
Dcwb‡ewkK kvmbvg‡j `w¶Y-c~e© Gwkqvi Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki b¨vq evg©vqI
nvRvi nvRvi †jvK cÖevmx n‡q Xy‡KwQj| cÖK…Z BwZnvm bv Rvbvi
Kvi‡Y AwaKvsk ch©‡e¶K fviZ n‡Z AvMZ cÖevmx, fviZxq •ewk‡ó¨i
AwaKvix RbgÊjxi mv‡_ AvivKv‡bi cÖvPxb Rb‡Mvôx †ivwn½v
mgcÖ`vq‡K ¸wj‡q †d‡j| †ivwn½v m¤cÖ`v‡qi wei
‡× evg©vi miKvi I
gM m¤cÖ`v‡qi GKwU †Rviv‡jv AccÖPvi cÖK…Z mZ¨‡K LvwbKUv ¤­vb
K‡i w`‡q‡Q|

wKš‧ cÖkœ n‡‪Q, AvivKv‡b cÖK…Z we‡`kx Kviv? Zvn‡j wK AvivKvb


g‡½vjxq Rb‡Mvôxi cÖK…Z Avevm f~wg? G mKj cÖ‡kœi h_v_© Reve
cÖ`v‡bi cÖqvm †bqv n‡q‡Q G MÖ‡š
|

HwZnvwmK ‡cÖ¶vc‡U, AvivKvb evg©vi GKwU cÖ‡`‡ki †P‡q c~e© fvi‡Zi


mxgvš—eZ©x GKwU cÖ‡`k wn‡m‡e AwaK ¯^xK…Z| cÖvPxb Kvj n‡Z `kg
kZvwã‡Z g‡½vwjqvb I wZeŸZxq-egx©‡`i AvMgb ch©š— AvivKvb e„nËi
fvi‡Zi GKwU f~LÛ wQj| hvi Rbmgwó wQj e‡½i RbM‡Yi gZB|
evg©vbiv hv‡`i‡K †gv½jxq Rb‡Mvôx wn‡m‡e MY¨ K‡i, †m me

15 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


AvivKvbx †e․×iv (ivLvBb) g~jZ Avwiqvb gvNv`v †e․ׇ`i eskai
wQj| hviv Aóg kZ‡Ki w`‡K fvi‡Zi wenvi ivR¨ n‡Z cÖevmx n‡q
GLv‡b cvwo Rwg‡qwQj| cieZx©‡Z Zviv nvbv`vi †gv½jxq‡`i
mg‡MvÎxq n‡q hvq| wKš‧ AvivKvb- gymjgvb I †e․× Dfq RvwZ
†Mvwô‡K wb‡q me©`v GKwU ¯^vaxb I ¯^vZš¿ gh©v`v A¶zbœ ‡i‡L‡Q| hw`I
1430 mv‡j ev`kvn †mvjvqgvb kvn& KZ©„K gªyK-D ivRZ¡ cÖwZôvi c~‡e©
†mLv‡b wewfbœ mgq egx© I †gvb‡`i n¯—‡¶c cwijw¶Z n‡Zv|

1430 mv‡j e‡½i kvmK myjZvb RvjvjywÏb †gvnv¤§` kvn KZ©„K


†mvjvqgvb kvn AvivKv‡bi wmsnvm‡b cybtcÖwZwôZ nb| 1430 mvj
n‡Z 1638 mvj ch©š— KwZcq Rei `LjKvix kvmK e¨ZxZ mKj
kvmKB ag©vš—wiZ gymwjg kvmK †mvjvqgvb kv‡ni (biwgLjv) eskai
wQ‡jb| 1430 mvj †_‡K 1530 mvj ch©š— GKkZ eQi a‡i e‡½i
mv‡_ AvivKv‡bi Ggb Mfxi I †m․nv`©¨c~Y© m¤úK© wQj †h, HwZnvwmKiv
AvivKvb‡K e‡½i Ki`ivR¨ g‡b KiZ| e‡½i myjZv‡bi mn‡hvwMZvq
AvivKvb weR‡qi mgq Gi mxgv‡iLv †h cwigvY wQj, cieZ©x‡Z Avi
KLbI †m mxgv‡iLv AwZµvš— nqwb| wKš‧ 1538 mv‡j e‡½ ¶gZvi
cvjve`‡ji P‡µ AvivKvbx kvmK RveyK kvn 1540 mv‡j cÖ_gev‡ii
gZ PÆMÖvgmn `w¶Y-c~e© e‡½i GKwU Askwe‡kl `Lj K‡ib| wKš‧
GwU cieZ©x‡Z Avev‡iv e‡½i myjZvb‡`i KiZjMZ nq| 1582 mvj
†_‡K 1666 mvj ch©š— cÖq GKkZ eQi PÆMÖvg AÂj AvivKvbx‡`i
mivmwi kvmbvaxb wQj|

1430 mvj †_‡K e‡½i mv‡_ AvivKv‡bi Mfxi m¤úK© wQj| cÖvq
GKkZ eQi a‡i AvivKvb I eZ©gv‡bi PÆMÖvg GKB kvmKvaxb _vKvi
ciI wKfv‡e GKRb Dcjwä Ki‡Z cv‡i †h cÖvK-e„wUk mgq †_‡K
AvivKv‡b gymwjg RbemwZ wQjbv? wQjbv GB `yB GjvKvi Rb‡Mvwôi
g‡a¨ ag©xq Ges mvs¯‥…wZK †Kvb m¤úK©?| `xN© mgq †_‡K AvivKv‡b
Bmjv‡gi AvMgb Ges gymwjg m¤cÖ`v‡qi my`„p Ae¯
v‡bi K_v †Kvb
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 16
wbi‡c¶ HwZnvwmK A¯^xKvi Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| wKš‧ cÖK…Z c‡¶,
AvivKv‡b †mvjvqgvb kvn KZ…©K gªK-D ivRZ¡ cÖwZôvi ci †_‡K
†mLv‡b gymjgvb‡`i msL¨v e„w× Ges Zv‡`i ¶gZv ¯
vwqZ¡ jvf K‡i|

1582 mv‡j PÆMÖvg `L‡ji ci †gvMj‡`i cÖwZ‡iva Kivi Rb¨


AvivKvbx kvmK‡`i‡K cZ©yMxR‡`i mnvqZv wb‡Z n‡qwQj| cieZ©x
cwiw¯
wZ‡Z 1638 mv‡ji ci AvivKv‡bi `ye©j kvmK †kªYx Zv‡`i Dci
GZUvB wbf©ikxj n‡q c‡owQj, hvi d‡j PÆMÖv‡gi mxgvš—eZ©x AÂj
¸‡jv wdwi½x (cZ©yMxR) `my¨‡`i GKwU †Mvcb AvLovq cwiYZ n‡jv|
1650 mv‡ji GKRb ch©UK wj‡L‡Qb †h Rj`my¨ I jy‡Uiv‡`i
mnvqZvq cZ©yMxRiv PÆMÖv‡g Zv‡`i GK ai‡bi mve©‡f․gZ¡ Kv‡qg
K‡iwQj| †mLv‡b mgy`ª c‡_ I ¯
j c‡_ Zviv cÖwZwbqZB WvKvwZ I
jyUZivR KiZ| Zviv wbgœ e‡½i AÂj¸‡jv‡Z Ackvmb I g‡Mi gyj­yK
Kv‡qg K‡iwQj| gM‡`i mnvqZvq cZ©yMxR‡`i G b„ksmª AcK‡g©i
`i
b Zv‡`i‡K N„wYZ ÔRj`my¨Õ e‡j AwfwnZ Kiv nq|

AvivKv‡bi †e․× kvmK mvb`v _y`v¤§v KZ©„K fvM¨vnZ †gvNj ivRcyÎ


kvn& myRv‡K Avkªq †`qv Ges ciewZ©‡Z Zuv‡K nZ¨v Kivi d‡j †gvNj
I AvivKvbx kvmK‡`i ga¨Kvi m¤úK© wZ³ n‡Z _v‡K| GiB d‡j
cieZx©‡Z ¯
vqx fv‡e PÆMÖvg AvivKvix‡`i nvZ Qvov n‡q hvq| kvn&
myRv I Zuvi Abymvix‡`i MYnZ¨vi ci AvivKv‡bi `yÕwU fMœx cÖwZg
m¤cÖ`v‡qi (‡ivwn½v I gM) g‡a¨ Zxeª Aš—Ø›© Ø m„wó nq, hv ewg©‡`i
AvivKvb `Lj Kivi mvnm †hvMvq| weªwUk‡`i wbKU †_‡K evg©vi
¯^vaxbZv AR©‡bi welq‡K mvg‡b †i‡L hw`I evwg©Riv AvivKvb `Lj‡K
•ea cÖgv‡Yi ‡Póv K‡i, wKš‧ BwZnvm evi evi G K_vB ¯§iY Kwi‡q
†`q †h, Zviv me©`vB AvivKv‡b GK`j we‡`kx AvMÖvmx I `Lj`vi
evwnbx wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡q‡Q|

17 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


evwg©R‡`i g‡b G fxwZ GLbI bvov †`q †h, GKw`b AvivKv‡bi
BwZnvm cybivq wd‡i Avm‡Z cv‡i Ges AvivKv‡bi e¨vcv‡i Zv‡`i
mKj AcZrciZv ¯
wMZ n‡q hv‡e| G Rb¨ Zv‡`i `„wó‡Z m¤¢eci
mKj wec` we`~wiZ Kivi e¨e¯
v Zviv Aej¤^b K‡i‡Q| Zv‡`i `„wó‡Z
mg~n wec` n‡‪Q AvivKv‡bi gymjgvbiv| Zv‡`i g‡bi Mfx‡i jvjvwqZ
†mB fxwZ `ywifyZ Kivi Rb¨ mycwiKwíZ fv‡e †ivwn½v gymjgvb‡`i
wei
‡× b„ZvwË¡K ïw× Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡i Avm‡Q|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 18


cÖ_g Aa¨vq
f~wg I Rbmgwó
†fŠ‡MvwjK Ae¯’vbt

AvivKvb eZ©gv‡b evg©vi GKwU cwðgv cÖ‡`k hv 1784 mvj ch©š— GKwU
¯^vaxb †`k wQj| Ab¨vb¨ †`‡ki b¨vq, AvivKv‡bi †f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
vi
¸i
Z¡c~Y© cÖfve i‡q‡Q Zvi BwZnvm cwiµgvi Dci| Aóv`k kZ‡Ki cÖvq
†kl ch©š— mgq a‡i ZrKvjxb AvivKvb wb‡R‡K GKwU ¯^vaxb ivRZ¡ wn‡m‡e
eRvq ivL‡Z mg_© n‡qwQj ïay gvÎ Gi †f․‡MvwjK Ae¯
v‡bi Kvi‡YB|

weªwUk kvmbvg‡j AvivKv‡bi me©‡gvU AvqZb wQj cÖvq 20,000 eM© gvBj|
GwU e‡½vcmvM‡ii c~e©K‚j msjMœ cvnvox f~wgi mi
 Ask we‡kl| GwU DËi-
`w¶‡Y we¯—…Z Z‡e DËi w`‡K GKUz cÖmvwiZ Ges `w¶‡Y mi
 n‡q wb‡P
†b‡g‡Q| GwU DËi cwð‡g evsjv‡`k‡K, Dˇi fviZ‡K Ges DËi c~‡e© Pxb
cvnvo‡K Qzu‡q‡Q| AvivKv‡bi c~e© cv‡k¦© Aew¯
Z myD‪Q ce©Zgvjv ÒAvivKvb
BDgvÓ GwU‡K evg©vi g~j fy-LÛ †_‡K m¤ú~Y© Avjv`v GKwU cÖvK…wZK
gvbwP‡Îi iƒc w`‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡ki mv‡_ Gi 176 gvBj mgy`ªmxgv Ges ¯
j
mxgv‡iLv i‡q‡Q hv HwZn¨MZ fv‡e `~i cÖv‡P¨i cÖ‡ekØvi wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i|
cwð‡g 360 gvBj we¯—…Z DcK~jxq mxgv‡iLv AvivKv‡bi mgy`ª †hvMv‡hvM‡K
mnR K‡i‡Q| Avi G †f․‡MvwjK my‡hvM-myweavi Kvi‡YB AvivKvb I Gi
msjMœ DcK~jxq GjvKvq Ñ hv GLb PÆMÖvg e‡j cwiwPZ Ñ e‡½i g~j f~wgi
Zzjbvq cuvP kZ eQi c~‡e© Bmjv‡gi AvMgb N‡U‡Q|

me© mvKz‡j¨ AvivKv‡b †gvU mvZwU eo b`x i‡q‡Q| G¸‡jv n‡jv bvd, gvqy,
Kvjv`vb, †jg‡iv, Avb, Zvb¸c Ges m¨vÛyI‡q| bvd b`x AvivKvb I
evsjv‡`‡ki g‡a¨ mxgv‡iLv wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Q| Kvjv`vb AvivKv‡bi `xN©Zg
b`x hv cvnvox AÂj n‡Z Drcbœ n‡q AvivKv‡bi ivRavbx I mgy`ª e›`i
AvwKqve n‡q e‡½vcmvM‡i cÖevwnZ n‡q‡Q| Kvjv`v‡bi b¨vq Ab¨ mKj b`xI
wKQz •ewPÎ mn mgy‡`ªi w`‡K cÖevwnZ n‡q‡Q| Gi me b`xB cÖevngvb Ges

19 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


mviv eQi mnR †b․-PjvPj †hvM¨| Gi †Kvb b`xB evg©v †_‡K DrcwË nqwb|
GKvi‡YB BwZnvm ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j †`Lv hvq, evg©vi Zzjbvq e‡½i mv‡_
AvivKv‡bi †hvMv‡hvM Mfxi wQj Kvib ¯
j c‡_i PvB‡Z †b․ c‡_i †hvMv‡hvM
ZrKvwjb †hv‡M mnRZi wQj| d‡j †m mg‡qi e‡½i mywbw`©ó wKQz ag©-
†e․×, wn›`y A_ev Bmjvg- AvivKv‡bi agx©q Ae¯
vi Dci GKB mg‡q Mfxi
cÖfve we¯—vi K‡iwQj| AvivKvb cÖK…Z c‡¶ PÆMÖvgevmxi Rb¨ GKwU
AbyeZ©b| c~e© e‡½i mv‡_ AvivKv‡bi Dˇii ¯
j fv‡Mi Mfxi eÜz‡Z¡i
Kvi‡Y Ges 1203 mv‡j e‡½ gymwjg kvmb cÖwZôv nevi ci gymjgvb‡`i
mvs¯‥…wZK I ivR‣bwZK cÖfve AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m weivU Zvrch©c~Y© f~wgKv
†i‡LwQj| 1403 mv‡j AvivKv‡b gymwjg weR‡qi ci ¯
j c‡_ evg©vq cybivq
Bmjvg cÖmv‡ii KvR evavMª¯— n‡qwQj `Õy‡`‡ki ga¨¯
‡j Aew¯
Z KwVb
cvnvox cÖwZeÜKZvi Kvi‡Y|

AvivKvb cvnvo-ce©Z, Mfxi AiY¨, b`x Ges bvjv †ewóZ GKwU †`k| Gi
¯
j fv‡Mi AwaKvsk GjvKv eb-R½‡j †Niv| Gi Dˇii Ask we¯—…Z
cvjwjK mgZj f~wg Øviv MwVZ Ges `w¶‡Yi Ask mi
 Ges cvnvox| Gi
†ek K‡qKwU mgy`ªK~jeZx© Øxc i‡q‡Q hvi g‡a¨ ÔivgixÕ I †Q`yev me© e„nr|
KvqyKcvqy Dckn‡ii K‡qK gvBj Dˇi ivgix Øx‡ci DcK‚‡j Mfxi cÖvK…wZK
†cvZvkªq i‡q‡Q| G Mfxi mgy‡`ªi cÖvK…wZK †cvZvkªqwU gvwK©b hy³iv‡óªi
mßg iYZixi gZ A‡bK eo eo RvnvR‡K Avkªq w`‡Z cv‡i| DËi
AvivKv‡bi gvqy, Kvjv`vb I †jgi
 DcZ¨Kvi cvjwjK gvwU GZB De©i †h
GK mgq G AÂj‡K ÔavbvfvwZÕ ev avb fvÊvi ejv nZ| AvivKv‡b avb
Drcv`‡b GZUvB cÖmviZv I mdjZv jvf K‡iwQj †h wØZxq wek¦hy× ïi

ch©š— Gi AwZwi³ Drcvw`Z avb e¨vcK cwigv‡Y PÆMÖvg, KjKvZv, gv`ªvR,
Kj‡¤^v Ges †KvwP‡b ißvbx Kiv n‡Zv| 1950 mv‡j ïaygvÎ AvwKqve A‡j
50wU Pv‡ji Kj wQj hvi meKwU‡Z mviv eQi 24 N›Uv KvR Kiv n‡Zv| avb
QvovI AvivKvb Gi cÖvK…wZK fv‡e †e‡o IVv †m¸b Mv‡Qi Rb¨ weL¨vZ wQj|
ïi
i w`‡K Avie ewYK‡`i hviv AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i ¶y`ª evwYR¨ K‡jvbx cÖwZôv
K‡iwQj, Zviv g~jZt GLvbKvi cÖvK…wZK m¤ú` I f~wgi •ewPÎ Ges
GLvbKvi Awaevmx‡`i AgvwqK e¨env‡i gy» n‡qB Zviv Zv K‡iwQ‡jb| Zviv
Zv‡`i Pjgvb mgy`ª hvÎv cybivq Pvjy Kivi c~‡e© AvivKv‡b ¶wYK Ae¯
v‡bi

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 20


mgq AvivKvbxq †j․n I KvVÑhv Ôwcbdv‡`․Õ e‡j cwiwPZ wQjÑ w`‡q Zv‡`i
RvnvR •Zwi KiZ I †givgZ KiZ| Ôwcbdv‡`․Õ QvovI AvivKv‡bi eb-
R½‡j cÖvK…wZK fv‡e †m¸b MvQ I Ab¨vb¨ fvj gv‡bi KvV Rb¥vq| ARmª
cwigv‡Y euvkI cvIqv hvq GLv‡b| ivevi Ges Pv Pv‡lI AvivKvb AMÖYx
f~wgKv cvjb K‡i| Gi my`xN© mgy`ªK~j gv‡Qi Rb¨ mg„×kvjx| mgy`ª DcK~j
I b`xbvjvq †Ni •Zwi K‡i gvbm¤§Z ißvbx †hvM¨ wPswo Drcv`b Kiv nq|
AvivKvb LwYR m¤ú‡`I mg„×kvjx| †mLv‡b mywbwðZ †c‡Uªv‡ji Ges LwYR
m¤ú‡`i fvÊvi i‡q‡Q| wKš‧ GLb ch©š— †m¸‡jv m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwiZ¨³ Ae¯
vq
i‡q‡Q| AvivKv‡b me©‡gvU 17wU cÖkvmwbK †K›`ª i‡q‡Q| AvwKqve hv DËi
AvivKv‡b Kvjv`vb b`xi m¤§y‡L Aew¯
Z AvivKv‡bi ivRavbx Ges Zv
AvivKv‡bi cÖavb mgy`ª e›`i wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| AvivKv‡bi Af¨š—ixY ¯
j
c_ †hvMv‡hvM ¯^‡ívbœZ| GLv‡b †Kvb †ijc_ †bB| evg©vi mv‡_ Gi
†hvMv‡hvM n‡q _v‡K cÖavbZt AvKvk c‡_ I mgy`ª c‡_| evg©vi mv‡_ ¯
j
c‡_ †hvMv‡hv‡Mi Rb¨ AvivKv‡b cvnvox A‡ji ga¨ w`‡q wZbwU iv¯—vI
i‡q‡Q| ÔAvbÕ Ges ÔUb¸cÕ iv¯—v `yÕ‡Uvi eZ©gvb Ae¯
v c~‡e© Zyjbvq fv‡jv,
hLb G¸‡jv ïaygvÎ ï®‥ †g․my‡g e¨envi Kiv n‡Zv| Gi Rjevq~ gvSvwi
ai‡bi| GLv‡b wZbwU ¯^Zš¿ FZz i‡q‡Q - G¸‡jv n‡jv- kxZKvj, MÖx®§Kvj
Ges el©vKvj| GLv‡b eQ‡i cÖvq 200 Bw e„wócvZ n‡q _v‡K|

AvivKv‡bi ey¨rcwË I BwZnvmt

ÔAvivKvbÕ cwifvlvwU mywbwðZfv‡e Aviex A_ev dvimx fvlv n‡Z wbM©Z|


Dfq fvlv‡ZB Gi A_© GKB ai‡bi| GwU AviKvb (‫ )أركن‬kãwUi weK…Z
iƒc, Ges kãwUi eûePb i
K&b (‫ )ركن‬hvi A_©- LuywU ev ¯—¤¢| Bmjv‡gi
†g․wjK gZev` ev wek¦vm‡K ejv nq ÔBmjv‡gi cuvPwU LyuwUÕ| Gfv‡e
ÔAvivKvbÕ kãwU Bmjvg I kvwš—i f~wgi Zvrch© enb K‡i| GLb †h GjvKvwU
AvivKvb e‡j cwiwPwZ jvf K‡i‡Q, ïi
‡ZB G cwifvlvwUi A_© wbiƒcY Kiv
LyeB `yiƒn e¨vcvi wQj| wKš‧ AwaKZi mZ¨ NUbv n‡jv, 1430 mv‡j
†`kwU‡Z gymjgvb‡`i weR‡qi ci ÔAvivKvbÕ bvgwU RbwcÖqZv jvf K‡i|

21 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


ZrKvjxb ¯^vaxb e½ myjZvb‡`i ivRKxq fvlv wQj dvimx Ges Zviv AvivKvb
Rq K‡i 1845 mvj ch©š— dvimx‡K `vßwiK fvlv wn‡m‡e Ae¨vnZ †i‡LwQj|
G mKj AvivKvb ivRviv hviv e‡½i myjZvb‡`i mv‡_ DËg m¤úK© eRvq
†i‡L Pj‡Zv ZvivB g~jZt Gi bvgKiY K‡iwQj AvivKvb| AvivKvb ivRviv
dvimx fvlvq we‡kl cvi`kx© wQj| ÒAvivKvb ivRv‡`i Bmjv‡gi †g․wjK
gZev` wkL‡Z GKkZ eQi †j‡MwQj| hLb GUv Zv‡`i wbKU Lye AvqË n‡q
G‡jv ZLb Zviv †`L‡jv †h GUv AvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨i fvlv wn‡m‡e cwiwPwZ
jvf K‡i‡Q|Ó1

AvBb-B-AvKevi, evnvwi¯—vb-B-Mv‡qex Ges Ôwmqvi-Dj-gyZvqvL&wLixbÕ


MÖš
¸‡jvi †jLKMY kãwU‡K AviLvb&K ( ) wn‡m‡e wj‡L‡Qb, hv mvgvb¨
cwieZ©bmn ÔAvjgMxi bvgvÕ Ges Ôdv‡Zwnqv-B-Bewiqv MÖ‡š
 G‡m‡Q|
ga¨hyMxq cZy©MxR Ges BD‡iv‡ci Ab¨vb¨ ågYKvixMY G kãwU‡K D‡j­L
K‡i‡Qb, ÔAvivKvbÕ (Arracan ) ÔAvivKyÕ (ARRacoo), ÔIivKvbÕ
(Orrakan) Ges AvivKvb (Arrakan) e‡j| Ges fb wj݇Kv‡Ub GUv‡K
AvivKvb (Arakan) wn‡m‡e wj‡L‡Qb, hv AvaywbK bv‡gi AwaK wbKUeZx©|

KjKvZv hv`yN‡i msiw¶Z †ek K‡qKwU gy`ªvi g‡a¨ GKwU gy`ªv Ggb cvIqv
hvq ‡h †mwU AvivKvbxq kvmK myjZvb evnv`yi kvn KZ…K© 965 wnRix‡Z
(1557-58 mvj ) evbv‡bv n‡qwQj| G gy`ªvwUi GKcv‡k dvimx fvlvq
ÔKvwjgviÕ Qvc Ges Ab¨cv‡k ÔAvivKvbÕ kãwUi Qvc jvMv‡bv| Zuvi c~e©m~ix
myjZvb †gvnv¤§` kvn& KZ…K
© 962 mv‡j evbv‡bv GKB ai‡bi Qvc hy³ Av‡iv
†ek wKQz gy`ªv cvIqv hvq, †h¸‡jv fvi‡Zi KjKvZv hv`yN‡i msi¶Y Kiv
n‡qwQj| GKB Qvcv¼ wewkó †gvnv¤§` kv‡ni Avg‡ji gy`ªv weªwUk hv`yN‡i
1
Arakan's place in civilization in the Bay in Journal of the Burma
Research Society (JBRS), Fiftieth Anniversary publications. No. 2. P.P.
491-2

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 22


msiw¶Z Ae¯
vq cvIqv hvq| R‣bK HwZnvwmK gš—e¨ K‡iwQ‡jb, ÒGUv mZ¨
†h dvimx Drm eB¸‡jv‡Z ÔAvivKvbÕ bvgwU ÔAviLvb&KÕ (Arkhank) A_ev
mvgvb¨ ZviZg¨mn wjwce× Av‡Q| GUv n‡Z cv‡i †h, BD‡ivcxq iƒc ( )
AvivKv‡bi Zzjbvq RbwcÖq Aviexq iƒc ( ) ev LuywU kãwU gy`ªv
cÖ¯Z
‧ Kvixi wbKU AwaK cwiwPZ wQj| Avi G Kvi‡YB gy`ªv cÖ¯Z ‧ Kvix †m
†`‡k cÖPwjZ Ab¨ bvg e¨wZ‡i‡K gy`ªvi bvgKiY K‡iwQ‡jb Ô AvivKvbÕ|

Dc‡i Av‡jvwPZ gy`ªvi QvcvsKb¸‡jv we‡k­lY Ki‡j eySv hvq †h Ô AvivKvbÕ


bvgwU 16Õk kZ‡Ki gvSvgvwS mgq ch©š— e¨eüZ n‡q Avm‡Q|

ÔAvivKvbÕ bvgwUi Dc‡i ewY©Z fvlv¸‡jv GKwU GKK-wew‪Qbœ `„óvš— wn‡m‡e


Av‡m bvB| AvivKv‡bi wewfbœ weL¨vZ ¯
vb, b`x I ce©Zgvjv Aviex A_ev
dvimx bvg AvK&Bqve (EK-ab ) hvi dvimx A_© - GK cvwbi †`k| †hgb
ejv nq cvbRve (Panj-ab) A_©- c cvwbi †`k| b`x¸‡jvi bvg †hgb
ÔKvjv`vbÕ (eyw×gvb), ÔbvdÕ (mœvq~), KzjvcvÄv ( c‡biRb wkw¶Z e¨w³) meB
Aviex A_ev dvimx kã fvÊvi †_‡K G‡m‡Q| G k㸇jv AvivKv‡b
Bmjv‡gi wbqš¿‡Yi GKwU cwiPq enb K‡i| Gfv‡e AvivKvb Ges
AvivKvbxqiv gymjgvb‡`i cÖZxKB enb K‡i|

hw`I mvaviY aviYv Abyhvqx AvivKv‡bi mKj RbMY gymjgvb Ges


†e․ׇ`i‡K GK‡Î AvivKvbxq ejv DwPZ, Z_vwc `yfv© M¨ ekZ KwZcq
HwZnvwmK m¤ú~Y© fyj wb‡`©kbvq ÔAvivKvbÕ cwifvlvwU‡K ïaygvÎ ÔgMÕ
(ivLvBb) k‡ãi cÖwZkã wn‡m‡e e¨envi K‡ib| AvivKv‡bi †e․× m¤cÖ`vq
wb‡R‡`i‡K ÔivLvBbÕ e‡j m‡¤^vab K‡i| Zviv ÔAvivKvbxqÕ cwifvlvwU‡K
evgx©R fvlvq ÔivLvBbÕ A‡_© e¨envi K‡i| Gi Øviv Zviv GUv eyS‡Z Pvq †h
ÔAvivKvbÕ I ÔivLvBbÕ kã `yÕwU GKwU Ab¨wUi cÖwZkã| Z‡e Gi ga¨ †_‡K
gymjgvb‡`i‡K ev` †`qv nq †h‡nZz gymjgvbiv ivLvBb m¤cÖ`vq bq| wKš‧
welqwU cwi®‥vi fv‡e dz‡U D‡V‡Q GKRb weªwUk Avwg© †Rbv‡i‡ji †jLbx‡Z|

23 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


whwb wØZxq wek¦hy‡×i mgq AvivKvb Awfhv‡b Ask wb‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb
wj‡L‡Qb- hLb Avgiv AvivKvb n‡Z Awfhvb cÖZ¨vnvi K‡i wb‡qwQjvg wVK
Zvi cieZx© mg‡q AvivKvbxq I gN‡`i g‡a¨ f~wg Ges ¶gZvi Rb¨ e¨vcK
msNl© n‡qwQj| ‡gRi G¨vb‡_vbx Bifxb bv‡gi Av‡iK weªwUk Kg©KZv© whwb
AvivKvb •mb¨ `‡j KvR Ki‡Zb| wZwb wj‡L‡Qb Ò me© cÖ_g gNiv hy×Uv‡K
Zv‡`i wbqš¿Yvax‡b †i‡LwQj, KviY Zviv wQj †MvQv‡jv Ges A¯¿-k‡¯¿
mw¾ZÓ| wKš‧ †h‡nZz Zviv Dˇi Xy‡K c‡owQj †m‡nZz Zviv †mLv‡b K‡Vvi
cÖwZ‡iv‡ai m¤§yLxb n‡qwQj| Zviv †mLv‡b ïay AvUKB nqwb eis cðv`cmiY
Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡qwQj|

‡ivqvs/ †ivnvs / †ivmnvs (cÖvPxb AvivKvb) t

‡ivqvs/†ivnvs/†ivmnvs cwifvlvwU cÖvPxb Kv‡ji wb`k©b enb K‡i| GwU


AvivKv‡bi cÖvPxb bvg| m¤¢eZ cwifvlvwU Aviex kã ivngvb ( ) n‡Z
wbM©Z hvi A_© †Lv`vi Avkxe©v`cyó f~wg| Avie I cvi‡m¨i cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi
ewYKMY G bvgwU Ò‡fmvjxÓi cªvPxb iv‡R¨i Dci Av‡ivc K‡ib| P›`ªvq
AvMg‡bi Kgc‡¶ GKkZ eQi c~‡e© Zviv †fmvjxq iv‡R¨ AvMgY K‡ib|
RvnvR `yN©Ubvq Avie ewYKMY †f‡m †f‡m cwðg AvivKvb DcK~‡ji GKwU
Øx‡c †c․‡Qb| ØxcwUi bvg Òing †evixÓ hvi Aviex A_© ÔAvj-vni Avkxe©v‡`i
f~wgÕ| G cwifvlvwU GLbI mvgvb¨ cwieZ©bmn evwg©R fvlvq ivgeªx wn‡m‡e
cÖPwjZ i‡q‡Q| Avi Bs‡iRiv GwU‡K weK…Z K‡i bvg †i‡L‡Q ÔivgnxÕ| beg
I `kg kZvwãi Avie †f․‡MvwjKMY ÔRvwRivZ-Avj-ivngxÕ ev ÔivngvÕ f~LÊ
Øviv ÔivngÕ ivR¨‡K eywS‡q‡Qb| cieZ©x‡Z GwU †ivnvs/†ivmvs/†ivqvs G iƒcvš—
wiZ nq| Be‡b Lyi`v`exn bvgK GK Avie †f․‡MvwjK e‡j‡Qb-miYØxc
(mvBjb) Gi c‡i ÔRvwRivZ-Avj-ivngxÕ| †mLv‡b AvRe ÔBDwbKY©Õ cÖvYx
Ges †QvU †QvU Dj½ †jvK evm KiZ| HwZnvwmK gvmy`x miY Øxc I fviZ
mvMixq Øxc¸‡jvi c‡iB GwU‡K b`x Zxi¯
 †`k wn‡m‡e D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb| G

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 24


mKj eY©bv e¨vcK Abyfw~ Z wb‡q Av‡m †h ivngx ev ivngv e½‡cvmvMi Ges
gvjv°v cÖYvjxi gv‡S wbKUZg DcK~j f~wg‡Z Aew¯
Z| Z‡e Gi mwVK
Ae¯
vb Luy‡R †ei Kiv LyeB KwVb| GUv †LuvR Ki‡j cvIqv hv‡e †h ÔRvwRivÕ
kãwU ïaygvÎ ÔØx‡ciÕ A_©B cÖ`vb K‡ibv eis b`x Zxi¯
 f~wg‡KI eySvq|
†mvjvqgvb bv‡gi GKRb ewYK Ñ whwb beg kZvwãi gvSvgvwS mg‡q GLv‡b
emevm K‡i‡Qb Ñ D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb †h ivn&gxÕi ivRv LyeB ¶gZvai wQj| hvi
50,000wU nvZx I 150,000 Rb •mb¨ wQj| GgbwK eZ©gvb hy‡MI
AvivKv‡bi R½‡j Ges PÆMÖv‡gi cvnvox A‡j e¨vcK cwigv‡Y ey‡bv nvZx
cvIqv hvq| m‡e©vcwi, GUv Abygvb Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †h Avie †f․‡Mvwj‡Ki
ÔRvwRivZ-Avj-ivngxÕ‡K AvivKvb †ejvf~wg Ô‡ivnvsÕ Gi Dci Av‡ivc Kiv
n‡qwQj| Bs‡iR ågYKvix i¨vd wdm ivngx ivR‡K ÔgMÕ‡`i GKwU †`k
wn‡m‡e D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb| gMÕiv wQj AvivKv‡bi †e․× Rbmgwó|

m¨vi G.wc dvqix (A.P. Phayre) Avie †jLK‡`i ÔivngxÕ ivgy kã ؇qi g‡a¨
ey¨rcwËMZ m¤úK© Ly‡R‡Qb| Zvi g‡Z, ivgy `w¶Y PÆMÖv‡gi GKwU ¯
vb
kw³ai iv‡R¨i Aewkóvsk| hv Avie †jLK‡`i Øviv ivngv, ivngx ev i
ngx
wn‡m‡e weåvš— n‡q‡Q| m¨vi G.wc. dvqixi G AwfgZ‡K mwVK wn‡m‡e MÖnY
Kiv hvq bv| KviY ÔivgyÕ KL‡bv GKwU ivRkvwmZ iv‡óªi †P‡q †ekx wKQz wQj
bv| wKš‧ cÖK…Z welq n‡‪Q BwZnv‡mi †Kvb mg‡qB Gi ¯^vZš¿ Ae¯
vb m¤ú‡K©
wKQz Rvbv hvq bv | Ggb wK hw` GUv a‡i ‡bqv nq †h ivR¨wU beg I `kg
kZvãx‡Z Aw¯—Z¡ jvf K‡i _vK‡Z cv‡i, Zvn‡j GUv †Rvi w`‡q ejv hv‡e
†h GwU Dcgnv‡`kxq kw³ nIqvi Rb¨ h‡_ó e„nr ivR¨ wQj bv| †QvU GKwU
ivR¨ nIqv‡Z GwU Kv`vwPrB DËi fvi‡Zi cÖavb kw³¸‡jvi mv‡_ Zvi
†mbvevwnbxi †gvKv‡ejv K‡i‡Q|

cviZ c‡¶, Avie †jLK‡`i ÔivngÕ iv‡R¨i eY©bv ÔivgyÕ iv‡R¨i eY©bvq Lye
KgB cÖvavb¨ ‡c‡q‡Q| wKš‧ †ivnvs ivR¨ m¤ú‡K© h‡_ó Av‡jvPbv n‡q‡Q|

25 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


1310 mv‡j msKwjZ ivwk`ywχbi GKwU MÖ‡š
 AvivKv‡bi bvg Ô‡ivnvbÕ
wn‡m‡e D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q hv †ivnvs Gi mv‡_ Mfxifv‡e mv`„k¨c~Y©| wZwb
wj‡L‡Qb †h ÔivnvbÕ (AvivKvb) †`kwU Lvb m¤cÖ`v‡qi Aaxb¯— f~wg|
HwZnvwmK Ges NUbvcÄx †jLKiv h‡_ó cix¶v-bxwi¶v K‡i e‡j‡Qb- cÖvPxb
AvivKvb‡K †ivqvs/†ivnvs/†ivmvs ejv n‡Zv| evwg©R BwZnvm ÔÔ myBRvs KvBgvÕÕ
(Chuijang ky athe ) MÖ‡š
 D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q †h evg©v †m mgq wZb fv‡M
wef³ wQj, hvi GKwU Ask kvmb KiZ PvKgv ivRv| PvKgviv Zv‡`i
wb‡R‡`i ga¨ †_‡K GKRb‡K ivRv evwb‡qwQj| Zvi bvg wQj ÔkvLvwjqvÕ (
mK‡ji Øviv wbe©vwPZ)| Zvi †Kvb cyÎ mš—vb wQj bv eis ïay gvwbKex bv‡gi
GKRb Kb¨v mš—vb wQj| Zvi ¯^vgx ev½vjx‡`i c‡¶i wQ‡jb Ges 1118-
1119 mv‡j †ivqvb (AvivKvb) bvgK †`‡k gN‡`i mv‡_ hy× K‡i‡Qb|
gvwbKexi ci Zvi cyÎ gvwbKMÖx †mLvbKvi ivRv nb Ges Gici Zvi cyÎ
Ôgv`vwjqvÕ ivRv nb| Zvici gv`vwjqvi cyÎ ivgv †VvsRv ivRv nb| Avi ivgv
†VvsRvi cyÎ wQj Kvgvj †PMv| Zvi kvmbvg‡j Ô†ivqvbÕ Gi mv‡_ †m †`‡ki
cÖevmx PvKgv‡`i GKUv hy× n‡qwQj| wÎcyiv DcvL¨vb ÔivRgvjvÕ D‡j­L
K‡i‡Q †h wÎcyivi ivRv Ôavwbqv gvBbKvÕ PÆMÖvg `Lj K‡iwQ‡jb Ges Ô‡ivmvs
gvi`vb bvqvibÕ †K †mLvbKvi MfY©i wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| GK&
DcvL¨v‡bi Aci GK RvqMvq D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q †h ivRv Ô‡ivmvsÕ iv‡R¨i
i‡Ü« i‡Ü« †c․‡Q wM‡qwQ‡jb Ges †mUv‡K cwic~Y©fv‡e Rq K‡iwQ‡jb| Zvici
ivRv †ivmvs ivR¨‡K cy‡ivcywi Aaxb¯
 Kivi cwiKíbv wb‡q Zvi ivRavbx‡Z
wd‡i Avm‡jb|

evsjv‡`‡ki ÔgMÕ (†e․×)†`i‡K-Sywgqv gvN Ges †ivqvb gM G `yB †kªYx‡Z


wef³ Kiv nq| GUv Bw½Z K‡i †h †ivqvb gvNiv c~e© cwiwPZ †ivnvs n‡Z
G‡m‡Q| Giv Df‡qB AvivKv‡bi Avjv`v b„-‡Mvôxi Aš—f³©y | mß`k kZvwãi
weL¨vZ ivRKwe kvn& AvjvIj fvM¨vnZ †gvNj ivRcyÎ kvn myRvi g„Zy¨i ci
Zvi Kwbô Kb¨v Av‡gbv‡K wb‡q GKwU †kvKMuv_v iPbv K‡ib| †mLv‡b wZwb
†ivnvb Ges †ivwn½v ivR¨ m¤ú‡K© we¯—vwiZ Av‡jvKcvZ K‡ib| Kwe Zvi
Aci `yÕwU weL¨vZ †jvKMuv_v-mvqdzj gyj&K ew`D¾vgvj I wmKv›`vi bvgv

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 26


MÖ‡š
 †ivqvs I †ivwn½v‡`i m¤ú‡K© mgvb fv‡e eY©bv w`‡q‡Qb| Dc‡iv³ NUbv
I Z_¨cÖgvY n‡Z GKUv welq w`ev‡jv‡Ki b¨vq cwi®‥vi †h AvivKv‡bi Avw`
bvg wQj †ivnvs, †hUv me©cÖ_g Avieiv e¨envi K‡iwQj|

AvivKv‡bi RbMY:

AvivKv‡b `yÕwU e„nr b„-ZvwË¡K †Mvôx i‡q‡Q| G‡`i g‡a¨ ‡ivwn½v m¤cÖ`vq
msL¨v Mwiô RbMY wb‡q MwVZ Ges me©cwi Zviv Bmjvg a‡g© wek¦vmx| Avi
gvN ev ivLvBb m¤cÖ`vq msL¨vjNy RbMY wb‡q MwVZ Ges Zviv †e․×
ag©g‡Zi Abymvix| 1942 mv‡ji c~‡e© †ivwn½v Ges gvN Dfq m¤cÖ`vq KZ…K©
we¯—…Z cwim‡i AvivKvb `Lj n‡qwQj| 1942 mv‡j gymjgvb we‡ivax
`v½vKvjxb mg‡q `w¶Y AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb‡`i‡K DËiv‡j Zvwo‡q †`qv
n‡qwQj, †hLv‡b †e․× gNiv †`kwUi `w¶Y Aa©vsk `Lj K‡i wb‡qwQj|
eZ©gv‡b Zviv ‡mLv‡b msL¨v MwiôZv AR©b K‡i‡Q|

AvivKv‡bi cve©Z¨ A‡j wKQz Avw`evmx evm K‡i hv‡`i AwaKvsk we‡Ølx
g‡bvfvevcbœ| Zv‡`i msL¨v GLbI Lye bMY¨| Zviv n‡jv- KvwgR, ‡gªvR,
PvDs_vQ, mvK&m, wPbÄ, PvDR, LvDs‡mvm, AvnbyQ Ges †Kvbm| cÖavb b„-
‡Mvôx n‡jv-‡gªvR, KvwgR, PvDs_vQ Ges wPbR|

†ivwn½v m¤cÖ`vq t

†ivwn½v cwifvlvwU ÔivnvBÕ ev Ô‡ivmnv½xÕ kã n‡Z wbM©Z| †ivnvB Ges


†ivmv½x cwifvlv Øviv cÖvPxb AvivKv‡b emevmKvix gymjgvb Rb‡Mvôx‡K
eySvq| PÆMªv‡g emevmiZ gymjgvb Rb‡Mvôxi g‡a¨ `yÕwU ¯^Zš¿ Pwi‡Îi b„-
†Mvôx cvIqv hvq| G‡`i GKwU ÔPvUMvBqvÕ I Ab¨wU Ô‡ivnvBÕ e‡j cwiwPZ|

27 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


GKB ag©g‡Zi Abymvix nIqv m‡Ë¡I Zv‡`i mvs¯‥…wZK Af¨v‡mi g‡a¨
ZviZg¨ i‡q‡Q| e¯‧Zt, PÆMÖv‡gi Ô‡ivnvBevÕ †mB mKj gymjgvb hviv eg©xq
b„ksmZvi Kvi‡Y [AvivKvb (†ivnvb) †_‡K cvwj‡q G‡mwQj]| 1784 mv‡j
evg©v KZ©„K AvivKvb Rei `L‡ji †Ri a‡i|

PÆMÖvg ‡Rjvi †gvU RbmsL¨vi cÂvk fv‡Mi †ekx n‡‪Q Ô‡ivnvBÕ hviv
AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i c~e©cyi
l‡`i DrcwË ‡LuvR K‡i Avie, g~i, ZzKx©,cvimxqvb,
†gvNj, cvVvb Ges ev½vwj‡`i gv‡S GKRb weªwUk Avwg© Awdmvi whwb wØZxq
wek¦hy‡×i mg‡q AvivKvb evwnbxi mv‡_ hy× K‡iwQ‡jb, wZwb AviKvb
gymjgvb‡`i b„-ZvwË¡K PwiÎ m¤ú‡K© gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb Gfv‡e †h ÔÔ fviZ I
evg©vi †h mKj gymjgvb‡`i‡K Avwg †`‡LwQ AvivKv‡bi gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i
†_‡K m¤ú~Y© e¨wZµg| Zviv bvg, †cvkvK Ges Af¨v‡m Avie‡`i m`„k| bvix
Ges we‡kl K‡i hyeZx bvix‡`i e¨vc‡i GK ai‡bi ¯^Zš¿ Aviexq ms¯úk©
i‡q‡QÕÕ|

‡ivwn½v fvlvi Dbœqb LyeB A™¢yZ cÖK„wZi| GwU wewfbœ Avlvi mswgkªY, †h
fvlv¸‡jv nvRvi eQ‡ii AwaK mgq a‡i AvivKv‡b we¯—vi jvf K‡iwQj|
GLv‡b D‡j­L Kiv h_v_© †h gviK-BD (Mrauk-U) ivRv‡`i cÖv_wgK mgq
†_‡K 1845 mvj ch©š— dviwm AvivKv‡bi Awdwmqvj fvlv wn‡m‡e e¨envi
n‡q AvmwQj| †m mg‡q gªvDK-D ivRv‡`i mv‡_ e‡½i m¤úK© GZUvB Avš—
wiK I Mfxi wQj †h AvivKvb ivR mfvq evsjv mvwnZ¨ e¨vcK mg„w× AR©b
K‡iwQj| kvn& AvjvIj, ‡`․jZ KvRx Ges gvMb wmÏxwKi g‡Zv A‡bK
gymjgvb mfvKwe AvivKvb ivRv‡`i †mev K‡i‡Qb| Zviv dvimx, Aviex
A_ev wgkª fvlv †ivwn½v‡Z mvwnZ¨ iPbv KiZ| †ivwn½v fvlv‡K Zviv
wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ mg„× `vb K‡iwQj Ges Ges G fvlvwU wQj g~jZt Aviex,
dvimx, evsjv I AvivKvb (ivLvBb) fvlvi mswgkªY| hw`I †ivwn½v fvlv
AvivKvb ivRv‡`i kvmbvg‡j cÖmvi jvf K‡iwQj, wKš‧ eZ©gv‡b G fvlvwUi

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 28


‡jL¨iƒc cÖvq wejywßi c‡_| G fvlvwU gyjZt 1784 mv‡j evwg©R nvbv`vi
KZ…K
© aŸsm cÖvß n‡qwQj Ges cieZ©x‡Z ZrKvjxb Dcwb‡ewkKMY †mUv‡K
h_vh_ msi¶Y K‡i bvB|

gM ev ivLvBb t

gM (Magh) kãwU m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e evsjv fvlv †_‡K Drcbœ| kãwUi mwVK


Zvrch© Ges P~ovš— Drcw˯
j cwi¯‥vi | kãwUi me‡P‡q †ekx m‡š—vlRbK
Drcw˯
j GKwU n‡‪Q hv GUv‡K fvi‡Zi cÖvPxb gvMvav-ivR cwiev‡ii
kvmbvg‡ji mv‡_ mshy³ K‡i‡Q| †e․× cÖwZcwËi n«vm ïi
 nq fvi‡Z ÔgvIixÕ
(Maurya) ivR‡Z¡i cZ‡bi ci †_‡K| wLªóvb kvm‡bi ïi
i w`‡K ivRv A‡kvK
†mLvbKvi ivRv wQ‡jb| µgvMZ AvU kZvwã mg‡q †e․×ev` Ges GK
i¶Ykxj eªvþY wn›`yev‡`i g‡a¨ GKUv msNl© n‡qwQj| gvMvav I cÖvPxb
wenv‡i †e․×iv i¶Ykxj wn›`y Ges cÖwZc¶ gvnvqvbv ‡e․ׇ`i Øviv GZ
gvivZœKfv‡e wbh©vwZZ n‡q‡Q †h Ô‡_iv‡f`vÕ †e․ׇ`i‡K eva¨ n‡q †mLvb
†_‡K cvwj‡q †h‡Z n‡q‡Q| Zviv ‡mLvb †_‡K cvwj‡q wM‡q wn›`y ivRv kvwmZ
wfkvjx‡Z (Vesali) Avkªq MÖnY K‡i| ZLb †_‡KB Zv‡`i‡K ÔgvNÕ e‡j
WvKv nq| wKš‧ gvNvav Awfevmx‡`i g‡a¨ G‡m Avwiqvbiv Zv‡`imn
ag©vej¤^x-g‡½vwjqvb I wZeŸZxq-eg©xq‡`i Af¨š—ixY weevn m¤úv`b n‡Zv|
Zviv ivR¨wU‡K 957 mvj †_‡K cÖvq cuvP kZvãxKvj a‡i KiZjMZ K‡i
†i‡LwQj| fviZxq I g‡½vjxqvb‡`i mgš^‡q m„ó bZzb k¼i (Hybrid)
RvwZ‡K eZ©gv‡bi mvaviY g‡½vjxq I wZeŸZxq-eg©xq †kªYx †_‡K AwZ
mn‡RB Avjv`v Kiv hvq| Gfv‡e eZ©gvb hy‡Mi AvivKvbx †e․×iv Zv‡`i
DrcwË Lyu‡R cvq gvMvavq| wKš‧ Zv‡`i mv‡_ g‡½vwjqvb‡`i mv`„k¨ n‡q‡Q
Ges Zv‡`i fviZxq PwiÎI nvwi‡q‡Q| m¤¢eZ ÔgMÕ k‡ãi DrcwË n‡e,
gvMvax, gvNx-gvMx, gM A_ev gvN| bZzb Bs‡iwR Awfavb D‡j­L K‡i †h gM,
(Mog), g‡Mb (Mogen), gM (Mogue) k㸇jv AvivKv‡bi bvg Ges cÂg-

29 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


‡lvok kZvwãi AvivKvbxq RbMY‡K eySv‡Z e¨envi nq| Bs‡iR ch©UK i¨vd
wdP (Ralph Fitch) AvivKvb‡K Ôg‡MbÕ (Mogen) †`k wn‡m‡e mbv³
K‡ib| eZ©gv‡b AvivKvb I evsjv‡`k Dfq †`‡ki gvNiv G bvg eR©b
K‡i‡Q| Zviv `vex K‡i †h GUv Bs‡iR‡`i D™¢vweZ bZyb kã †hfv‡e Zviv
K‡i‡Q| weªwUkiv cÖv‡P¨ Av‡m Aóv`k kZvwã‡Z wKš‧ ÔgMÕ (Magh) cwifvlvwU
mßg Ges Aóg kZvwã‡ZI cÖPwjZ wQj| GLb welqwU cwi®‥vi †h gM
(Magh) kãwU Bs‡iR‡`i ‡¯^‪QvPvwiZv D™¢veb bq, †hgbUv eZ©gvb hy‡M
AvivKvb I evsjv‡`‡ki AwaKvsk †e․×iv g‡b K‡i| wKš‧ cÖkœ n‡‪Q, †Kb
Zviv G bvg eR©b K‡i‡Q? cÖK…Z NUbv n‡‪Q †lvok kZ‡Ki gvSvgvwS †_‡K
1784 mvj ch©š— cÖvq `yÕ kZ eQ‡ii AwaK mgq a‡i AvivKv‡bi gNiv
(magh) cZy©Mx‡Ri jyÉbKvix/`my¨‡`i mv‡_ †Mvcb AvuZvZ K‡iwQj. hv e‡½i
Rb-gvby‡li g‡b Ggb hš¿bv`vqK fq Ges AvZs‡Ki KviY n‡qwQj| Avi G
NUbv †_‡KB gvN (Magh) kãwU WvKvZ ev `my¨Õi cÖwZkã n‡q‡Q| wnsmªZv,
wbôziZv, AvBb-k„sLjv k~b¨Zv Ges Zv‡`i N„Y¨ Kvh©Kjvc Zv‡`i †`k‡K
Ôg‡Ni gyj­yKÕ bv‡g cwiwPZ Kiv‡Z cÖavb mnvqK wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i‡Q| Ôg‡Ni
gyj-yKÕ A_© AvBb-k„‫‫‬Ljv I wePvi-we‡ePbv wenxb GKwU ‡`k| Ôg‡Ni gyj­yKÕ
GLb GKwU cÖev` ev‡K¨ cwiYZ n‡q‡Q- hvi evsjv A_© AivRKZv ev
†¯^‪QvPvwiZv|

wKQz wKQz HwZnvwmK m‡›`n cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb †h GivB †mB euvabnviv, wnsmª,
jyÉbKvix gvN hviv GLb AvivKvb I evsjv‡`‡k gvN †e․× wn‡m‡e emevm
Ki‡Q| cÖvß mKj NUbv Ges eY©bv G wel‡q mvgvb¨ m‡›`nI iv‡Lbv †h
eZ©gvb hy‡Mi gN ev AvivKvbxq jy‡Uiv gvN‡`iB eskai| HwZnvwmK
mvnveywÏb Uvwj‡ki mß`k kZ‡Ki gvSvgvwS mg‡q GKwU eY©bv G NUbvi
mZ¨vqb Kivi Rb¨ h‡_ó †h, ÔgvNÕ jy‡Uiv wQ‡jv AvivKvb iv‡R¨i Awaevmx|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 30


ÒAvivKvbx Rj`my¨ivÓ gN Ges wdwisMx DfqB cvwb c‡_ G‡m e‡½ jyUZivR
KiZ| Zviv wn›`y I gymjgvb, bvix I cyi
l, †QvU-eo, Kg-‡ewk mevB‡K
AvUK K‡i †Rvic~e©K Zy‡j wb‡q †hZ| Zviv Zv‡`i nv‡Zi Zvjy we× KiZ|
Zviv Zv‡`i cðvr‡`k w`‡q †e‡Zi jvwV XywK‡q w`‡Z Ges Zviv G‡Ki ci
Ab¨ Rb‡K Rvnv‡Ri †W‡Ki wb‡P †d‡j w`Z| cï-cvwL‡`i‡K †hfv‡e Lv`¨
Quz‡o †`qv nq wVK †mfv‡e cÖ‡Z¨K mKvj I we‡K‡j Zviv ew›`‡`i Dci ivbœv
wenxb Pvj Quz‡o gviZ |

gMiv weMZ eû kZ eQi a‡i G RNb¨ bvgUv AR©b K‡i‡Q hv GLb Zv‡`i
DËim~ix‡`i Rb¨ LyeB j¾vi KviY n‡q `uvwo‡q‡Q| eis G bv‡gi cwie‡Z©
Zviv GLb wb‡R‡`i‡K ivLvBb ej‡Z ïi
 K‡i‡Q, hv AvivKvb Ges
gymjgvb‡`i mv‡_ mivmwi m¤úK©hy³|

AvivKvbxq DcvL¨vb g‡Z, ÔivLvBbÕ kãwU Ôiv¶vcyivÕ ev Ôiv¶‡mi †`kÕ n‡Z


G‡m‡Q| iv¶m ej‡Z Ggb GK ‣`Z¨‡K wb‡`©k K‡i hv †`L‡Z A‡a©K gvbyl
Ges A‡a©K cï| AvivKvb DcvL¨v‡bi `jxj cÖgvY †c․ivwYK I KíKvwnbx
wbf©i| AvivKvb DcvL¨v‡bi `vex‡K †Rviv‡jv Kivi Rb¨ Zv‡`i HwZnvwmK
†Kvb cÖgvY †bB| ivLvBb cwifvlvwU †ivqvs/wi‡Kvb k‡ãi weK…Z iƒc, hv
AvivKv‡bi cyivZb bvg| †lvok kZvwãi gvSvgvwS mg‡qi GKRb ZzKx©
bvweK wm`x Avjx †Pwjex ÔivLvBbÕ‡K ÔivKvb&RÕ wj‡L‡Qb| GUv m¤¢e †h
Aviex aŸwb D‪Pvi‡Y mgm¨vi Kvi‡Y g‡½vjxqvb evgx©Riv AvivKvb (‫)اراكن‬
k‡ãi cÖ_g n‡Z Aviex Avwjd (‫†)ا‬K ev` w`‡q ïaygvÎ ivKvb (‫)راكن‬
D‪PviY K‡i‡Qb| hvB‡nvK, ivKvb, ivKvb&R, AviLvb&K, wiKb, Aviv‡Kv,
AviKvb cwifvlv¸‡jv wewfbœ HwZnvwmK KZ„K© e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q| Avi G¸‡jvi
meB †ivqvs A_ev AvivKv‡bi mv‡_ m¤úK©hy³| GUv †Kvbfv‡eB Ôiv¶vcyivÕi
mv‡_ m¤ú„³ bq, AvivKvbxq DcvL¨vb †hfv‡e `vex K‡i‡Q|

31 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gN‡`i K_¨ fvlv gwN ev ivLvBb †hgbUv Zviv e‡j-GKwU Avjv`v fvlv bq
eis mvgvb¨ D‪PviY/aŸwYMZ cv_©K¨mn GwU LuvwU evwg©R kã| ivLvBb fvlvi
Avjv`v †Kvb †jL¨ iƒc bvB| ivLvBb fvlv m¤ú‡K© HwZnvwmKMY wb‡gœv³ gš—
e¨ K‡i‡Qb|

Ò ivLvBb fvlvi Avwef©ve ev cÖKvk welqK cÖkwœ U †ek KwVb| nq GwU `kg
kZvwãi g‡½vjxq nvbv`vi‡`i fvlv A_ev GwU GKv`k I Øv`k kZvwã‡Z
evg©vi ms¯ú‡k© G‡m cwiï×Zv †c‡q‡Q| wKš‧ welqUv GLbI AgxgvswmZ i‡q
†M‡Q| AvivKv‡bi fvlv evgx©R fvlvi gZB hv ïaygvÎ AvÂwjK fvlv wn‡m‡eB
e¨eüZ nq| fvlv ZvwË¡K mgm¨v¸‡jv gv_vPvov w`‡q D‡V‡Q hv mgvavb Kiv
LyeB KwVb| G cÖkUœ v DËg gxgvsmvi cÖwZ¶v Ki‡Q|Ó

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 32


wØZxq Aa¨vq
Avw` BwZnvm
abveZx mvgªvR¨ (The Kingdom of Dhannavati)t

cÖvß mKj HwZnvwmK Z_¨, HwZn¨, wnmve-wbKvk Ges DcvL¨vb G wel‡qi


w`‡KB Bw½Z K‡i †h my`~i cÖvPxb †_‡K AvivKvb wQj GKwU wn›`y ivR¨|
L„óc~e© 2666 Aã ch©š— AvivKvb ivRv‡`i mKj Z_¨-DcvË G
DcvL¨vb¸‡jv‡Z i‡q‡Q| Av‡iv wbwðZ K‡i ejv hvq †h, wLªóvb kvm‡bi cÖvq
cÖ_g kZvwãi w`‡K gviK-BD (Mrauk-u) n‡Z cÖvq 40 gvBj DËi-cwð‡g
Ô‡jgivÕ b`xi Zx‡i abveZx mvgªvR¨ M‡o D‡VwQj| gviK-BD (Mrauk-u) wQj
cÖvPxb AvivKv‡bi ivRavbx| cÖZœZvwË¡K M‡elYvmg~n Bw½Z ‡`q †h GjvKvwU
AvR AvivKvb e‡j cwiwPZ eû eQi a‡i Zv wn›`y ivRv‡`i Avevmf~wg wQj|
AvivKv‡bi cvk¦©eZx Mv‡½q e-Øx‡ci mgmvgqxK ag©I wQj wn›`yev`| P›`ª
(Chandra) ivRv‡`i kvm‡bi PvikZ eQi c~‡e© Pxbv ågYKvix dv-wn‡qb
(Fa-Hein) (405-411mvj) wn›`y¯—vb ågY K‡ib| ZLb wn›`y¯—v‡bi kvmK
wQj ¸ßiv| eªvþY wQj me‡P‡q m‡e©vrK…ó miKvi| wKš‧ wZwb †mLv‡b nvRvi
nvRvi gvnvqvb I wnbvqvb mbœvmx‡`i AvLov n‡Z Z_¨-DcvË msMÖn K‡i Px‡b
wd‡i wM‡qwQj| G mKj AÂj †mmgq cÖvPxb †`eZv‡`i MxR©v, †e․ׇ`i
AmsL¨ eBcÎ Ges msiw¶Z ¯§„wZwP‡ý mg„× wQj| fviZ hw`I GKwU †e․×
ivóª wQj bv, Zey AmsL¨ †e․× ¯
vcbv eû w`b a‡i wU‡K wQj|

33 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Gg.Gm KwjQ (M.S. Collis) Zvi weL¨vZ MÖš
 Ôw` j¨vÊ Ae `¨ †MÖU B‡gRÕ
G wj‡L‡Qb Ò g‡½vwjqvb Avµg‡Yi c~‡e©, AvivKv‡bi cÖv_wgK hy‡M †mLv‡b
GKwU gvÎ kni M‡o D‡VwQj hvi bvg wQj abveZx| 1924 mv‡j Avwg hLb
†mLvbKvi cve©Z¨ AÂj¸‡jv cwi`k©b Kwi ZLb †`L‡Z cvB †h †mLv‡b
AmsL¨ cv_‡ii fv¯‥h© i‡q‡Q †h¸‡jv wQj cÂg kZvwãi †mb hyMxq fv¯‥‡h©i
gZ| †m mg‡qi cÖ_g w`‡K AvivKv‡b †e․×ev‡`i AvMgY A¯^vfvweK wQj
bv| KviY mgy`ª c‡_ Gi †hvMv‡hvM wQj gnv mf¨Zvi †K›`ªwe›`y fvi‡Zi
mv‡_| BwjqU D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb Òm‡›`‡ni AeKvk †bB †h e‡½vcmvM‡ii `w¶Y
DcK~jxq AÂj Ges gvjv°v A‡ji g‡a¨ cÖvPxbKvj †_‡K e„nr cwim‡i
Av`vb-cÖ`vb ev †hvMv‡hvM wQj| G m¤úK©Uv P~ovš— ch©v‡q †c․‡QwQj hLb
†e․×iv cÂg I lô kZvwã‡Z kvmb ¶gZvq wQj|

AvivKvb DcvL¨vb Abyhvqx, abveZxi kvmK ivRv P›`ª mywiqvi kvmbvg‡j


AvivKv‡b †e․×ev‡`i AvMgb N‡U| Ges ‡m mgq Zvi c„ô‡cvlKZvq cÖ_g
kZvwãi w`‡K gnvgywY †e․‡×i cÖwZg~wZ© ¯
vcb Kiv nq|

P›`ª‡`i kvm‡bi †`okZ eQi c~‡e© (788-957) GK Zx_©hvÎx wn‡qb mvs


(630 mvj) wn›`y¯—v‡b †eov‡Z Av‡mb| †mmgq wn›`y¯—v‡bi ivRv wQ‡jb nl©.
whwb †mLv‡b wke, m~h© I ey‡×i cÖwZgv wbg©vY K‡iwQ‡jb| G Av‡jvPbvq eySv
hvq †h †e․× ag©vej¤^xiv wQj D`vi g‡bi hv‡`i Kv‡Q wn›`y †`eZv I †M․Zg
ey× mgvb gh©v`vevb wQ‡jb| wn›`y¯—v‡bi G ai‡bi ag©xq Kv‡Ri PP©v Zv‡`i
cvk¦©eZ©x †`k AvivKv‡bi ag©xq Kvh©vejx‡KI e¨vcK cÖfvweZ K‡iwQj|
D‡j­wLZ mKj Z_¨-DcvË †_‡K Avgiv G wm×v‡š— DcbxZ n‡Z cvwi ‡h,
†fmvjx kvm‡bi c~‡e© AvivKv‡b wn›`yev` I †e․×ev` DfqB e¨vcK cÖmvi jvf
K‡iwQj|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 34


†fmvjx ivR¨ (788-957)

788 mv‡j P›`ª bv‡gi GK bZzb ivResk †fmvjx bMix cÖwZôv K‡i| G
bMixwU GKwU weL¨vZ e›`i bMi wn‡m‡e cÖwmw× cvq, †hLv‡b cÖwZeQi nvRvi
nvRvi RvnvR cY¨ enb K‡i wb‡q AvmZ| AvivKvbx DcvL¨vb Abyhvqx G
es‡ki bqRb ivRv eskvbyµ‡g 788 †_‡K 957 mvj ch©š— †mLv‡b kvmb
cwiPvjbv K‡i| G‡`i g‡a¨ beg mve©‡f․g kvm‡Ki bvg wQj my-iv-ZvBb
P›`ª| whwb e‡½ Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡i Ô_yivUvbÕ bv‡gi GK kvmK‡K civwRZ
K‡ib| AZtci wZwb †mLv‡b Ô‡PUvMvsÕ (PÆMÖvg) bvgK ¯
v‡b GKwU weRq ¯—¤¢
wbg©vY K‡ib|

P›`ª ivRv‡`i ag©xq Kvh©vejx wbiƒcY Kivi Rb¨ cÖvPxb †mB bMixi aŸsmve‡kl
wb‡q M‡elYv Kiv nq| cÖvPxb †mB bMixwUi Aw¯—Z¡ cvIqv hvq ÔgviK-BD
(Mrauk-u) bMix n‡Z Qq gvBj `~‡i †QvU GKwU Li‡mªvZv b`xi Zx‡i Ges
e‡½vcmvMi n‡Z cÂvk gvBj wfZ‡i ¯
jf~wg‡Z| GQvov AvivKv‡b cÖvß gy`ªv
†_‡KI Avgiv †fmvjx iv‡R¨i mÜvb cvB|

cÖvPxb †fmvjx bMixi aŸsmcÖvß ¯
vb Rwic Kiv nq wb wKsev Avwe®‥v‡ii


D‡Ï‡k¨ Lbb Kiv nq wb, ZeyI AwbqwgZ M‡elKiv †mLv‡b Aewkó B‡Ui
†`qvj ‡`‡L eyS‡Z cv‡i †h GwU GKwU wekvj GjvKv‡K wN‡i †i‡LwQj|
`w¶Y cv‡k¦©i †`qvjwU wQj cv_‡ii ‣Zwi| †`qv‡ji wfZ‡i AmsL¨ Kvi
Kvh©
LwPZ cv_i, g~wZ© mymw¾Z ¯—¤¢ Ges dy‡ji QvcvswKZ †`qvj i‡q‡Q| †h¸‡jvi
eY©bv Avgiv Aóg kZvwãi †bMvix Pwi‡Îi g‡a¨ cvB| cv_‡ii G g~wZ©¸‡jv
Zv‡`i †`eZvi AvK…wZ enb K‡i Ges g~j ¯—‡¤¢i Dci wk‡ei cweÎ lvu‡oi
cÖwZg~wZ© i‡q‡Q| G mKj aŸsmve‡kl Kvh©KiY I welqMZfv‡e cÖK…Z wn›`y
ag©vej¤^x‡`i ¯§„wZ wPý enb K‡i|

35 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


†fmvjx gy`ªvi Qvcv¼¸‡jv n‡‪Q- luvo, bvw›`, wk‡ei cÖwZg~wZ©, wk‡ei wÎïj,
dzj`vbxi gZ wKQz GKUv Ges bvMix Qvcv¼b| G mKj welq GUvB Bw½Z
K‡i †h †fmvjx gy`ªv¸‡jv LuvwU eªvþY HwZ‡n¨i ¯§„wZevnx| wKš‧ eªvþY
wb`k©bevnx G gy`ªv¸‡jv gvnvqvb ivRes‡ki mv‡_ m½wZnxb bq| GKB mg‡q
e‡½i gvnvqvb ivRviv eªþY gy`ªvi cÖPjb K‡iwQ‡jb| GUv GKwU cÖgvY †h
Aóg kZvwãi e‡½i gvnvqvb †e․×ev‡`i mv‡_ wn›`yev‡`i m¤úK© KZUv
Nwbó|

‡h‡nZz e‡½ cvk¦©eZx© ivóª Ô†fmvjxÕ (Vesali) GKwU wn›`y ivóª wQj, †m‡nZz
GUv aviYv Kiv hvq †h Gi agx©q BwZnvmI wQj GKB ai‡bi|

wnbvqvbev` wejyß n‡qwQj, Gi d‡j gvnvqvbev` †g․wjK wn›`yev‡`i mv‡_


mg‡SvZv K‡iwQj G A‡_© †h †M․Zgey× Zv‡`i †`eZv¸‡jvi g‡a¨ GKwU
†`eZvq cwiYZ n‡qwQj| GgbwK c¨vbwUKev‡`i †h․b hv`yI Gi e¨wZµgx
wQj bv| GUv Zvrch©c~Y© †h Kgc‡¶ GKwU U¨vbwUK fv¯‥h© †fmvjx'‡Z
(Vesali) cvIqv †M‡Q | D‡ivwj­wLZ Z_¨ cÖgvYvw`i wfwˇZ ejv hvq †h
†fmvjx ivR¨wU e‡½i wn›`y iv‡R¨i c~e©m~ix| Giv gvnvqbv †e․ׇ`i Abymvix
wQj Ges miKvi I RbM‡Yi Df‡qB wQj fviZxq|

AvivKv‡b Bmjv‡gi AvMgb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 36


cÖvPxb Kvj †_‡KB Avieiv kxl©¯
vbxq mgy`ªPvix I bvweK cÖK…wZi wQj| Z…Zxq
kZvwãi cÖ_g ‡_‡KB `w¶Y Gwkqv, `w¶Y c~e© Gwkqv Ges `~i-cÖv‡P¨i
†`k¸‡jvi mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM wQj| †m mgq †_‡KB Avieiv AvivKvb †_‡K
mygvÎv, Rvfv ch©š— Ges gvjvKvQ mn `w¶Y Gwkqv I `w¶Y c~e© Gwkqvi mgy`ª
DcKyj¸‡jv‡Z Zv‡`i e¨emvi †QvU †QvU K‡jvYx ¯
vcb K‡iwQj| Zvici
mßg kZvwãi gvSvgvwSi w`‡K Avie‡`i Rb¨ GKwU bZzb m~‡h©i D`q N‡U|
G mgq Bmjvg GKwU gnv Ava¨vwZ¥K, mvgvwRK Ges ivR‣bwZK kw³ wn‡m‡e
Avwef©Z~ nq| gnvbex (mt) Gi g„Zz¨i GKkZ eQ‡ii g‡a¨B Zviv †iv‡gi
†P‡q ¶gZvai GKwU kw³kvjx ivR‡Z¡i cÖfyZ¡ AR©b K‡i| Zv‡`i mgy`ª
AvwacZ¨ e„w× †c‡qwQj f~-ga¨mvM‡ii `y AeevwnKv n‡Z wb‡gœ †jvwnZ mvMi
n‡Z fviZ mvM‡ii cwiwPZ mxgvbv ch©š—| †jvwnZ mvMi Kvh©Zt wQj GKwU
ÒAvie n«`Ó|

hvB‡nvK, mgy`ª mxgvbvq Zv‡`i mivmwi ivR‣bwZK wbqš¿Y wbgœ B‡›`v


DcK~jxq GjvKvi evB‡i c~‡e©i AÂj¸‡jv‡Z cÖmvwiZ wQj bv| GZ`m‡Ë¡I
Avgiv Avie emwZi AmsL¨ A™¢~Z `„k¨ †`L‡Z cvB gvjØxc, mvBj‡g Ges
Zv‡`i evwYwR¨K Kg©KvÊ Av›`vgvb, wb‡Kvei, AvivKvb DcK~j, gvjq, mygvÎv
Ges Rvfv ch©š— we¯—…Z n‡qwQj| G mgq Zviv Zv‡`i ag©xq I ivR‣bwZK
Kvh©vejx Avb‡›`i mv‡_ Dc‡fvM KiZ| G mKj A‡j Bmjvg AvMgb
K‡i‡Q †Kvb ivR‣bwZK mg_©b QvovB Ges G mKj †`‡ki gvwUi mv‡_
AvZœxqZvi m¤úK© M‡o Zz‡j‡Qj kZvwã †_‡K kZvwã ch©š—| ïaygvÎ myjZvb
gvngy` KZ…K
© fviZ Avµg‡Yi mgq Ges cvðvZ¨ we‡k¦ µm Ges wµ‡m‡›Ui
g‡a¨ msNl© n‡qwQj|

evg©v †M‡R‡Ui †jLK wg. Aviwe ¯§vU© (RB Smart) D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb - Ò cÖvq
788 mv‡j gnvUvBs mvbw`qv wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| wZwb †mLv‡b cÖvPxb
ivgvf`x GjvKvq GKwU bZzb bMix (†fmvjx) cÖwZôv K‡ib| Ae‡k‡l evBk

37 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


eQi kvm‡bi ci wZwb ci‡jvKMgb K‡ib| Zvi kvmbvg‡j ivgix Øx‡c †ek
K‡qKwU RvnvR aŸs‡mi NUbv N‡UwQj| ejv n‡q _v‡K aŸsmcÖvß
RvnvR¸‡jvi ÔµzÕ‡`i‡K- hv‡`i‡K †gvnv¤§v`xq ag©vej¤^x ejv nq- AvivKvb
m`‡i cvVv‡bv n‡qwQj Ges Zv‡`i‡K †mLvbKvi MÖv‡g ¯
vqxfv‡e emev‡mi
e¨e¯
v Kiv n‡qwQj| Ó

AvivKvbxq DcvL¨v‡b D‡j­L Av‡Q †h, GKB mg‡q gymjgvb dwKi-`i‡ekiv


c~e© †_‡KB AvivKv‡bi DcK~jxq AÂj¸‡jv‡Z ågY KiZ| eûj cwiwPZ
GKwU NUbv n‡‪Q- Ôe`i †gvKvgÕ e‡j AwfwnZ gymjgvb‡`i Zx_©¯v
 b¸‡jv
¯§„wZ i¶vg~jK `iMvn hv cxi e`i
Ïxb e`ix-B-Avjg Gi Abymvixiv
AvivKv‡bi DcK~j GjvKvq wbgv©Y K‡iwQj| gvq~ GjvKvq iƒcK_vi nvwbdvi
†UvsKx Ges Lv‡qdz‡ii †UvsKx, Avgevixi evevRx kvn& †gvbv‡q‡gi `iMvn
Ges AvKv‡q‡ei cxi e`i kv‡ni `iMvn G mKj NUbv Aóg kZvwãi ïi
‡Z
AvivKv‡b gigx mvaK‡`i AvMg‡bi P~ovš— `jxj enb K‡i| AvivKvb
DcvL¨vb Av‡iv Z_¨ †`q †h †c․ËwjK kvm‡bi mgq gymjgvb mvaKMY
AvivKv‡b ågY K‡iwQ‡jb| AvivKv‡bi DcvL¨v‡b ivRv AvbvIivUvi
kvmbvg‡ji GKwU NUbv D‡j­L K‡i †h, Ò hLb wZwb (ivRvi Abymvix) GKwU
e‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡jb wZwb †mLv‡b Ava¨vwZ¥K cÖÁvevb GKRb ÔdKxiÕ‡K
†`L‡Z ‡c‡jb| G NUbv GUvB cÖgvY K‡i †h ïay gymjgvb e¨emvqxivB
Av‡mb bvB eis gymjgvb mvaK Ges `i‡ekiv cÖv_wgK mgq¸‡jv‡Z
DcK~jxq A‡j Aev‡a Avmv-hvIqv Ki‡Zb|

G mKj Avie e¨emvqx Ges mvaKiv †mLvbKvi ¯
vbxq †jvKR‡bi g‡a¨


wgkbvix Kvh©vejx cwiPvjbv Ki‡Zb| H mKj f³ Abymvix‡`i DrK…ó •bwZK
PwiÎ Ges D‪P wgkbvix DÏxcbv e¨vcK msL¨K †jvK‡K gnvb Bmjv‡gi cÖwZ
AvK…ó K‡iwQj| hviv mevB wg‡j Bmjvg‡K ey‡K Rwo‡q wb‡qwQj| cÖv_wgK
Avie‡`i A‡b‡K †mLvbKvi ¯
vbxq bvix‡`i‡K we‡q K‡iwQ‡jb Ges

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 38


†mLvbKvi MÖvg I kn‡i Zviv ¯
vqx fv‡e emwZ ¯
vcb K‡iwQ‡jb| Avie
ewYKMY ¯
j c‡_ AvivKvb B‡qvgv n‡q DËi evg©vq Zvici Px‡b Mgb
Ki‡Zb| A_ev Zviv cvwb c‡_ gvjv°v, mygvÎv I Rvfv n‡q `~i cÖv‡P¨
cwiågY Ki‡Zb| evwYR¨ n‡Z ga¨ cÖv‡P¨i w`‡K †divi c‡_ Avie ewYKMY
AvivKvb n‡q GKB i
U AbymiY Ki‡Zb| ejv n‡q _v‡K, eZ©gvb kZvwã
ch©š— AvivKv‡bi ‣e‡`wkK evwYR¨ cy‡ivcywi wbqš¿Y Ki‡Zv Avie ewYKMY|

ag© cwieZ©b Ges bZzb Awfevm‡bi d‡j cieZ©x kZvw㸇jv‡Z AvivKv‡b


gymjgvb RbM‡Yi msL¨v e¨vcK cwigvY e„w× cvq| HwZnvwmK wR.B. nvi‡f
(G.E. Harvey) D‡j­L K‡i‡Qb Ò`kg kZvwãi ci †`kwU ¯^Kxqfv‡e †e․×
†`k wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ wQj G Kvi‡Y †h †mLv‡b †gvnv¤§v`xev` (Bmjvg)
AcÖwZ‡iva¨ wQj| d‡j †Zi kZvwã‡Z Avmvg †_‡K gvjq ch©š— mgy`ª KzjeZx©
GjvKv¸‡jv‡Z hv †e․× †gvKvg e‡j cwiwPZ wQj, †mLv‡b AmsL¨ gmwR`
¯
vcb Kiv n‡qwQj| m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e ejv hvq †h evg©vi Zzjbvq AvivKv‡b
†gvnv¤§v`xev` ev Bmjvg bvix‡`i‡K mgvR †_‡K we‪Qbœ ivLvi †¶‡Î †ewk
f~wgKv cvjb K‡i‡Q|

†Zi kZvwãi g‡a¨ Bmjvg Avwd«Kvi AvUjvw›UK DcK~j AÂj Ges e‡½i
RbM‡Yi ü`q I AvZœv Rq Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| Zv Zv‡`i mKj kw³kvjx
gyj¨‡eva¸‡jv‡K cÖPvi K‡iwQj| AvivKvb e‡½i cvk¦©eZx© Ges B‡Zvg‡a¨B
GKwU kw³kvjx gymjgvb Rbmgwó nIqv‡Z, †Zi kZvwã †_‡KB AvivKv‡b
Bmjv‡gi cÖfve-cÖwZcwË Av‡iv m~`„p n‡qwQj| HwZnvwmK wW.wR.B nj (D.
G. E. Hall) Dc‡iv³ eY©bvi mg_©‡b e‡j‡Qb, ÒAv‡bvqvivBUvi kvmbvg‡j
†c․ËwjKiv AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i KZ©‡„ Z¡i †NvlYv w`‡qwQj| wKš‧ 1287 mv‡ji
ci GwU& AKvh©Ki n‡q c‡o| Ges hw`I 1433 mv‡j bviv‡gLjv KZ…K ©
†ivnvs ivRZ¡ cÖwZôv nIqvi c~‡e© †mLv‡b gv‡S g‡a¨ evwg©R Ges gM‡`i n¯—

39 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


‡¶c wQj, Z_vwcI evg©vi Zzjbvq AvivKv‡bi mv‡_ †gvnv¤§v`xq (Bmjvgx)
fvi‡Zi m¤úK©Uv wQj m¤¢eZ Av‡iv Mfxi Ges wbweo|

GUv D‡j­L‡hvM¨ †h, cvk¦©eZx© †e․× ivóª wÎcyiv A_ev wn›`y ivR¨ fvi‡Zi
cwie‡Z© AvivKvb ivRv bviv‡gBLjv gymwjg kvwmZ e½ f~wg‡Z Avkªq MÖnY
Ki‡Z AwaK AvMÖnx n‡qwQ‡jb| hvB‡nvK e‡½ Zvi `xN© w`‡bi Ae¯
vb
AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡mi Dci GK AmvaviY cÖfve we¯—vi K‡iwQj|
Ôbviv‡gBLjvÕ †M․i Gi †Kv‡U© MwYZ I cÖvK…wZK weÁv‡bi gv‡S ‣ec­weK
aviYvmg~n wk‡L Zvi ga¨eZ©x eQi¸‡jv KvwU‡q wQ‡jb| Dfq we`¨v
G‡Kk¦iev`x wek¦v‡mi mv‡_ GK n‡q Bmjv‡gi mdjZv‡K K‡iwQj Av‡iv
cwicyó| Gwkqvi mvgš—Zvwš¿K mgvR e¨ve¯
v Gi wei
‡× †Kvb my`~i cÖmvix
cÖwZ‡iva M‡o Zzj‡Z cv‡iwb Ges G wek¦vm Ges Áv‡bi cÖPÊ H‡K¨ kw³i
DÌvb †iv‡a A¶g n‡qwQj|

AvivKv‡b gvMvav †e․ׇ`i AvMgY

( Influx of magadah Buddhists into Arakan) t

Av‡MB D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q †h AvivKv‡b †e․×ev‡`i AvMgY ïi
 n‡qwQj Lªxó
cÖ_g kZvwãi w`‡K| Aóg kZvwã‡Z wn›`y c~bR©vMi‡Yi †bZv ÔksKivPvh©¨Õi
(Sankaracharjya) mg‡q fvi‡Z †e․×iv me‡P‡q †ekx nqivbxi wkKvi
n‡qwQj| gvMvavq (fvi‡Zi cyivb wenvi) i¶Ykxj wn›`y I †e․ׇ`i gvnvqvbv
cÖwZc¶ KZ…K © †e․×iv GZ wbg©gfv‡e wbh©vwZZ n‡qwQj †h wecyj msL¨K
wnbvqvbv †e․× eva¨ n‡q c~e©iv‡R¨ cjvqb K‡iwQj| hviv Zvr¶wYKfv‡e P›`ª
ivRv‡`i Aax‡b AvivKv‡b Avkªq †c‡qwQj| GgbwK Aóg I beg kZvwã‡Z
wZeŸZ weRq Kvjxb mg‡q e½ n‡Z AvMZ †e․× kiYv_x©iv AvivKv‡b Avkªq

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 40


wb‡qwQj, hv‡Z K‡i †mLv‡b Zviv Zv‡`i ag©Uv‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cv‡i| D‡j­L¨
†h, gvMvav Zvi mymg‡q e½‡K Zvi g‡a¨ Aš—f³ y© K‡iwQj| G mKj †e․×
Awfevmxiv ÔgvNÕ bvg aviY K‡i †h‡nZz Zviv gvMvav n‡Z AwfevwmZ n‡q‡Q|
G mg‡q AvivKv‡b wn›`y, †e․× Ges Bmjvg mKj ag© cvkvcvwk we¯—vi jvf
K‡iwQj, wKš‧ GKUv weivU cwigv‡Yi Ab¨ ag©vej¤^x Bmjv‡g `xw¶Z
n‡qwQj|

g‡½vjxq AvµgY

‡h mgq AvivKv‡b wZbwU ag© cvkvcvwk we¯—vi jvf KiwQj, †m mgq `w¶Y
g‡½vjxq‡`i GKwU nvgjv AvivKv‡bi Dci w`‡q e‡q hvq, hv 957 mv‡j P›`ª
ivRes‡ki cwimgvwß NwU‡qwQj| G fv‡e c~e©eZx© wn›`y ivR¨ Ô‡fmvjxÕ
(Vesali) n‡Z wn›`yev` wPiZ‡i wbg~j
© n‡q hvq| G AvµgY ïay P›`ª ivRv‡`i
BwZnvm‡KB ¯—ä K‡i †`qwb eis GKB mg‡q e‡½i cvj ivRv‡`i‡KI
eû`~‡i wb‡q wM‡qwQj| †fmvjx cieZx©‡Z KL‡bv cybi
wÌZ nqwb, wKš‧ ee©i
g‡½vjxqvb‡`i AbycÖ‡e‡ki d‡j e‡½ wn›`yiv Zv‡`i AvwacZ¨ cybivq wd‡i
†c‡qwQj| g‡½vjxqvbiv wQj Amf¨ ev ee©i gvbyl Ges AvivKv‡b wZeŸZxq
egx©q‡`i AvMg‡bi cieZx© cvuP kZvwã wQj GKwU AÜKv‡ii hyM| wKš‧
wewRZ †`‡ki RbM‡Yi mswgwkªZ ms¯‥w… Zi cÖfv‡e nvbv`viiv wkw¶Z n‡q hvq
Ges H `xN© cvuP kZvwãKvj a‡i Zviv Pzovš—fv‡e GLvbKvi Awaevmx‡`i m`„k
n‡q hvq| wn›`yev‡`i Aš—av©b Ges g‡½vjxq I wZeŸZxq-egx©q‡`i GKxf~Z
nIqvi ci †_‡K †KejgvÎ `yÕwU ¯^Zš¿ m¤cÖ`vq †ivwn½v I gvN- GK‡Î
AvivKv‡b kZvwãi ci kZvwã Aewa emevm Ki‡Z _v‡K|

1044 †_‡K 1077 mvj ch©š— Av‡bvivnUvi (Avbi
×v‡`fv) Aax‡b G‡m


AvivKvb †c․ËwjK‡`i Ki` iv‡R¨ cwiYZ nq| AvivKvb DcvL¨vb Abyhvqx
†`kwU †c․ËwjK gZv`k© Qzu‡o †d‡j Ges wb‡Riv cybivq ¯^vaxbZv AR©b K‡i|

41 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


cieZx©‡Z cvwig bMix‡Z GKwU bZzb ivRZ¡ cÖwZwôZ nq| G ivR‡Z¡i lô¨
cÖfvekvjx ivRv MvIwjqv 1133 mv‡j wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnb K‡ib| cieZx©
kZvw㸇jv‡Z GKB GjvKvq A_ev †jg‡iv b`xi wbKUeZx© GjvKvq AmsL¨
ivResk kvmb cwiPvjbv K‡i| hvB †nvK, 1287 mvj ch©š— AvivKvb ivR¨
Kg-‡ekx †c․ËwjK (Pagan) ivRv‡`i Ki` ivR¨ wQj Ges ejv hvq †h GwU
Zvi wb‡Ri ivRv‡`i‡K †g‡b PjZ wKš‧ c¨vMvb ivRv‡`i Avwac‡Z¨i K…ZÁZv
¯^iƒc Zv‡`i cÖwZ kª×vÄwj Ávcb KiZ|

1287 mv‡ji ci †_‡K 1378 mvj ch©š— evwg©R Awaiv‡R¨i †Kvb ARynvZI
wQj bv| H eQi AvivKv‡bi KwZcq †e․× gvN Avfvq hvq Ges †mLv‡b
Zv‡`i Af¨š—ixY welq¸‡jv‡Z n¯—‡¶c Kvgbv K‡i| wKš—y egx©q n¯—‡¶c
¯
vqx nq bvB Ges AvivKvb Zvi wbR¯^ c‡_B P‡j‡Q 1404 mv‡j bviv
†gBLjv AvivKv‡bi ivRv wQ‡jb, whwb js‡MÖU n‡Z kvmb Ki‡Zb| Avev‡iv
Amš‧ó gvN †e․ׇ`i Ab¨ GKwU `j Avfvq hvq Ges n¯—‡¶c Kvgbv K‡i|
m¤¢ve¨ wZbwU KviY MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †h †Kb KwZcq †e․× gvN Avfvq
wM‡qwQj eg©xq‡`i wbKU wb‡R‡`i ¯^vaxbZv-mve©‡f․gZ¡ mgc©Y Ki‡Z| cÖ_g
KviYwU n‡jv wek¦ e¨vcx Bmjv‡gi µgea©gvb cÖfv‡ei d‡j ivRv
bviv‡gBLjvI Bmjvg MÖnY Ki‡Z cv‡i| †m mgq Bmjvg Avwd«Kv n‡Z ïi

K‡i e½ ch©š— RbM‡Yi ü`q‡K Rq Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| Bmjv‡gi G
µgea©gvb cÖfve †Muvov †e․ׇ`i‡K AvivKv‡bi cvnvox GjvKvi eg©xq
†e․ׇ`i Avnevb K‡i wb‡R‡`i ¯^vaxbZv-¯^ve©‡f․gZ¡ wemR©b w`‡Z ¶zä K‡i
Zz‡jwQj| wØZxq KviY n‡jv ivRv bviv‡gBLjv gymwjg e‡½i mv‡_ Ggb Avš—
wiK m¤úK© M‡o Zyj‡Z cv‡i A_ev Zvi gymjgvb cÖRv‡`i cÖwZ Ggb Avš—wiK
AbyMÖn †`Lv‡Z cv‡i hv †e․ׇ`i wbKU Amnbxq n‡q c‡o| Z…Zxq KviYwU
n‡‪Q gymjgvb Ges gvN‡`i g‡a¨ Avš—-mv¤cÖ`vwqK hy‡×i m~ÎcvZ n‡Z cv‡i
Ges †mLv‡b ivRv bviv‡gBLjv gvN‡`i c¶ bvI wb‡Z cv‡ib| G KviY¸‡jv
†e․× m¤cÖ`v‡qi g‡a¨ Am‡š—v‡li KviY n‡q `uvwo‡qwQj, d‡j Zviv egx©q‡`i
Avnev‡bi gva¨‡g ivRv bviv‡gBLjv‡K c`Py¨Z Kivi loh‡š¿ wjß n‡qwQj|
ivRv bviv‡gBLjv ZLb eg©xq‡`i nv‡Z †`kUv‡K Zz‡j w`‡q e‡½ cvwj‡q hvq|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 42


AvivKv‡bi wZeŸZ-eg©xq‡`i `xN© cuvP kZvwãi ag©xq I mvs¯‥…wZK ‡m․nv`¨©
¯
j c‡_ AvivKvb‡K DaŸ©Zb evg©vi mv‡_ mshy³ K‡iwQj| G fv‡eB †e․×iv
AvivKv‡b Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Kg gnvqbxq I †ekx wnbvqvb ag©vej¤^x nq|

43 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Z„Zxq Aa¨vq
AvivKv‡b gymwjg weRq

AvivKv‡bi cÖv_wgK gviK-BD ivRvMY

AvivKv‡bi ¶gZvPz¨Z ivRv bviv‡gBLjv 1404 mv‡j e‡½ cvwj‡q hvb| wZwb
e‡½i Bwjqvm kvnx ivRv‡`i †kªô I me‡P‡q weL¨vZ myjZvb wMqvm DwÏb
Avhg kvn (1390-1411) KZ©K „ mv`‡i M„nxZ nb| †m mgq e‡½i ivRavbx
wQj cv›`yqv (wd‡ivRvev`)| myjZvb wMqvmDwÏb wQ‡jb Bmjvg I Bmjvgx

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 44


wk¶vi gnvb c„ô‡cvlK| myjZvb wMqvmDwχbi g„Zy¨i ci ivRv M‡Yk bv‡gi
GK ivR mfvl` KZ©„K © e‡½i wmsnvmb wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ `Lj n‡q hvq| wZwb
Zvi ag©vš—wiZ cyÎ RvjvjywÏb †gvnv¤§` kvn& KZ…©K wbnZ nb| RvjvjywÏb
cv›`yqv †_‡K †M․‡o e‡½i ivRavbx ¯
vbvš—wiZ K‡ib| GKB agx©q Av‡eM
Abyfw~ Z I Drmvn-DÏxcbv mnKv‡i wZwb cieZ©x `yÕhy‡MiI AwaK mgq a‡i
kvmb cwiPvjbv Kivi ci 1433 mv‡j Bnavg Z¨vM K‡ib| myZivs Zvi G
`xN© 24 eQ‡ii wbe©vmbKvjxb mg‡q AvivKv‡bi ivRviv e‡½i `yÕRb me‡P‡q
†ekx wkw¶Z I avwg©K kvmK Ges weL¨vZ Ava¨vwZ¥K †bZv b~i KzZze Avj‡gi
Mfxi mvwbœ‡a¨ emevm Kivi my‡hvM †c‡qwQj| m~i KzZez Avjg ivRv M‡Y‡ki
kvm‡bi Aemvb NUvb| wZwb mvs¯‥…wZKfv‡e †kªôZi e‡½i myjZv‡bi wbKU
†_‡K A‡bK wKQz wk¶v MÖnY K‡ib| m‡e©vcwi wZwb Bmjvg Ñ hv wQj †m
hy‡Mi Av_©-mvgvwRK I ivR‣bwZK GK AcÖwZ‡iva¨ kw³Ñ m¤ú‡K©I Ávb jvf
K‡ib| G mKj Ávb Zvi gZv`k© I Rxeb e¨e¯
v‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cwieZ©b K‡i
†`q| HwZnvwmK‡`i fvlvq Ò wZwb †e․× ag© gZ †_‡K wd‡i G‡m †gvnv¤§`x
(Bmjvg) I wfb †`kx Rxeb e¨e¯
vi mv‡_ cwiwPZ n‡qwQ‡jb| G¸‡jv Ki‡Z
wM‡q wZwb A¯úó fv‡e Avwef©~Z n‡q‡Qb ga¨hyM n‡Z AvaywbK hy‡M, Kv‡Pi
cÖvmv` DcvL¨v‡bi bvRyK cixi †`k n‡Z nvRvi GK iv‡Zi mej D™¢U
Kíbvg~jK iPbvq| bviv‡gBLjv Bmjvg Keyj K‡ib Ges gymjgvb bvg
†mvjvqgvb kvn& MÖnY K‡ib| AvivKv‡bi DcvL¨vb GwU‡K Ômvgyqvb-G weK…Z
K‡iwQj| AvivKv‡bi ivRv Bmjvg a‡g© `xw¶Z nIqvi ci e‡½i kvmK
RvjvjywÏb †gvnv¤§` kvn Zvi PÆMÖv‡gi †mbvevwnbxi AwabvqK †Rbv‡ij
Iqvjx Lvb‡K cÂvk nvRvi (50,000) •mb¨mn AvivKvb ivR¨ weRq Ges
†mvjvqgvb kvn‡K cybivq wmsnvm‡b ewm‡q †`qvi Rb¨ AvivKv‡b cvwV‡q
†`b|Ó

Iqvjx Lvb eªvþY‡`i‡K Zvwo‡q †`b wKš‧ wb‡RB wek¦vmNvZKZv K‡i e‡mb|
wZwb Ôïqv gvbRxÕ (Shua Mangji) bv‡gi GK hei `LjKvix kvm‡Ki mv‡_
Av‡cvlÑgxgvsmvq Av‡mb Ges wb‡RB kvmb ¶gZv MÖnb K‡ib| †mvjvqgvb
kvn †M․‡o wd‡i Av‡mb| AvivKv‡b G‡m Iqvjx Lvb Zvi †Kv‡U© dvimx fvlvi

45 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


cÖPjb K‡ib Ges KvRx wb‡qvM †`b| Iqvjx Lv‡bi wek¦vmNvZKZvi msev`
ï‡b RvjvjywÏb †gvnv¤§v` kvn †Rbv‡ij mv`xi †bZ…‡Z¡ wØZxq Av‡iKwU †mbv
evwnbx †cÖiY K‡ib| wZwb Iqvjx Lvb‡K P~ovš—fv‡e civ¯— K‡ib Ges
†mvjvqgvb kvn‡K 1430 mv‡j cybivq wmsnvm‡b ewm‡q †`b|

wKQz wKQz HwZnvwmK fyjekZt e‡j _v‡Kb whwb AvivKv‡bi †divix kvmK‡K
cybivq AvivKv‡bi wmsnvm‡b ewm‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb, wZwb n‡jb myjZvb
bvwmi
wÏb kvn ev bvwRi kvn&, whwb wQ‡jb cybtcÖwZwôZ Bwjqvm kvnx
ivRes‡ki cÖ_g myjZvb wKš‧ bvwmi
wÏb †gvnv¤§` kvn 1426 mvj ch©š—
kvmKB nb wb|

‡h‡nZz c`K m¤^Üxq cÖgvYvw` cÖ¯—ve K‡i †h, RvjvjyÏxb ‡gvnv¤§v` kvn& †m
mgq e‡½i kvmb-KZ…‡© Z¡ wQ‡jb †m‡nZz AviKv‡b Zvi kvmK‡`i nv‡Z kvmb
fvi wdwi‡q †`qvi K…wZZ¡ Zvi DciB eZ©vq|

‡mvjvqgvb kvn Zuvi ivRavbx gviK-BD (Mrauk-u) n‡Z cvUvix †Kvjv


(Pattahri Quilla) bvgK GK bZzb ¯
v‡b ¯
vbvš—wiZ K‡iwQ‡jb 1433
mv‡j| Gi GK eQi c‡iB wZwb ci‡jvKMgY K‡ib| GLv‡b D‡j­L‡hvM¨ †h
bMixwUi AwZ wbK‡U myjZvb †mvjvqgvb kv‡ni Avg‡ji GKUv gy`ªv cvIqv
†M‡Q| AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m GwU GKwU Abb¨ `jxj| 1203 mv‡j hLb
gymjgvbiv e‡½ cÖ‡ek Kij, ZLb †mLv‡b Zviv †Lv`vB Kiv ai‡bi gy`ªvi
cÖPjb Kij| Gi d‡j ivDK-D bMix‡ZI GKB AvK…wZi gy`ªvi cÖPjb ïi

n‡jv| Gfv‡e AvivKvb P~ovš— gymjgvb iv‡R¨ iƒcvš—wiZ n‡jv| †iu‡bmvi
cÖfv‡e †`kwU GK AvaywbK mf¨Zvi mv‡_ mshy³ n‡jv| Avi Gfv‡eB †`kwUi
gnv hyM ïi
 n‡jv|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 46


1430 †_‡K 1530 mvj ch©š— GKkZ eQi a‡i 11 Rb kvmK ch©vqµ‡g
AvivKv‡b kvmb cwiPvjbv K‡ib| ZLb †_‡KB e‡½i mv‡_ AvivKv‡bi
m¤úK© wQj Avš—wiK I †m․nv`¨©c~Y©| AvivKvb e½‡K kª×vÄwj cÖ`vb KiZ
Ges e‡½i KvQ †_‡K BwZnvm I ivRbxwZi `x¶v wbZ| 1531 mv‡j ÔwgbexbÕ
RveyK kvn& wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| Zuvi mnvqZvq AvivKvbxiv Bmjvgx
wk¶vq wWMÖx AR©b K‡ib Ges Bmjvgx iv‡óªi †MvovcËb nq|

1430 mvj †_‡K †h 11 Rb ivRv AvivKvb kvmb K‡i‡Qb Zv‡`i Dcvwamn


avivevwnK bvg D‡j­L Kiv n‡jv|

µwgK bs bvg cvjx Dcvwa


kvmbKvj

1. †mvjvqgvb kvn& (bviv‡gBLjv)


1430-1434

2. Avjx Lvb (†gsLvix)


1434-1459

3. Kvwjgv kvn& (ev k cy)


1459-1482

4. gv_y kvn& (†`․jv)


1482-1492

5. ‡gvnv¤§v` kvn& (ev k †bv)


1492-1493

47 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


6. ‡bvix kvn& (ivs AvDs)
1493-1494

7. ‡kL †gv`yj­vn kvn& (mvwjsMv_y)


1494-1501

8. Bwj kvn& (†gs ivRv)


1501-1523

9. Bwjqvm kvn& (KvQvev`x)


1523-1525

10. Rvjvj kvn& (†gskv I)


1525

11. Avjx kvn& (_vUvmv)


1525-1531

GK kZvwã a‡i AvivKv‡bi DËivÂj eZ©gvb evsjv‡`k-evg©vi g‡a¨ mxgveä


wQj| PÆMÖvg †Rjv m‡›`nvZxZ fv‡eB 1540 mvj ch©š— e‡½i myjZvb‡`i
kvmbvaxb wQj| AvivKvbxq DcvL¨vb g‡Z, †gsm †g․b Gi DËim~ix †gL Lvix
ev Avjx Lvb (1433-1459) `xN© mgq e‡½i kvmb I ¶gZv n¯—vš—i K‡ib
bvB Ges hZ`~i m¤¢e wZwb ÔivgyÕ‡KI Zvi Aax‡b G‡bwQ‡jb Ges m¨vi G wc
dvqix (A. P. Phayre) Õi m cÖ
 ev Kvwjgv Lvb PÆMÖvgmn e‡½i GKwU weivU
Ask Zvi AwaKv‡i wb‡qwQ‡jb †h․w³K †Kvb KviY QvovB|

dvqix wj‡L‡Qb- ÒcieZx© Aa©kZvwã a‡i e½ kvmK‡`i `ye©jZvi Kvi‡YB


Zviv PÆMÖvg `Lj K‡i wb‡qwQj|Ó wKš‧ †m mg‡q msNwUZ NUbvejx, AvivKvb
DcvL¨v‡bi e³e¨ ÔdvqvixÕi cÖ¯—vebv‡K mZ¨vqb K‡i bv| 1434 mvj †_‡K
1459 mvj ch©š— e½ mvjZvbvZ Avev‡iv Bwjqvm kvnx es‡ki ivRv myjZvb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 48


bvwmi
wÏb gvngy` KZ…K © kvwmZ nq| Bwjqvm kvnxi kvmbvg‡j AvivKv‡bi
ivRv Ôbviv‡gBLjvÕ (Narameikhla) cjvqb K‡i e‡½ Avkªq MÖnY K‡i|
myjZvb bvwmi
wÏb gvngy` GKRb cÖfvekvjx kvmK wQ‡jb| Zvi ¯
vcZ¨
Kjv, gy`ªvq Qvcvw¼Z †Lv`vB Kg© me wKQz †_‡K Rvbv hvq †h Zvi kvmbvg‡ji
e½ mvjZvbv‡Zi GKUz GjvKvI n«vm cvqwb eis AZ¨š— `¶Zvi mv‡_ mg¯—
e‡½i Dci Zvi wePvi Kvh© cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv| wKš‧ wZwb G mKj Kvh©
cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ †Kvb †mbv Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡ib wb| myZivs †gs Lvix
KZ…K© e‡½i Ask `Lj msµvš— AvivKvb DcvL¨v‡bi †h e³e¨ Zv‡Z GLb
HwZnvwmK cÖgv‡Yi NvUwZ cwijw¶Z nq|

1459 mvj †_‡K 1475 mvj ch©š— myjZvb bvwmi
wÏb gvngy‡`i cyÎ
†ivKbywÏb evievK kvn e½ kvmb K‡ib| cÖviw¤¢K cÖgvY mywbwðZ K‡i e‡j
†h, 1474 mv‡j PÆMÖvg e½ myjZvb‡`i K‡Vvi kvmbvaxb wQj Ges GwU
†ivKbywÏb evievK kv‡ni cyÎ I DËevwaKvix myjZvb mvgmywÏb BDmyd kvnÕi
kvmbvgj ch©š— †M․o `Lj `vix‡Z¡i Aax‡b wQj| PÆMÖv‡gi AwZ wbK‡U
nvUnvRvixi GKwU gmwR‡`i dj‡Ki †jLv n‡Z Rvbv hvq †h gmwR`wU
myjZvb †ivKbywÏb evievK kv‡ni kvmbvg‡j 1474 mv‡j ivmwZ Lvb KZ…K ©
wbwg©Z n‡qwQj|

AvivKvb DcvL¨vb A_ev Ab¨‡Kvb m~‡Îi †KvbUvB myjZvb evievK kvn& Ges
AvivKv‡bi ivRv evmy cÖ
 (Kvwjg kvn) g‡a¨ •eix Pzw³ ev m¤ú‡K©i cÖgvY w`‡Z
cv‡i bv| myjZvb evievK kvn wQ‡jb e‡½i cÖv_wgK ¯^vaxb myjZvb‡`i g‡a¨
Ab¨Zg gnvb weRqx GKRb kvmK| eûgyLx cÖwZfvi AwaKvix kw³kvjx G
kvmK Zvi c~e©eZx© kvmK‡`i AwR©Z GjvKvmg~‡ni Dci c~Y©gvÎvq AvwacZ¨
we¯—vi K‡i †i‡LwQ‡jb| 1476 mv‡j myjZvb evievK kv‡ni kvmbvgj mgvß
nq, Gici Zvi cyÎ I DËivwaKvix myjZvb kvgmywÏb BDmyd kvn 1474
†_‡K 1481 mvj ch©š— kvmbKvh© cwiPvjbv K‡ib|

49 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


PÆMÖv‡gi Dci Zvi wbqš¿‡Yi cÖgvY †g‡j Zvi kvmbvg‡j wbwg©Z GKwU
gmwR‡`i †`qv‡j †Lv`vB Kiv cÖ¯—i djK †_‡K| ivmwZ Lv‡bi gmwR` †_‡K
cÖvq `yÕ gvBj Dˇi gmwR`wU Aew¯
Z| Ggb †Kvb Bw½Z cvIqv hvqbv †h,
1482 mvj †_‡K 1494 mvj ch©š— AvivKvb ivRv‡`i †KD KLbI e‡½ nvbv
w`‡qwQj, †h‡nZy Zviv Zv‡`i c~e©m~ix‡`i †P‡q Zzjbvg~jK fv‡e `~ej
© kvmK
wQj| 1493 mv‡j myjZvb †nvmvBb kvn e‡½i wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib|
1513 mv‡ji c~‡e© PÆMÖvg †Rjv cy‡ivcywifv‡e myjZvb ûmvBb kv‡ni Aax‡b
wQj| wZwb ivRv avwYqv gvwbKv Zvi wbKU n‡Z PÆMÖvg Rei `Lj
K‡iwQ‡jb| wKš‧ myjZvb ûmvBb kvn PÆMÖvg‡K cybivq `Lj Kivi Rb¨
1514 mv‡j eviRb ev½vjx I Acivci •mb¨‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ GKwU
kw³kvjx evwnbx †cÖiY K‡ib| cieZx© eQi 1515 mv‡j myjZvb ûmvBb kvn
KZ©K„ PÆMÖvg cyb`©Lj nq| myjZvb ûmvBb kvn& KZ©K „ PÆMÖvg `Lj msµvš—
mywbwðZ cÖgvYvw` Avgiv cvB mgmvgwqK Kv‡ji cZz©MxR HwZnvwmK‡`i wbKU
n‡Z| †RvqvI †Qvj †nv (Joao Coelho) Ges †RvqI wmj‡fwiqvi PÆMÖvg
md‡ii mgq †mLvbKvi Mfb©i wQ‡jb GKRb gymjgvb| ZrKvjxb
AvivKvbxq HwZnvwmK w` e¨v‡ivm (De Barros) my¯úófv‡e wj‡L‡Qb †h †m
mgq (1517-18) AvivKv‡bi ivRv wQ‡jv e‡½i ivRvi wbqš¿Yvaxb| w`
e¨v‡ivm KZ…©K AswKZ GKwU gvbwP‡Î PÆMÖvg, cve©Z¨ PÆMÖvg Ges DËi
AvivKvb wb‡q MwVZ GKwU we¯—i GjvKv‡K e½ iv‡R¨i Ask wn‡m‡e †`Lv‡bv
n‡q‡Q| 1517 mvj †_‡K 1538 mvj ch©š— PÆMÖvg c~Yv©½fv‡e †M․‡oi
wbqš¿Yvax‡b wQ‡jv| cviZc‡¶, PÆMÖv‡gi ûmvBb kvnx kvmKiv mviv †Rjvi
Dci Zv‡`i AvwacZ¨ GZ Mfxi fv‡e cÖwZwôZ K‡iwQ‡jv †h AvivKvbx A_ev
wÎcyiv‡`i Rb¨ e½ mvjZvbvZ GgbwK †Rjvi GKwU As‡ki DciI cÖfve
we¯—vi Kiv cÖvq Am¤¢eB wQ‡jv|

HwZnvwmK dvqixi (Phayre) Gi cÖ¯—vebv Abyhvqx 1482 mvj †_‡K 1532


mvj ch©š— PÆMÖvg AvivKvb ivRv‡`i Aax‡b wQj G e³e¨Uv HwZnvwmK m‡Z¨i

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 50


Dci cÖwZwôZ bq| GUv fve‡Z A‡h․w³K g‡b nq †h, AvivKv‡bi ivRv‡`i
DwPZ Zv‡`i wnZvKvs¶x‡`i wei
‡× we‡`ªvn Kiv| Zv‡`i mg_©b Qvov
AvivKvbxiv Zv‡`i †`k cybi
×v‡ii ¯^cœ KL‡bvB †`‡L wb| c~e© Ges `w¶Y
AvivKv‡bi ZLbKvi weivRgvb cwiw¯
wZ Ggb wQj †h, †mLvb †_‡K eg©xq I
†gvbiv m¤cÖwZ weZvwiZ n‡qwQj|

†ReyK kvn (1531-1553)t

†ReyK kvn& (wgb web) AvivKvb BwZnv‡m GKRb kw³ai kvmK wQ‡jb| wZwb
1531 mv‡j wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib Ges ÔAvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨iÕ †Mvov cËb
K‡ib| B‡Zvg‡a¨ AvivKvbxiv Zv‡`i Bmjvgx wk¶vq D‪P wWMÖx wb‡q
ivR‣bwZKfv‡e cwic° nq| `yÕwU weivU NUbv hv †ReyK kvn‡K Zvi ivRZ¡
m~`„p I m¤cÖmvwiZ Kivi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq DcvË I my‡hvM G‡b w`‡qwQ‡jv|
weL¨vZ †m `y‡Uv NUbv n‡jv cZ©yMxR‡`i AvMgb Ges e‡½ N‡U hvIqv M„n
hy×| †ReyK kv‡ni ¶gvZv‡ivn‡bi 14 eQi c~‡e©B cZ©yMxRiv (1517 mv‡j)
AvivKvb e›`‡i cÖ‡ek K‡iwQ‡jv| †ReyK kvn gvi
K-BD bMix‡K DcmvMixq
GKwU kw³kvjx I myiw¶Z bMix‡Z iƒcvš—wiZ K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb Gi Pvicv‡k
cwiLv I †`qvj wbg©vY K‡iwQ‡jb Ges gv‡S gv‡S Kvgvb ¯
vcb K‡i GwU‡K
myiw¶Z K‡iwQ‡jb| †`kx I we‡`kx •mb¨‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ GK`j mymw¾Z
†eZb‡fvMx eûRvwZK •mb¨evwnbx •Zwi Kivi Rb¨ wZwb †mLv‡b †mbv
Kg©KZ©v‡`i wb‡qvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb Zv‡`i mnvqZvq Zvi wb‡Ri †jvKej
Øviv GKwU weivU †b․eni •Zwi K‡iwQ‡jb| hviv wQj cwikªgx bvweK Ges
cZ©yMxR †b․evwnbxi `x¶vq mymw¾Z| Gfv‡e †ReyK kvn kw³kvjx AvaywbK
A¯¿-k‡¯¿i wbqš¿K nb| wØZxq my‡hvMwU wQ‡jv AvivKv‡b M„n hy×| 1538
mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m AvdMvbx kvmK †ki kvn& wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ †M․o `Lj
K‡ib| wKš‧ GKB eQ‡ii RyjvB gv‡m ev`kvn ûgvq‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ †gvNjiv
†M․‡o cÖ‡ek K‡i Ges AvdMvbiv ZLb wenv‡i wd‡i hvq| `w¶Y c~e© e‡½i

51 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


ivRavbx PÆMÖvg ZLb `yBwU cÖwZØ›Øx kvm‡Ki g‡a¨ ms‡hvM ¯
vcbKvix ¯
vb
wn‡m‡e KvR K‡i| wee`gvb G `yBRb kvmK n‡jb ûmvBb kvnx ivR‡Z¡i
†kl kvmK gvngy` kvn& Ges †kikv‡ni †Rbv‡ij I ûgvqy‡bi g‡bvbxZ kvmK
†bvMvwRj| cÖwZØ›Øx `j `yÕwU cÖwZi¶v e¨e¯
vnxb `w¶Y-c~e© e½‡K `Lj Kivi
Rb¨ ci¯úi hy× KiZ|

1538 mv‡ji ivR‣bwZK cU cwieZ©b e‡½i cÖwZ AvivKvb ivRv‡`i AvbyMZ¨


I eÜz‡Z¡i cwimgvwß NUvq| Zviv hei `LjKvix ‡kikvn& I †gvNj
m¤cÖmviYev`x‡`i cÖwZ †Kvb •bwZK AvbyMZ¨ I Av‡cvl g‡bvfve †cvlY
K‡iwb| gyjZt Zviv Zv‡`i ïfvKvw‫‫‬L wQ‡jv bv| PÆMÖvg `L‡ji Rb¨ Aš—
‡K©v›`‡j wjß wewfbœ `j¸‡jvi `yej
© Zvi my‡hv‡M AvivKvbx ivRv †ReyK kvn
DËiv‡ji w`‡K avweZ nb Ges 1540 mv‡j PÆMÖvgmn c~e©e½ `Lj K‡ib|

‡ReyK kvn KZ…K© PÆMÖvg `L‡ji ci PÆMÖv‡gi cvVvb MfY©i wÎcyiv `iev‡i
cvwj‡q hvq| ivRgvjv (Rajmala) Avgv‡`i‡K G Z_¨ †`q †h, PÆMÖv‡gi
cvVvb cÖavb Zvi mnmªvwaK •mb¨ wb‡q wÎcyivq Avkªq MÖnY K‡ib| †divix G
cvVvb cÖavb AvivKvb‡`i nvZ †_‡K PÆMÖvg‡K Rq Kivi Rb¨ wÎcyivi ivRv
weRqgvwbKvi n¯—‡¶c Kvgbv K‡i Ges Zv gÄyi nq|

1546 mv‡j evg©vi Uzs¸ ivRes‡ki ivRv Zvweb k‡fwZ (Tabin Shwehti)
VvÊv AvenvIqvi g‡a¨ AvivKvb AvµgY K‡ib| Zvweb k‡fwZi A‡bK¸‡jv
hy×Zix cwðg DcK~‡j aŸsmcÖvß n‡qwQj| hvB †nvK, Zvi mKj ¯
j evwnbx
†c․Qv‡jv, wKš‧ †ivnvs (ivDK BD) bMixwU wQj LyeB myiw¶Z, Gi Pvicv‡k
†Rvqvi-fvUvi cvwb‡Z fwZ© Mfxi cwiLv wQj| Ges Zv `L‡ji GKgvÎ my‡hvM
wQj Zvi cÖvPxi¸‡jvi Ae¯
v wQj RxY©`kv| †ReyK kvn& Zvi mwVK Ae¯
vb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 52


†_‡KB Zvi cÖwZi¶vi e¨e¯
v wb‡qwQ‡jb| †ivnvs `L‡j e¨_© n‡q Zvweb
k‡fwZ (Tabin Shwehti) evox wd‡i hvq|

‡ReyK kvn& hLb nvbv`vi evg©v ivRvi mv‡_ Gfv‡e wjß wQ‡jb, ZLb 1546-
1547 mv‡j wÎcyiv ivRv weRq gvwYKv PÆMÖv‡g nvbv †`q Ges Zv `Lj K‡i|
ivRvgvjv (Rajmala) D‡j­L K‡i †h, ivRv wb‡RB Awfhv‡b `yÕnvRvi •m‡b¨i
†bZ…Z¡ †`b| PÆMÖv‡gi wbe©vwmZ cvVvb cÖavb Zvi GK nvRvi cvVvb •mb¨ I
†Nvovi Mvox (K¨v‡iR) mn wÎcyiv †mbvcÖav‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ AMÖmigvb
†mbvevwnbxi AbymiY K‡i| mw¤§wjZ Awfhvb mdj nj Ges cvVvb cÖavb
cybivq Zvi Ae¯
vb wd‡i †cj|

AvivKvb DcvL¨vb¸‡jv eY©bv K‡i †h †ReyK kvn& Zvi nviv‡bv Ae¯
vb ïay
cybi
×viB K‡ib wb eis 1553 mv‡j Zvi g„Z¨ ch©š— Zv A¶zYœ Ae¯
vq a‡i
†i‡LwQ‡jb| wKš‧ AvivKvb DcvL¨v‡bi G fvl¨ wVK bq e‡j g‡b n‡‪Q †h‡nZz
G `vex mZ¨vq‡bi Rb¨ wÎcyiv DcvL¨vb A_ev e½ BwZnv‡m mnvqK †Kvb
`wjj ev cÖgvY †bB| cÖK…Z c‡¶, 1546 mvj †_‡K PÆMÖvg cvVvb MfY©‡ii
Aax‡bB wQj| cieZx©‡Z Zv Avev‡iv ¶wY‡Ki Rb¨ wÎcyiv kvmbvax‡b hvq|
wKš‧ e‡½i MfY©i †gvnv¤§` Lvb myi ivRKxq kvgm Avj Øxb Avey Avj
†gvRvd&di †gvnv¤§v`Õ Dcvax aviY K‡i PÆMÖv‡gi ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv
w`‡qwQ‡jb| Ges wZwb I cvVv‡bi ¶gZvPz¨Z Mfb©i †h․_ fv‡e wÎcyiv‡`i
wbqš¿Y n‡Z PÆMÖvg cyb`©Lj K‡ib 1554 mv‡j|

‡ReyK kvn& hw`I GKRb gymjgvb ag©vej¤^x wQ‡jb, ZeyI wZwb iKgvwi
Dcv`vb‡K GKwU wbw`©ó AvK…wZ‡Z iƒc`vb Ki‡Z cvi‡Zb| AvivKvb‡K wZwb
mvjZvbv‡Z iƒcvš—i K‡iwQ‡jb| †M․o I w`j­xi gZ K‡i wZwb Zvi `ievi
mvwR‡q wQ‡jb| Zvi `iev‡i wQj- bcyskK, A›`ignj, µxZ`vm Ges
Rj­v`| †mLv‡b ag©, wPš—v-‡PZbv, ms¯‥w… Zmn mKj †g․wjK AwaKv‡ii c~Y©v½
¯^vaxbZv wQj| †ReyK kvn& gvi
K-BD (Marak-u) bMix‡K gmwR`, c¨v‡MvWv

53 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Ges ¯§„wZ †m․a Øviv mymw¾Z K‡iwQ‡jb| ‡m¸‡jv bv wQj B‡›`v-Bmjvgx,
Avi bv wQj fviZxq| †m¸‡jv wQ‡jv GKwU wbw`©ó AvK…wZi hv gymwjg e½xq
hy‡Mi Òev½vjx gymwjg ¯
vcZ¨Ó wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ wQj| †ReyK kvn& 1553 mv‡j
g„Zy¨eiY K‡ib| Zvi g„Zy¨i ci w`°v (Dikka) bvgK GK mvaviY †jv‡Ki
Ackvm‡bi ga¨ w`‡q gvÎ `yÕeQi ci Zvi ivR‡Z¡i Aemvb N‡U| Rei
`LjKvix e¨w³‡K g‡b nq GKRb †e․× gN, †h‡nZz †m †Kvb gymjgvb bvg
aviY K‡iwb|

e½ myjZvb KZ…©K AvivKv‡bi wØZxq weRq

evsjvi myjZvb kvgmywÏb Avey †gvRvd&di †gvnv¤§v` kvn 1554 mv‡j PÆMÖvg
weR‡qi ci Zvi †mbv Kg©KZ©v‡`i GKB eQ‡i AvivKv‡bi `w¶Y A‡j
cybivq AMÖmi nIqvi Rb¨ wb‡`©k ‡`b| ivRvi wb‡`©‡ki AvbyMZ¨ ¯^iƒc †mbv
Kg©KZ©viv AvivKv‡b weRq wbkvb e‡q wb‡q Av‡mb Ges AvivKvb ivRv‡`i‡K
evsjvi myjZv‡bi wbKU Zvi ek¨Zv ¯^xKvi Ki‡Z eva¨ K‡ib| AvivKv‡bi
Dci weRq ¯§„wZ‡K wPi ¯§iYxq K‡i ivL‡Z kvgmywÏb Avey †gvRvd&di
†gvnv¤§v` kvn& 962 wnRix‡Z (1554-1555) AvivKv‡b AwZ AvKl©Yxq avZe
gy`ªv cÖPj‡bi wb‡`©k †`b| wZwb GKRb cvVvb MfY©i‡K AvivKv‡b wb‡qvM
w`‡qwQ‡jb wKbv, A_iv wZwb AvivKvbxq miKv‡i ¸i
Z¡c~Y© i`e`j G‡bwQ‡jb
wKbv, A_ev AvivKvb ivRv GKRb AbyMZ `vm wn‡m‡e Zvi ek¨Zv ¯^xKvi
Kivq wZwb mvaviYfv‡e cwiZzó n‡qwQ‡jb wKbv Zv Rvbv hvq bv|
we¯§qKifv‡e myjZvb †gvnv¤§v` kvn KZ…K© AvivKvb weR‡qi NUbv AvivKvb
DcvL¨v‡b m¤ú~Y©fv‡e D‡c¶v Kiv n‡q‡Q|

myjZvb †gvnv¤§v` kv‡ni DËim~ix wMqvmywÏb evnv`yi kvn& (1555-60) Zvi


wbR bv‡gB AvivKv‡b avZe gy`ªvi cÖPjb K‡ib| GUv cÖgvY K‡i †h, AvivKvb
1560 mvj ch©š— ev½vjx myjZvb‡`i K‡Vvi wbqš¿‡Y wQj| AvivKvb DcvL¨vb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 54


Abyhvqx Av‡iv `yÕRb ivRv- m njv (Saw Hla) (1555-1556) Ges wgb
†m‡K (Min Sekkya) (1564-1571) AvivKv‡bi wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib|
g‡b nq Zviv wQ‡jb mvaviY †e․× gM, †h‡nZz Zviv †Kvb gymjgvb bvg aviY
K‡ib wb| hw` AvivKvb DcvL¨v‡bi fvl¨ mZ¨ nq Zvn‡j ivRv m njv (Saw
Hla) Ges wgb †m‡K (Min Sekkya) DfqB Aek¨B evsjvi myjZv‡bi
AbyMZ ivRv n‡q _vK‡eb| wKš‧ evnv`yi kv‡ni g„Zy¨i ci cvVvb kvmKMY
AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i kvmb ¶gZv KZw`b a‡i ivL‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb Zv GLbI
A¯úó i‡q †M‡Q|

wmKv›`vi kvn (1571-1593)

`yÕ hy‡Mi AwaK mgq a‡i Rei `LjKvixMY KZ©„K Ackvm‡bi Ae¨vnwZi
ci, †ReyK kv‡ni †hvM¨ cyÎ myjZvb wmKv›`vi kvn& (wgb cvjvs) 1571 mv‡j
wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| ‡m mgq DËi AvivKv‡bi mxgvš—eZx© PÆMÖvg †Rjv
cvVvb‡`i Aax‡b wQj Ges †mLv‡b Zv‡`i KZ…©Z¡ 1580 mvj ch©š— ¯
vwqZ¡
wQj| H eQi wÎcyivi ivRv Agi gvwbKv (Amar Manikya) cvVvb i¶x
†mbv‡`i‡K PÆMÖv‡g civf~Z K‡ib Ges c‡i PÆMÖvg `Lj K‡ib| †m mg‡qi
ci †_‡KB PÆMÖvg wÎcyiv ivRv I wmKv›`vi kv‡ni g‡a¨ ms‡hvM ¯
vc‡bi †K›`ª
we›`y‡Z cwiYZ nq| wmKv›`vi kvn 1582 mv‡ji w`‡K P~ovš—fv‡e PÆMÖvg Rq
K‡ib | H eQ‡ii c~‡e© AvivKvb ivRvi c‡¶ PÆMÖvg `Lj Kiv m¤¢eci wQj
bv, KviY Zv‡K ZLb evg©vi ivRv evBb bvDs (Bayin Naung) Gi mKj AvMÖvmx
†K․k‡ji wei
‡× cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z n‡Zv| ivRv evBb bvDs wQ‡jb ivRv Zvweb
k‡fwU (Tabin Shwehti) Gi DËim~ix, whwb B‡Zvc~‡e© AvivKvb `Lj
Ki‡Z wM‡q e¨_© n‡qwQ‡jb| ivRv evBb bvDs hLb AvivKvb `L‡ji D‡Ï‡k¨
Awfhvb †cÖiY KiwQ‡jb, wVK †m mgq Zvi AcÖZ¨vwkZ g„Zz¨ c~e© AvivKv‡bi

55 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


ivRv‡K AwaK gvÎvq ¯^w¯— w`‡qwQj Ges Zvi kw³‡K PÆMÖv‡gi w`‡K Nywi‡q
w`‡Z Zv‡K m¶g K‡i Zz‡jwQj| Zvici AvivKvb wÎcyiv‡`i AwaKv‡i P‡j
hvq| f~-LÊ m¤úwK©Z D‪Pwfjvm e¨ZxZ wee`gvb `yÕwU kvmK‡Mvôxi g‡a¨
•eix m¤úK© weivR Kivi Av‡iv GKwU KviY wQj| Zvn‡jv wÎcyivi ivRv
AvivKv‡bi ivgy I QvKvwiqv cÖ‡`‡ki MfY©i Av`g kvn‡K Avkªq w`‡qwQj|
Gi cwiYv‡g †m AvivKvb ivRvi †ivlvb‡j coj Ges kvw¯— n‡Z wb¯—vi
cvIqvi Rb¨ Zvi wba©vwiZ GjvKv †_‡K †m cvwj‡q †Mj| wmKv›`vi kvn ïay
PÆMÖvg `LjB K‡ib wb eis wZwb Zv‡`i ivRavbxi kvmb fvi bv cvIqv ch©š—
cjvqbiZ wÎcyiv‡`i cðv×veY K‡i‡Qb Lye †Rv‡i †mv‡i| G hy‡×i me‡P‡q
Zvrch©c~Y© djvdj wQj †h GwU PÆMÖv‡gi Dci AvwacZ¨ we¯—vi‡K †K›`ª K‡i
AvivKvbx I wÎcyiv‡`i g‡a¨ `xN©¯
vqx cÖwZØw›ØZvi m~ÎcvZ NwU‡qwQj |
AvivKvbxiv cve©Z¨ AÂjmn mg¯— PÆMÖv‡gi KZ…Z © ¡ AR©b K‡iwQj Ges cÖvq
GKkZ eQi Zviv Zv‡`i KZ…Z © ¡ a‡i †i‡LwQj, c¶vš—‡i wÎcyiviv ¯
vqxfv‡e
PÆMÖv‡gi KZ…Z
© ¡ nvwi‡qwQj|

PÆMÖvg Zv‡`i `L‡j Avmvi ci AvivKvbxiv GLb †gvNj‡`i‡K mivmwi


mZK©evYx ïwb‡q †`qvi K_v fve‡Q, †h‡nZz †gvNj mgªvU fve‡Q †h, PÆMÖvg
_vK‡e Zvi AvBbMZ AwaKv‡i| weivRgvb ivR‣bwZK NUbvmg~‡ni Av‡jv‡K
wmKv›`vi kvn‡K cZ©yMxR‡`i mnvqZv jv‡fi D‡Ï‡k¨ Zv‡`i cÖwZ bgbxq fve
cÖKvk K‡ib| wZwb cZ©yMxR‡`i‡K Zvi iv‡R¨i mv‡_ e¨emv cwiPvjbv Kivi
Rb¨ AevwiZ my‡hvM myweav w`‡qwQ‡jb, wKš‧ cieZx©‡Z AvivKvb miKv‡ii
AhvwPZ n¯—‡¶c I A‡m․Rb¨g~jK AvPi‡Yi Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i ga¨Kvi we`¨gvb
m¤ú‡K©i Uvbv †cvob †`Lv †`q| cZz©MxR nZ¨vKvix R‣bK G¨vb‡UvwbI †`
mDRv †Mvw`bnv (Anto de souza Godinha) AvivKvb ivRvi wei
‡× A¯¿
a‡ib Ges †Rvi c~e©K PÆMÖvg `~M© `Lj K‡ib 1590 mv‡ji w`‡K| wKš‧
cieZx©‡Z welqwU Av‡cvl gxgvsmvi gva¨‡g mgvavb n‡q hvq|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 56


†mwjg kvn (1593-1612)

wmKv›`vi kv‡ni ci Zvi cyÎ †mwjg kvn (wgb ivRv MvB) 1593 mv‡j
wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib| Zvi kvmbvg‡j AvivKvb Zvi †kªô‡Z¡i Pzovš—
wkL‡i Av‡ivnY K‡iwQj, Zvi kvmbvg‡j Aí wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ AvivKvb
mvgªvR¨ XvKv Ges my›`ieb †_‡K ïi
 K‡i †g․jwgqvb ch©š— e„w× †c‡qwQj|
ewa©Z AÂj wQj nvRvi gvBj •`‡N©iI 153 †_‡K 20 gvBj Mfxi ch©š— we¯—
xY© DcK~jxq GjvKv| †mwjg kvn KZ…K © G wekvj ivR¨ cÖwZôv Kiv m¤¢e
n‡qwQj K‡Vvi wek¦Rbxb †mbvevwnbx I †b․evwnbxi Kg©`¶Zvi d‡j, †h
evwnbx cÖv_wgKfv‡e myjZvb †ReyK kvn MVb K‡i wM‡qwQj| Ges evwYR¨
AwaKvi wdwi‡q †`qvi gva¨‡g Zvi †mbvevwnbxi evB‡i cZz©MxR‡`i‡KI Zvi
c‡¶ hy× Ki‡Z Drmvn cÖ`vb Kiv KiwQj| wKš‧ cZ©yMxRiv Zv‡`i e¨w³¯^v_©
PwiZv_© Kivi Rb¨B hy‡× †ei n‡qwQj| hLbB Zv‡`i AvbyMZ¨ cix¶vi
m¤§yLxb n‡q‡Q, ZLbB Zviv cÖZviYvi cÖgvY w`‡q‡Q|

Zviv wQj g~jZt `yÕavi Z‡jvqv‡ii gZ| Gfv‡e hLb †ivnvs-G †K›`ªxq
miKvi kw³kvjx wQj ZLbB †Kej cZz©MxR‡`i‡K kvm‡bi g‡a¨ Ave× K‡i
ivLv †hZ| †mwjg kv‡ni kvmbvgjB AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m cÖ_g Ges GKgvÎ
kvmbKvj hLb AvivKvbxiv eg©xq‡`i‡K ïay weZvwoZB K‡ib wb, eis Zv‡`i
ivR¨‡K AvivKv‡bi Aš—f³
©~ K‡i‡Qb|

evBb bvDs Gi g„Zz¨i ci AvivKv‡bi c~ev©Â‡j eg©xq‡`i ûgwK n«vm cvq| Zvi
cyÎ bv›`v evBb (1581-1599) AvivKv‡bi wei
‡× Awfhvb cyb Avnevb
Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡qwQ‡jb, †h‡nZz N‡i N‡i we‡`ªvn ïi
 n‡qwQj| cieZx©‡Z

57 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


ivRvi cÖ_g PvPv‡Zv fvB Us¸ (Toungoo) Gi ivRcyÎ evg©vq GKwU mw¤§wjZ
AvµgY Ges jyɇbi AvnŸvb Rvwb‡q AvivKvb ivRvi wbKU GKwU cÎ
wj‡LwQj| AvivKvbxqiv GKwU evwnbx cvwV‡qwQj hv wmwiqvg `Lj K‡iwQj
Ges Zviv Uys¸‡`i mnvqZvq 1599 mv‡j †c¸ wN‡i wb‡qwQj| bMievmx Ges
Kg©KZ©v-Kg©Pvix mevB cvwj‡q wM‡qwQj| ivRv Ges Zvi wek¦¯— cyÎ fv‡jv
AvPi‡Yi cÖwZÁvq AvZœmgcY© K‡iwQj, wKš‧ Zv‡`i‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡qwQj|
Rei `L‡ji gva¨‡g cÖvß wmwiqvg I †g․jwgqvb Zvi `xN© DcK~j mxgvbvi
mv‡_ mshy³ Kiv n‡qwQj| G Awfhvb mdj n‡qwQj †mwjg kv‡ni DrK…ó
†b․evwnbx Ges Zvi cZz©MxR cÖRv‡`i ¯^Ztù~Z© Ask MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g| G
jyɇbi gva¨‡g bv›`v evBbÕi Kb¨v I GKwU mv`v nvZx wQwb‡q Avbv n‡qwQj|
mdj †c¸ Awfhv‡bi ci, AvivKvb ivRv KZ…K © wdwjc `¨ weª‡Uv bv‡gi GK
cZy©MxR •mwbK‡K mvBwiqv‡gi MfY©i wb‡qvM †`qv n‡qwQj|

DËi-cwðgv‡j †gvNjiv ax‡i ax‡i Zv‡`i AvwacZ¨ we¯—vi KiwQj Ges


Zv‡`i ¶gZvi cª`k©bx mK‡ji †Pv‡L covi g‡Zv Ae¯
v n‡qwQj| †mB
cwiw¯
wZ‡Z cZy©MxRiv †ewk my‡hvM myweav nvwZ‡q wb‡qwQj Ges Zviv AvivKvb
ivRv‡K e¨vcK †fvMvwš— w`‡qwQj| AvivKvb Ges cZz©MxR‡`i ga¨Kvi
eÜzZ¡c~Y© m¤úK© gyn~‡Z©i g‡a¨B •eix n‡q †Mj| 1602 mv‡j ejLvi ivRvi
wbKU †_‡K cZz©MxRiv m›`xc `Lj K‡i wb‡qwQj| m›Øxc weRq AvivKv‡bi
ivRvi wbKU Zvi iv‡R¨i wbivcËvi Rb¨ wec` ms‡KZ e‡q wb‡q G‡mwQj| G
†_‡K cwiÎv‡Yi Rb¨ AvivKv‡bi ivRv cÖ‡qvRbxq c`‡¶c wb‡qwQ‡jb|
cÖ_gZt wZwb w`qvs †_‡K cZz©MxR‡`i‡K weZvwoZ K‡iwQ‡jb Ges 1603
mv‡j cybivq m›Øxc `Lj K‡iwQ‡jb| evav wech©q m‡Ë¡I cZ©yMxR‡`i‡K
WvKvwZ, jyUZivRg~jK Kg©KvÊ n‡Z cÖwZ‡iva Kiv hvqwb| `yÔ c‡¶i ga¨Kvi
•eix m¤úK© †ewkw`b ¯
vqx wQj bv| wee`gvb `yÔwU `‡ji g‡a¨ GKwU mg‡SvZv
Pzw³ ev¯—evwqZ n‡qwQj| AvivKvbxq ivRv cZz©MxR‡`i‡K Zvi iv‡R¨ Ae¯
vb
Kivi AbygwZ w`‡qwQ‡jb| m›Øxc‡K Zv‡`i wbKU cybivq wdwi‡q w`‡qwQ‡jb|
mg‡SvZvi cieZx© kvwš—c~Y© K‡qKwU eQi cZy©MxR‡`i‡K Zv‡`i wfwË my`„p
Kivi Rb¨ ch©vß mgq my‡hvM G‡b w`‡qwQj| Zviv iv‡R¨i wewfbœ GjvKvq

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 58


kÎ
 fvevcbœ AvKw¯§K AvµgY Pvwj‡qwQj| Zv‡`i AcK‡g© AwZó n‡q
AvivKv‡bi ivRv Zv‡`i wfwˇK aŸsm K‡i †`qvi `„p wm×vš— wb‡jb| wm×vš—
Abyhvqx 1607 mv‡j Zvi iv‡R¨ emevmiZ cZz©MxR Awaevmx‡`i Dci
MYnZ¨v Pvjv‡bvi wb‡`©k w`‡jb wZwb| Zvi †mB wb‡`©k AZ¨š— b„ksmfv‡e
ev¯—evwqZ n‡qwQj| cÖvq QqkZ cZz©MxR G bxie MYnZ¨vq Zv‡`i cÖvY
nvwi‡qwQj| wKQz msL¨K †jvK e‡b cvwj‡q †Mj, Ab¨iv Zv‡`i †b․Kvq wM‡q
Avkªq wb‡jv Ges wKQz †jvK mgy`ª cvwo w`‡q Ab¨Î P‡j wM‡qwQj hv‡`i g‡a¨
mxevm‡Uv †MvbRv‡jRI wQ‡jb|

G mgq m›Øx‡ci kvmK wQ‡jb g¨vby‡qj `¨ g¨v‡Uvm (Manuel de Mattos)


bv‡gi GK cZ©yMxR| 1607 mv‡j g¨v‡Uv‡mi g„Zz¨ Zvi GK Aaxb¯
 Kg©KZ©v
d‡Zn Lvb‡K ‡mB Øx‡c GKwU ¯^vaxb gymwjg ¶z`ª iv‡R¨i bgybv ev¯—evq‡bi
my‡hvM K‡i †`q| mxevm‡Uv †MvbRv‡jm d‡Zn Lv‡bi KvQ †_‡K m›Øxc
wQwb‡q †bqvi Rb¨ ej‡Li ivRvi mv‡_ GKUv mg‡SvZv Pzw³ ev¯—evqb K‡ib|
1609 mv‡j cZz©MxRiv cybivq m›Øxc `Lj K‡ib|

m›Øx‡c cZz©MxR‡`i cÖwZôv AvivKvb ivRvi Rb¨ wec` ms‡KZ e‡q G‡bwQj|
cZz©Mx‡Ri mgm¨v AgxgvswmZ †i‡LB †mwjg kvn 1612 mv‡j g„Zz¨ eiY
K‡ib| AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m †mwjg kv‡ni kvmbvgj GKwU hyMvš—Kvix
kvmbvgj wn‡m‡e cÖwZôv jvf K‡iwQj| hw`I †ReyK kvn ÔivDK-BDÕ bMixi
mdjZvi eywbqv` cÖwZôv K‡iwQ‡jb, wKš‧ Pwj­k eQi ci Zvi mv_©K DËim~ix
†mwjg kvn HUv‡K c~Y©v½iƒ‡c m~`„p K‡iwQ‡jb e‡j gš—e¨ Kiv hvq|

ûmvBb kvn (1612-1622)

59 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


‡mwjg kv‡ni ci Zvi †R¨ôcyÎ ûmvBb kvn (wgb LvgvDs) wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY
K‡ib| e‡½i Dci †gvNj wbqš¿Y cÖwZôv ûmvBb kvn Ges m›Øx‡ci ivRv
†MvbRv‡jm Df‡qi Kv‡QB GKwU mvaviY wec` wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Zv| GLb
Zviv Df‡qB †gvNj‡`i wec‡¶ G‡K Aci‡K mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ wPš—v fvebv
Ki‡Q| KviY †gvNjiv PÆMÖvgmn `w¶Y e½‡K Zv‡`i K‡Vvi kvm‡bi Aaxb
g‡b Ki‡Zv| †gvNj my‡e`vi Bmjvg Lvb KZ©K „ fyjyqv (‡bvqvLvjx) weRqB
Kvh©Zt AvivKv‡bi kvmb e¨e¯
vq mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM G‡bw`‡q‡Q| ûmvBb kvn
Lye `ª
Z †MvbRv‡j‡mi mv‡_ Zvi hveZxq SMov-weev` wgwU‡q †d‡j Ges
1614 mv‡ji wW‡m¤^i gv‡mi ïi
i w`‡K Zvi mv‡_ mw¤§wjZfv‡e ¯
j I mgy`ª
c‡_ fyjyqvi Dci AvµgY Pvjvq| ûmvBb kvn& cZy©MxR †mbvevwnbx mv‡_ wb‡q
700 hy× nvZxmn wekvj GK †mbveni wb‡q PÆMÖvg n‡Z m¤§y‡L AMÖmi nb|
Aci w`‡K Zvi †b․evwnbx †MvbRv‡j‡mi †b․evwnbxi mv‡_ hy³ n‡q cvwb c‡_
mvg‡b AMÖmi nq|

fyjyqvi †gvNj nvbv`vi Avãyj Iqvwn` †`L‡jb †h nvbv`vi evwnbx‡K cÖwZ‡iva


Kiv m¤¢eci bq, Kv‡RB wZwb WvKvwZqv b`x I gvQv I Lvj n‡q DËi w`‡K
cðv`cmiY Ki‡jb hv‡Z wekvj cZz©MxR-AvivKvbxq †b․eni Zv‡K ai‡Z bv
cv‡i| G my‡hv‡M Zviv †mLv‡b GKwU Aiw¶Z GjvKv †c‡q fyjyqv I b`xi
`yÕcv‡k¦©i AÂj¸‡jv‡Z e¨vcK jyUZivR Pvjv‡jv GgbwK †kl ch©š— Zviv
WvKvwZqv b`x ch©š— AMÖmi n‡jv| GKUv ch©v‡q G‡m wgÎ kw³¸‡jvi g‡a¨
fv½Y †`Lv w`j, hLb ‡MvbRv‡jm evwnbx Zv‡`i •mb¨`j‡K wdwi‡q †bqvi
wm×vš— wb‡jv| AvivKv‡bi ivRv cZz©MxR G¨vWwgiv‡ji fvB‡cv A¨v‡›UvwbI
Kvifvj‡nvmn cZz©Mx‡Ri Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K AvUK Kij| cieZx©‡Z Gi cvëv
Reve wn‡m‡e Zviv (cZz©MxRiv) AvivKvb iYZixi G¨vWwgivjmn Ab¨vb¨
Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K wN‡i ‡djj Ges iYZixi mKj gvj-m¤ú` Ges hy×v¯¿ jyU
K‡i wb‡q Ges AvivKvb ivRv‡K †gvNj‡`i mvg‡b GKvKx †d‡j †i‡L `ª
Z
m›Øx‡c wd‡i †Mj| Avãyj Iqvwn` G cwiw¯
wZ †_‡K my‡hvM MÖnY Ki‡Z e¨_©
nbwb| hvB †nvK wZwb Av‡iv †ewk Rbej I kw³-mvg_©¨ jvf Ki‡jb| wZwb
WvKvwZqv b`x cvi n‡q G‡m AvivKvb ivRvi Dci GKwU cvëv AvµgY

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 60


cwiPvjbv Ki‡jb Ges Zv‡K †gvNj cðv×veYKvix †mbv‡`i nv‡Z Zvi weivU
msL¨K •mb¨ Ges hy×-nvZx †d‡j †i‡L †dbx b`x w`‡q `ª
Z cjvqb Kiv‡Z
eva¨ Ki‡jb|

m›Øxc weRq cZz©MxR kvmb ¶gZvi m‡ev©‪P AR©b wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq|
cZz©MxRiv GLb PÆMÖvg I †c¸mn e‡½vcmvM‡ii mgMÖ c~e© DcK~j weR‡qi
wPš—vfvebv Ki‡Q Zv‡`i Kv‡Ri AMÖMwZ we‡ePbv K‡i| fyjyqv Awfhv‡b
‡MvbRv‡jm KZ©„K cÖZvwiZ n‡q AvivKvbxq ivRv Zv‡`i wfwË ev Ae¯
vb‡K
aŸsm K‡i †`qvi wm×vš— wb‡jb| Aci w`‡K wdwjc `¨ weª‡Uv mvBiv‡g
wb‡R‡K ¯^vaxb wn‡m‡e †NvlYv †`q| 1615 mv‡ji ïi
i w`‡K AvivKvbiv
m›Øx‡c Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡i| †MvbRv‡jm Zvi kvmb cwiPvjbvi Rb¨
ZLb wb‡R‡K wec` msKzj Ges Lye Amnvq Ae¯
vi g‡a¨ †`L‡Z cvq Ges †m
ZLb mnvqZvi Rb¨ †Mvqvq P‡j hvq| †MvbRv‡j‡mi mvnv‡h¨i Av‡e`b M„nxZ
n‡qwQj; Ges Zv‡K mnvqZv `v‡bi Rb¨ †Mvqvi fvBmiq †Wvg d«vbwmm‡Kv `¨
wgbv‡Rm †iv‡fvÕi (Dom Francisco de Menazes Rovo) ‡bZ„‡Z¡
AvivKv‡b GKwU iYRvnvR †cÖiY K‡ib| Zviv 1615 mv‡ji 3iv A‡±ve‡i
AvivKv‡b †c․Qvb| GiB gv‡S AvivKv‡bi ivRv WvP (Dutch) †`i mv‡_ GKUv
†RvU •Zix K‡ib| WvPiv wQj evwYR¨ †¶‡Î cZz©Mx‡`i cÖavb cªwZ‡hvMx| 15
A‡±ve‡i AvivKvb Ges WvP‡`i mgš^‡q MwVZ †h․_ evwnbx cZz©MxR AwfhvÎx
evwnbxi Dci AvµgY Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡i| Zzgj y †b․hy‡×i ga¨ w`‡q
`yÕc‡¶iB e¨vcK ¶q-¶wZ mvwaZ nq Ges cwi‡k‡l cZ©yMxRiv civRq eiY
K‡i| †MvbRv‡jm m›Øxc n‡Z cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡ib, KviY wZwb †mLv‡b Zvi
wb‡`©k cvjb Kivi Rb¨ KvD‡K Luy‡R cvbwb| Zvi nZwenej Abymvixiv
wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ SMov-weev` evwa‡q w`j Ges AvivKvbxq‡`i‡K ØxcwU `Lj
Kivi AbygwZ w`‡jv| 1615 mv‡j AvivKvb KZ…K © m›Øxc `Lj cZz©MxR‡`i †m
A‡j GKwU mvgyw`ªK I agx©q ivR¨ cÖwZôvi ¯^cœ‡K ZQbQ K‡i w`‡qwQj|

61 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


c~e© cÖv‡š— mvBwiqvg Ges ‡c¸ evg©vi ivRv AvbvD‡cUjv‡bi (Anaupetlun)
Kv‡Q †n‡iwQj| wKš‧ c~e© mxgv‡š— wQqv‡gi mv‡_ evg©vi ivRvi Pzw³i d‡j
ûmvBb kvn wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ ¯^w¯— †c‡qwQj| m›Øxc `Lj Kiv n‡qwQj Ges
evgx©R I cZz©MxR Df‡qB Zv‡`i ûgwK cÖZ¨vnvi K‡i wb‡qwQj| G mKj
Kvi‡YB AvivKv‡bi ivRv bZzb K‡i fyjyqvi Dci Zvi AvµgY cwiPvjbv
K‡iwQj| c~e©eZx© NUbv Abyhvqx †m mgqI †gvNj Ô_vbv`viÕ Avãyj Iqvwn`
WvKvwZqv b`xi wbK‡U AwaK myweavRbK Ae¯
vb †_‡K cÖZ¨veZ©b Kivi
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Luy‡R †c‡qwQ‡jb| hvB‡nvK, Zvi cyÎ wgR©v b~i Avj-Øxb
AvivKvbx •mb¨‡`i‡K duv‡` †djvi Rb¨ GKUv cwiKíbv K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb
D‡j­L‡hvM¨ msL¨K Ak¦v‡ivnx •mb¨ wb‡q WvKvwZqv b`xi wbKU GKwU
Rjvf~wgi wecix‡Z †Mvc‡b IZ †c‡Z Ae¯
vb wb‡qwQ‡jb| AvivKvb ivRv
hLb †mB ¯
vbwU AwZµg Kij wVK ZLbB b~i Avj-Øxb AK¯§vr Zvi Dci
Ak¦v‡ivnx Awfhvb Pvjv‡jb| Avãyj Iqvwn`I Ab¨ w`K †_‡K G‡m Zv‡K
AvµgY Kij| kÎ
 KZ…K © Pviw`K †_‡K †NivI n‡q AvivKvbx ‣mb¨iv
nZwenej n‡q coj| wec‡¶i AvµgY cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z wM‡q Zviv †Wvev-
bvjvq wbw¶ß n‡jv| Zv‡`i •mb¨evwnbxi GKUv weivU Ask wbnZ n‡qwQj|
wKQz •mb¨ cvwj‡q †h‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| wKš‧ ivRv wb‡R Zvi fvB‡cv Ges
hy×-nvZxmn Kv`v gvwU‡Z AvU‡K c‡owQ‡jb| Pig msKUvcbœ gyn~‡Z© wZwb Zvi
mKj Kg©KZ©v, Zvi fvB‡cvmn mKj Rbej, hy× nvZx Ges Ab¨vb¨ hy×
DcKiYvw` mgc©Y Kivi cÖ¯—ve w`‡q Ôkvwš—Õ cÖv_©bv Ki‡jb| ïay ¯^xq cÖvY I
e¨w³MZ ¯^vaxbZv i¶v K‡i Zv‡K wdwi‡q †`qvi Aby‡iva Rvbv‡jb| Avãyj
Iqvwn` Zvi G Av‡e`b MÖnY Ki‡jb Ges wZwb ïaygvÎ AvivKvb ivRv‡K
GKvKx PÆMÖv‡g wd‡i hvevi AbygwZ w`‡jb|

1616 mv‡ji †deª
qvix gv‡m †gvNj my‡e`vi Kvwkg Lvb PÆMÖvg n‡Z AvivKvb
ivRv‡K weZvwoZ K‡i H ¯
vb `Lj Kivi Rb¨ Avãyj bvex Gi ‡bZ„‡Z¡
†mLv‡b GKwU Awfhvb cvVv‡jb | mxZvKz‡Êi wbKU LvUMv‡i †gvNj •mb¨‡`i
AMÖMwZ _vwg‡q †`qv n‡qwQj| AvivKv‡bi ivRv LvUMv‡i GKwU •mb¨ NuvwU
¯
vcb K‡iwQj Ges cÖvq 1000 iYZix Øviv †mUv‡K mymw¾Z K‡iwQj|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 62


Avãyj bvex cÖv_wgK fv‡e cÖPÊ AvNvZ †n‡b †mB `~M©wU `Lj Kivi c`‡¶c
wb‡qwQ‡jb| wKš‧ wZwb †mB c`‡¶‡c e¨_© n‡q `~M©wU‡K Pviw`K †_‡K
Ae‡iva K‡i ivL‡jb| `xN© w`b a‡i Ae‡iva Pjvi d‡j †mLv‡b Lv`¨
mieiv‡ni msKU †`Lv w`j Ges Gi d‡j †gvNjMY 1616 mv‡ji †g gv‡mi
g‡a¨ Ae‡iva Zz‡j †bqvi cÖ‡qvRb †eva Ki‡ib Ges Zviv fyjyqvq wd‡i
†M‡jb|

1616 mv‡j PÆMÖv‡g e¨_© †gvNj Awfhvb ûmvBb kv‡ni cÖvwš—K bxwZ‡K Av‡iv
mymsnZ K‡iwQj| wZwb cve©Z¨ GjvKv †_‡K ïi
 K‡i mgy`ª DcK~j ch©š—
PÆMÖv‡gi DËi GjvKv¸‡jv‡K Rbk~b¨ K‡iwQ‡jb Ges †mme GjvKvq ebf~wg
M‡o Zz‡jwQ‡jb, hv‡Z †gvNj‡`i m¤¢ve¨ AvµgY cÖvK…wZK fv‡eB cÖwZ‡iva
Kiv hvq| m›Øxc `L‡ji ci cZ©yMxRiv AvZœm¤úY© Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡qwQj|
ûmvBb kvn& ZLb Zv‡`i‡K wewfbœ PvKzix‡Z wb‡qvM w`‡jb| †gvNj mgy`ª
Awfhv‡bi wei
‡× cZz©MxR‡`i Iqv`vK…Z mnvqZvi wewbgq ¯^iƒc Zv‡`i Rb¨
e›`i bMix w`qvs †K eivÏ †`qv n‡qwQj| Gi myev‡` cZy©MxRiv w`qvs
e›`i‡K Zv‡`i cÖavb Avevm ¯
j Ges mgy`ª WvKvwZi †K›`ª we›`y‡Z cwiYZ
K‡iwQj|

ûmvBb kvn& AvivKv‡bi GKRb †kªô I me‡P‡q mdj kvmK wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡K
cÖgvwYZ K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb Zvi iv‡R¨i mKj we‡`ªvn `gb K‡iwQ‡jb|
cZy©MxR‡`i ¶gZv‡K c½y K‡i w`‡qwQ‡jb| wek¦ we‡RZv †gvNj ‣mb¨‡`i‡K
wZwb civwRZ K‡iwQ‡jb Ges eg©xq‡`i AvMÖvmx Pµvš—‡K wZwb ZQbQ K‡i
w`‡qwQ‡jb|

63 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wØZxq †mwjg kvn& (1622-1638)

1622 mv‡j ûmvBb kv‡ni ci Zvi cyÎ wØZxq †mwjg kvn& DËivwaKvix
wn‡m‡e kvmb ¶gZvq Av‡mb | AvivKv‡bi wmsnvm‡bi Dci †_‡K cZ©yMxR
ûgwK ch©vqµ‡g n«vm †c‡Z _v‡K Ges wØZxq †mwjg kvn& AvivKvbxq‡`i
wei
‡× cZz©MxR‡`i WvKvwZ Kg©Kv‡Êi cÖwZ bRi bv w`‡q eis Zv‡`i‡K
†gvNj‡`i wec‡¶ e¨envi Kivi Rb¨ Zvi m¤ú` wn‡m‡e g‡b K‡ib|
hvB‡nvK, wØZxq †mwjg kvn& †gvNj ivRcyÎ kvnRvnv‡bi wbKU GKRb
ivR`~Z †cÖiY K‡ib| kvnRvnvb 1624 mv‡j wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ XvKvq
G‡mwQ‡jb| ivRv wØZxq †mwjg kvn& AZ¨š— webq, bgªZv mnKv‡i Zuvi Kv‡Q
Av‡e`b K‡iwQ‡jb †hb Zv‡K ivRKxq RvqMxi`vi wn‡m‡e MY¨ Kiv nq|
Ges wZwb Avj­vni bv‡g kc_ K‡i Iqv`v w`‡qwQ‡jb †h, wZwb hLb †h
Kv‡Ri Rb¨ Zv‡K Zje Ki‡eb ZLb †m KvR wZwb ivRKxq wb‡`©kbv
we‡ePbvq Zv cvjb Ki‡eb| GUv wQj AvivKvb ivRvi mv‡_ ïaygvÎ GKwU
K~U‣bwZK D‡`¨vM| mgªvU kvnRvnvb e½ cÖ‡`k n‡Z Zvi kvmb e¨e¯
v Zz‡j
wb‡Z bv wb‡ZB AvivKvb ivRv †mLv‡b Zvi wcZvi AvMÖvmx bxwZ cybtcÖeZ©b
K‡ib| mgªvU kvnRvnvb Zvi wcZvi wei
‡× GK cÖvmv` wec­‡e e‡½
G‡mwQ‡jb| evsjvi my‡e`vi gneŸZ Lv‡bi Af~¨Ìv‡bi m~Î a‡i kvnRvnv‡bi
we‡`ªvn evsjv‡K mxgvnxb `~‡f©v‡M †d‡jw`‡qwQj| G cwiw¯
wZi myweav MÖnY
K‡i AvivKvb ivRv fyjyqv GjvKvq jyÉb Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡ib Ges wZwb
†m GjvKvq jyUZivR Pvwj‡q ARmª m¤ú` nvwZ‡q wb‡q cybivq wd‡i Av‡mb|
gneŸZ Lv‡bi P‡j hvIqvi ci wZwb evsjvq Av‡iKwU Awfhv‡bi †bZ„Z¡ †`b
Ges G Awfhv‡b wZwb XvKvi D‡Ï‡k¨ iIqvbv nb| Ab¨ GK eY©bv Abyhvqx
wZwb bMix‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡ib Ges Zv R¡vwj‡q †`b Ges jyUZivR K‡ib|
Ae‡k‡l wecyj cwigvY e›`x‡`i AvUK K‡i wb‡q cybivq wd‡i hvb| 1630
mvji w`‡K PÆMÖv‡gi AvivKvb MfY©i Rvb‡Z cvi‡jb †h, PÆMÖvg n‡Z
AvivKvbxq kvmb DrLvZ Kivi Rb¨ cZz©MxRiv XvKvq wbhy³ †gvNj MfY©‡ii
m‡_ GKwU †Mvcb loh‡š¿i Rvj eyb‡Q| wZwb h_vh_ c`‡¶c †bqvi Rb¨
wØZxq †mwjg kvn‡K NUbv m¤ú‡K© AewnZ K‡ib| wZwb ZLb 500wU wW½x
†b․Kv I Pwj­kwU iYZix cÖ¯Z ‧ Ki‡Z wb‡`k© †`b| Ae‡k‡l wZwb c~Y©‡e‡M
w`qvs e›`‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ Zvi evwnbx wb‡q avweZ nb| cZz©MxR‡`i‡K e›`x
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 64
Ki‡Z Zv‡`i Dci GKwU we¯§qKi AvµgY Awfhvb cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨
†b․en‡ii K¨v‡Þb‡K wb‡`©k †`qv n‡qwQj| †Kvb Kvi‡Y iYZix cvKivI
Ki‡Z e¨_© n‡j Zv‡`i Dci Ae‡iva Awfhvb ¯
vqx Ki‡ZI Zv‡K wb‡`©kbv
†`qv nq| B‡Zvg‡a¨B AvivKv‡bi cZz©MxR Awaevmxiv G cÖ¯w‧ Z Awfhv‡bi
h_vh_ Avfvm †c‡q hvq Ges PÆMÖv‡g Zv‡`i RbMY‡K Avmbœ wec` m¤ú‡K©
mZ©K Kivi Rb¨ Lye `ª
Z †ek K‡qKRb `~Z †cÖiY K‡ib| w`qvs G ag©
cÖPviK L„óvb wf¶z gvbwiK (Manrique) AvivKv‡bi ivRvi mv‡_ mwÜ ¯
vc‡bi
Rb¨ AvivKvb ivR mfvq GKwU agx©q wgk‡bi †bZ…Z¡ †`b Ges cZz©MxR
Awfevmx‡`i Dci cvKovI Awfhvb cwiPvjbv Kiv †_‡K ivRv‡K weiZ
iv‡Lb|

2iv RyjvB, 1630 mv‡j gvbwiK †`qvs †_‡K AvivKvb ch©š— Zvi me‡P‡q
¯§iYxq ågY Awfhvb MÖnY K‡ib| †gvNj ûgwK Aemvb Ki‡Z ag©xq wgkbwU
mdj n‡qwQj Ges cwðg GjvKv I evg©vq cybivq kw³ wdwi‡q Avb‡Z
AveQvfv‡e Avwef~Z© n‡qwQj| AvivKv‡bi ivRv †m †`‡ki †b․evwnbx‡K
cybivq Zje K‡i wb‡`©k cvVvb| gvbwiK Zvi AvivKvb md‡ii ¯§„wZK_v
wjwce× K‡ib, hv‡Z gymjgvb‡`i e¨vcv‡i AegvbbvKi gš—e¨ i‡q‡Q| wØZxq
†mwjg kv‡ni mgq †_‡KB mgy`ª DcK~‡j WvKvwZ I jyUZivR Kg©KvÊ e„w×
†c‡Z _v‡K| gM Ges ‡ivwn½vivI G nvgjv Awfhv‡b Ask †bq| wKš‧
cZy©MxR Rj `m~¨iv G `vm msMª‡ni Awfhv‡b †bZ…Z¡ cÖ`vbKvix f~wgKv MÖnY
K‡i Ges G ai‡bi Awfhv‡b AvivKvb‡`i Ask MÖnYUvI cZy©MxR‡`i Zzjbvq
†Kvb As‡k Kg bq| cZz©MxR‡`i G mKj cv Ñ PvUv †Mvjvgiv wbgœ e‡½i
RbM‡Yi Dci AgvbweK b„ksmZv Pvjvq| ab-m¤ú`, cÖmvabx jyUZivR
QvovI Zviv nvRvi nvRvi cyi
l, gwnjv Ges wkï‡`i‡K †Rvi K‡i Zz‡j wb‡q
Av‡m Ges Zv‡`i‡K `vm wn‡m‡e wewµ K‡i †`q A_ev Zv‡`i‡K ejc~e©K
Lªxóvb a‡g© `xw¶Z K‡i| wbiciva bvweK, e¨emvqx, ch©UK mK‡jB wdwiw½
Rj`my¨‡`i mš¿vmx Kg©Kv‡Êi g‡a¨ evm KiZ| wØZxq †mwjg kvn WvP Ges
ewUwfqv‡`i mv‡_I eÜzZ¡c~Y© m¤ú‡K©i weKvk NUvb| Zviv Zv‡`i
B‡›`v‡bwkqvb Awfevmx‡`i Rb¨ Pvj I `v‡mi wbqwgZ mieivn Ki‡Z Ri
ix

65 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


cÖ‡qvR‡bi g‡a¨ wQj| WvPiv AvivKvb‡`i mv‡_ e¨emvwqK Kvh©vw` cwiPvjbv
Kivi Rb¨ †ivnw`s G GKwU d¨v±ix Pvjy K‡ib| wØZxq †mwjg kv‡ni
kvmbvg‡j 1631-1635 mv‡j AvivKv‡b GK fqvbK `ywf©‡¶i cÖv`yf©ve †`Lv
†`q| mKj wKQzi g~j¨ ¯^vfvweK g~‡j¨i Pvi¸Y e„w× †c‡qwQj| c~e©eZx© K‡qK
eQ‡ii avivevwnK km¨ NvUwZi d‡jB G `ywf©¶ †`Lv w`‡qwQj| +++++

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 66


PZz_© Aa¨vq
AvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨i n«vm Ges cZb

bicwZ KZ…©K AvivKvb wmsnvmb `Ljt

1638 mv‡j GK ivR cÖvmv` loh‡š¿i wkKvi n‡q Ges wØZxq †mwjg kv‡ni
g„Zz¨i ga¨ w`‡q AvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨i gnvbZvi BwZ N‡U Ges cZ‡bi hyMm~wPZ
nq| Zvi g„Zy¨i ci Zvi cyÎ †gs mvwb DËivwaKvix wn‡m‡e wmsnvm‡b
Av‡ivnY K‡ib| wKš‧ wZwb weaev ivbxi GK †cÖwgK KZ…K © b„ksm fv‡e Lyb
nb| cieZx©‡Z nZ¨vKvix ‡jvKwU wmsnvmb `Lj K‡ib Ges wb‡R‡K bicwZ
†LZv‡e f~wlZ K‡ib| hw`I bicwZ Zvi (wbnZ ivRcy‡Îi) c~e© cyi
l‡`i
Dci mKj wg_¨v cÖcvMvÊv I Awf‡hvM cywÄf~Z K‡i RbM‡Yi mg_©b Av`vq
Ki‡Z cÖ‡Póv Pvwj‡qwQ‡jb, Z_vwcI GUv AR©b Ki‡Z cy‡ivcywi e¨_©

67 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


n‡qwQ‡jb| cviZc‡¶, G A‣ea Rei `Lj gymjgvb‡`i †_‡K ¶gZv wQwb‡q
†bqvi my`~i cÖmvwiZ loh‡š¿i Rb¥ w`‡qwQj| bicwZ wQj GKRb mvaviY gM
†e․×| cÖqvZ ivRvi fvB PÆMÖv‡gi fvBmiq gvZK ivq (Kvgvj) cieZx©‡Z
¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYv †`b Ges Rei `LjKvix‡K ¶gZvPz¨Z Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq
c`‡¶c MÖnY K‡ib| hvB †nvK, Kvgvj G c`‡¶‡c e¨_© nb Zvi cÖ‡qvRbxq
†b․-kw³i Afv‡e| wZwb fyjyqvi †gvNj _vbv`v‡ii wbKU wbivcËv Kvgbv
Ki‡Z eva¨ nb| †h‡nZz Kvgvj fyjyqvi w`‡K AMÖmi nb, ZLb cÖvq 200
iYZix wewkó GKwU AvivKvbxq hy× eni Zv‡K †dbx b`x ch©š— Zvwo‡q wb‡q
hvq Ges Zv‡K b`x cvi nIqv ‡_‡K weiZ iv‡L | †gvNj _vbv`v‡ii ‣mb¨
evwnbxiv jvMvZvi ¸wj el©‡Yi gva¨‡g AvivKvb †b․eni‡K wcQz nVv‡Z eva¨
K‡i| ZLb Kvgvj AwZ wbivc‡`B †dbx b`x cvi n‡q Zvi cwievi Ges cÖvq
9000 Zvi AvivKvbxq Abymvix‡K mv‡_ wb‡q Rvnv½xibM‡i †c․‡Q hvb|

hvB †nvK, bicwZ Kvgv‡ji wei
‡× lohš¿ Kiv †Q‡o †`qwb eis wZwb wewfbœ
ai‡bi 650wUi AwaK iYZix wb‡q c~Y©gvÎvq e‡½i wei
‡× †b․ Awfhvb
cwiPvjbv K‡iwQ‡jb| evsjvi †gvNj MfY©i Bmjvg Lvb XvKv †_‡K `ª
Z Qz‡U
G‡m ‡gNbv b`xi gy‡Li Kv‡Q Zvi ‡mbvevwnbx I †b․evwnbx‡K mwµq Kivi
gva¨‡g Avmbœ ûgwKi mdj †gvKv‡ejv K‡ib| hw`I AvivKvbxq hy× eni
b`xi †gvnbvq Xy‡K c‡owQ‡jv ZeyI GwU c~bivq mvg‡b AMÖmi n‡Z mvnm
cvqwb eis `ª
Z †mLvb †_‡K cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡iwQj|

Rvnv½xibM‡ii D‡Ï‡k¨ Kvgv‡ji we`v‡qi c~‡e© PÆMÖv‡gi cZ©yMxRiv Zvi


c¶vej¤^b K‡iwQj| bicwZi cÖwZwnsmvi f‡q Zviv †m ¯
vb cwiZ¨vM K‡ib
Ges Dcgnv‡`‡ki cZ©yMxR wbqwš¿Z Aci GK ¯
v‡b Awfevmb MÖnY K‡i|
Gi d‡j cÖvq 20 nvRvi ev½vjx †jvK hviv B‡Zvc~‡e© cZ©yMxR KZ…K
© AvUK
n‡q µxZ`v‡m cwiYZ n‡qwQj Zviv †mLv‡b gyw³ †cj Ges wb‡R‡`i M„‡n
wd‡i G‡jv| wKš‧ cZ©yMxRiv NUbvµ‡g PÆMÖv‡g wd‡i hvq|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 68


_v‡Wvwgš¿v Ges m›`v _yWv¤§v (Thadomintra and Sanda
Thudamma)t

bicwZi ci Zvi fvwZRv _v‡Wvwgš¿v DËivwaKvix wn‡m‡e 1645 mv‡j


wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY K‡ib |Zvi kvmbvg‡j †ivnvs G †Rvic~e©K WvP KviLvbv
eÜ K‡i †`qv‡Z WvP‡`i mv‡_ Zvi m¤ú‡K©i Uvbv‡cv‡ob †`Lv †`q| ivRvi
Ackvm‡bi d‡j AvivKv‡bi RbMY‡K A‡bK Kó †fvM Ki‡Z nq| GUv wQj
Af¨š—ixY †Kv›`j| G Kvi‡YB Zv‡K PÆMÖv‡gi DËi mxgv‡š— †gvNj‡`i
AbycÖ‡ek cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z cZy©MxR‡`i Dci wbf©ikxj n‡Z n‡qwQj| PÆMÖvg
i¶vi Rb¨ cZz©MxR‡`i Dci Zvi GK‡PwUqv wbf©ikxjZvi `i
b e›`ibMix
Kvh©Z cZy©MxR Rj`m~¨‡`i AvLovq cwiYZ nq| AvivKv‡bi ivRv ewikvj
†Rjvi `w¶Yv‡j †b․ Awfhvb cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z wM‡qI gyL©Zvi cwiPq †`b,
†mLv‡b wZwb cwic~Y©fv‡e civwRZ nb Ges Awfhvb cÖZ¨vnvi K‡i wb‡Z eva¨
nb| 1652 mv‡j _v‡Wvwgš¿vi cyÎ m›`v _yWv¤§v AvivKv‡bi ivRv nb|
evZvwfqvi mv‡_ GKwU Pzw³ m¤úv`‡bi ci WvPiv †ivnvs G Zv‡`i KviLvbv
cybivq Pvjy K‡i|

AvivKv‡b kvn& myRvi cjvqb

1657 mv‡ji †m‡Þ‡¤^i gv‡mi †k‡li w`‡K †gvNj mgªvU kvnRvnvb gvivZœK
Amy¯
 n‡q c‡ob| Zvi G Amy¯
ZvB Zvi DËivwaKvix Pvi cy‡Îi g‡a¨ hy‡×i
KviY n‡q `vovj| Pvi cyÎ n‡jv- `viv wmK`vi, myRv, AvIi½‡Re Ges
gyiv`| hy‡× AvIi½‡Re weRqx nb| kvn myRv AvIi½‡R‡ei wbKU
AvZ¥mgc©Y bv K‡i Ges †m cybivq Zvi wei
‡× hy× Kivi `„p cÖwZÁv e¨³
Kij| wKš‧ hy‡× †m cy‡ivcywi civRq eiY K‡i cjvqb Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡jv|
1660 mv‡j AvIi½‡R‡ei †mbvcwZ gxi Rygjv KZ…©K cwiPvwjZ Zxeª AvµgY
cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z kvn myRv cÖwZ‡ekx ivóª AvivKv‡bi mnvqZv wbivcËv Kvgbv

69 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


K‡i| wZwb Zvi cwievi cwiRb Ges f³ Abymvix‡`i wb‡q AvivKv‡b P‡j
Av‡mb| †h‡nZz AvivKv‡bi ivRv Zv‡K Rvnv‡R K‡i g°vq wb‡q hvIqvi
Iqv`v w`‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb Zvi evKx Rxeb g°v‡ZB KvwU‡q ‡`qvi B‪Qv †cvlY
K‡iwQ‡jb| hvB‡nvK, Gfv‡eB GKwU †e`bv weayi we‡qvMvš— NUbvi ga¨ w`‡q
myRvi Rxe‡bi cwimgvwß N‡U|

gMivRv Zvi cÖwZÁv f‡½i cÖgvY w`j| †m myRvi Kb¨v‡K we‡q Ki‡Z
PvB‡jv| Zvi mKj ab-m¤ú` AvZœmvr K‡i Zv‡K †R‡j cvVv‡bvi cwiKíbv
Kij| G ai‡bi wec`msKzj cwiw¯
wZ‡Z myRv gymjgvb •mb¨ Ges AvivKvb
ivRvi mfvm`M‡Yi mnvqZvq GKwU Af¨š—ixY Av‡›`vjb †Rvi`vi Kivi
cwiKíbv K‡ib| Zvi G cwiKíbv NUbvµ‡g duvm n‡q †Mj Ges fvM¨nviv G
ivRcyÎ †kl ch©v‡q †c¸‡Z cvwj‡q hvIqvi †Póv Kij, wKš‧ ‡cQb w`K †_‡K
AvµgY K‡i Zv‡K nZ¨v Kiv nj| Ges Zvi Kb¨v hv‡K gMivRv †Rvic~e©K
we‡q Ki‡Z †P‡qwQj †m mn Zvi cwiev‡ii mKj m`m¨ I Zvi Abymvix mnPi
mK‡ji Dci wbg©g MYnZ¨v Pvjv‡bv nj| Zvi cjvqb I g„Zz¨i G NUbv
wKQzUv AwbðqZv Ges wg_v cÖPviYvi Rb¥ w`‡qwQj| hv †ek wKQz mgq a‡i
weivRgvb wQj| Ô†ewbqviÕ (Benier) G Ae¯
vi mvigg© eY©bv K‡i‡Qb
Gfv‡e, hv wb‡gœ ewY©Z nj|

ÒAvwg ivR cy‡Îi (myRvi) cwiYwZ m¤ú‡K© wZbwU A_ev PviwU m¤ú~Y© wfbœ
ai‡bi eY©bv ï‡bwQ| Avwg G¸‡jv †R‡bwQ Zv‡`i KvQ †_‡K hviv GgbwK
NUbv¯
‡j Dcw¯
ZI wQj bv| KwZcq †jvK Avgv‡K wbwðZ K‡iwQj ‡h,
Ab¨vb¨‡`i mv‡_ Zv‡KI wbnZ Ae¯
vq cvIqv wM‡qwQj, hw`I Zvi †`n‡K
mbv³ Kiv KwVb n‡q c‡owQj| Avwg †mB KviLvbvi cÖav‡bi wbKU GKLvbv
cÎ †`‡LwQjvg, †mLv‡bI GKB ai‡bi eY©bvi D‡j­L i‡q‡Q|Ó welqwU wb‡q
gnv AwbðqZv weivR Ki‡Q, Avi G Kvi‡YB Avgiv w`j­x‡Z G‡Zv †ekx
ms‡KZ cÖ`vbKvix åvš— cÖPviYv ïb‡Z †c‡qwQjvg| GUv eY©bv Kiv n‡q _v‡K

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 70


†h, †Kvb GK mg‡q Zv‡K g¨vwmcvUv‡g (g¨vmvwjcvUvg) Avbv n‡qwQj Ges
†Mvj‡Kv›`v I wfmvcy‡ii ivRviv Zv‡`i •mb¨ evwnbx w`‡q Zv‡K me©vZ¥K
mnvqZv K‡iwQj| GUv Lye wbðqZvi m‡_B ejv hvq †h, Ab¨ GK mg‡q wZwb
mIiv‡Zi bR‡ii wfZi w`‡q jvj cZvKv evnx `yÕwU Rvnv‡R K‡i cvi
nw‪Q‡jb| Ges †c¸ A_ev wmqv‡gi ivRv KZ…K © wZwb Dc¯
vwcZ n‡qwQ‡jb|
Avev‡iv Avgv‡`i‡K ejv n‡jv †h, ivRcyÎ cviwmqv‡Z wQ‡jb, †h Zv‡K
ÔwmivRÕ G †`Lv wM‡q‡Q Ges cigyn~‡Z©B Kv›`vnv‡i Zvici Kveyj iv‡R¨ nvbv
w`‡Z cÖ¯w‧ Z wb‡Z †`Lv †M‡Q| Avgvi g‡Z G wi‡cvU©¸‡jvi mycÖwZwôZ †Kvb
wfwË †bB | Avwg WvP f`ª‡jv‡Ki wbKU †_‡K cÖvß H cÎwUi DciB †ewk
¸i
Z¡ w`‡ev| cÎwU D‡j­L K‡i †h, cvwj‡q hvevi c`‡¶c wb‡Z wM‡q ivRcyÎ
wbnZ nb| Ges myjZvb myRvi `yÕRb nv‡i‡gi cÖnix (†LvRv) hvi mv‡_ Avwg
evsjv †_‡K g¨vwmcvUvg ch©š— ågY K‡iwQjvg Ges mv‡eK †Mvj›`vR evwnbxi
Awdmvi eZ©gv‡b whwb †Mvj‡Kv›`vi ivRvi †mbvevwnbxi mv‡_ KvR Ki‡Qb,
Zviv Df‡qB Avgv‡K mywbwðZ K‡i e‡j‡Qb †h Zv‡`i gwbe wbnZ n‡qwQj,
hw`I Zviv cybivq Av‡iv †ekx Z_¨ †c‡Z †hvMv‡hvM Kivi e¨vcv‡i D`vmxb
wQj| divmx ewYKMY hv‡`i‡K Avwg w`j­x‡Z †`‡LwQjvg Ges hviv mivmwi
B¯úvnvb †_‡K G‡mwQ‡jb Zviv myjZvb myRvi cviwmqv‡Z _vKvi e¨vcv‡i
‡Kvb Z_¨B KLbI ï‡bb wb| GUvI g‡b nq †h, Zvi civR‡qi ¶wYK c‡iB
Zvi †Qviv Ges Zievwi cvIqv wM‡qwQj| wKQz †jvK avibv K‡i †h, hw` wZwb
e‡bB †cu․‡Q _v‡Kb Zvn‡j wZwb cjvq‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨B †mLv‡b wM‡qwQ‡jb|
GUv aviYv Kiv n‡q _v‡K †h e‡bi g‡a¨ Aek¨B wZwb `m~¨‡`i nv‡Z co‡eb
A_ev evN ev nvwZi wkKv‡i cwiYZ n‡eb| †m †`‡ki eb¸‡jv‡Z G¸‡jvi
Dc`ªe Lye †ekx n‡q _v‡K|

G †kl NUbvi wKQz w`b c~‡e© evsjvi †gvNj fvBmiq †mB hyeZx ivRKb¨v‡K
AvZœmgc©‡Yi Rb¨ Ri
ix evZ©v †cÖiY K‡iwQ‡jb| m›`v _yWv¤§v Zv‡`i cÖwZ
†Kvb g‡bv‡hvMB ‡`bwb| Ges †kl MY nZ¨vi Dcj‡¶¨ GKRb †gvNj
ivóª`~Z‡K Kvivi
× Ki‡ZB wZwb †mLv‡b wM‡qwQ‡jb| cÖZ¨vNv‡Zi f‡q wZwb
w`qvs Gi wdwi½x‡`i‡K evsjv Avµg‡Y Zv‡`i ZrciZv eû¸‡Y e„w× Ki‡Z

71 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


mvnm w`‡qwQ‡jb| Gfv‡e 1664 mv‡j Zv‡`i †b․hvbmg~n b`x c‡_ XvKvi
w`‡K hvÎv K‡i Ges 240wU wWw½ †b․Kv wewkó GKwU †gvNj †b․eni‡K
QÎf½ K‡i †`q Ges †m¸‡jv‡K wPiZ‡i aŸsm K‡i †`q|

PÆMÖv‡g †gvNj weRq

AvIi½‡Re KzPwenvi `Lj, Kvgiƒc cybi
×vi Ges Avmvg‡K wbw¯…q Kivi


gva¨‡g Zvi Ae¯
vb Av‡iv my`„p K‡iwQ‡jb| Gi d‡jB wZwb AvivKv‡bi Dci
Av‡iv ‡ewk Zvi g‡bv‡hvM wbweó Ki‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb| PÆMÖvg `Lj Kivi
gva¨‡g wdwi½x gM KZ©„K jyUZiv‡Ri Aemvb NUv‡bvi Rb¨B cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj
cÖ¯w‧ Z m¤úbœ Kiv n‡qwQj| kv‡q¯—v Luvb whwb 1664 mv‡j evsjvi fvBmiq
wbhy³ n‡qwQ‡jb WvP‡`i‡K AvivKvb n‡Z cÖZ¨veZ©‡bi ûgwK w`‡qwQ‡jb,
Ab¨_vq evsjvi mv‡_ Zv‡`i e¨emv-evwYR¨ msK‡U co‡e| myZivs 1665
mv‡ji †Kvb GK iv‡Z WvPiv Zv‡`i †ivnvs KviLvbvi mewKQy PviwU RvnvR
†evSvB K‡i P‡j †Mj Ges Zv‡`i hvevi c~‡e© AvivKv‡bi ivRv Dcjwä Ki‡Z
†c‡iwQ‡jb †h Kx P‡j hv‡‪Q Ges Zviv Kv‡iv avIqv †L‡q bq eis wb‡R
wb‡RB P‡j hv‡‪Q|

kv‡q¯—v Lvb AvivKvb Awfhvb ïi
 Kivi c~‡e© me© cÖ_g m›`xc `Lj K‡ib
1665 mv‡ji 12 b‡f¤^i| m›Øxc n‡jv M½v b`xi gy‡L Aew¯
Z GKwU
¸i
Z¡c~Y© Øxc| m›Øxc `L‡ji ga¨w`‡q kv‡q¯—v Lvb Zvi Pzovš— cÖ¯w‧ Z wb‡q `„p
cÖZ¨‡q GwM‡q P‡jb| wZwb AvivKvb ivRv‡K Z¨vM K‡i †gvNj c¶vej¤^b
Ki‡Z PÆMÖv‡gi wdwi½x‡`i‡K mdjfv‡e cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡iwQ‡jb| wewfbœ
Kvi‡YB wdwi½xiv †gvNj‡`i c¶ wb‡qwQj| me‡P‡q †ekx ¸i
Z¡c~Y© KviYwU
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 72
n‡jv †h AvivKvb ivRv wdwi½x‡`i‡K PÆMÖvg n‡Z AvivKv‡bi Af¨š—‡i
weZvob K‡i w`‡Z PÆMÖv‡gi MfY©i‡K wb‡`©k w`‡qwQ‡jb| Gi D‡Ïk¨ wQj
hv‡Z K‡i Zv‡`i‡K bRi`vwi‡Z ivLv hvq A_ev Zv‡`i Dci b„ksm nZ¨vhÁ
Pvjv‡bv hvq| AvivKv‡bi ivRv wdwi½x‡`i mv‡_ kv‡q¯—v Lv‡bi †hvMv‡hv‡Mi
Lei Rvb‡Z †c‡iwQ‡jb Ges †gvNj KZ©K „ m›Øxc weR‡qi cieZx© cwiYwZ
m¤ú‡K©I wZwb Lye fxZ wQ‡jb| G ai‡bi cwiKíbvi Avfvm †c‡q wdwi½xiv
1665 mv‡ji 19 wW‡m¤^i PÆMÖ‡gi GKwU weivU msL¨K AvivKvb RvnvR
en‡i AwMœ ms‡hvM K‡i 40 †_‡K 50wU wW½x †b․Kv (Rvjev) GK‡hv‡M G‡m
†bvqvLvwj‡Z †gvNj‡`i‡K wN‡i †d‡jwQj|

wdwi½x‡`i civR‡qi ci AvivKv‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKwU Zvr¶wYK Awfhvb


cwiPvjbvi wm×vš— †bqv n‡qwQj| evRivs D‡¤§` Lvb ¯
j c‡_ cwiPvwjZ
cÖavb •mb¨ evwnbxi †bZ…Z¡ w`‡e, Ab¨w`‡K ÔBg‡cwiqvj bIqvivÕ Awfhvb
Be‡b-B-ûmvBb Ges †gvnv¤§v` †eM AvevKvk Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ cwiPvwjZ n‡e|
ÔRvwgb`viÕ †b․eni cwiPvwjZ nw‪Qj gybvIqvi Lv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ Ges K¨v‡Þb
g~i Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ cwiPvwjZ wdwi½x hy× eni ¯
j evwnbxi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡LB
b`x Ges mgy`ª c‡_ mvg‡b AMÖmi nw‪Qj| kv‡q¯—v Lvb Awfhv‡bi mvwe©K
cwiw¯
wZ ch©‡e¶Y Ki‡Z Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq Lv`¨ mvgMÖx mieivn wbwðZ Ki‡Z
†cQ‡b Ae¯
vb Ki‡jb| B‡Zvg‡a¨, PÆMÖv‡gi mv‡eK MfY©i Kvgvj Ges Zvi
Abymvixiv hviv kvn& Rvnv‡bi kvmbvg‡j XvKvq cvwj‡q wM‡qwQj Zviv mevB
¯
j evwnbxi mv‡_ AvivKvb Awfhv‡b Ask MÖnY K‡i| 1666 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix
gv‡m Kzwgivi wbK‡U AvivKvbx‡`i mv‡_ Zv‡`i cÖ_g ‡b․ msNl© ev‡a|
AvivKvbiv m¤ú~Y©fv‡e civwRZ n‡qwQj| hvB †nvK, civR‡qi ci¶‡YB
cjvqbiZ AvivKvbxq iYZix¸‡jv (Rvjev) Zv‡`i eo RvnvR¸‡jvi mv‡_
wgwjZ nq, †h¸‡jv †cQ‡b A‡c¶v KiwQj| `yÕc‡¶i g‡a¨ jvMvZvi †b․
Kvgvb hy× PjwQj| cieZx© mKv‡j (24 Rvbyqvix) wØZxq Av‡iKwU ‡b․hy×
msNwUZ nq, †mLv‡b AvivKvbxq iYZix civwRZ n‡q cjvqb K‡i Ges cÖvq
we‡Kj wZbUvi w`‡K kÎ
evwnbx‡K Zvov K‡i Ges Zviv KY©dzjx b`x‡Z G‡j
b`xi gy‡L G‡m Zv‡`i‡K wN‡i †d‡j| B‡Zvg‡a¨, ¯
j evwnbx Lye `ª
Z

73 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


KY©dzjx b`xi Zx‡i G‡m †cu․Qvq H GKB w`‡b| Be‡b-B-ûmvBb KY©dzjx
b`x‡Z cÖ‡ek K‡i Ges AvivKvbxq RvnvR¸‡jvi Dci w¶cÖ MwZ‡Z AvNvZ
nv‡b| K¨v‡Þb g~i Ges Ab¨vb¨ †gvNj Kg©KZv©iv wewfbœ w`K †_‡K Lye `ª
Z
Qz‡Q Av‡mb| e¨vcK hy‡×i ci AvivKvbxqiv †kvPbxqfv‡e civwRZ nq|
Zv‡`i g‡a¨ A‡b‡K wbZn n‡qwQj| wKQy †jvK RvnvR cwiZ¨vM K‡i cjvqb
K‡iwQj Ges evKx mevB AvZœmgc©Y K‡iwQj| Zv‡`i A‡b‡K Rvnv‡R Av¸b
†j‡M A_ev †gvNj †b․en‡ii AvNv‡Z Wy‡e wM‡qwQj Ges Av‡iv 135wU
RvnvR AvUK Kiv n‡qwQj| AvivKvbxq `~M© ch©vqµ‡g Zv‡`i ¯
j evwnbxi
Dci wbf©ikxj n‡Z jvMj| AvivKv‡bi MfY©i, whwb wQ‡jb ivRvi PvPvi cyÎ,
26 †k Rvbyqvix AvZ¥mgc©Y K‡ib Ges Zv‡K KvivMv‡i wb‡q hvIqv nq|
evsjvi e¨vcK msL¨K †¶ZgRyi hviv AvUK n‡qwQj Ges e›`x n‡q KvivMv‡i
wQj, Zviv GLb gM‡`i AZ¨vPvi wbh©vZb †_‡K gyw³ †cj Ges Zv‡`i wbR
M„‡n wd‡i G‡jv| b`xi Aci cv‡k¦©i `~‡M©i gM •mb¨ivI cvwj‡q †Mj Ges
`~M©wU gymjgvb‡`i n¯—MZ n‡jv| evRivs D‡¤§` Lvb 27 Rvbyqvix‡Z PÆMÖv‡g
cÖ‡ek K‡ib| PÆMÖvg `Lj Kivi ci `w¶Y PÆMÖv‡gi GjvKv¸‡jv `Lj Kivi
Rb¨ gxi †gvZ©Rvi †bZ…‡Z¡ GKwU Awfhvb †cÖiY Kiv nq| †gvZ©Rv `yM©g iv¯—v,
Lvj, R½j Ges Li‡mªvZv b`xi gvS w`‡q 12 w`b cwiåg‡Yi ci ivgy‡Z G‡m
†cu․Qvb Ges AvivKvb ivRvi fvB ivDjxi KvQ †_‡K ivgy‡K wQwb‡q †bb|
A‡bK gymjgvb hv‡`i‡K †mLv‡b e›`x wn‡m‡e ivLv n‡qwQj, Zviv mevB gyw³
†cj| Gfv‡e †b․ `m~¨‡`i AvLov †f‡½ †Mj Ges GjvKve¨vcx gymjgvb
AvwacZ¨ cybtcÖwZwôZ nj| PÆMÖv‡gi cZb AvivKvbx‡`i wbKU GKUv fqvbK
cwieZ©b wQj Ges Gi d‡j Zv‡`i kªxe„w×i kZvwãi cwimgvwß N‡U|
cieZx©‡Z KLbI Zviv PÆMÖvg GgbwK ivgy‡KI Zv‡`i Kivq‡Ë ivL‡Z cv‡iwb
Ges wdwi½x‡`i cjvq‡bi d‡j Zviv Zv‡`i Zievix A¯¿ meB nviv‡jv|
cviZ c‡¶, m›`v _yWv¤§v AvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨i cZ‡bi exR ecb K‡iwQj kvn
myRv I Zvi Abymvix Ges AvivKv‡bi A‡bK gymjgvb‡K b„ksm fv‡e nZ¨v
Kivi gva¨‡g| Zvi g„Zz¨i d‡j †mLv‡b cieZx© GK kZvwãKvj a‡i Ø›Ø-
weev` Ges Af¨š—ixY Kjn Pj‡Z _v‡K|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 74


†ev`vIdvqv KZ©„K AvivKvb `Lj

PÆMÖvg nviv‡bvi ci gviK-BD mvgªv‡R¨i f~L‡Ê n«vm †c‡q eZ©gv‡b AvwKqve,


wKDKwcD Ges mv‡›`v‡q †Rjv ch©š— ‡c․Qvq| wbgœ evigvi H AÂjmg~n hv
cÖ_g †mwjg kvn KZ…K © wewRZ n‡qwQj Ges wØZxq †mwjg kvn& KZ…©K cybivq
wewRZ n‡qwQj Zvi meB eg©x‡`i Aax‡b wd‡i wM‡qwQj| AvivKvb GLb Zvi
cÖvK…wZK mxgv‡iLvi g‡a¨ Ave× Ges 250 eQi c~‡e© gymjgvbMY KZ…©K cÖ_g
AvivKvb weR‡qi mgq Gi †h mxgv‡iLv wQj †m Zzjbvq eZ©gvb mxgv‡iLv
A‡bK Kg|

1784 mv‡j eg©x‡`i Øviv AvivKvb `Lj ch©š— Ges ivRv m›`v _yWv¤§vi g„Zz¨i
ci me©‡gvU 26 Rb ivRv AvivKvb kvmb K‡i‡Qb| PÆMÖvg (1666) I mv›`v
wfRqv (1710) cZ‡bi gvSvgvwS mg‡q `kRb ivRv cÖ‡Z¨‡K M‡o AvovB
eQi K‡i AvivKvb kvmb K‡i‡Qb| wZbRb ivRv GK eQi K‡i Ges `yR‡bi
†KDB GKgvmI kvmb K‡ibwb| m›`v wfRvqv I bviv Avevqvi gv‡S kvm‡bi
Mo wQj `yÕ eQ‡ii wb‡P Ges 1784 mvj ch©š— †kl mvZ ivRvi kvmbKvj
wQj cÖ‡Z¨‡Ki M‡o wZb eQi K‡i| AvivKvb ¯^vaxbZvi †kl kZvwã †K‡U‡Q
Af¨š—ixY Ø›Ø-msNv‡Zi ga¨ w`‡q| AvivKvb ivRvi Aax‡b Kg©iZ gymjgvb
Zxi›`vR evwnbx †ekx cÖwZcwË jvf K‡iwQj| Zviv `w¶Y BwÊqvi AvdMvb
•mb¨‡`i mg_©b †c‡q bZzb K‡i Av‡›`vjb †Rvi`vi K‡i| 1666 mvj †_‡K
1710 mvj ch©š— AvivKv‡bi ivR‣bwZK KZ…Z © ¡ cy‡ivcywi fv‡e Zv‡`i nv‡ZB
wQj| H mg‡qi g‡a¨ Zv‡`i Øviv `kRb ivRv wmsnvm‡b e‡m‡Q Ges c`P~¨Z
n‡q‡Q| 1692 mv‡j Zviv ivRcÖvmv` R¡vwj‡q †`q Ges wek eQi a‡i †`‡ki
†hLv‡b Zviv wM‡q‡Q †mLv‡bB Av¸b Ges Zievix enb K‡i Ny‡i ‡ewi‡q‡Q|
†klZK, m›`v wfRvqv bv‡gi GK myweav †fvMx †e․× egx©q‡`i‡K ivgix‡Z
weZvob K‡iwQj| wKš‧ AvwKqv‡ei wbKU w_sMv‡bU ev _vivMY bvgK ¯
v‡b
Kvgb bvg aviY K‡i Zv‡`i eskaiMY †mLv‡b Ae¯
vb KiwQj| Zviv
AvivKvb fvlv‡ZB K_v ej‡Zv| wKš‧ ZLbI Zv‡`i g‡a¨ Bmjvgx wek¦vm Ges
AvdMvbx •ewkó¨ Ae¨vnZ wQj| ivRvi ci ivRv Lyb n‡jv Ges GKMÖv‡gi

75 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wei
‡× Ab¨ MÖvg hy‡× wjß nj| me©‡kl `yRb ivRv wQ‡jb gymjgvb| Zviv
wQ‡jb Kvgvb Zxi›`vR‡`i eskai hviv B‡Zvc~‡e© m›`v wfRvqv KZ…©K weZvwoZ
n‡q ivgix‡Z G‡mwQj| wR. B. nvi‡fÕi (G. E. Harvey) g‡Z, †kl ivRv
_vgvWv (1782-5), whwb cwinvwmK fv‡e cÖ_g ivRvi bvg aviY K‡iwQ‡jb|
Ges iv‡R¨i Dci Zvi KZ…©Z¡ A‡bKvs‡k Kg wQj| †h‡nZz wZwb wQ‡jb
wbM„nxZ ivgix es‡kv™¢~Z|

GK`j AvivKvb KZ©Z „ ¡kxj e¨w³eM© Avfv‡`i n¯—‡¶c Kvgbv K‡i Zv‡`i
†mLv‡b †Mj| egx©q‡`i n¯—‡¶‡ci Rb¨ AvivKvb jW©‡`i Av‡e`b m¤ú‡K©
HwZnvwmK nvi‡f wb‡gœv³ gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb, Òm¤¢eZ Zviv wQj †`k †cÖwgK Ges
Zviv Zv‡`i †`k‡K Sv‡gjv gy³ GKwU †`k wn‡m‡e ‡`Lvi Rb¨ Kvgbv
Ki‡Zv|Ó wKš‧ cÖK…Z NUbv n‡jv †Muvov †e․× agv©ej¤^xiv Avev‡iv gymwjg
kvmb‡K mn¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡jv bv| myZivs Zviv ZvB Kij hv Zv‡`i c~e©
cyi
‡liv K‡iwQj 1406 mv‡j ev ZviI c~‡e©| 1784 mv‡j Avfvi ivRv
†ev`vIdvqv (Bodawphaya) ¯
j I mgy`ª c‡_ AvivKv‡b AvµgY Pvjvq Ges
mvgvb¨ Avµg‡Yi ciB cwic~Y© weRq AR©b K‡i| Gfv‡eB AvivKv‡bi
¯^vaxbZvi m~h© A¯—wgZ nq|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 76


cÂg Aa¨vq

gviK-BD mgqKvi mvgvwRK I ag©xq Rxebt

c~e© gviK-BD AvivKvb mgv‡R wn›`y a‡g©i cÖfve K‡g hvIqvi ci •ekvjxi
wn›`y ivRviv `ywU cªavb ag©- †e․× I Bmjv‡g wek¦vm Ki‡Zv| G mgq e¨emvwq
gymjgvb ag© cÖPviK KZ…K © ag© cÖPv‡ii d‡j Bmjvg a‡g©i e¨vcK Dbœqb
mvwaZ nq| 1203 mv‡j evsjvq AvivKvb gymjgvbiv k³fv‡e Ae¯
vb K‡i|
g‡½vwjqvb‡`i Avµg‡Yi d‡j Ges AvivKvb I wZeŸZxq‡`i AvMg‡b
AvivKv‡bi eªvþYiv †`g‡iv I ‡c․ËwjKZvi mv‡_ wgwjZ n‡q Ab¨ RvqMvq
Ae¯
vb K‡i|

957 mvj †_‡K 1430 mvj ch©š—- `xN© 500 eQi ci AvivKv‡bi c~e©m~ix
gymjgvbiv †e․× a‡g©i cyY¨f~wg AvivKv‡bi Dci weRq jvf K‡i| AvivKv‡b
Aew¯
Z Zx_© hvÎvq we‡k¦i mKj ‡e․× ag© †cÖwgKiv gnvgywY‡K fw³ Kivi
Rb¨ GLv‡b Rgv‡qZ n‡Zv| G‡Z GLv‡b †e․× a‡g©i ¯^KxqZv e„w× cvq| `xN©
500 eQi a‡i Zv‡`i g‡½vjxq I wZeŸZxq-egx©q mn ag©vej¤^x‡`i mv‡_
Ae¯
vb Kivi d‡j Avixqvb gM †e․×iv ax‡i ax‡i Zv‡`i mv‡_ wb‡R‡`i Lvc
LvB‡q †bq|

hvB †nvK, 1287 mv‡ji ci AvivKvbxqiv †c․ËwjK AvwacZ¨ev` Z¨vM K‡i


¯^vaxb n‡q hvq| wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ AvivKv‡bi gy³ mgv‡R gymjgvbiv Af¨š—
ixY welq¸‡jv‡Z cÖfve we¯—vi Ki‡Z _v‡K| wKš‧ †Muvov †e․×iv G cwi‡ek‡K

77 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


†g‡b wb‡Z cvi‡jv bv| G ai‡bi RbMY GKwU ¯^vaxb, gy³ I mg„×kvjx
AvivKvb †`Lvi cwie‡Z© we‡`kx‡`i kvmbvax‡b _vKv‡KB AwaK cQ›`
Ki‡jv| ¯^vaxbZv †fvMx‡`i Askx`vi wn‡m‡e gymjgvbivI Gi dj †fvM
Ki‡jv| 1374, 1406 Ges me©‡kl 1784 mv‡j AvivKv‡bi ¯^vaxbZv
nviv‡bvi Rb¨ KÆicš
x †e․ׇ`i lohš¿B `vqx| Bmjvg a‡g©i Øviv †e․×a‡g©i
¶wZ nIqvi wg_¨v AvksKvq KÆicš
x †e․×iv gymjgvb‡`i AvivKvb n‡Z
mg~‡j DrLvZ Kivi Rb¨ cÖvY c‡Y msMÖvg Ki‡jv| †h‡nZz Zv‡`i mnag©vej¤^x
evg©vbiv Giƒc Avk¼vi K_v cÖPvi K‡iwQj| 1942 mv‡ji gymwjg nZ¨vhÁ G
mKj †Muvov †e․ׇ`iB nv‡Zi KvgvB| G nZ¨vh‡Á 1 jv‡Li AwaK †jvK
gviv wM‡qwQj| civaxbZv, nZvkv, ag©xq AmwnòzZv Ges AvivKv‡bi
†jvK‡`i AÜKvi fwel¨‡Zi Rb¨ H mKj KÆi †e․×ivB `vqx|

gviK-BD ivR‡Z¡i 1430 mvj †_‡K 1638 mvj ch©š— mgqKvj wQj
AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m †m †`‡ki Rb¨ GKwU ¯^‡Y©v¾¡j hyM| G hyM †_‡K ‡KD
AwZ mn‡RB Abyaveb Ki‡Z cv‡i †h, wK‡mi d‡j AvivKv‡bi DbœwZ I
AebwZ N‡UwQj| 1430 mv‡ji w`‡K gymjgvb KZ©„K AvivKvb weR‡qi g‡a¨
w`‡qB G †mvbvjx hy‡Mi m~Pbv n‡qwQj Ges 1638 mv‡ji gymjgvb‡`i KvQ
†_‡K †e․ׇ`i wbKU ¶gZvi cvjv e`‡ji ga¨ w`‡qB AvivKvb cZ‡bi
P~ovš— †mvcvb iwPZ n‡qwQj| GUvi KviY wQj, Bmjv‡gi wk¶vq wkw¶Z D‪P
•bwZKZvm¤úbœ gymwjg kvmbMY b¨vq wePvi I mgZv wb‡q †`k kvmb
Ki‡Zb| BwZnv‡mi, ivRbxwZ I cÖK…wZ Áv‡bi Dbœqb, cÖvK…wZK weÁv‡bi
weKvk Zv‡`i ØvivB weKwkZ n‡qwQj| d‡j AvivKvb G gnË AR©b
K‡iwQj| hLbB †`‡k †Muvovwg, ag©xq AmwnòzZv Ges •bwZKZvi AatcZb
†`Lv w`j, ZLbB Gi cZb mywbwðZ n‡q co‡jv|

A‡bK BwZnvmwe` Ges Dc¨vL¨vwbK aviYv K‡ib †h, AvivKv‡bi ivRv wQj
†e․× ag©vej¤^x, hw`I Zviv wb‡R‡`i Rb¨ gymjgvb bvg †i‡LwQj Ges Zv‡`i

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 78


gy`ªvq Kv‡jgvi (gymjgvb‡`i wek¦v‡mi ¯^xKv‡ivw³) Qvcv¼b K‡iwQj | Zv‡`i
`vexi †cQ‡b KviYmg~n n‡jvt

cÖ_gZt e‡½i gymjgvb‡`i‡K AvivKvb cybi
×v‡i mnvqZv †`qvi Rb¨


Zv‡`i mv‡_ K…Z Pzw³ cwic~Y© Ki‡Z Dc‡ivwj­wLZ mKj cš
vB Zviv m¤úbœ
K‡iwQj| Ges H mKj AvivKvb ivRv gymwjg bvg Aej¤^b K‡iwQ‡jb hviv
evsjvi `w¶Y c~e© †Rjv PÆMÖv‡gi Dci cÖfve we¯—vi K‡iwQ‡jb|
Dc‡ivwj­wLZ eY©bv mg~‡ni hyw³ LÊb K‡i KwZcq cÖL¨vZ BwZnvmwe` gš—e¨
K‡i‡Qb hv GLv‡b Zz‡j aiv n‡jvt

Ò Î‡qv`k kZvwãi g‡a¨ Bmjvg AvwdªKvi AvUjvw›UK mgy`ª DcK~jeZx© AÂj


Ges evsjvi ga¨Kvi RbM‡Yi ü`q I gb‡K Rq Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQj| GUv
‡m hy‡Mi ¸i
Z¡cyY© welqmg~‡ni Dci cÖfve we¯—vi K‡iwQj|Ó

bviv‡gBLjv (Narameikjhla) Zvi ga¨eZx© eQi¸‡jv †M․o `iev‡i


AwZevwnZ K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb †mLv‡b MwYZ I cÖK…wZ weÁv‡bi †¶‡Î •ec­weK
aviYvmg~n wk¶v MÖnY K‡iwQ‡jb| Bmjv‡gi mdjZvi g~j g‡š¿I-
ÒG‡Kk¦iev‡` wek¦vmÓ ÑwZwb Ávb jvf K‡iwQ‡jb|

G BwZnvmwe‡`i g‡Z, bviv‡gBLjv A_ev mvIgyqvb A_ev myjvqgvb kvn-


cybtcÖwZwôZ AvivKvbxq ivRv- mywbwðZ wek¦v‡m gymjgvb wQ‡jb| wKš‧ wZwb
wK evsjvq cjvq‡bi c~‡e© Bmjvg Keyj K‡iwQ‡jb, bvwK wZwb `xN© 24 eQi
evsjvq Ae¯
vb Kv‡j Bmjv‡g `xw¶Z n‡qwQ‡jb- Zv GLbI AgxgvswmZ i‡q
†M‡Q|

79 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Arakans place in the civilisation of the Bay kxl©K, mv¤^ †e․×
m¨vb my¨ ey (San Shane Bu) Gg. Gm. KwjQ (M. S. collis) KZ…K ©
cÖ¯Z
‧ K…Z GKwU HwZnvwmK M‡elYvc‡Î cvIqv hvq †h, b¨viv‡gBLjv gymjgvb
n‡qwQ‡jb Ges Bmjv‡gi wek¦vm‡K mgyybœZ ivL‡Z wZwb AvivKvbxq ivRv
wn‡m‡e cwiwPwZ jvf K‡iwQ‡jb| D³ M‡elYvc‡Îi mswk­ó AskUzKz GLv‡b
D‡j­L Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|

ÒAvivKvbxq ivRv Zvi †`k Z¨vM K‡i 24 eQi egx©q‡`i Aax‡b †mLv‡b
Ae¯
vb K‡ib...| Gici wZwb †e․× Ges cwiwPZ gZev` †_‡K wd‡i G‡m
Bmjvg& Ges we‡`kx gZev‡` wek¦vm ¯
vcb K‡ib| GUv Ki‡Z wM‡q wZwb
ga¨eZ©x hyM †_‡K AvaywbK hy‡M, ÔM­vm c¨v‡jm µbxKjm Gi KwíZ cixi †`k
n‡Z ÔGK nvRvi GK iv‡ZiÕ D™¢U Kí Kvwnbx‡Z Avwef©~Z nb|Ó

GKB M‡elYvc‡Îi Aci GK RvqMvq D‡j­L Av‡Q †h, Ògymwjg-


g‡½vwjqvb‡`i wbKU †_‡K G gZev` (Bmjvg) wkL‡Z GKkZ eQi †j‡M
†Mj| hLb GUv Lye fvj K‡i Dcjwä‡Z G‡jv ZLb Zviv AvivKvb mvgªvR¨
cÖwZôv Ki‡jv| 1430 mvj †_‡K 1530 mvj ch©š— GKkZ eQ‡ii Rb¨
AvivKvb evsjvi mvgš— wn‡m‡e Ae¯
vb Ki‡jv| evsjvi cÖwZ kª×v Rvbv‡jv Zv
†_‡K BwZnvm I ivRbxwZ wkLj| gviK-BD mvgªv‡R¨i 11Rb ivRv G gZev`
AbymiY Ki‡jv| 1531 mv‡j wgb web (RveyK kvn) wmsnvm‡b Av‡ivnY
Ki‡jb| Zvi mv‡_ AvivKvbxqiv Zv‡`i gymwjg wk¶vq D‪P wWMÖx AR©b
Ki‡jb Ges gymwjg iv‡R¨i wfwË ¯
vcb Ki‡jb|

wRI‡d« e¨vivK¬vD (Geofirry Barraclough) KZ©K „ m¤úvw`Z Òw` UvBg


GUjvm Ae Iqvì wnm‡UvwiÓ gvbwP‡Î AvivKvb‡K GKwU DËi cwðg evg©v
BmjvwgK ivóª wn‡m‡e †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| AvivKv‡bi †jvKRb m¤ú‡K© D‡j­L
Ki‡Z wM‡q eBwU‡Z †jLv n‡q‡Q †h, †P․Ï`k I cÂ`k kZvwã‡Z Zv‡`i
gymwjg ivR¨ wQj ¯^vaxb, cieZ©x‡Z GwU evg©v KZ©K
„ †kvwlZ nq| G gvbwPÎ

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 80


MÖ‡š
i †jL‡Ki g‡Z bviv‡gBLjvi evsjvq cjvq‡bi c~‡e© AvivKv‡b
B‡Zvg‡a¨B gymwjg kvmb cªwZwôZ n‡qwQj Ges wek¦ gymwjg BwZnv‡m ¯
vb
K‡i wb‡qwQj| 1406 mv‡j AvivKv‡b Avµg‡Yi Rb¨ eg©xq ivRv‡K Avnevb
Kiv, KwZcq wec`Mvgx †e․ׇ`i Rb¨ GUv GKUv DËg KviY n‡Z cv‡i|

Gi wfwˇZ †KD hyw³ †`Lv‡Z cvi‡e bv †h, ivRv ZLbI gymjgvb wQ‡jb bv
hLb Zvi Aaxb¯
 AwaKvsk RbMY gymjgvb wQj| hLb BLwZqvi Avj- `xb
gynv¤§` web eLwZqvi evsjv weRq K‡ib ZLb †mLvbKvi msL¨vMwiô RbMY
wQj wn›`y I †e․×| GZ`m‡Ë¡I wZwb †mLv‡b gymwjg kvmb cÖwZôv
K‡iwQ‡jb| wKš‧ ax‡i ax‡i gymjgvb RbMY e„w× †c‡Z _v‡K| †h‡nZz ga¨
Gwkqv, ga¨ cÖvP¨ cÖfw„ Z GjvKv n‡Z gymjgvbiv GLv‡b Avm‡Z _v‡K|
cvkvcvwk ¯
vbxq †jvKRbI gymwjg kvm‡bi Aš—f³y© n‡Z _v‡K| Ggb GKwU
hyM †hLv‡b †m hy‡Mi GKRb mvaviY ch©‡e¶K Bmjvg wfbœ c„w_ex‡Z
AviwKQz&B †`L‡Z cvq bv| †mbv, ivR‣bwZK Ges mvs¯‥…wZK `„wó‡KvY n‡Z
wePvi Ki‡j †`Lv hvq †h, gymwjg mvjZvbvZ‡K DbœwZ Ges mdjZvi GKwU
D¾¡j g‡Wj wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv hvq| GUv wek¦vm Ki‡Z KwVb nq †h-
GUvi ci GKUv †`k R‡qi ci gymjgvbiv GKRb Agymwjg kvmK KZ©„K
kvwmZ n‡eb|

cÖK…Z NUbv n‡‪Q †h, AvivKvbxq DcvL¨vb GKwU Lvivc D‡Ïk¨ wb‡q
AvivKv‡bi cÖK…Z BwZnvm‡K weK…Z K‡i‡Q| G‡Z AvivKv‡bi BwZnv‡m
gymjgvb‡`i f~wgKv‡K Lye †QvU K‡i †`Lv‡bv n‡q‡Q| BwZnvmwe`iv
AvivKv‡bi DcvL¨vb n‡Z c‡iv¶fv‡e ZË¡ D‡j­L K‡i AvivKvb m¤ú‡K©
wj‡L‡Qb| DcvL¨vwbK Ges BwZnvmwe`‡`i G ai‡bi eY©bvq mZ¨ weewR©Z
Z_¨mg~n cvIqv hvq| AvivKvbxq DcvL¨vb Abyhvqx, †gs m gyqvb Gi DËim~ix
‡gs Lvix ev Avjx Lvb (1434-1459) evsjvi iRvi KZ…©‡Z¡i wbKU †ekx mgq
AvZœmgc©Y K‡ib wb| wZwb †`kwUi KZ©Z „ ¡ MÖnY K‡ib, hZ`~i m¤¢e wZwb

81 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


ivgyI AwaKvi K‡ib| Zvi DËim~ix ev m cÖ
 ev Kvwjgvmv (1459-1482)
cybivq Dˇii w`‡K AMÖmi nb Ges PÆMÖvg kn‡ii KZ©Z „ ¡ MÖnY K‡ib|
Kvh©Z, H ivRviv hw` evsjvi wPý Qzu‡o †d‡jb, Zvn‡j AvivKvb ivRv‡`i
gymwjg bvg Ae¨vnZ ivLv, gy`ªvq Kvwjgvi Qvcv¼Y Kiv Ges dvmx© fvlv‡K
Awdwmqvj fvlv wn‡m‡e e¨envi Kivi Kx cÖ‡qvRbxqZv i‡q‡Q?

cviZc‡¶, myjZvb myjvqgvb kvn †_‡K myjZvb Avjx kvn ch©š— GKkZ eQi
(1430-1530) †h GMvi Rb ivRv AvivKvb kvmb K‡iwQ‡jb evsjvi mv‡_
Zv‡`i mK‡jiB Lye Aš—i½ m¤úK© wQj| Zviv BwZnvm, ivRbxwZ Ges Bmjvg
mewKQzB evsjv †_‡K wk‡LwQjb| GgbwK Zviv gymwjg wk¶vq D‪P wk¶v MÖnY
K‡iwQ‡jb| evsjvi BwZnv‡m ‡Kv_vI †KD Lyu‡R cv‡e bv †h D‡j­wLZ ivRviv
PÆMÖv‡gi cy‡ivcywi `L‡ji c`‡¶c wb‡qwQj A_ev GUv‡K `Lj K‡iwQj|
GgbwK Zviv BwZnvmwe`M‡Yi KZ©K „ evsjvi mvgš— wn‡m‡e †LZve
†c‡qwQ‡jb|

W. Gm. we. Kvbyb †Mv (Dr. S. B. Qanungo) Gi g‡Z, KwZcq BwZnvmwe`


gymjgvb bvgavix AvivKvb ivRv‡`i cÖK…Z cwiPq LyR‡Z Pvb, hviv PÆMÖvg
kvmb K‡iwQ‡jb| Zv‡`i g‡Z, evsjvi GKwU As‡ki Dci we‡kl K‡i
evsjvi GKwU cÖ‡`k PÆMÖv‡gi Dci Zv‡`i Awaiv‡R¨i ¯§„wZ wPý wn‡m‡e
AvivKvbxq ivRviv gymwjg bvg †i‡LwQ‡jb| Ab¨ GK RvqMvq D‡j-wLZ
BwZnvmwe` gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb ÔÔ`yÕ eQ‡ii GK msw¶ß kvm‡bi ci wZwb gviv
hvb| Zvici †`․wjqvi cyÎ ivb As ¶gZvq Av‡mb Ges 1494 mv‡j Aí
K‡qK gv‡mi Rb¨ kvmb K‡ib| Zvi c‡i H GKB eQi ivb As Gi gvgv
wmsnvmb `Lj K‡ib| gymwjg bv‡gi Abycw¯
wZ GUvB Bw½Z K‡i †h
PÆMÖv‡gi KZ…Z
© ¡ wQj gymjgvb‡`i nvZ Qvov|Ó

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 82


wKš‧ Avgiv wewfbœ HwZnvwmK m~Î n‡Z Rvb‡Z cvwi †h, cÖ‡qvR‡bi ZvwM‡`
ivRviv gymwjg bvg aviY K‡iwQ‡jb| ivb As Gi gymwjg bvg byix kvn Ges
ZvQv jvs Mv_v Gi gymwjg bvg †kL gayj­vn kvn|

Ab¨ RvqvMvq GKB BwZnvmwe` gš—e¨ K‡i‡Qb Ò ivb As †_‡K _vZvQv


(Thatasa) ch©š— AvivKv‡bi mKj kvmK PÆMÖv‡gi Dci Zv‡`i KZ©Z„ ¡ a‡i
ivL‡Z e¨_© n‡qwQ‡jb G Kvi‡YB Zviv gymwjg bvg MÖn‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv
Abyfe K‡iwQ‡jb|Ó

G e³‡e¨i wecix‡Z Avgiv †`L‡Z cvB †h, H mKj ivRv gymwjg bvg aviY
Ki‡Zb| Zv‡`i bvg wbgœiƒct

 ivb As = byix kvn

 ‡mwjs Mv_y = †kL gayj­vn kvn

 ‡gs ivRv = Bwj kvn

 Kvmvev`x = Bwjqvm kvn

 ‡gs m I = Rvjvj kvn

 _v‡ZQv = Avjx kvn|

gviK-BD hy‡M AvivKv‡bi `yB ivRv Bwjqvm kvn I Avjx kv‡ni cÖvß KwZcq
gy`ªv †_‡K Zv‡`i gymwjg bvg ivLvi cÖK…Z NUbv m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq|

83 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wØZxq †mwjg kv‡ni ci bvivcvw`Mx (Narapadigyi) wmsnvmb Rei`Lj
K‡ib| myZivs wZwb gymwjg bvg MÖn‡Yi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Abyfe K‡ibwb, hw`I
wZwb PÆMÖvg kvmb K‡iwQ‡jb| bvivcvw`Mxi gy`ªv n‡ZB me© cÖ_g dvm©x/bvMix
fvlv gy‡Q †djv nq Ges Zvi Dfq cv‡kB AvivKvb fvlvi Qvcv¼b Kiv nq|

BwZnvmwe` dvqvix (Phayare) `vex K‡ib †h, 1638 mv‡j PÆMÖvg †gvNj
my‡e`vi Bmjvg Lv‡bi Aaxb¯
 nq Ges Gi d‡j dvmx© / bvMix fvlv wejyß
n‡q hvq| wKš‧ HwZnvwmK cÖgvY †hgb Hall (3) cwi®‥vi K‡i †h 1666
mvj ch©š— PÆMÖvg‡K wdwi‡q †bqv nqwb| GUv cwi®‥vi fv‡e Bw½Z K‡i †h
PÆMÖvg wbqš¿‡Yi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z bq| eis †m gymjgvb n‡Z cv‡i A_ev bvI
n‡Z cv‡i|

evsjvi `w¶Y c~e© †Rjv PÆMÖvg RveyK kv‡ni Aax‡b Av‡m 1540 mv‡ji
w`‡K| hLb evsjv wQj M„n hy‡×i wbgw¾Z| †h‡nZz †gvNj, AvdMvb Ges
Avie †nvmvBb kvn es‡ki †jv‡Kiv hy‡× wb‡qvwRZ wQj| †M․o B‡Zvg‡a¨B
†gvNj‡`i Øviv `Lj n‡qwQj| wgb web (RveyK kvn) Ges Zvi DËim~ix ivRv
MÖx (†mwjg kvn), wgb dvjvDs (wmKv›`vi kvn), wgb LvgvDs ( †nvmvBb kvn)
Ges w_wi †_v`v¤§v (wØZxq †mwjg kvn) Pv‡ci gy‡L wQ‡jb †h, Zviv gymwjg
bvg ivL‡eb bvwK Zv‡`i c~e©myix‡`i Dci Av‡ivwcZ Z_vKw_Z kZ©¸‡jv c~iY
Ki‡eb| Zv‡`i DËim~ixiv gymjgvb wQj bv Ges hviv B‡Zvg‡a¨B evsjvi
kvmb n‡Z weZvwoZ n‡qwQj| GLv‡b hyw³ ms½Z fv‡e Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq
†h, †h mKj ivRv gymjgvb bvg aviY K‡iwQj Zviv AKzÉwP‡Ë gymjgvbB
wQj|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 84


ReyK kv‡ni g„Zy¨i ci w`°v (Dikka) bv‡gi GK mvaviY †jvK wmsnvmb
`Lj K‡ib| wZwb R‣bK m njv (Saw Hla) KZ©K „ mgw_©Z Ges †gs †m‡°qv
KZ©K
„ Abym„Z wQ‡jb| Giv mevB wQ‡jb mvaviY ‡jvK| Zv‡`i gymwjg bvg
wQj bv | KviY Zviv gymjgvb wQ‡jb bv| wKš‧ †gs †m‡°qvi (Sekkya) ci
•ea DËivwaKvix wgb dvjvDs ev wmKv›`vi kvn (1571-1593) KZ©K „
wmsnvmb cybi
×vi nq| Zvici Zvi cyÎ ivRv MÖx ev cÖ_g †mwjg kvn
(1593-1612), Zvici Zvi cyÎ wgb LvgDs ev †nvmvBb kvn, Zvici Zvi
cyÎ w_ wi _y`v¤§v ev wØZxq †mwjg kvn wmsnvm‡b Av‡mb | G‡`i mevB
gymjgvb bvg aviY K‡ib| wØZxq †mwjg kv‡ni g„Zz¨i ci gM †e․×MY KZ…K ©
wmsnvmb `L‡ji ga¨ w`‡q AvivKvb mvgªv‡R¨i cZb ïi
 nq| Zviv `xN© mgq
a‡i AvivKvb kvmb K‡ib| Z‡e G‡`i †KDB gymwjg bvg aviY K‡ibwb|
gviK-BD ivRvi we`vq †_‡K Avgiv ¯úó †`L‡Z cvB †h hviv •ea
DËivwaKvix wQ‡jb ZvivB †Kej gymwjg bvg aviY K‡iwQ‡jb| KviY Zviv
wQ‡jb gymjgvb| Ab¨ w`‡K Rei`LjKvixiv †Kvb gymwjg Dcvax MÖnY
K‡ibwb| ¶gZvi Rb¨ gymjgvb I †e․ׇ`i g‡a¨ cÖwZØw›ØZv mve©¶wYK fv‡e
Pj‡Z _v‡K| 1666-1710 mvj ch©š— Kvgvb wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ gymjgvb
Zxi›`vRiv ivR‣bwZK ¶gZv cy‡ivcywi n¯—MZ K‡i iv‡L| m›`v _vw`Zv Ges
_vgvWv `yÕRbB gymjgvb wQ‡jb Ges Zviv Kvgvb Zxi›`vR‡`i eskai wQ‡jb,
hv‡`i‡K BwZc~‡e© ivgwi‡Z weZvwoZ Kiv n‡qwQj| AvivKv‡bi †kl ivRviv
gymjgvb wQ‡jb- G e³‡e¨i mg_©‡b HwZnvwmK wW. wR. B. nj †h gš—e¨
K‡i‡Qb Zv GLv‡b D‡j­L‡hvM¨t

Ò1691 mv‡j myRvi Abymvixiv Zxi›`vR †hv×v wn‡m‡e ¶gZvq AwawôZ


wQ‡jb...| Zviv B‪Qv Abyhvqx ivRv‡K nZ¨v Ki‡Zv Ges AciRb‡K ¶gZvq
emv‡Zv Ges D‪P fviZ †_‡K bevMZ‡`i‡K Zv‡`i mv‡_ mshy³ Kiv n‡Zv|
1692 mv‡j Zviv ivR cÖvmv` R¡vwj‡q †`q Ges 12 eQ‡ii Rb¨ Zviv Zievix
Ges Av¸b e‡q wb‡q mg¯— †`‡ki Dci cÖKvk¨fv‡e Ny‡i †ewo‡q‡Q Ges
†hLv‡b B‪Qv †mLv‡bB †ewo‡q‡Q| †klZK, Zviv R‣bK ivRv KZ©„K civwRZ
nq whwb 1710-1731 mv‡j ivRv mv›`vwfhvqv (Sandawizaya) wn‡m‡e cÖwZôv
†c‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb Zv‡`i‡K ivgwi‡Z Zvwo‡q †`b| †mLv‡b Ges w_b Mv‡bU

85 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


I AvwKqv‡ei wbKU _vivM‡Y Zv‡`i eskaiMY Kvgvb bvg aviY K‡i wU‡K
wQj| Zviv AvivKvb fvlvq K_v ej‡Zv wKš‧ Bmjvgx wek¦vm I AvdvMvbxq
•ewkó¨ Aej¤^b Ki‡Zv| Zv‡`i †kl ivRv _vgvWv (1782-1785) cÖnmwbK
fv‡e cÖ_g ivRvi bvg aviY K‡ib Ges wZwb wQ‡jb Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e Kg
¶gZvai kvmK| AvivKvb ivRvMY KZ©K „ cÖPwjZ gy`ªvB cÖgvY K‡i †h, H
mKj ivRv wQ‡jb gymjgvb| myjZvb Avwj kv‡ni Avg‡ji GKwU gy`ªv- hv
m¤cÖwZ gviK-BD iv‡R¨ cvIqv †M‡Q- Zv‡Z dvmx© fvlvq Qvcv¼b †`L‡Z
cvIqv hvq| †hLv‡b †jLv Av‡Q|

ÒAvj­vn e¨ZxZ †Kvb Bjvn †bB| †gvnv¤§` @ Avj­vni †cÖwiZ evZ©v evnK|
Avj-vn G ivR¨‡K wPi¯
vqx Ki
b|Ó

gy`ªvwUi Aci cv‡k dvmx© fvlvq †Lv`vB Kiv Av‡Q †h,

ÒmyjZvb Avjx kvn we‡RZv‡`i RbK| Avj­vn G ivR¨‡K `xN©¯
vqx Ki
b|Ó

†KD hw` gy`ªvq Qvcvw¼Z †jLv¸‡jv g‡bv‡hv‡Mi mv‡_ ch©‡e¶Y K‡i Zvn‡j
Zvi g‡a¨ G m‡›`n _vK‡e bv †h gy`ªv cÖPjbKvix gymjgvb wfbœ Ab¨ †Kvb
a‡g©i n‡eb| hw` †KD Rei`¯—x K‡i G KvR K‡i Zvn‡j ‡m wbwðZ
Bmjv‡gi agx©q BwZnv‡mi wei
‡× KvR K‡i‡Q| Òa‡g©i g‡a¨ †Kvb
eva¨evaKZv ev evovevwo †bB|Ó gymjgvbiv Kv‡iv B‪Qvi wei
‡× Bmjvgx
Kg©Kv‡Êi cÖwZ AvbyMZ¨ Ki‡Z ev AbymiY Ki‡Z Zvi cÖwZ Pvc ev ej cÖ‡qvM
K‡i bv| BwZnv‡m G wel‡q D¾¡j `„óvš— i‡q‡Q|

wKQz BwZnvmwe` GL‡bv AvivKvb‡K GKwU †e․× iv‡R¨i mv‡_ cwiwPZ Ki‡Z
cQ›` K‡iÑ hw`I AvivKvb evsjvi myjZvb‡`i KZ…©K ¯^vaxb n‡q‡Q, gy`ªvq

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 86


Kvwjgv LwPZ K‡i‡Q Ges dvmx© fvlv‡K Av`vj‡Zi fvlv wn‡m‡e e¨envi
Kivi gva¨‡g AvivKvb ivRviv gymjgvb bvg ivLvi PP©v Ae¨nZ †i‡L‡Q| G
cÖm‡½ GKRb BwZnvmwe‡`i gš—e¨ GLv‡b D‡j­L‡hvM¨t

Òevsjvi myjZvb‡`i ¯^vaxb nIqvi ciI AvivKvbxq ivRviv eg©xq ev cvjx


Dcvwai mv‡_ mv‡_ gymjgvb Dcvwa e¨envi Kivi †iIqvR Ae¨vnZ †i‡L‡Q|
KviY Zviv ïay Zv‡`i wbR¯^ wPš—v Ges †gvNj‡`i †cÖiYvq myjZvb n‡Z Pvq
bv| ‡h‡nZz †mLvbKvi GKwU wekvj msL¨K cÖRvmvaviY wQj gymjgvb|
Av`vj‡Zi welqvw` Ges cÖkvmwbK wbqg Kvby‡bi †¶‡Î †M․o Ges w`j­xi
myjZvb‡`i †iIqvRB Zviv †g‡b PjZ| Av`vj‡Z e¨eüZ bcysmK (†LuvRv),
µxZ`vm Ges Rj-v`- meB wQj †gvNj| ivR¨wU †e․ׇ`i Aax‡b _vKv m‡Ë¡I
¸i
Z¡c~Y© me c`¸‡jv‡ZB gymjgvbiv wb‡qvM ‡c‡qwQ‡jb|

GUv †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e †h †mLvbKvi Rb mgwói g‡a¨ GKwU weivU Ask
gymjgvb cÖRv| Zviv mn‡RB ivRv †NvwlZ wfb ‡`kx ev wfbœ a‡g©i †Kvb
gZev` †g‡b wb‡e bv| †hgb K‡i Zviv iv‡óªi welq¸‡jv †g‡b †bq| G me
wel‡q cÖkœ Avm‡Z cv‡i †h, bicwZRx (Narapatigyi) †_‡K Q›`v _yWv¤§v
ch©š— ivRviv †Kb gymwjg bvg avib K‡ib bvB Ges gy`ªvq Kv‡jgvi Qvcv¼b
†`b bvB? hw`I Zviv e¨vcK gymwjg RbMY Aa~¨wlZ PÆMÖv‡gi DËi cwðg
GjvKvi kvmb ¶gZvi `vwq‡Z¡ wQ‡jb| hw`I Zviv gymwjg bv‡g bvg
‡j‡LwQj Ges gy`ªvq Kv‡jgvi Qvc w`‡qwQj Z_vwc Zv‡`i‡K gymjgvb ejvi
†Rviv‡jv †Kvb wfwË †bB| Zviv wQj g~jZ †e․× ag©vej¤^x|

hw`I GKwU †`‡ki AwaKvsk RbMY GKwU wbw`©ó a‡g© wek¦vm K‡i ZeyI
kvmK‡`i Rb¨ H agx©q `j mg~‡ni aviK evnK nIqvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| GK
nvRvi eQ‡ii AwaK mgq a‡i fvi‡Z gymjgvb‡`i kvmb _vKv m‡Ë¡I
†mLvbKvi AwaKvsk RbMY wn›`y&B †_‡K wM‡qwQj| †h‡nZz fvi‡Zi kvmKiv
gymjgvb wQ‡jb Ges Zvi cÖkvmwbK KvVv‡gv gymjgvb‡`i ixwZ Abyhvqx

87 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Pj‡Zv †m‡nZz †m mg‡q fviZ‡K wn›`y ivR¨ ejvi Avi †Kvb Dcvq wQj bv|
Abyiƒc fv‡e hw`I AvivKv‡b †e․× I gymjgvbiv evm Ki‡Zv Ges †h‡nZz
gymjgvbiv Bmjvgx kvmb Abyhvqx †`k kvmb Ki‡Zb †m‡nZz AvivKvb‡K
GKwU †e․× ivóª wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv hvq bv|

hvB †nvK, †Kvb KviY †bB †h †Kb ivRviv myjZvb nIqvi B‪Qv †cvlY
Ki‡Zv Ges †Kb Bmjvg‡K Zv‡`i ag© wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡iwQj| c„w_ex‡Z Ggb
†Kvb bRxi †bB †h, GKRb Agymwjg ivRv †P‡q‡Q †h Zv‡K gymwjg ivRv
e‡j WvKv ‡nvK|

‡Kvb GKwU †`‡ki Av`vj‡Zi fvlv ej‡Z eySvq †m‡`‡ki kvmK †kªYxi
fvlv| †gvNj fvi‡Zi Av`vj‡Zi fvlv wQj dvmx©| hw`I †mLvbKvi mvaviY
RbM‡Yi fvlv wQj Advm©x| Abyiƒcfv‡e evsjvi myjZvb‡`i Av`vj‡Zi fvlv
wQj dvmx©| hw`I †mLvbKvi cÖRv mvaviYiv wewfbœ fvlvq K_v ej‡Zv| hw`
AvivKv‡bi kvmKiv Av`vj‡Zi fvlv wn‡m‡e dvmx©‡K cÖwZôv bv Ki‡Zv Ges
AvivKv‡bi RbM‡Yi mvgvwRK, mvs¯‥…wZK Rxe‡bi mv‡_ wg‡k wM‡q Bmjv‡gi
g~j¨‡eva bv wkLv‡Zv Zvn‡j AvivKv‡b gymwjg kvmb cÖwZôvB †cZ bv|

eZ©gv‡b AvivKv‡b Ges gymjgvb Aa~¨wlZ Ab¨vb¨ †`k¸‡jv‡Z Ggb GKRbI


Agymwjg e¨w³‡K cvIqv hv‡e bv †h gymwjg bvg aviY K‡i Av‡Q| hLb †Kvb
e¨w³ ag©vš—wiZ n‡q Bmjvg MÖnY K‡i ZLb †m Zvi cyivZb eskMZ bv‡gi
mv‡_ Ab¨ GKwU gymwjg bvg MÖnY K‡i| GKRb gM ‡e․× k ‡f jy gs (Shwe
Lu Maung) whwb m¤cÖwZ Bmjv‡g `xw¶Z n‡qwQ‡jb| wZwb G e¨vcv‡i ¸i
Z¡c~Y©
`„óvš— †ck Ki‡Z cv‡ib| wZwb GLb kvn‡bIqvR k †f jy gs bv‡g mev©waK
cwiwPZ| GUv A‡bK c~e© ‡_‡K Abym„Z GKwU HwZn¨| †Kvb GKRb e¨w³
gymwjg bv‡gi Abyiƒc bvg †Kej ag©xq eB¸‡jv‡Z Luy‡R †c‡Z cv‡i| †hgb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 88


Bû`x I Lªxóvb hviv bex Beªvwng ch©š— Zv‡`i c~e© cyi
l‡`i DrcwË Zvjvk
K‡i|

G e¨vcv‡i Av‡iv A‡bK c‡iv¶ cÖgvY Av‡Q †h, AvivKv‡bi †h mKj kvmK
gymwjg bvg aviY Ki‡Zb Zviv mK‡jB Kvh©Z gymjgvb wQ‡jb| evwZwfqvq
WvP gM †iwR÷v‡i wjwLZ G wel‡qi mv‡_ m½wZc~Y© GKwU Z_¨ GLv‡b
D‡j­L‡hvM¨t

ÒAb¨ GKwU ¸i
Z¡c~Y© `vex n‡jv AvivKvbxq gv‡q‡`i WvP mš—vb‡`i‡K


evwZwfqvi Kv‡Q mgc©Y Kiv| evwZwfqvq Rvbv‡bv n‡qwQj †h, G mKj
wkï‡`i‡K gymjgvb wn‡m‡e jvjb cvjb Kiv nw&PQj Ges avwg©K WvP
Kvjwfwbóiv fxlY fxZ n‡q c‡owQj| WvP wkï‡`i wcZviv iv‡óªi †ndvR‡Z
wQj| hw` kvmKiv ‡e․× n‡Zb Zvn‡j wkï‡`i‡K †e․× ag©vej¤^x wn‡m‡eB
M‡o ‡Zvjv n‡Zv| †h‡nZz H wkï‡`i‡K gymjgvb wn‡m‡e M‡o †Zvjv n‡qwQj
†m‡nZy ejv hvq †h, AvivKv‡bi kvmKivI gymjgvb n‡q _vK‡eb|Ó

kvm‡Ki c` QvovI gymjgvbiv iv‡óªi A‡bK ¸i
Z¡c~Y© c` `Lj K‡i


†i‡LwQ‡jb| G mKj c‡`i g‡a¨ wQj cÖavbgš¿x, wmwbqi gš¿x, mwPe, MfY©i,
KvRx, mfvKwe, †mbvcÖavb cÖfw„ Z| HwZnvwmK m~Î g‡Z, wØZxq †mwjg kvnx
Avg‡ji cÖavbgš¿x wQ‡jb j¯‥vi RywRj/ j¯‥vi IqvwRi bv‡gi GK gymjgvb
e¨w³| ¸‡oB‡iv (Guerriro) Gi Z_¨ Abyhvqx, R‣bK iƒgx ivRvi Dci
¸i
Z¡c~Y© ¶gZv we¯—vi K‡ib| Kwe ‡`․jZ KvRx I Kwe AvjvI‡ji
†jLbxmg~n †_‡K G wel‡q A‡bK Z_¨ cvIqv hvq †h, gymjgvbiv
Dc‡ivwj­wLZ c`¸‡jv AwaKvi K‡i †i‡LwQ‡jb| GmKj e¨w³‡`i g‡a¨
wQ‡jb- j¯‥vi DwRi, Avkivd Lvb, †KvivBkx gvMb VvKzi, †mvjvqgvb •mq`
gymv, •mq` ‡gvnv¤§` Lvb, be ivR gRwjm Ges ‣mq` kvn cÖgLy |

89 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


hvB †nvK, gymwjg ivRv‡`i PvwiwÎK •ewkó¨ †_‡K eySv hvq †h AwaKvsk
gymwjg ivRv wQj cÖvPxb AvivKv‡bi Av`x Awaevmx| ivRvi c` Qvov Ab¨vb¨
¸i
Z¡c~Y© c`¸‡jv‡Z wewfbœ †`k n‡Z AvMZ †jv‡Kiv AwawôZ wQj|
cieZx©‡Z †h mKj †jvK GLv‡b Awfevmb MÖnY K‡iwQj Zviv n‡jv Aviex,
wgmix, wmixq, ZzKx© , Avwewmwbqvb, †ivgx (evqRvbwUqvb), †Lvivmvbx, DR‡eM,
DËi fviZxq, `vw¶bvZ¨evmx, Avmvgxq, ev½vjx, †KvUvwbwQ, G¨vwmbx,
†KvwQbxR, ga¨ Gkxq Ges Av‡iv A‡bK †`kxq| AvivKvb ivRv‡`i
kvmbvg‡j †h mKj Bmjvgx HwZnvwmK ¯§„wZ wbwg©Z n‡qwQj Zv AvR ch©š —
we`¨gvb Av‡Q| eZ©gvb gvs _v MY MÖv‡gi wbK‡U wbwg©Z gymv gmwR` wbwg©Z
n‡qwQj 14k kZvwã‡Z, gviK-BD GjvKvi wbKU KvIqvjs MÖv‡gi wbKU
mvbw`Lvb gmwR` wbwg©Z n‡qwQj †Rbv‡ij mvw›` Lvb KZ©K „ cÂ`k
kZvwã‡Z, Avjg jmKvi gmwR` wbwg©Z n‡qwQj 1668 mv‡j AvaywbK
wgbivqv kn‡ii wbKU ivDs MÖv‡g wcÖÝ myRv KZ…K © myRv gmwR` wbwg©Z n‡qwQj
1661 mv‡j wgbZvqvweqv‡b| weL¨vZ KvRx KZ…K © KvRx gmwR` wbwg©Z
n‡qwQj Ges AvwKqv‡ei me©e„nr gmwR` gymv †`Iqvb gmwR` wbwg©Z n‡qwQj
17k kZvwã‡Z|

A‡bK †e․× ivRv gviK-BD Avg‡j A‡bK c¨v‡MvWv, g~wZ© Ges ¯§„wZ¯—¤¢
wb©gvY K‡iwQj| wKš‧ 1784 mv‡j †ev`vIwdqv KZ©„K †`kwU `Lj nIqvi ci
wZwb e¨vcK msL¨K gmwR` gv`ªvmv‡K aywjm¨vr K‡i †`b| GgbwK ivRKxq
jvB‡eªix R¡vwj‡q †`qv nq Ges wn›`y-‡e․× Ges Bmjvgx hy‡Mi ¯§„wZ
wPý¸‡jv‡K aŸsm K‡i †`qv nq| †ev`vIwdqv (Bodawphaya) AvivKv‡b
we‡kl K‡i gymwjg ¯
vcZ¨ aŸs‡mi RvqMvq Av‡iv A‡bK c¨v‡MvWv Ges
cÖwZg~wZ© ¯
vcb K‡ib| Zvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj AvivKvb‡K GKwU †e․× Aa~¨wlZ
A‡ji iƒc †`qv| KviY Aviex I dvimx Qvcv¼ †Lvw`Z cÖ¯—i-‡c­U I cÖ¯—i
LÊ AvRI †m mKj c¨v‡MvWv¸‡jv‡Z cvIqv m¤¢e|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 90


e‡½i gymwjg mvjZvbv‡Zi mvs¯‥…wZK ms¯ú‡k© G‡m AvivKvb iv‡R¨i
cwimgvwß ïi
 nq cÂ`k kZvãx †_‡K| e‡½ AvdMvb ivóª †f‡½ hvIqvi
d‡j hLb ivR‣bwZK Aw¯
i Ae¯
v †`Lv w`‡qwQj, Ges †gvNj‡`i µgea©gvb
AMÖMwZi Kvi‡Y AvdMv‡bi wewkó e¨w³iv Ges Ab¨vb¨ c`¯
 gymjgvb evsjvi
c~e©vÂjxq †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z cvwj‡q Av‡m| G‡`i ga¨ †_‡K Aí K‡qK Rb †jvK
AvivKvb `iev‡i Avkªq cvq| †mLv‡b Zviv miKv‡ii K‡qKwU ¸i
Z¡c~Y© c`
c~iY K‡i| G mKj †jv‡Ki c„ô‡cvlKZvq †ek KÕRb Awfevmx gymjgvb
eyw×Rxex evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i PP©v Ae¨vnZ iv‡L|

†h mKj cÖL¨vZ gymjgvb Kwe mß`k kZvwã‡Z AvivKvb ivR `iev‡i


c„ô‡cvlKZv †c‡qwQ‡jb Zviv n‡jb- †`․jZ KvRx, AvjvIj, gvMb wmwÏKx
(VvKzi) Ges gvi`vb| Kwe †`․jZ KvRx Avkivd Lv‡bi Aby‡iva Ges
c„ô‡cvlKZvq Zvi ÒmZx gqbv I †jvi P›`ªvbxÓ wj‡LwQ‡jb| GKRb nvbvdx
gymjgvb wn‡m‡e wZwb NUbvi eY©bv K‡i‡Qb| wZwb wQ‡jb wØZxq †mwjg
kv‡ni Dc‡`óv I cÖwZi¶v gš¿x| †`․jZ KvRx Zvi c„ô‡cvlK Avkivd Lv‡bi
D‪P cÖksmv K‡i‡Qb, whwb Ab¨vb¨ Av‡iv Awfevmx gymjgvb‡`i c„ô‡cvlKZv
K‡i‡Qb| Giv n‡jb- mvC`, kvqL, †gvNj Ges cvVvb| G‡`i cvkvcvwk
wQ‡jv eªvþY,¶Îxq, I ï`ªMY| †`․jZ KvRx Zvi iPbvejx cwic~Y© Kivi
c~‡e©B gviv hvb cieZ©x‡Z Kwe AvjvIj †m¸‡jv mgvß K‡ib| AvjvI‡ji
wcZv wQ‡jb dvZvn ev‡`i gRwjm KzZz‡ei gš¿x| GK`v, hLb AvjvI‡ji
wcZv Zvi cy·K mv‡_ wb‡q †b․Kvq K‡i b`x c‡_ wbgœ evsjvi w`‡K
hvw‪Q‡jb, ZLb Zviv cZ©yMxR Rj`m~¨ KZ©K
„ Avµvš— nb| msN‡l© wcZv wbnZ
nb Ges AvjvIj AvnZ Ges e›`x nb| cieZ©x‡Z wZwb wb‡R‡K AvivKv‡b
Lyu‡R cvb, †mLv‡b wZwb AvivKvb ivRvi GKRb †mbv Kg©KZv© n‡q hvb|
GKRb `¶ ‣mb¨ nIqvi cvkvcvwk AvjvIj wQ‡jb GKRb gnv weÁgvbe,
Kwe Ges MvqK| Aviex, dvimx, ms¯‥Z … , evsjv Ges wnw›`mn †ek K‡qKwU
fvlvq Zvi h‡_ó `¶Zv wQj| AwZ mZ¡i Zvi G ¸Yvejx gvMb wmwÏKxi
`„wó‡K AvK…ó K‡i, whwb cici `yÕRb ivRvi cÖavbgš¿x wQ‡jb| gvMb wb‡RI
GKRb wk¶vwe` I Kwe wQ‡jb| Ak¦v‡ivnx †mbv`j †_‡K wZwb AvjvIj‡K

91 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gy³ K‡ib Ges Zv‡K wZwb Zvi c„ô‡cvlKZvq ivRKwe wn‡m‡e wb‡qvM †`b|
gvwjK †gvnv¤§` RvBwm iwPZ GKwU weL¨vZ wnw›` †ivgvw›UK gnvKve¨
ÒcÙveZxÓ evsjvq Abyev` Kivi Rb¨ wZwb Zv‡K `vwqZ¡ †`b| AvjvIj
mdjZvi mv‡_ Abyev‡`i KvR mgvß Ki‡jb| Zvi ÒcÙveZxÓ mgvß nq
m¤¢eZ 1651 mv‡j| Zvi cieZ©x KvR wQj weL¨vZ Avie¨ iRbxi †ivgvw›UK
Mí Òmvqdzjg~jK ew`D¾vgvjÓ| GUv mgvß n‡qwQj m¤¢eZ 1655-1659
mv‡j| Gi cieZ©x‡Z wZwb dvimx Kwe wbRvg MRbex iwPZ Ònv¯—-cvBKviÓ-
(mvZ †`k‡cÖgx) m¤úv`‡bi Kv‡R nvZ †`b| 1660 mv‡j ivRcyÎ kvn myRvi
AvivKv‡b cjvq‡bi ci G iPbvwUi KvR mgvß nq, †mLv‡b G cjvq‡bi
NUbv D‡j­L Av‡Q| kvn myRvi mv‡_ Zvi m‡›`nRbK wKš‧ A¯úó RwUjZvi
Kvi‡Y AvjvIj‡K †R‡j cvVv‡bv nq| hvB ‡nvK Lye Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨B Kwe
‡Rj †_‡K Qvov †c‡jb Ges wZwb gvmy` kvn bv‡gi GKRb cÖfvekvjx Kwe
Ges AvivKvb `iev‡ii gwš¿ †mvjvqgvb wmwÏKx KZ©„K Zvr¶wYKfv‡e mg_©b
†c‡q cybivq ¯^ c‡` envj n‡jb| †k‡li R‡bi Aby‡iv‡a BDmyd Mv`vi
dvimx Kv‡Ri Dci wfwË K‡i wZwb ÒZzndvÓ iPbv Ki‡jb| G‡m Bmjv‡gi
Kg©KvÊ I ch©‡e¶Y Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| m¤¢eZ 1664 mv‡j Zvi GK
KvRwU mgvß nq| myjvqgv‡bi c„ô‡cvlKZv Ges ZviB Aby‡iv‡a cieZ©x‡Z
AvjvIj †`․jZ KvRxi ÒmZx gqbv I ‡jvi P›`ªvbxÓ Gi evKx Ask mgvß
K‡ib| AvjvIj Zvi e„× eq‡m AvivKv‡bi GK ¸i
Z¡c~Y© gwš¿ gRwjk
b‡fvivR Gi c„ô‡cvlKZv jvf K‡ib| ‡m mgq AvjvIj wbRvg MbRexi
weL¨vZ MÖš
 ÒwmKv›`vi bvgvÓ evsjvq Abyev‡`i KvR m¤úv`b K‡ib|
wmKv›`vi bvgv wQj Av‡jKRvÊv‡ii Awfhv‡bi mgq cvi‡m¨ D™¢~Z PgK
m„wóKvix Mímg~‡ni msKjb| G¸‡jv QvovI AvjvIj Zvi e„× eq‡m A‡bK
KvíwbK Ges wjwiK KweZv iPbv K‡ib| hw`I Zvi cÖavb iPbv¸‡jv wQj
Abyev`ag©x ev dvimx iPbv †_‡K msKjb, Avi G wbq‡gB AvjvIj Avb›`
†c‡Zb| m‡›`nvZxZfv‡e wZwb wQ‡jb evsjv mvwn‡Z¨i GKRb gnvb Kwe|

AvjvI‡ji c„ô‡cvlK gvMb VvKziI AMva cÖwZfvi AwaKvix GKRb Kwe


wQ‡jb| wZwb wQ‡jb wmwÏKx cwiev‡i Rb¥ jvf Kiv GKRb gymjgvb| wKš‧

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 92


AvivKvb kvmKiv Zv‡K VvKzi Dcvwa w`‡qwQj| AvivKvb kvmKiv D‪P c`¯

Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K Giƒc A‡bK Dcvwa w`Z| gvMb VvKzi Aviex, dvimx, wn›`x
Ges evsjvq Lye cvi`k©x wQ‡jb| Zvi Kvwe¨K iPbv¸‡jvi g‡a¨ ïay
ÒP›`ªveZxÓ GLb ch©š— Avwe¯‥…Z n‡q‡Q| ivRcyÎ exifb I ivRKb¨v
P›`ªveZxi ga¨Kvi fv‡jvevmvi Mí-Kvwnbx wb‡q iwPZ G MÖš
Lvwb‡Z mvwn‡Z¨i
gbb I c×wZ cÖ‡qvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| gvMb m¤¢eZ 1660 mv‡j gviv hvb| Zvi
mgmvgwqK Kv‡ji Kwe wQ‡jb †`․jZ KvRx| wZwb AvivKv‡bi KvwPcyi‡K Zvi
(AvjvI‡ji) Rb¥¯
vb wn‡m‡e eY©bv K‡ib| Zvi eY©bv g‡Z, GKUv
D‡j­L‡hvM¨ msL¨K Djvgv Ges kvqL eªvþY Kvq¯
‡`i mv‡_ GK‡Î wQ‡jb,
Zviv mK‡jB mvwnZ¨ PP©vq wb‡qvwRZ wQ‡jb, Ôbwme bvgvÕ wk‡ivbv‡g wZwb
GKUv gnvKve¨ iPbv K‡ib| •ewk‡ó¨i w`K w`‡q hv wQj †g․wjK Ges hv
Aviex I dvimx iPbvi Dci wfwË K‡i iwPZ nqwb eis mgmvgwqK Kv‡ji
mvgvwRK Rxeb wb‡q iwPZ|

H mKj Kwe‡`i ØvivB AvivKv‡b mvwnwZ¨K HwZn¨ cÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj hv


Aóv`k kZvwãi †kl ch©š— `xN© mgq a‡i Ae¨vnZ wQj| GLb Avgiv Aci
GK ¸i
Z¡c~Y© gymjgvb Kwe Avãyj Kwig L›`Kv‡ii bvg Rvb‡Z cvwi| wZwb
e‡jb Zvi †c․p `v` imyj wgqv wQ‡jb AvivKvb ivRvi Aax‡b GKRb Kv÷g
Kg©KZ©v Ges Zvi `v`v gvQvb Avjx wewfbœ fvlvq `¶ wQ‡jb| myZivs †`vfvlx
wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡Zb| Avãyj Kwi‡gi wcZv Avjx AvKeiI wQ‡jb GKRb
wkw¶Z e¨w³| Avãyj Kwig mvw`K bvbv AvwZqvevi bvgK GK m¤ú`kvjx
ewY‡Ki c„ô‡cvlKZv †c‡qwQ‡jb| Zvi Aby‡iv‡a Avãyj Kwig 1789 mv‡j,
`yj-v gRwjk (Dulla Majlish) wk‡ivbv‡g GKwU dvimx iPbvi evsjv Abyev`
K‡ib| c~‡e© wZwb ÔnvRvi gvmv‡qjÕ I ÔZvgg AvbRvixÕ wk‡ivbv‡g Av‡iv `yÕwU
iPbvi KvR m¤úbœ K‡ib| hvi wfwË wQj dvimx iPbv| AvivKv‡bi Ôev›`viÕ
bvgK GK MÖvg m¤ú‡K© ej‡Z wM‡q Kwe Avãyj Kwig e‡jb, Ò †m MÖv‡g evm
KiZ KvRx, gydZx, Djvgv, ag©xq dKxi Ges `i‡ek| †mLv‡b emevmiZ D‪P
c`¯
 gymjgvbiv ivRvi mv‡_ eÜzZ¡c~Y©fv‡e Avjvc Av‡jvPbv KiZ| hLbB
†Kvb GK Mixe †jvK †m MÖv‡g †eov‡Z AvmZ, Zv‡K KLbI Lvwj nv‡Z

93 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wdwi‡q †`qv nZ bv| bvgvR covi Rb¨ mvw`K bvbv AvwZqvevi KZ©K
„ †mLv‡b
GKwU gmwR` wbwg©Z n‡qwQj| G Kv‡Ri Rb¨ wZwb mgv‡R mycwiwPZ nb| †m
MÖv‡g †ek wKQz Djvgvi AvMgb NU‡jv, Zviv bvgv‡Ri e¨vcv‡i wbqwgZ
Z`viKx Ki‡Zv| Rygv Ges wbqwgZ bvgvR cov‡bvi Rb¨ ch©vqµ‡g Zv‡`i
GKRb‡K LZxe I Aci Rb‡K Bgvg wb‡qvM ‡`qv n‡qwQj|

lô Aa¨vq
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 94
†ev`vIdvqvi Aax‡b AvivKvb (1784-1824)

gviK-BD kvm‡bi cZb wQj †ivwn½v‡`i Rb¨ GK gvivZ¥K ûgwK, †h‡nZz


gviK-BD Gi cÖ‡Z¨KwU welq wQj ev¯—weKfv‡e I mvs¯‥…wZKfv‡e Bmjvgx
fveavivi| myZivs gviK-BD cZ‡bi ci G me wKQzB aywjmvr n‡q †Mj|
nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb Ges RvZxqZvev`x †e․ׇ`i‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv|
gymjgvb •mb¨, wkíx Ges cÖ‡K․kjxmn Kgc‡¶ wek nvRvi (20,000)
e›`x‡K AvivKv‡bi cvnvox GjvKv w`‡q ga¨ evg©vq Zvwo‡q ‡`qv n‡qwQj|
Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †_‡K nvRvi nvRvi †jvK cw_g‡a¨ gviv †Mj| †e․ׇ`i kª‡×q
ÔgnvgywYiÕ cÖwZg~wZ© evgv©q wb‡q hvIqv n‡qwQj| G cÖwZg~wZ©wU GL‡bv g¨vbWvj
kn‡ii AvivKvb c¨v‡MvWvq eZ©gvb Av‡Q| †ev`vIdvqvi •mb¨iv gymjgvb I
wn›`y‡`i AcÖZzj AwfwjLb I ¯§„wZ wPýmg~nI wQwb‡q wb‡q hvq|

AvivKv‡bi Dci †ev`vIdvqvi 40 eQ‡ii kvmb GKwU bRxi wenxb •¯^ivPvi


I wbôziZvi wb`k©b enb K‡i| †jvK‡`i‡K †Rvic~e©K †mbvevwnbx‡Z fwZ©
Kiv n‡Zv Ges †Rvic~e©K Zv‡`i Øviv wewfbœ KvR Kiv‡bv n‡Zv| mvaviY
gvby‡li mvg‡_©¨i evB‡i AwaK nv‡i Ki msMÖn Kiv n‡Zv| nvRvi nvRvi
AvivKvbxq e›`x‡`i‡K evgv©q c¨v‡MvWv wbg©v‡Yi Kv‡R cy‡iv mvZ eQi a‡i
µxZ `v‡mi b¨vq KvR Ki‡Z n‡qwQj| †ev`Idvqvi KZ©K „ †Rvic~e©K cwikªg
I †Rvic~e©K †mbvevwnbx‡Z Kv‡R eva¨ Kiv Ges ¯
vbxq Kg©KZ©v‡`i AhvwPZ
n¯—‡¶c AvivKvbxq‡`i‡K Av‡iv wew‪Qbœ K‡i Zzjj Ges Zv‡`i ga¨ †_‡K
nvRvi nvRvi †jvK mxgvš— GjvKv w`‡q cvwj‡q PÆMÖvg ‡Rjvq P‡j †Mj| ejv
n‡q _v‡K 1798 mv‡ji g‡a¨ AvivKv‡bi `yÔ Z…Zxqvsk †jvK Zv‡`i gvZ…fw~ g
†Q‡o P‡j wM‡qwQj| ïay 1798 mv‡jB Kgc‡¶ `k nvRvi (10,000) †jvK
PÆMÖv‡g Xy‡K c‡owQj Ges Zvi cieZx©‡ZB Av‡iv eû †jvK Zv‡`i‡K
Abymib K‡iwQj| B÷ BwÊqv †Kv¤úvbx G mKj †jvK‡`i PÆMÖvg †Rjvi
`w¶Yvs‡k Ae¯
vb Kivi e¨vcv‡i †Kvb AvcwË Kij bv| LvwbKUv gvbweK
Kvi‡Y Ges LvwbKUv †m A‡j RbmsL¨v e„w×i Kvi‡Y Zv‡`i‡K ¯^vMZ
Rvbv‡bv n‡qwQj|

95 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


1811 mv‡j wKs †ewis wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ AvivKvb kiYv_©x R‣bK wQbweqvb
(Cinbyan) eg©xq‡`i wei
‡× GK we‡`ªvnx evwnbx msNe× Ki‡jb| wZwb GKwU
D‡j­L‡hvM¨ msL¨K evwnbx‡K GKwÎZ Ki‡jb, †Kv¤úvbxi mxgvbvq cÖ‡qvRbxq
cÖ¯w‧ Z MÖnY Ki‡jb Ges AvivKv‡bi mxgvš— AwZµg K‡i †ivnvDs
(Mrohaung) G Ae‡iva Ki‡jb| hw`I wZwb †Rvic~e©K †ivnvDs Gi `Lj
wb‡Z e¨_© n‡jb, wKš‧ `~‡M©i i¶xevwnbx‡K G k‡Z© AvZœmgc©Y Kiv‡Z eva¨
Ki‡jb, †h Gi RbM‡Yi Rxeb I m¤úwˇK Aegy³ ivL‡Z n‡e| hvB‡nvK,
`~‡M©i i¶xevwnbxi AvZœmgc©‡Yi ci wZwb A‡bK eg©xq ‣mb¨, Zv‡`i cwievi
Ges Zv‡`i mg_©‡Ki‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jb| 1811 mv‡ji gvSvgvwS mg‡qi g‡a¨
AvivKv‡bi mgMÖ eg©xq cÖ‡`k¸‡jv hv AvwKqv‡ei AvaywbK †Rjvi cÖwZwbwaZ¡
K‡i wQbweqv‡bi n¯—MZ nq| Gi d‡j eg©xq Ges weªwUk‡`i ga¨Kvi m¤úK©
Av‡iv †Rvi`vi nq|

Zv‡`i nviv‡bv ivRZ¡ wdwi‡q Avbvi Rb¨ eg©xqiv el©v †g․my‡gi †k‡l w`‡K
cÖ¯‧wZ MÖnY Kij| •mb¨ msMÖn Kiv n‡jv Ges †c¸ cÖ‡`k‡K wZb nvRvi
†jvK mieivn †`qvi Rb¨ wb‡`©k †`qv n‡jv| 66 cvDÊ e›`yK I `yÕkZ Rb
†jvK enb Kivi Rb¨ GKwU fvmgvb †mZz ¯
vcb Kiv n‡jv| cieZx©‡Z
†UBjvi bv‡gi GKRb Bs‡i‡Ri †bZ…‡Z¡ Av‡iv GKwU RvnvR e„w× Kiv n‡jv|
1811 mv‡ji 6 wW‡m‡¤^i G †b․eni †i½yb †_‡K hvÎv ïi
 K‡i, GK mßvn
c‡i Av‡iv GKwU ¶z`ª eni hy³ nq| evg©vb ¯
j evwnbx †bMvixm G G‡m
GKwÎZ n‡jv, †mLvb †_‡K Zviv mv‡›`v‡qi w`‡K avweZ n‡jv Ges †mLvb
†_‡K Zviv †b․c‡_ ivgix DcK~‡j wM‡q †cu․Qj| Zviv †Mv‡q›`v‡`i‡K †LvR
Kivi Rb¨ mgy`ª c‡_ †ewi‡q coj| Zviv †Q`yevi wbK‡Ui Øxc¸‡jv‡Z
wZbkZ ibZix‡Z †gvU 10 nvRvi †jvK †`L‡Z †c‡jb| Zv‡`i †bZ…Z¡
w`w‪Qj wQbweqvb| D³ hy‡× AvivKvbxqiv †kvPbxqfv‡e civwRZ nq| G hy‡×
Zviv 200wU iYZix nvivq| wQbweqvb Zvi Aewkó •mb¨‡`i‡K ¸wQ‡q GKÎ
Ki‡Z m¶g nq| wZwb bZzb iƒ‡c hy× ïi
 Kivi R‡b¨ mvn‡mi m‡½

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 96


cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡ib| G j‡¶¨ wZwb gvÎ 100wU iYZixi GKwU eni wb‡q AMÖmi
nb| wKš‧ GeviI wZwb civwRZ nb Ges wZwb Zvi ibZixi A‡a©K nvwi‡q
†d‡jb| eg©xqiv ZLb †Q`yev `Lj Kij| wQbweqvb Ges Zvi Abymvixiv
mxgvš— c‡_ cjvqb Kij|

we‡`ªvnx Ges kiYv_©x‡`i K‡Vvi cÖ‡ivPbvq eg©xqiv ZLb mxgvš—eZ©x GjvKv


Ry‡o wbwØ©avq Awfhvb cwiPvjbv KiwQj| GgbwK Zviv †Kv¤úvbxi KZ©c „ ¶‡K
G e‡j ûgwK w`Z †h, Zviv †mLv‡b ¯
j evwnbx †cÖiY Ki‡e Ges †d«Â‡`i
mn‡hvwMZvq Zviv †UKbvd †_‡K XvKv ch©š— mgMÖ †`‡ki Dci AvwacZ¨ we¯—
vi K‡iwQj| AvivKvb we‡`ªvnx cÖavb‡`i AvZ¥mgc©Y bv Kiv ch©š— Zviv G
AvwacZ¨ Ae¨vnZ †i‡LwQj|

hvB ‡nvK, D‡ËRbv cÖkwgZ Kivi Rb¨ †Kv¤úvbx KZ©„c¶ GKwU K~U‣bwZK
D‡`¨v‡M MÖnY K‡iwQj| †m mgq PÆMÖv‡g D‡ËRbv Av‡iv †Rvi`vi nw‪Qj|
KjKvZv †_‡K Av‡iv kw³, mvnm I Rbej G‡mwQj| hLb e„wó ïi
 n‡q †Mj
ZLb eg©xqiv †ivnvDs (Mrohaung) Gi w`‡K wd‡i †Mj|

mxgv‡š—i Dfq cv‡ki •mb¨‡`i Abycw¯
wZi my‡hvM wb‡q QvBweqvb AvivKv‡b


wØZxqevi Avµg‡Yi cwiKíbv MÖnY Ki‡jb| wZwb bvd b`x cvi n‡q
gvDs`vI G evg©vi mxgvbvi `Lj †bb Ges GKwU †QvU eg©xq wew‪Qbœ GjvKv‡K
civwRZ K‡ib, wKš‧ eg©xq‡`i Øviv Lye `ª
Z cybivq Zv `Lj n‡q hvq|
AvivKvbiv Zv‡`i †b․Kv wb‡q cvwj‡q hvq wKš‧ Zv‡`i A‡b‡K Wy‡e hvq| †h
mKj AvivKvbxq cÖv‡Y †eu‡P wM‡qwQj Zv‡`i A‡b‡KB PÆMÖvg †Rjvq cvwj‡q
hvq| K‡qK gvm c~‡e©i cwiw¯
wZ GLb cybivq †Kv¤úvbxi GjvKvq msNwUZ
n‡jv Ges eg©xqiv Zv‡`i AvZœmgc©Y `vex Kij|

97 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wQbweqvb †Kv¤úvbxi Rb¨ GKUv gv_v e¨v_vi KviY n‡q `uvovj| Zv‡K
‡MÖdZvi Kivi wb‡`©k †`qv n‡jv, wKš‧ †KDB Zv‡K AvUK Ki‡Z cvij bv|
1812 mv‡ji b‡f¤^i gv‡m wQbBweqv‡bi Abymvixiv K·evRvi `Lj K‡i Ges
K·evRvi kni‡K Zv‡`i cÖavb Kvh©vj‡q cwiYZ K‡i| AvivKv‡bi Dci
cieZ©x Awfhvb cwiPvjbvi Rb¨ wZwb †mLv‡b RvnvR wbg©v‡Yi KvR ïi

K‡ib| GKB gv‡m †Kv¤úvbxi evwnbx¸‡jv ivgy‡Z NvwU ¯
vcb K‡i Ges
PÆMÖvg n‡Z wQbweqvb evwnbxi Dci GKwU †h․_ AvµgY Pvjvq Ges Zv‡`i‡K
Zv‡`i cÖavb Kvh©vjq †_‡K weZvwoZ K‡i| wQbweqvb mxgvš— AwZµg K‡i
ÔwgbM­vwRÕ (Minglagyi) †Z Zvi †jvK‡`i‡K GKwÎZ K‡i Ges AvivKv‡bi
ga¨w`‡q †ivnvDs Gi w`‡K AMÖmi nq| wKš‧ Zviv AvivKvb‡`i Øviv Avµvš—
n‡q civwRZ nq| wQbweqvb cÖvq 150 Rb Abymvix wb‡q bvd b`xi GKwU
D‪P cÖkvLv n‡q cjvqb K‡i| eg©xqiv Zvi cjvqbiZ wew¶ß †jvK‡`i‡K
avIqv K‡i mxgv‡š— wb‡q hvq| Avµg‡Yi Dci Av‡iv GKwU RwUjZv Rb¥
jvf K‡i| G RwUjZv •Zwi nq g~jZ we‡`ªvnx‡`i cÖeÂbvq| 1815 mv‡j
wQbweqv‡bi g„Zz¨ ch©š— wQbweqvb I eg©xq‡`i Avµg‡Yi mgm¨v Ae¨vnZ
_v‡K|

wQbweqv‡bi g„Zz¨i ci eg©xqiv weªwUk cÖRv‡`i Dci GKwU ¶z`ª wbh©vZ‡bi


avivevwnK AvµgY cwiPvjbv K‡ib| cvewjK mvwf©‡mi nvwZ wkKvix‡`i Dci
evi evi AvµgY Pvjv‡bv nq Ges †mLvbKvi †jvK‡`i‡K nZ¨v Kiv nq A_ev
Zv‡`i‡K Zz‡j wb‡q wM‡q µxZ`vm wn‡m‡e wewµ Kiv nq, hw`I Zv‡`i e¨emv
evwYR¨ weªwUk mxgv‡iLvi g‡a¨ Ae¨vnZ wQj| bvd b`xi gy‡L Aew¯
Z
kvnvcixi †QvU Øxc AwaKv‡ii e¨vcv‡i GKwU Pzw³ cªwZwôZ n‡qwQj, ZeyI
GUv A‡bK eQ‡ii Rb¨ B÷ BwÛqv †Kv¤úvbxi AhvwPZ `L‡j wQj| PÆMÖv‡gi
†b․Kv mg~‡ni Dci †Uvj Av‡ivc Kiv nq Ges †Kvb GK NUbvq K‡qKRb
gvwSi Dci ivMvwš^Z nq Ges Zv‡`i GKRb‡K nZ¨v K‡i| G msN‡l©i m~Î
a‡i bvd b`xi c~e© cv‡k A¯¿avix †jvK‡`i mgvMg ïi
 nq | `w¶Y PÆMÖv‡gi

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 98


†jvKRb fq Ges k¼vi g‡a¨ Zv‡`i w`b AwZevwnZ Ki‡Z _v‡K| 1823
mv‡ji 24 †m‡Þ¤^i iv‡Z kvnvcix Øx‡c Awfhvb Pvjvq| GK nvRvi †jvK
ØxcwU‡Z AeZiY K‡i| †mLvbKvi A‡bK †jvK‡K nZ¨v K‡i I A‡bK‡K
AvnZ K‡i Ges evKx‡`i‡K Øxc †_‡K Zvwo‡q †`q| †ev`vIdvqvi
kvmbvg‡j AvivKv‡bi Ae¯
v BwZnvmwe` nvi‡f ms‡¶‡c eY©bv K‡i‡Qb hv
GLv‡b D‡j­L‡hvM¨t

Ò1785 mv‡j AvivKvb weR‡qi cÖ_g eQi †_‡K AvivKvb wek„sLj Ae¯
vi
g‡a¨ wQj| Rxe‡bi Rb¨ †`․‡o †div GKRb eg©xq Dcwb‡ewk‡Ki Rb¨
e¨wZµg †Kvb welq wQj bv| fqvbK cÖZ¨vNvZ Av`vq Kiv n‡qwQj| wKš‧
Aw¯
wZkxjZv Ae¨vnZ wQj| AvivKvbxq‡`i A‡bK Awf‡hvM wQj: Zviv
miKv‡ii wei
‡× bq eis ‣¯^ivPv‡ii wei
‡× we‡`ªvn KiwQj| Zv‡`i‡K wewfbœ
`~‡M©i m`i`߇i WvKv n‡Zv| hLb Zviv evg©vq wbi¯¿ Ae¯
vq Avm‡Zv ZLb
Zv‡`i‡K AvUK Kiv n‡Zv Ges Zv‡`i Dci nZ¨vhÁ Pvjv‡bv n‡Zv| Zv‡`i
wbKU †_‡K †Rvi c~e©K Puv`v Av`vq QvovI Zv‡`i Dci cvkweK wbh©vZb
Pvjv‡bv n‡Zv| Gfv‡e wZb nvRvi †jvK‡K †gBKwUjv DcZ¨Kvq †W‡K Avbv
nq Ges Zv‡`i †KnB Avi wd‡i Av‡m wb| Qq nvRvi †jvK‡K wmsgvB Gi
wei
‡× KvR Kivi Rb¨ cvVv‡bv n‡qwQj| †mLv‡b A‡bK †jvK †iv‡M gviv
†Mj| 1797 mv‡j hLb wgbvMg c¨v‡MvWv •Zwii Kv‡R Av‡iv `yÕ nvRvi
†jv‡Ki cÖ‡qvRbxqZv †`Lv w`j ZLb †jv‡Kiv hy‡×i `vgvgv evRv‡jv Ges
mevB hy‡×i Rb¨ †R‡M DV‡jv| eQ‡ii ci eQi hy× _v‡g wb Ges RbMY
wbf©‡q ivZ KvUv‡Z cv‡i wb| AvivKvb KL‡bv Rbeûj wQj bv Ges GLb GUv
GKUv gi
f~wg‡Z cwiYZ n‡qwQj| kni¸‡jv Rbïb¨ n‡q c‡owQj Ges
†mLv‡b R½j M‡o D‡VwQj Ges †mLv‡b ‡`Lvi gZ wKQzB wQj bv, wb¯—ä
wbR©bZv... welbœZv... Ges g„Zz¨|Ó

99 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 100
mßg Aa¨vq
weªwUk `L‡j AvivKvb

weªwUk-evg©vb 1g hy× (1823-25)

¶Y¯
vqx `L‡ji ci eg©xq •mb¨iv kvnvcyix Øxc Z¨vM K‡i P‡j hvq| weªwUk
KZ…K © GKwU G¨vs‡jv evwg©R d«w›Uqvi Kwgkb ¯
vc‡bi c`‡¶c †f‡¯— hvq|
ZLb 1824 mv‡ji Rvbyqvix‡Z evg©vb †Rbv‡ij ev‡›`vjv AvivKv‡bi Dci
AvwacZ¨ Kv‡qg K‡i Ges PÆMÖv‡g Awfhvb cwiPvjbv Kivi Rb¨ •mb¨‡`i‡K
GKwÎZ Ki‡Z ïi
 K‡ib| weªwUk kw³‡K †nq Ki‡Z eg©xq‡`i‡K e¨vcK
gvÎvq †bZ…Z¡ †`qv n‡qwQj| Zviv Abyaveb Ki‡Z e¨_© n‡qwQj †h fviZxq
cwiw¯
wZ `ye©jZvi Rb¨ cÖK…Z KviY wQj, †h `ye©jZv PÆMÖv‡g ‡`Lv‡bv n‡qwQj
Ges gvivVv‡`i cy‡ivcywi civRq ch©š— fvi‡Zi miKvi Zvi c~e© wm×v‡š—
GKwU K‡Vvi c`‡¶c ‡bqvi g‡Zv Ae¯
v‡b wQj bv| ev‡›`vjvi †bZ…‡Z¡ evg©vi
•mb¨evwnbx bvd b`x cvi n‡q AvµgY ïi
 K‡i| B‡Zvg‡a¨ weªwUk •mb¨iv
Av›`vgvb ØxccyÄ †_‡K wbgœ evg©vq GKwU ‡b․ Avµg‡Yi cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡i|
weªwUk KZ©„K iv½yb `L‡ji Lei ev›`yjvi fvi‡Zi AMÖmi nIqv‡K _vwg‡q

101 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


w`‡qwQj| iv½yb cybi
×v‡ii Rb¨ ci ci `yRb eg©xq †Rbv‡ij‡K †cÖiY Kiv
n‡qwQj wKš‧ Zviv e¨_© n‡qwQj Ges nvbv`vi ewn¯‥vi Kivi Rb¨ ev›`yjv‡K
Avnevb Rvbv‡bv n‡qwQj| ev›`yjv 60,000 •mb¨ Ges GKwU Kvgvb eni wb‡q
Awfhvb kyi
 Ki‡jv| Zvi cÖ_g `ywU AvµgY cÖwZ‡iva Kiv n‡qwQj Ges
`vbyevqy‡Z wd‡i †h‡Z eva¨ Kiv n‡qwQj| 1825 mv‡ji 1jv GwcÖj hLb
`vbyevqy `L‡ji c`‡¶c wbw‪Qj ZLb ev›`yjv hy‡× wbnZ n‡jv | 1825
mv‡ji ïi
i w`‡K †ivnvDs `Lj Kiv n‡qwQj| Zvici `ª
Z †m`yev I
Qv‡›`v‡qI `Lj Kiv nq| AvivKvbiv Kvh©Ki fv‡e weªwUk kvm‡bi Aax‡b
Av‡m 1825 mv‡j|

AvivKv‡bi Dci weªwUk kvmb (1825-1947)

1826 mv‡j hLb weªwUkiv AvivKv‡bi kvmb ¶gZv MÖnY Ki‡jv ZLb
AvivKv‡bi Ae¯
v wQj wek„‫‫‬Ljvc~Y©| hv K‡qK eQi a‡i weivR KiwQj|
weªwUk‡`i wei
‡× GKwU e¨vcK we‡`ªvn cÖkwgZ Kiv nq 1836 mv‡j Ges
†`kwU cÖK…Z A‡_© kvš— n‡Z ïi
 K‡i| me©cª_g AvivKvb Ges Zvbv‡Qwi‡gi
`ywU cÖ‡`k fvi‡Zi MfY©i †Rbv‡i‡ji mivmwi ZË¡veav‡b c„_Kfv‡e kvwmZ
n‡Z _v‡K | wKš‧ AvivKvb `ª
Z evsjvi MfY©‡ii Aax‡b ¯
vbvš—wiZ nq Ges
Gi mycvwi‡›Ub‡W›U PÆMÖv‡gi Kwgkbv‡ii Aax‡b KvR Ki‡Z _v‡K | †mLv‡b
fviZxq kvmb KvVv‡gv Pvjy Kiv nq Ges fviZxq AwfÁZvi ùziY NUv‡bv
nq| hvB †nvK A‡bK c~‡e© AvivKv‡bi wbR¯^ Kwgkbvi wQj Ges kvmb ¶gZv
Zvi Dci b¨¯— wQj| cÖkvmb cybM©Vb Kiv n‡jv| Kwgkbv‡ii Aax‡b †Rjv
Kg©KZ©v, GKRb †Rjv g¨vwR‡óªU, wePviK Ges Ki Av`vqKvixi `vwqZ¡ cvjb
Ki‡Zv| Zvi Aax‡b Rywbqi mnKvix Kwgkbvi wQ‡jb, whwb ïbvwb Av‡e`b
e¨ZxZ Ab¨vb¨ mKj ¶gZvi PP©v Ki‡Zb| †mLv‡b GKRb ¯
vbxq ivR¯^
Kg©KZ©vI wQ‡jb| whwb gv‡qv_y¸B (Myothogyi) wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ wQ‡jb| wZwb
†Rjvi ivR¯^ welqK Kvh©vejxi Z`viwK Ki‡Zb| gv‡qv_y¸BÕi Aax‡b
†mLv‡b wKq~b-IK&m wQ‡jb| hviv ¯^ ¯^ †Mvθ‡jv †_‡K ivR¯^ Av`vq
Ki‡Zb| wKqyb IKm‡`i Aax‡b Bfv- Ms ev MÖvg cÖavb wQ‡jb| kni¸‡jv‡Z

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 102


UvDbkxc Awdmvi (TO) wb‡qvM Kiv n‡qwQj| Ges cÖ‡Z¨K wU. I wQ‡jb
Zvi GjvKvi g‡a¨ GKRb g¨vwR‡÷ªU, wePviK Ges mnKvix Kv‡j±i|

AvB‡bi kvmb m~wPZ nIqvi d‡j RbM‡Yi e¨vcK Kj¨vY mvwaZ nq|
`vßwiK wbh©vZb Ges Puv`vevR A‣ea †NvlYv Kiv nq| WvKvwZ‡K c~‡e©i
Zzjbvq A‡bK k³ nv‡Z `gb Kiv nq| Rxeb I m¤ú‡`i wbivcËv G bZzb
kvmb Avg‡ji GKwU cwiwPZ •ewk‡ó¨ cwiYZ nq| kvwš— wd‡i Avmvi mv‡_
mv‡_ AvivKvbxq RbMY hviv c~‡e© eg©xq‡`i Øviv weZvwoZ n‡qwQj ev hy‡×i
mgq cvwj‡q wM‡qwQj Ges AwaKvsk PÆMÖvg ‡Rjvi `w¶‡Y Avevm M‡o
Zz‡jwQj Zviv mevB AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i c~‡e©i Ni evox‡Z wd‡i Avm‡Z ïi

Ki‡jv| AvivKvbxq RbM‡Yi Av‡›`vj‡bi welq¸‡jv‡K BwZnvmwe` dvqvix
msw¶ß AvKv‡i eY©bv K‡i‡Qb hv GLv‡b Zz‡j aiv n‡jv-

ÒAvivKv‡b †Mvj‡hv‡Mi mg‡q †hmKj †jvK Zv‡`i †`k †Q‡o cvwj‡q hvq
Ges DcK~jxq Øxc PÆMÖv‡gi `w¶Yvs‡k GgbwK evsjvi my›`i eb GjvKvq
emwZ ¯
vcb K‡iwQj Zviv mK‡jB ch©vqµ‡g †`‡k wd‡i Avm‡Z jvM‡jv Ges
DËi c~e©v‡j el©v †g․my‡g cyi
l gwnjv, wkï Zv‡`i mKj m¤ú` mnKv‡i
†b․Kvq K‡i m¤¢eZ evsjv n‡Z Zv‡`i ‣cZ…K f~wg‡Z cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡i| 30 ev
40 eQi c~‡e© Zviv Zv‡`i Avcb f~wg Z¨vM K‡iwQj|Ó

GUv Awf‡hvM Kiv cy‡ivcywi weåvwš—Ki Ac-D‡Ïk¨ cÖ‡Yvw`Z †h †ekxi fvM


gymjgvb weªwUk kvmbvg‡j AvivKv‡b cÖ‡ek K‡iwQj| cÖK…Z NUbv n‡‪Q †h,
†h mKj †jvK Øviv B‡Zvc~‡e© weZvwoZ n‡qwQj kvwš— ¯
vc‡bi ci Zviv
AvivKv‡b Zv‡`i N‡i wd‡i G‡mwQj| wKš‧ 1942 mv‡ji gymwjg we‡ivax
`v½v †_‡K eZ©gvb mgq ch©š— Pjgvb b„-ZvwË¡K DrLvZ Awfhvb Ae¨vnZ
_vKvi d‡j nvRvi nvRvi †ivwn½v‡K AvivKvb Z¨vM Ki‡Z Pvc cÖ‡qvM Kiv
n‡qwQj|

103 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


weªwUk miKvi ¶z`ª cwim‡i AvivKv‡b †hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯
vi Dbœqb K‡i, hvi
Dci wbf©i K‡i AvivKv‡bi e¨vcK K…wl m¤ú`‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv n‡Zv|
AvivKvb ‡d¬vwUjv ‡Kv¤úvbxi j¸‡jv (w÷g kxc) AvwKqve †Rjv¸‡jvi
Af¨š—ixY †b․c‡_ wbqwgZ PjvPj Ki‡Zv| G¸‡jvi gva¨‡g cÖ‡Z¨K †Rjv
kn‡ii m`i `߇ii mv‡_ AvivKv‡b †hvMv‡hvM cwiPvjbv Kiv n‡Zv| G
†Kv¤úvbxwU AvwKqve I AvivKv‡bi cvnvwo †Rjv¸‡jvi m`i `ßi c¨v‡jUfvÕi
gv‡S Ges wKqvKcy Ges mv‡›`v‡q †Rjv¸‡jvi gv‡SI mvwf©m e¨e¯
vcbv
eûgvwÎK b`x c‡_i `i
b GLvbKvi moK †hvMv‡hvM wQj m‡ívbœZ| AvivKvb
†d¬vwUjv †Kv¤úvbx eyw_WvDs Ges gvDs`vD Gi gv‡S h_vµ‡g gvqy I bvd
b`xi Dci w`‡q GKwU w÷ªg Uªvg c_ ‣Zwi K‡iwQj| GUvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj G
`ywU b`x c‡_ Zv‡`i w÷gvi †hvMv‡hvM i¶v Kiv| GQvov AvivKv‡b †Kvb
‡ijc_ wQj bv|

‡hvM‡hvM e¨e¯
vi DbœwZi d‡j AvivKvb GKwU mg„×kvjx evwYR¨ †K‡›`ª


cwiYZ n‡jv| cÖ‡Z¨K eQi cÖwZ‡ekx PÆMÖvg n‡Z A‡bK †g․mygx kªwgK
(†deª
qvix †_‡K †g) AvivKv‡bi gv‡V KvR Kivi Rb¨ GLv‡b Avm‡Zv Ges
Zviv mvaviYZ MÖx¯§Kv‡ji †k‡l evwo‡Z wd‡i ‡hZ | A‡bK e¨emvqx ïay
evwYR¨ Kivi Rb¨B AvivKv‡b cÖ‡ek Ki‡Zv| wKš‧ Zviv cÖavbZ ivRavbx
bMix AvwKqv‡e Ae¯
vb Ki‡Zv| AwaKvsk Awfevmx hviv weªwUk kvm‡bi mgq
AvivKv‡b AbycÖ‡ek K‡iwQj Zviv wØZxq wek¦ hy‡×i mgq †`‡k wd‡i hvq Ges
evKxiv wb DBb Gi we‡`k we‡ivax Awfhv‡bi mgq cvwj‡q hvq|

Dcwb‡ek we‡ivax RvZxq Av‡›`vjb

1885 mv‡j weªwUkiv mg¯— evg©v‡K GKÎ Ki‡Yi KvR mgvß Ki‡jv| iv½yb
K‡j‡Ri wk¶v_©x‡`i †bZ…‡Z¡ Bqs †gbm eyw×ó G‡mvwm‡qkb (WMBA) bv‡gi

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 104


GKwU msMVb cÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj 1906 mv‡j| G msMVbwUi cÖavbZ D‡Ïk¨
wQj †e․×ev` I wk¶vi Dbœqb NUv‡bv Ges mgvR †mev Kiv| WMBA
ivR‣bwZK wm×vš— wb‡Z ïi
 K‡i 1917 mv‡ji cÖ_g w`‡K| Zvic‡i WMBA
wb‡R‡K ‡Rbv‡ij KvDwÝj Ae evg©xR G‡mvwm‡qkb (GCBA) G cwieZ©b
K‡ib| hv wQj Av‡iv we¯—…Z Ges eg©xq RvZxqZvev‡`i GKwU bgybv| GCBA
eg©xq‡`i AwaKv‡ii Rb¨ weªwUk miKv‡ii mv‡_ hy× K‡i| BwZg‡a¨ GCBA
Ges Ab¨vb¨ gnj we‡kl K‡i †e․× mb¨vmx KZ©K „ wfb †`k we‡ivax cÖPviYv
Av‡iv †Rvi`vi nq| fviZxq‡`i Zvwo‡q †`Iqvi Rb¨ Ges Zv‡`i gvjvgvj
jyU K‡i †bIqvi Rb¨ †Rviv‡jv †NvlYv †`qv nq| 1930 mv‡j iv½y‡b fviZ
we‡ivax `v½vi cÖv`yf©ve N‡U| wek¦we`¨vj‡qi Zi
Y wk¶v_©x‡`i Øviv 1930
mv‡ji w`‡K Wy evgv GwkqvIqvb (Avgv‡`i evg©v msMVb) bv‡gi GKwU bZzb
msMVb cÖwZwôZ nq| Zi
Y G wk¶v_©xiv wb‡R‡`i‡K _vwKb (gvóvi) e‡j
m‡¤^vab Ki‡Zv| Zviv mgMÖ †`k e¨vcx GKwU fviZ we‡ivax AvZ¼ cÖPvi
K‡iwQj| AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½v, †K›`ªxq evg©vi Rviev‡`, c~e© evg©vi cvš
viv
Ges `w¶Y evg©vi evï‡`i g‡Zv †bwUf gymjgvb‡`i‡K mvaviY fviZxq‡`i
†_‡K Avjv`v Ki‡Z evg©vi †e․× mvaviY e¨_© n‡qwQj| fviZxqiv
Dcwb‡ewkK kvmbvg‡j AvivKv‡b cÖ‡ek K‡iwQj Ges Zv‡`i Dci AhvwPZ
fv‡e AvµgY K‡iwQj|

BwZg‡a¨ evg©vi agx©q I ivR‣bwZK †bZviv AvivKvbxR gMm BbUz _vwKb cvwU©
(Arakanes Maghas into Thakin Party) †K msMwVZ Kivi Rb¨
AvivKv‡b Av‡mb| AvivKvb cvwU©i D‡Ïk¨ wQj weªwUk‡`i Kej †_‡K evg©v‡K
gy³ Kiv| hvB †nvK _vwKb cvwU© evg©vi ¯^vaxbZv hy‡×i mgq AvivKvb gM‡`i
g‡b gymwjg we‡ivax N„Yv mÂvwiZ K‡iwQj| G hy‡×i D‡Ïk¨ wQj `ywU fMœx
cÖwZg m¤cÖ`v‡qi g‡a¨ we‡‪Q` NUv‡bv| hLb we‡‪Q‡`i welqwU DV‡jv ZLb
weªwUk miKvi evg©vi wewfbœ m¤cÖ`v‡qi 24wU cÖwZwbwa `j‡K evg©v †Mvj‡Uwej
m‡¤§j‡b Avmvi Rb¨ Avnevb Rvbv‡jv| m‡¤§jbwU 27 b‡f¤^i, 1931 mvj
†_‡K 12B Rvbyqvix, 1932 mv‡j jʇb AbywôZ nq| ‡ivwn½v‡`i †Kvb
cÖwZwbwa‡K †mLv‡b Avnevb Rvbv‡bv nqwb| KviY weªwUkiv Zv‡`i‡K fviZxq

105 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


m¤úª`v‡qi g‡a¨ MY¨ Ki‡Zv bv| †e․× gM _vwKb Rbve Zzb As M (Mr. Tun
Aung gyaw) AvivKvb cÖwZwbwa‡`i †bZ…Z¡ †`q| weªwUk-fviZ †_‡K evg©vi c„_K
nIqv Ges 1937 mv‡j Af¨š—ixY ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb Aby‡gv`b nIqvi d‡j
_vwKbiv kvmb ¶gZvi c~Y© wbqš¿Y cvq| wefvR‡bi gvÎ GK eQi c‡i 1938
mv‡j iv½y‡b Avev‡iv gymwjg we‡ivax `v½vi cÖv`yf©ve N‡U| _vwKb cvwU©i †bZv
As mvb AvivKv‡b GKwU †Mvcb mdi K‡i cÖvq GKB mg‡q| †mLv‡b †g‡evb
kn‡i AbywôZ GKwU m‡¤§j‡b wZwb †hvM †`b| wZwb AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½v‡`i
e¨vcv‡i Zvi bxwZ mn evg©vi ¯^vaxbZv AR©‡bi e¨vcv‡i †K․kj wb‡q
AvivKvbxq †e․× †bZv‡`i mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡ib| BD‡iv‡c hLb wØZxq wek¦
hy× ïi
 n‡jv ZLb evg©vi MfY©i KZ©K „ evg©v‡K wgÎ kw³i mv‡_ mwµq fv‡e
hy‡× AskMÖn‡Yi †NvlYv †`qv nq| As mvb Ges Zvi 30 Rb mn‡hvMx
†Mvc‡b Rvcv‡b P‡j hvq| Ges †mLv‡b Zviv Rvcvbx‡`i c„ô‡cvlKZvq evg©v
¯^vaxbZv •mb¨ (Barma Independence Armey) MVb K‡i| 1941 mv‡ji
23 wW‡m¤^i Rvcvbxiv iv½y‡b †evgv wb‡¶c K‡i| weªwUkiv evg©v Ges AvivKvb
†_‡K cÖZ¨veZ©b K‡i fvi‡Z P‡j Av‡m| mv‡eK †Rbv‡ij wb DBb Gi
†bZ„‡Z¡ we. AvB. G. evwnbxi cÖ_g `jwU gDjwgqvb n‡q iv½y‡b †c․Qvq 1942
mv‡ji ïi
i w`‡K| Gi d‡j evg©vq fviZxq‡`i Ges AvivKv‡b †ivwn½v‡`i
g‡b gvivZœK AvZ‡¼i m„wó nq| fviZxqiv BwZg‡a¨ m¤¢eci mKj i
U w`‡q
evg©v †_‡K cvwj‡q †h‡Z ïi
 K‡i|

1942 mv‡ji gywmjg nZ¨vhÁ

hLb weªwUkiv m‡i †Mj ZLb AvivKvb wefv‡Mi cÖkvmb gM ‡e․× BD wKqvI
wKb (Un kyaw Khine) Gi Dci wbf©ikxj n‡q coj| Zvi Dci AvivKvb
wefvMxq Kwgkbv‡ii `vwqZ¡ Ac©Y Kiv n‡qwQj| G cÖkvmb gM‡`i‡K
AwZgvÎvq Lywk K‡iwQj| _vwKb m`m¨iv wewfbœ ai‡bi `ybx©wZi Kvi‡Y
miKvi KZ…K © hv‡`i Rb¨ c‡ivqvbv Rvix Kiv n‡qwQj- Zv‡`i †Mvcb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 106


Avkªq¯
j n‡Z †ewi‡q Gj Ges cÖKvk¨ jyUZivR I `m~¨e„wË ïi
 Kij|
gymjgvbiv wQj Zv‡`i Avµg‡Yi wPivPwiZ wkKvi| Rvcvbx‡`i Øviv
AvwKqv‡e †evgv wb‡¶‡ci ci †mLvbKvi wewfbœ kni I MÖvg †Q‡o AwaKvsk
gymjgvb Zv‡`i wbR¯^ evox-N‡i P‡j hvq| Gi KviY wQj Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU
wg_¨v cÖPviYv Pvjv‡bv n‡qwQj †h AwZmË¡i AvwKqv‡e GKwU gymwjg we‡ivax
`v½vi cÖv`yf©ve NU‡Z hv‡‪Q|

Rvcvbxiv 1942 mv‡ji 23 †k gvP© AvwKqv‡e †evgv we‡ùviY NUvq, d‡j


A‡bK weªwUk, †MviLv, wecyj msL¨K AZ¨vaywbK me A¯¿ †d‡j †i‡L cvwj‡q
hvq| KwZcq Kzc_Mvgx Kv‡ib m`m¨ gM ag©v܇`i kw³ Av‡iv e„w× Ki‡Z
Zv‡`i Kv‡Q Gme wewµ Kij A_ev Awdmvi, cywjk Awdmvi Ges cywjk
Kb‡÷ej‡`i mKj A¯¿ AvUK Kij, †h mKj A¯¿ RbM‡Yi wbivcËv weavb
Ki‡Z weªwUkiv †d‡j †i‡LwQj| AwaKš‧ gM Kwgkbvi BD wKqvI wLb GKwU
†b․Kv †evSvB K‡i A¯¿ I †Mvjvevi
` wKqvDKZvI Ges wgbweqvq mieivn
Kij|

_vwKb m`m¨iv gymjgvb‡`i jvB‡m‡ÝK…Z mKj A¯¿ AvUK Kij| myZivs


_vwKbiv GLb A¯¿-k‡¯¿ mymw¾Z n‡jv, Ab¨w`‡K gymjgvbiv Cgv‡bi (wek¦vm)
e‡j ejxqvb n‡q A¯¿wenxb Ae¯
vq Lvwj nv‡Z c‡o _vKj| Avmbœ aŸshÁ
Abyaveb Ki‡Z gymjgvbiv cy‡ivcywi e¨_© n‡jv| kÎ
‡`i †gvKv‡ejv Kivi
Rb¨ Zviv AjxK Kíbv †cvlY Ki‡jv| Ges Zv‡`i A‡b‡K GUvB Avkv
Ki‡jv †h, Zv‡`i gM eÜyiv Zv‡`i‡K i¶v Ki‡e| gymjgvbiv msMwVZ wQj
bv Ges Zv‡`i‡K cwiPvjbv Kivi g‡Zv †KD wQj bv|

107 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


B‡Zvg‡a¨ gMiv gymjgvb‡`i Dci AvµgY Kivi mvwe©K cÖ¯w‧ Z MÖnY Kij|
Zviv wgbweqvq GKwU †Mvcb ‣eVK Ki‡jv Ges •eVK †_‡K Zviv wb‡gœv³
wm×vš—¸‡jv MªnY Ki‡jv|

1. wZbwU K¨vUvMwi‡Z _vwKb ‣mb¨iv wef³ _vK‡e| Zv‡`i g‡a¨


GK`j e›`yK, Av‡iK`j Zievwi Ges Ab¨ `j ej-g aviY Ki‡e|

2. G evwnbx¸‡jvi wPd KgvÊvi wn‡m‡e _vK‡eb mvb wKqvI As (San


Kyaw Aung), wØZxq KgvÊvi wn‡m‡e _vK‡eb gs wKqvI Ges Zzb njv
As (Tun Hla)| wKš‧ Avµg‡Yi wb‡`©k Avm‡e †cÖwm‡W›U _vwKb _v
hvb njv (Thakin Tha Zan Hla) Ges fvBm †cÖwm‡W›U BD
†dv wLb Gi c¶ †_‡K|

3. G Avµg‡Yi j¶¨ I D‡Ïk¨¸‡jv n‡‪Q wbgœiƒc:

K. AvivKv‡bi ¯^vqZ¡ kvm‡bi Rb¨ hy‡× weªwUk Dcwb‡ewkK‡`i wec‡¶


Rvcvbx‡`i mg_©b †`qv|

L. †`k n‡Z mKj Kvjv‡`i‡K- mv`v Kvjv (weªwUk) Ges Kv‡jv Kvjv
(fviZxq)- Zvwo‡q †`qv Ges Zv‡`i ab m¤úwË gM‡`i Kj¨v‡Y ev‡Rqvß
Kiv|

M. ‡ivvwn½v Ges Kvgvb‡`i‡K GLv‡b _vK‡Z AbygwZ †`qv| hviv AvivKv‡b


K‡qK cÖRb¥ a‡i emevm Ki‡Q| wKš—y Zv‡`i‡KI PvUvMvBqv‡`i g‡Zv Zvwo‡q
†`qv hw` Zv‡`i †Kvb Kg©KvÊ AcÖZ¨vwkZ e‡j cÖgvwYZ nq|

†ivwn½v Ges eg©xq‡`i AvivKv‡bi Ae¯
v‡bi AbygwZ welqK wm×vš—wU †bqv


n‡qwQj ïaygvÎ gM †e․ׇ`i GKwU `‡ji AvB Iqv‡ki Rb¨| gymjgvbiv
`xN©w`b a‡i Zv‡`i cvkvcvwk emev‡mi d‡j Zviv gymjgvb‡`i cÖwZ D`vi
AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 108
`„wófw½ †cvlY Ki‡Zv| ev¯—weK c‡¶, evg©vi _vwKb †bZviv Ges Zv‡`i
AvivKvbxq mn‡hvMxiv AvivKv‡bi mKj gymwjg RbMY‡K wPiZ‡i DrLvZ
Kivi Rb¨ A‡bK w`b Av‡M ‡_‡KB loh‡š¿i Rvj ey‡b AvmwQj| _vwKbiv
†`L‡jv †h, Lye `ª
Z evg©vi ¯^vaxbZv wbKUeZ©x nw‪Qj Ges G wek„‫‫‬Lj I
Aw¯
wZkxj cwiw¯
wZ‡Z hw` gymjgvb‡`i‡K wbg~©j Kiv bv hvq Zvn‡j Zviv
¯^vaxbZv DËi evg©vq GKwU ¯
vqx gv_v e¨_vi KviY n‡q _vK‡e| AvivKv‡b
gM †e․ׇ`i‡K _vwKbiv cÖ‡eva w`‡qwQj †h, Zv‡`i †e․× a‡g©i Rb¨
gymjgvbiv GKwU gvivZœK ûgwK| e¯‧Z GUv wQj `ywU fwMœcÖwZg m¤úª`v‡qi
g‡a¨ ¯
vqx wefvRb •Zwi Kivi Rb¨ GKwU K~U‡K․kj| hv‡Z K‡i Zviv wef³
RbMY‡K mn‡RB kvmb Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges AvivKvb‡K Zv‡`i ¯
vqx Dcwb‡ek
evbv‡Z cv‡i| wKš‧ Kzc_ Mvgx gMiv gymjgvb‡`i wei
‡× lohš¿ Ki‡Z _v‡K
Ges Zviv gymjgvb‡`i mv‡_ GK‡Î ¯^vaxbZv Dc‡fvM Kivi cwie‡Z© Aax‡b
_vKv‡KB †ekx cQ›` Ki‡Zv| GLb, AvwKqve e¨ZxZ mgMÖ †`k †jvjyc
_vwKb‡`i Aaxb¯
 n‡q co‡jv| weªwUk‡`i P‡j hvIqvi ci gyn~‡Z©B wn›`y Ges
PvUMvBqv gymjgvb‡`i †`vKvbcvU¸‡jv‡Z jyUZivR ïi
 n‡jv| Gme
†jvK‡`i AwaKvskB cvwj‡q †Mj| †ivwn½v‡`i‡K Zv‡`i eÜz cÖwZg PvUMvBqv
gymjgvb‡`i Z¨vM Ki‡Z wb‡`©k †`qv n‡jv| Gme RbM‡Yi cÖvq mevB
cjvqb Ki‡jv| wKš‧ a~Z© gMiv Gi ciI _vg‡jv bv| gymjgvb‡`i evRvi
G‡Ki ci GK AhvwPZ fv‡e jyU Kiv n‡jv|

BD wcwbqv w_nv (U Pinnya Thiha), BD _v Rvb njv (U Tha zan Hla),


BD mvb wKqvI Ges BD gs wKqvD cÖgLy bv‡gi AvivKv‡bi _vwKb †bZviv
gymjgvb‡`i Dci mvaviY nZ¨vhÁ Pvjv‡bvi wb‡`©k w`j| Gfv‡e 1942
mv‡ji 28 gvP© ee©‡ivwPZ gymwjg nZ¨vhÁ ïi
 n‡jv| wgqvbweqv kniZjxi
Aax‡b Pvbwewj MÖv‡gi wbiciva gymjgvb‡`i Dci _vwKbiv Suvwc‡q co‡jv|
gymjgvbiv cÖvY c‡Y hy× Ki‡jv| wKš‧ Zviv _vwKb‡`i cÖej Avµg‡Yi gy‡L
wUK‡Z cvi‡jv bv| †h‡nZz Zv‡`i ivB‡dj¸‡jv wQj AZ¨š— ¶gZvm¤úbœ Avi
gymjgvb‡`i A¯¿¸‡jv wQj ¯
vbxq Ges gvÜvZv Avg‡ji| gM Ges Zv‡`i cÖfy
_vwKb‡`i Øviv hy× PjvKvjxb mg‡q jyUZivR, nZ¨v, al©Y Aev‡a Pj‡Z

109 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


_v‡K| nvRvi nvRvi wbivciva cyi
l, gwnjv Ges wkï wbnZ nq| †ivwn½viv
civwRZ nq| A‡bK †jvKRb b`x‡Z Svwc‡q co‡jv Ges A‡b‡K e‡bi g‡a¨
nvwi‡q †Mj| muvZwi‡q hvIqv †jvK‡`i‡K ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv| gM
cïiv Zv‡`i `xN© Zievwi w`‡q Aa© g„Z cyi
l, gwnjv Ges wkï‡`i‡K wbg©g
fv‡e Mjv †K‡U †dj‡jv| hviv †eu‡P wM‡qwQj Zv‡`i‡K aviv‡jv Qzwi w`‡q
UzK‡iv UzK‡iv K‡i †K‡U †djv n‡jv| †ivwn½v hyeZx Kb¨v Ges igYx‡`i‡K
al©‡Yi ci nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv Ges wb®úvc wkï‡`i‡KI wbôzifv‡e †g‡i †djv
n‡jv| cÖwZ‡ekx gMiv Zv‡`i (†ivwn½v) Mevw`cï, avbPvj GgbwK †cvlvK
cwi‪Q`I wQwb‡q wb‡q ‡Mj| ¯^Y© †i․‡c¨i gZ g~j¨evb wRwbmcÎ _vwKb
†bZviv wb‡q wb‡jv Ges Ab¨vb¨ e¯‧ mvgMÖx ee©i WvKvZ‡`i‡K w`‡q †`qv n‡jv
| wbivciva f~³ †fvMx‡`i i‡³ †jg‡iv b`xi cvwb †jvwnZ eY© aviY Ki‡jv|

cieZ©x w`b 29 †k gvP© w¶ß gMiv †jvs ivBP G AvµgY Ki‡jv| †ivwn½viv
cÖPÊ Avµg‡Y Zv‡`i cÖwZ‡iva Kivi †Póv Ki‡jv | wKš‧ G‡Z Zviv civwRZ
n‡jv| A‡bK cyi
l, gwnjv Ges wkï wbnZ n‡jv| A‡bK gwnjv Zv‡`i mwZZ¡
i¶vi Rb¨ b`x‡Z Suvwc‡q co‡jv| A‡bK †jvK b`x muvZwi‡q cvUvwiwKj­vi
w`‡K cvwj‡q †Mj| b`xi †Kvb GKwU cvi nIqvi RvqMvq gMiv cjvqbiZ
†ivwn½v‡`i‡K AvUK Ki‡jv| cÖ_‡g Zviv Zv‡`i gvjvgvj¸‡jv wQwb‡q wbj
Zvici Zv‡`i wbg©g fv‡e nZ¨v Ki‡jv| †ivwn½v my›`ix Kb¨v I igYx‡`i‡K
Zv‡`i evox‡Z wb‡q †Mj Ges wKQzw`b Zv‡`i †h․b evmbv wbevi‡Yi ci
Zv‡`i‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jv | _vDswM‡bv Nv‡U cÖvq 15 nvRvi ‡jvK‡K wbôzi
gM‡`i Zievwii wb‡P ewj n‡Z n‡jv| cÖvq 10 nvRvi cyi
l, gwnjv I wkï‡K
AvdvKvi Wvjvi gy‡L AvUK K‡i ivLv n‡jv | AvdvKvi Wvjv n‡‪Q GKwU
ce©Z ¸nv| Zv‡`i mKj‡K †mLv‡b nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv|

Pvbwewj Ges wgbevB kniZjxi jygevB †kvi‡K aŸsm Kivi ci _vwKbiv


wg‡evb kn‡ii gymwjg Aa~¨wlZ ivBmvDs Ges cv‫‫‬Lv MÖv‡g AvµgY cwiPvjbv

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 110


Ki‡jv 1942 mv‡ji 1jv GwcÖj| MÖvg `ywUi 15 nvRvi †ivwn½v Awaevmx‡`i
cÖvq A‡a©K‡K nZ¨v Kiv nq| ivgix kn‡ii wbKU wKqvDKwgqvI Rbc‡`I
nZ¨vhÁ Pvjv‡bvi c`‡¶c †bqv n‡qwQj| wKš‧ Zviv A‡j․wKK fv‡e †eu‡P
†Mj| wKqvDKcvD kn‡ii gymjgvbiv KwZcq weªwUk •m‡b¨i mn‡hvwMZvq
wb¯—vi †c‡jb| Aí weªwUk •mb¨ c~e© †_‡KB †mLv‡b NuvwU K‡iwQj| 1942
mv‡ji 8 Gwcªj _vwKbiv wKqvDKUvD Ges evnvi cvovq AvµgY Ki‡jv|
AmsL¨ gymjgvb‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv |Zvici _vwKbiv gnvgywb, cvKZjx,
†kvwZwj, ev‡M©vqvcvov, bvqvmvi, Avgevox wd`vcvov, AvdvK, KvRxcvov Ges
ivIqvsMvqv cÖfw„ Z MÖv‡g AvNvZ nvb‡Z ïi
 Ki‡jv| AvdvK MÖv‡gi me‡P‡q
abx e¨w³ Av‡e`xb, Zvi ab m¤ú` †d‡j †i‡L cvwj‡q ‡Mj| gM Avµg‡Yi
c~‡e© †m ej‡Zv ÔgMiv KzK‡z ii g‡Zv, Zzwg hw` Zv‡`i cÖwZ nvo Qz u‡o gvi
Zvn‡j Zviv bxie _v‡K| Abyiƒc fv‡e Zzwg hw` gM‡`i‡K A_©Kwi `vI
Zvn‡j Zviv †Zvgvi †Kvb ¶wZ K‡i bvÕ| wKš‧ nvq! †kl gyn~‡Z© Zvi ab
m¤ú`I Zv‡K i¶v Ki‡Z cvi‡jv bv| hw`I †m nZ¨vhÁ †_‡K †Kvb g‡Z
cwiÎvY †cj wKš‧ Zv‡K iscy‡i kiYv_©x wkwe‡i †kl wbk¦vm Z¨vM Ki‡Z n‡jv
LyeB wb¯^t Ges fMœ ü`q Ae¯
vq|

B‡Zvg‡a¨ AvZvivDs Ges †cvbvMwi n‡Z gymjgvbiv duvKv n‡Z _vK‡jv Ges
_vwKb Avµg‡Yi f‡q cvwj‡q †Mj| AvwKqve kn‡ii c~‡e©i gymjgvb MÖvg-
Pvb`vgv †gIiKzj, KzBwbcivs, mvjcvov, Z‡qbcvov I ZvIKdz Ges
cvDKZvI kniZjxi MÖvg My‡jv‡Z _vwKb‡`i Avµg‡Yi fxwZ weivR KiwQj|
Abyiƒc fv‡e †ivwn½v MÖvg-†UvWvBs, †bvqvLvjx, †Rvjvcvov, wRRv Ges wKg‡K
_vwKb AvµgY I aŸs‡mi Rb¨ Uv‡M©U Kiv n‡qwQj|

Gwcª‡ji †k‡li w`‡K iv‡_WvDs I eyw_WvDs kniZjx‡Z cÖPÛ AvµgY


Pvjv‡bv nq| eyw_WvDs kniZjxi KvD‡mvb ch©š— MÖvg¸‡jv aŸsm I R¡vwj‡q
†`qv nq| eyw_WvDs Gi Dˇi Uvs evRvi Ges Zvi Pvicv‡ki MÖvg¸‡jvI

111 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gM‡`i Avµg‡Yi wkKvi nq| †j½yBb MÖv‡gi gymjgvbiv gvÎ GKwU wW.we
e›`yK wb‡q ex‡ivwPZ fv‡e gM‡`i wei
‡× hy× K‡i| wcÖbKs Gi †ivwn½viv
†b․Kvq K‡i gvq~ b`x cvi n‡q AvwKqve Øx‡c †c․‡Q| cw_g‡a¨ gMiv Zv‡`i
Dci ¸wj Pvjvq| d‡j A‡bK †jvK b`x‡Z Wy‡e gviv hvq| gwR Ges
iv‡_WvDs kniZjxi AvbyK cÖvs Ges †KvWvDs MÖv‡gi gymjgv‡biv Avkª‡qi
Rb¨ AvwKqv‡e cjvqb K‡i P‡j hvq | gvqyi‡UK, †Rvdivs Ges ivRvi wej
MÖv‡gi e¨vcK msL¨K gymjgvb Zv‡`i MÖvg ‡Q‡o AvwKqv‡e Avkªq †bq|
Avj­vni A‡kl AbyMÖ‡n AvivKv‡bi gymjgvbiv wb‡R‡`i‡K nvbv`vi‡`i
AvµgY †_‡K i¶v Kivi Rb¨ wKQz A¯¿ msMÖn K‡iwQj Ges wKQz cÖwk¶Y
MÖnY Kivi my‡hvM ‡c‡qwQj| AvwKqv‡e gymjgvb‡`i AvµgYvZ¥K Ges
cÖwZi¶vg~jK cÖ¯w‧ Z AvivKvb‡`i e„nr cwim‡i AvZw¼Z K‡i †Zv‡j| d‡j
Zviv gymjgvb‡`i Dci cÖPÊ AvµgY Pvjv‡bvi mvnm †cj bv| wKQz `yó
gM‡K AvwKqv‡ei RveŸvi Mvqvdvivq Zvwo‡q †`qv n‡jv|

eg©xq Av‡›`vj‡bi djvdj gymjgvb we‡ivax nZ¨vh‡Á Drmvn hywM‡qwQj| G


nZ¨vh‡Á gvbyl I m¤ú‡`i e¨vcK ¶wZ mvwaZ nq| 1 jv‡Li ‡ekx gymjgvb
G nZ¨vh‡Á wbnZ nq| nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb Aa~¨wlZ MÖvg aŸsm K‡i †`qv
nq| Kvjv`xb b`xi c~e©cv‡oi gymjgvb msL¨vMwiô GjvKvmg~n gymwjg
msL¨vjNy GjvKvq cwiYZ nq| wKš‧ gvbweK mf¨Zv Ges g~j¨‡ev‡ai wePv‡i
Gi ¶wZ wQj Av‡iv †ekx| 1942 mv‡ji nZ¨vhÁ AvivKvbxq‡`i g‡b Ggb
GKwU A‡gvPbxq Kv‡jv `vM †jcb Ki‡jv †h Gi ¯§„wZ ¯§iYvZx Kvj †_‡K
AvivKv‡b emevmiZ `ywU fwMœcÖZxg m¤cÖ`v‡qi g‡a¨ cybteÜzZ¡ cÖwZôvi †¶‡Î
GKwU eo evav wn‡m‡e KvR Ki‡e|

eyw_WvDs Gi hy×- µvwš—Kvjt

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 112


1942 mv‡ji GwcÖ‡ji †kl mßv‡ni w`‡K, hLb gM‡`i cÖPÊ AvµgY
AwMœKv‡Êi b¨vq `ª
Z Qwo‡q cowQj ZLb KvIqvmb, †Mv`ygcvov, wmbw`civs,
Avjx Bqs, dzBgvwj, †ivwqsMvWvDs Ges eyw_WvDs Ges Ab¨ mKj MÖv‡gi
gymjgvbiv Avjx Bqs Gi wgi Avn‡g` †Rvbvj, Avãyj ReŸvi †`vfvlx, Aveyj
ev‡mi †P․ayix cÖg‡y Li gZ cÖL¨vZ me gymjgvb‡`i ‡bZ…‡Z¡ gM‡`i AMÖhvÎv
cÖwZ‡iva Kivi Rb¨ GKwÎZ nq| B‡Zvg‡a¨ kZ kZ mvnmx †hv×v wKjvWvDs
Gi gv÷vi myjZvb Ges nvbPyivZvi byi Avn‡g` Rvbv‡ji gZ e¨w³‡`i
†bZ…‡Z¡ gvDsWvD †_‡K Zv‡`i A¯¿-k¯¿ I ‡Mvjvevi
` wb‡q eyw_WvDs G g~j
evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvM †`q| wKš‧ gymjgvb hviv AvivKv‡bi ga¨eZ©x GjvKvq
g„Zy¨i gyL †_‡K †eu‡P wM‡qwQj Zviv GLb gymjgvb‡`i kw³‡Z kvw³kvjx n‡q
cÖwZ‡iv‡ai †bkvq gË n‡q DV‡jv Ges Zviv Zv‡`i wbnZ wcÖqRb‡`i i‡³i
e`jv wb‡Z eyw_WvDs Gi hy‡× ¯^ZtùzZ©fv‡e AskMÖnY Ki‡jv|

gymjgvbiv mKj w`K †_‡K eyw_WvDs kni‡K wN‡i ‡dj‡jv Ges Gi cÖwZ
GKwU Kvh©Ki Ae‡iva Av‡ivc Ki‡jv| hy× ïi
 n‡q ‡Mj| Awek¦vmx gM Ges
wKQz Pxbv Awaevmx cywjk dvuwoi ev¼vi Ges Ab¨vb¨ miKvwi feb n‡Z
cÖwZ‡iva AvµgY Ki‡jv| K‡qKw`b ci hLb eyw_WvDs Gi civRq Pzovš—
n‡q †Mj ZLb eyw_WvDs Gi fxZ mš¿¯— gM I Pxbviv eyw_WvDs, AvivKvb
†RwUi w÷gv‡i nvgv¸wo w`‡q Av‡ivnY Ki‡jv| wKš‧ gMiv Pxbv cwievi‡K
w÷gv‡i DV‡Z AbygwZ w`j bv| Zv‡`i G ai‡bi AvPiY Pxbv‡`i‡K G‡ZvB
†¶wc‡q Zzj‡jv †h Zviv GLb gM‡`i w÷gv‡ii Dci ¸wj el©Y Ki‡Z
jvM‡jv| ZLb w÷gviwU gM‡`i fwZ© K‡i wb‡q †Q‡o hvIqvi Rb¨ cÖ¯w‧ Z
wbw‪Qj| fxZ mš¿¯— †jvKRb hLb w÷gv‡ii wbivc` cv‡k wM‡q wfo Rgv‡jv
ZLb w÷gviwU KvZ n‡q D‡ë †Mj Ges cvwb‡Z Wy‡e †Mj| Gfv‡e `ywU
w÷gvi hvÎx mnKv‡i AvivKvb †RwU‡Z Wy‡e †Mj| Ab¨ GKwU w÷gvi cvwj‡q
†h‡Z m¶g n‡jv| wKš‧ R‣bK dzi
K ivRv KZ©„K GB w÷gviwUI Avµvš—
n‡jv Ges †m GUv‡K Wywe‡q w`j| w÷gvi¸‡jv Wy‡e hvIqvi msev` ï‡b gM
†e․×iv wQbœ wfbœ n‡q co‡jv Ges Zviv cvnv‡oi wfZi cvwj‡q †Mj|
eyw_WvDs gymjgvb‡`i Øviv `Lj n‡jv| ZLb gymjgvbiv cjvqbiZ gM‡`i

113 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wcQ‡b Lye †Rv‡i GKUv avIqv w`j| eyw_WvDs Gi civR‡qi Lei c~e©
GjvKvi _vwKb‡`i AMÖhvÎv‡KI _vwg‡q w`j| KvIqvmb Ges iv‡_WvDs
kniZjxi ivvRvi wej ch©š— mgMÖ GjvKv gymjgvbiv ¯^vaxb Ki‡jv|
gymjgvb‡`i c¶ †_‡K Abyiƒc Avµg‡Yi f‡q gvDsWvD Gi gMiv bvd b`x
AwZµg K‡i weªwUk kvwmZ GjvKvq cvwj‡q †Mj| Avµvš— GjvKvi gymjgvb
Ges †e․× kiYv_©xiv iscyi Ges w`bvRcy‡i Avkªq wbj| ZLb gvDs`vD
kniZjx, eyw_WvDs kniZjx Ges iv‡_WvDs kniZjxi wKQz Ask mn mgMÖ
GjvKv gymjgvb‡`i Øviv cÖwZwôZ kvwš— KwgwUi kvmbvax‡b G‡jv| Rbve
Igivn wgqv kvwš— KwgwUi cÖavb wbe©vwPZ n‡jv|

1942 mv‡ji 1jv †g †Rbv‡ij CmvÕi †bZ…‡Z¡ RvcvbxR B‡¤úwiqvj Avwg©


(JIA) Ges †ev ivb As Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ evg©v b¨vkbvj Avwg© AvivKvb d«›U
(BNAAF) AvivKvb B‡qvgvi Dci w`‡q wbgœ evg©vi ‡cÖvg n‡Z wgbevqvi
D‡Ï‡k¨ hvÎv ïi
 Kij| wgqvbevqv kniwU wQj AvivKv‡b _vwKb mgw_©Z
Rvcvbx‡`i m`i `ßi| gMiv Ges †e․× wf¶ziv Zv‡`i‡K Dò Af¨©_bv
Rvbv‡jv Ges AvivKvb `L‡j †R. AvB. G. †K mvnvh¨ Kivi †Rvi cÖwZkÖ
wZ
w`j| 3iv †g Rvcvbx •mb¨ Ges we. Gb. G m`m¨iv AvwKqv‡ei K‡qK gvBj
DËi-c~‡e© Aew¯
Z †cvbv wRqv‡b †c․Qj| Rvcvbx‡`i Ae¯
vb evavMÖ¯— K‡i
Kvjv`vb b`x‡Z weªwUk †b․ NuvwU ¯
vcb Ki‡jv| 5 †g weªwUk ‡b․evwnbx †mLvb
†_‡K D‡V †M‡j Rvcvbxiv cvIKZvI n‡q AvwKqv‡ei w`‡K AMÖmi nq| 7 †g
†Kvb cÖwZ‡iva QvovB Rvcvbx‡`i Øviv AvwKqve `Lj n‡q hvq|

H w`‡bB †ev ivb As Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ evg©v b¨vkbvj Avwg© (we. Gb. G) AvwKqv‡e
Xy‡K c‡o Ges Avgevox Ges gvbycvov GjvKvi wÎkRb gymjgvb‡K wbg©gfv‡e
nZ¨v K‡i| fxZ mš¿¯— MÖvgevmx Zv‡`i Ni-evox †Q‡o cvwj‡q hvq| we. Gb.
G-Gi •mb¨ Ges gMiv MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z Xy‡K c‡o Ges Zviv Mevw` cïmn
gymjgvb‡`i mKj m¤ú` wQwb‡q wb‡q hvq| wKš‧ AvwKqv‡e Rvcvbx •mb¨‡`i

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 114


Dcw¯
wZ `y®K…wZKvix I WvKvZ‡`i nvZ †_‡K †jvKR‡bi Rxeb i¶v Ki‡Z
mnvqK f~wgKv cvjb Ki‡jv| mgMÖ AvivKvb GjvKv Ry‡o GKwU A¯^w¯—Ki
kvwš— weivR Ki‡Z _v‡K|

†gÕi cÖ_g Aa©vs‡k _vwKb †bZ…e„›` mn we. Gb. G. Gi GKwU evwnbx GKwU
cvnviv †b․Kvq K‡i evw_WvDs Gi w`‡K gvqy b`x‡Z cwiågY K‡i| ZxieZ©x
gymjgvb‡`i †¶wc‡q ‡Zvjvi Rb¨ Zviv Zv‡`i Dci ¸wj el©Y K‡i| wKš‧
BRnvi wgqv †P․ayixi †bZ…‡Z¡ GK`j mvnmx gymjgvb †mB †b․KvwU‡K wmw›`cvs
Ges †Mv`ygcvovi gvSLv‡b cvKovI K‡i †d‡j| msN‡l©i cvëv Avµg‡Y
weªwUk Kwgkbvi BD wKqvI wLb ¸wj we× n‡q gviv hvq| cvnviv †b․KvwU Avi
mvg‡bi w`‡K AMÖmi bv n‡q wcQ‡bi w`‡K wd‡i hvq| G NUbvi msev` ï‡b
gM Ges Rvcvbxiv iv‡M AwMœkg©v n‡q D‡V| wKš‧ Rvcvbxiv wPš—v fvebv K‡i
†`L‡jv †h iv‡_WvDs, eyw_WvDs Ges gvDs`vD Gi gymjgvb‡`i mg_©b e¨ZxZ
Zv‡`i Rb¨ evg©vq `Lj Awfhvb m¤úbœ Kiv LyeB KwVb n‡q co‡e Ges Zviv
AveviI cwðg w`‡K ZvwoZ n‡e| GUv QvovI Rvcvbxiv Rbve myjZvb
gvngy`, GW‡fv‡KU Rbve ‡gvnv¤§` Bqvwmb Ges _vwKb mgw_©Z bvwmi
DwÏbmn A‡bK cÖfvekvjx I MY¨gvb¨ gymjgvb‡`i mv‡_ Avjvc Av‡jvPbv
K‡i| Rvcvbxiv gvDs`vD G GKwU cÖwZwbwa `j cvVvq| cÖwZwbwa `jwU MVb
Kiv n‡qwQj gymjgvb‡`i c¶ †_‡K ‡gvnv¤§` Bqvwmb I BD †cv wLb Ges
we. Gb. G Kg©KZ©v †ev Bqvb bvs, †ev Bqvb wKs Ges †ev gvBI wbqv›U Ges
KwZcq gM m`m¨‡`i wb‡q| G cÖwZwbwa `jwU 8 Rvbyqvix wkK`vi cvovq
GKwU Rbmfv Kivi cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡i| mfvq we. Gb.G Ges gymjgvb
†bZ…e„›` e³e¨ iv‡Lb| Zviv hy×iZ `ywU m¤cÖ`v‡qi g‡a¨ kvwš— cÖwZôvi
e¨vcv‡i Av‡jvPbv Dc¯
vcb K‡i| Zviv hyw³ †ck K‡i †h, Rvcvbx‡`i
wec‡¶ hvIqv gymjgvb‡`i ¯^v‡_©i Rb¨ ¶wZKi n‡e| B‡Zvg‡a¨ ¯
vbxq
gymjgvbiv kiYv_©x‡`i mv‡_ hy³ n‡q bvw¯—K‡`i †`‡L †bqvi Rb¨ †¶v‡f
†d‡U c‡o| bvw¯—Kiv gymjgvb‡`i Dci e¨vcK nZ¨vhÁ Pvwj‡q wQj|
gymjgvb †bZ…e„›` Ges Zv¤^x mv‡ne ag©vÜ gymjgvb‡`i‡K wbqš¿Y Kivi Rb¨
h_vmva¨ †Póv Ki‡jb| D‡j­L Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h, mfvq Dfq `jB A‡¯¿ k‡¯¿

115 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


mymw¾Z wQj| m„ó †kvi‡Mv‡ji g‡a¨ nVvr K‡iB e›`y‡Ki ¸wji AvIqvR
†kvbv †Mj| Dfq c‡¶i g‡a¨ ¸wj wewbgq n‡jv| †ev Bqvb bs, †ev Bqvb
wKb Ges †ev gvq~ bvD›U gM‡`i w`K †_‡K gviv †Mj Ges Ab¨w`‡K Bbv
Avwgb, Avey eKi, nvweeyj­vn, †g․jfx Avãym mvjvg Ges †g․jfx Avãyi
ingv‡bi cyÎ gymjgvb‡`i c¶ †_‡K G msN‡l© wbnZ nj| Aewkó gMiv
cvwj‡q †Mj| †gvnv¤§` Bqvwmb Ges †cv wLb Df‡q we. Gb. G KZ©K „
†MÖdZvi n‡q †R‡j †cÖwiZ n‡jv| Zv¤^x mv‡neI †MÖdZvi n‡jb Ges Zv‡K
AvwKqv‡ei †Kvb GK †Mvcb RvqMvq e›`x K‡i ivLv n‡jv| wKš‧ Rvcvbxiv †h
†Kvbfv‡e wZbRb gymjgvb †bZv AvU‡Ki welqwU †R‡b †Mj| Rvcvbxiv
gymjgvb‡`i‡K `ª
Z †Q‡o †`Iqvi Rb¨ †ev ivb As †K wb‡`©k w`j| †m
Zv‡K †Q‡o w`‡Z eva¨ wQj|

Af~¨š—ixY mv¤cÖ`vwqK I ag©xq msNvZ ¶wYK mg‡qi Rb¨ AvivKvbx‡`i


AMÖhvÎv‡K evavMÖ¯— Ki‡jv| wKš‧ ax‡i ax‡i Zviv gvq~ DcØx‡c Xy‡K co‡jv
Ges eyw_WvDs I gvDs`vD kni A‡±ve‡ii g‡a¨ `Lj K‡i wbj| Rvcvbxiv
†mB GjvKvq A‡bK¸‡jv cÖwZi¶vg~jK Ae¯
vb •Zwi Kij Ges kÎ
‡`i
Ae¯
v Rvbvi Rb¨ fviZxq mxgvš—eZ©x n‡jv| bvd b`xi cwðg †_‡K weªwUkiv
B‡Zvg‡a¨&B m‡i wM‡qwQj|

AvivKv‡b weªwUk‡`i cybtcÖ‡ek

weªwUkiv Av‡MB K·evRvi I †UKbv‡d Zv‡`i Dcwb‡ek cÖwZwôZ K‡iwQj|


wf-†dvm© (V-Force) wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ GKwU †Mv‡q›`v msMVb AvivKvb ¯
vbxq
gymjgvb‡`i mgš^‡q M‡o D‡VwQj| hw`I cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q Zviv wQj
cÖwk¶Ynxb| wKš‧ cieZ©x‡Z mvwe©K wf-†dvm© weªwUk‡`i †Mv‡q›`v KvVv‡gvi
GKwU Myi
Z¡c~Y© I AZ¨š— g~j¨evb Ask wn‡m‡e M‡o D‡V| AvwKqve
Awfhv‡bi c~‡e© weªwUk Kg©KZ©viv Rvcvbx‡`i wbqwš¿Z GjvKvq cÖ‡ek Kivi

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 116


Rb¨ m¤¢eci mvg‡bi w`‡K AMÖmi nq| wf-‡dvm© Gi msM„nxZ Z‡_¨i Dci
wfwË K‡i Zviv cieZ©x‡Z ¶z`ª ¶z`ª Awfhvb Pvjvq| kZKiv 99 fvM
AvivKvbx gymjgvb weªwUk‡`i mv‡_ mn‡hvwMZv K‡i|KviY Rvcvbxiv wQj
Zv‡`i wPi `ykgb gM‡`i eÜz| KwZcq Ggb gymjgvbI wQj hviv †Mvc‡b
Rvcvbx‡`i mv‡_ KvR Ki‡Zv|

1942 mv‡ji 16B wW‡m¤^i †_‡K kyi
 K‡i weªwUk evwnbx gvq~ b`xi Dfq cvk
w`‡q AvwKqv‡ei GKwU †Rviv‡jv Awfhvb Pvjvq| hw`I ïi
 †_‡K g‡b
n‡qwQj †h, mewKQyB weªwUk‡`i fv‡jvi R‡b¨ Pj‡Q, Rvcvbx ev¼vi †_‡K
cÖPÊ cÖwZ‡iv‡ai m¤§yLxb nq weªwUk ‣mb¨iv| weªwUk evwnbx AveviI cÖ‡qvRbxq
cÖ¯w‧ Z MÖnY Ki‡jv| 1943 mv‡j b‡f¤^‡ii g‡a¨ Zviv AvwKqv‡ei D‡Ï‡k¨
Awfhv‡bi Rb¨ cÖ¯w‧ Z wbj| †mbv BwZnvm we‡k­lY Ki‡j †`Lv hvq 1944
mv‡ji cy‡iv eQiwU‡Z DËi AvivKv‡bi `y `j †mbvevwnbxi g‡a¨ m¤úK©Uv
LyeB b„ksm Ges `yj©f| A‡bK RvqMvq weªwUk Ges Rvcvbx •mb¨iv m¤§yL hy‡×
wgwjZ n‡qwQj|

DËi cwðg fviZ-evg©v mxgvš— w`‡q AMÖmi nIqvi cvkvcvwk weªwUk evwnbx
AvivKv‡bi g‡a¨ Xy‡K c‡o Ges 1944 mv‡ji cÖvq †k‡li w`‡K AvwKqve,
wKqvKcy Ges mvb‡`v‡q `Lj K‡i| 1945 mv‡ji AvM‡ói c~‡e©B wbgœ evg©v‡K
Rvcvbx‡`i nvZ †_‡K gy³ Kiv nq| Gfv‡e evg©v AveviI kvwš—c~Y©fv‡e
weªwUk‡`i `L‡j P‡j hvq| 6 AvMó wn‡ivwkgvq me© cÖ_g cvigvbweK †evgv
wb‡¶c Kiv nq| 9 AvMó bvMvmvwK‡Z wØZxq cvigvbweK †evgv wb‡¶c Kiv
nq| 1945 mv‡ji 2iv †m‡Þ¤^i Rvcvbxiv AvZœmgc©Y K‡i|

weªwUk‡`i wd‡i hvIqvi cieZ©x‡Z gymwjg we‡ivax `v½v Ges AvivKv‡b `ywU
e„nr kw³i jvMvZvi hy‡×i d‡j gymjgvb‡`i e¨vcK ¶wZ n‡qwQj| hv my`~i

117 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


cÖmvix cÖfve m„wó K‡iwQj| mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½vi Kvi‡Y AvivKv‡bi A‡bK
gymjgvb‡K DËiv‡j P‡j †h‡Z n‡qwQj| AvivKvb •mb¨evwnbx‡Z Kg©iZ
GKRb weªwUk Kg©KZ©v wj‡L‡Qbt

Òhy‡×i c~e© gymjgvb Ges †e․× Df‡qi Øviv AvivKvb cy‡ivcywifv‡e `Lj
n‡qwQj| Zvici 1941 mv‡j Dfq m¤úª`vq wejyß n‡q c‡o Ges ci¯úi
hy‡× wjß n‡q c‡o| †gvUvgywUfv‡e hy‡×i djvdj wQj †h- gMiv †`kwUi
`w¶Y Aa©vs‡ki KZ©Z „ ¡ MÖnY K‡iwQj Ges gymjgvbiv Dˇii evKx Aa©vs‡ki
KZ©Z„ ¡ wb‡qwQj|Ó

GKB †jLK wb‡gœv³ fvlvq Zv‡`i mvn‡mi cÖksmv K‡i‡Qb, ÒZviv wQj
K‡Vvi Ges cwikªgx gvbyl... Zviv wQj msMwVZ Ges cÖwkw¶Z| Av‡iv we¯—
vwiZ ej‡Z †M‡j ejv hvq Avwg Zv‡`i GKwU e¨vUvwjqv‡bi mv‡_ wgwjZ n‡q
hy× K‡iwQjvg| Zviv Avgvi mv‡_ Zv‡`i wbR¯^ Awaevmx‡`i gZB &AvPiY
Ki‡jv| Avwg †`Ljvg †h Zviv `xN© w`b a‡i GKwU kÎ
fvevcbœ †`‡k evm
Ki‡Q| GZ`m‡Ë¡I Zviv GiB g‡a¨ †eu‡P Av‡Q| Zv‡`i‡K Bû`x‡`i mv‡_
Zzjbv Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i...Ó|

AvivKvbx gymjgvbiv LyeB wek¦¯—Zvi mv‡_ weªwUk †mbv‡`i †mev K‡i|


weªwUk‡`i Rb¨ Zviv Rxe‡bi SzuwK wb‡Zv, hy× Ki‡Zv Ges gvivI †hZ|
m¤¢eZ Zviv g‡b Ki‡Zv Zv‡`i fwel¨Z iwPZ n‡e weªwUk‡`i weR‡qi
gva¨‡gB | weªwUk‡`i mdjZvi Rb¨ Gme †jvK‡`i Amvgvb¨ Ae`v‡bi
wel‡q GKB ‡jLK Zvi Abyfw~ Z e¨³ K‡i‡Qb Gfv‡e t

ÒG mKj †jvK e¨ZxZ Avgiv AÜ Ges ewai _vKZvg| Zv‡`i mvnvh¨B


Avgv‡`i †PvL I Kvb Ly‡j w`‡q‡Q Ges Zv‡`i †_‡K Avgiv †c‡qwQ Pjgvb
we‡bv`b| Zviv my›`i g‡bi AwaKvix I `~i`„wóm¤úbœ Dcwb‡ewkK‡`i Rb¨
AvKl©Yxq me wRwbmcÎ •Zwi KiZ...| Zv‡`i fwel¨Z Avgv‡`i nv‡Z|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 118


Avgiv Zv‡`i‡K myLx gvbyl evwb‡qwQ Ges Zv‡`i Rb¨ AvivKv‡bi evB‡i
GKwU my›`i ivóª evwb‡qwQ| †h †Kvb †m․Rb¨, AbyMÖn Ges fv‡jvevmv nvRvi
evi Avgv‡`i‡K cÖ`vb Kiv n‡Zv|Ó

weªwUk‡`i Rb¨ Amvgvb¨ AvZœZ¨vM m‡Ë¡I †ivwn½viv cÖwZ`v‡b Kx ‡c‡qwQj Zv


AvR cwi®‥vi| Zv‡`i DËicyi
liv †ivwn½v‡`i‡K AvivKv‡bi Rb¥MZ
Awaevmx wn‡m‡e ‡g‡b wb‡ZI A¯^xK…wZ Rvbv‡‪Q|

evg©vi ¯^vaxbZvi cÖv°v‡j AvivKvb

AvUjvw›UK mb` Abymv‡i evg©vi ¯^vaxbZv Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ weªwUkiv cÖwZÁve×


n‡qwQj| mb`wU Dcwb‡ewkK‡`i ¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ cÖwZÁv K‡iwQj| hviv hy‡×
R‡qi Rb¨ wgÎ kw³‡K mvnvh¨ K‡iwQj| evgv©i RvZxq †bZv As mvb (Aung
San) whwb cÖ_‡g Zvi †`‡k Rvcvbx nvbv‡`i‡K mnvqZv K‡iwQ‡jb|
weªwUk‡`i evg©vq cybtcÖ‡e‡ki †kl w`‡b Zvi †`k wgÎ evwnbxi c‡¶ mnvqZv
eÜ K‡i w`‡qwQj| 1945 mv‡j Rvcvbx‡`i AvZœmgc©‡Yi ci Ges hy‡× wgÎ
evwnbxi weRq jv‡fi ci evg©vi ¯^vaxbZv Aby‡gv`‡bi Av‡jvPbv Lye
†Zvo‡Rv‡o cybivq ïi
 nq| 1947 mv‡ji 27 Rvbyqvix jʇb AvUwj-As mvb
Pzw³ ¯^v¶wiZ nq| hv GK eQ‡ii g‡a¨ c~Y© ¯^vaxbZv Aby‡gv`b K‡i| hv
Kbw÷Uz‡q›U G¨v‡m¤^jx MVb Ki‡Z Pvi gv‡mi g‡a¨ wbe©vP‡bi AbygwZ †`q|

`yf©vM¨RbKfv‡e gM ag©v܇`i †Muvov g‡bvfv‡ei Kvi‡Y AvivKv‡bi fvM¨


A‡bK w`b a‡i †gvnvw¼Z Ae¯
vq _vK‡jv| AvivKvb †_‡K gymjgvb
RbMY‡K wbg~©j Kivi cÖwZ`v‡b Zviv B‡Zvg‡a¨B _vwKb‡`i nv‡Z AvivKv‡bi
¯^vaxbZv Ac©Y K‡iwQj| mv¤cÖ`vwqK `v½v `ywU fwMœcÖZxg m¤cÖ`v‡qi ga¨Kvi
`yiZ¡‡K Av‡iv evwo‡q w`‡qwQj| †kªYx wefv‡M `ye©j n‡q AvivKv‡bi RbMY
fwel¨‡Zi Rb¨ AMÖmi n‡Z cv‡i wb| hy× Pjv Kvjxb mg‡q Zv‡`i `yÕ
fwMœcÖZxg m¤úª`v‡qi g‡a¨ hw` GKZv _vK‡Zv, gM ‡e․ׇ`i †_‡K c„_K n‡Z

119 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ GK‡Î kvwš—c~Y©fv‡e emevm Kivi hw` B‪Qv _vK‡Zv Ges
gM‡`i hw` Aax‡b _vKvi B‪Qv bv _vK‡Zv Zvn‡j AvivKv‡bi ¯^vaxbZv GKwU
¯^cœ wn‡m‡e Avi _vK‡Zv bv| wbwðZ GUv ev¯—‡e cwiYZ n‡Zv| A_ev
Kgc‡¶ cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q GUv ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb jvf Ki‡Zv Ges cieZ©x‡Z GUv
P~ovš— ¯^vaxbZvi w`‡K avweZ n‡Zv|

ax‡i ax‡i ¯^vaxbZv mwbœK‡U Avmv‡Z g~j evg©vi gymjgvb †bZviv fwel¨‡Z
AvivKv‡bi ivR‣bwZK †K․k‡ji e¨vcv‡i wfbœ gZ †cvlY Ki‡jv| 1945
mv‡ji 24 †_‡K 26 wW‡m¤^i wcb gvbvq GKwU Ôevg©v eg©xq gymwjg m‡¤§jbÕ
(All Barma Barmes Muslim Conferance) AbywôZ nq| m‡¤§j‡b mKj
eg©xq gymwjg msMVb¸‡jv‡K GKwU gvÎ msMV‡b iƒc †`qvi e¨vcv‡i wm×vš—
M„nxZ nq| †h msMVbwUi bvg n‡e The Barma Muslim Congress (BMC)|
evg©vq gymwjg cÖwZwbwaZ¡Kvix †Kvb wew‪Qbœ msMV‡bi Rb¨ KvR bv Kivi
wm×vš— M„nxZ nq G m‡¤§j‡b| †Rbv‡ij KvDwÝj Ae evg©v gymwjg
G¨v‡mvwm‡qkb (we.wm.we.Gg.G) Gi cÖ¯—ve‡K gvÎ GK †fv‡U civwRZ
K‡i G wm×vš— M„nxZ nq| Rbve iv¾vK we. Gg. wmÕi mfvcwZ wbe©vwPZ
n‡jb| we. G. wm As mv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ Gw›U d¨vwm÷ wccjm& wd«Wg jxM (G.
Gd. wc. Gd. Gj) G †hvM †`qvi wm×vš— wbj, †h‡nZz Zviv wek¦vm Ki‡Zv †h
Zviv eg©xq‡`i †_‡K Avjv`v bq| ïaygvÎ ag© e¨ZxZ HwZnvwmK welq¸‡jv‡Z
gZ cv_©K¨ _vK‡Z cv‡i| wKš‧ wR. wm. we. Gg. G Gi Avjv`v mv¤cÖ`vwqK
cÖwZwbwa‡Z¡i Rb¨ Av‡›`vjb Ae¨nZ ivL‡jv| AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½viv Zv‡`i
Avjv`v b„-ZvwË¡KZv, HwZnvwmK †cÖ¶vcU Ges AvivKv‡bi Pjgvb cwiw¯
wZi
eY©bvi gva¨‡g weªwUk miKv‡ii Kv‡Q Zv‡`i Ae¯
vb cwi®‥vi Ki‡jv| Zviv
weªwUk miKv‡ii Kv‡Q AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb‡`i‡K †e․× AvivKvbxq‡`i †_‡K
GKwU c„_K RvwZ wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ †`Iqvi `vex Rvbv‡jv| Ges Zv‡`i
AvÂwjK ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb Aby‡gv`‡b Gi cÖwZcwË e¨envi Ki‡jv|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 120


Kv‡ib, KvwPb, mvb, Kvqvn cÖfw„ Z m¤cÖ`v‡qi gZ AvivKv‡bi Ab¨ mKj
RvwZ eg©xq RbM‡Yi mv‡_ Zv‡`i AZx‡Zi wZ³ AwfÁZv‡K wemR©b w`‡q As
mvb †K evg©v BDwbq‡bi mv‡_ †hvM w`‡Z me©vZœK mg_©b Ki‡jv bv| Zviv c~Y©
¯^vaxbZv A_ev Zv‡`i ¯^ ¯^ GjvKvi ¯
vbxq ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb `vex Ki‡jv| weªwUk
miKvi ¯^vaxbZv Aby‡gv`‡bi c~e© kZ© wn‡m‡e As mvb‡K evg©vi mKj RvwZi
mvaviY m¤§wZ jvf Ki‡Z wb‡`©k w`j| As mvb mgMÖ †`‡k mdi Ki‡jb
Ges wewfbœ RvwZi †bZ…e„‡›`i mv‡_ K_v ej‡jb Ges Zv‡`i mv‡_ gZ wewbgq
Ki‡jb| wZwb Zv‡`i‡K c~Y© ¯^vaxbZvi Iqv`v Ki‡jb| Ges wbivcËvi
wbðqZv w`‡jb| Ges •ewP‡Î¨i HK¨ dg~j © vi Aax‡b Zv‡`i ms¯‥w… Z I ag©
msi¶‡Y cÖwZÁve× n‡jb | wKš‧ mxgvš—eZ©x RbMY G e¨vcv‡i D`vmxb
_vK‡jv| 1946 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m As mvb AvwKqve mdi Ki‡jb Ges †mLv‡b
wZwb gymjgvb †bZ…e„›`‡K ¯^vaxbZv DËi evg©vq Zv‡`i h_vh_ AwaKvi
msi¶‡Yi wbðqZv w`‡jb| BD As Rvb Iqvwn Ges myjZvb gvngy‡`i ‡bZ…‡Z¡
GKwU cÖwZwbwa `j wZwb gvDs`vD Ges eyw_WvDs GjvKvq cvVv‡jb| cÖwZwbwa
`‡ji KvR wQj †mLvbKvi gymjgvb‡`i‡K G. Gd. wc. Gd. Gj- G †hvM
w`‡Z msMwVZ Kiv| wKš‧ gymjgvbiv As mvb Gi G. Gd. wc. Gd. wc †Z
†hvM †`qv †_‡K weiZ _vK‡jv|

hvB †nvK, A‡bK RwUjZvmn As mvb ¯^vaxbZv DËi AvivKv‡b wewfbœ


m¤úª`v‡qi Ae¯
v wb‡q Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨ cvs js G GKwU m‡¤§jb Av‡qvRb
Ki‡Z m¶g n‡qwQ‡jb| HwZnvwmK cvs js m‡¤§jb AbywôZ nq 1947
mv‡ji †deª
qvix gv‡m| AvivKv‡b †ivwn½v e¨ZxZ mKj RvwZ‡K m‡¤§j‡b
Avgš¿b Rvbv‡bv n‡jv| Rbve iv¾v‡Ki `„wófw½i d‡j †ivwn½v‡`i‡K †nq
cÖwZcbœ Ki‡Z As mvb †K mvnm cÖ`vb Kiv n‡qwQj| Rbve iv¾vK evg©vi
mKj RbM‡Yi cÖwZwbwaZ¡ `vex Ki‡jb| gM †e․× BD As Rvb IqvB
AvivKv‡bi mKj RbM‡Yi c¶ †_‡K m‡¤§j‡b cÖwZwbwaZ¡ KiwQ‡jb| ‡mLv‡b
mKj cÖwZwbwaivB Zv‡`i ¯^ ¯^ GjvKvi •ea ivR‣bwZK AwaKvi Av`v‡qi
Rb¨ h_vmva¨ †Póv Ki‡jv| wKš‧ AvivKv‡bi gM cÖwZwbwa bxie _vKj|
djvdj wQj †h AvivKvb eg©xq kvm‡bi Aax‡bB i‡q †Mj| ¯^vaxbZv DËi

121 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


evg©v †K›`ªxq miKvi KZ…K
© wbqwš¿Z n‡Zv| †h‡nZz Zviv ivR‣bwZK cÖwµqv
n‡Z weZvwoZ wQj Ges weªwUk miKv‡ii c¶ †_‡K fv‡jv †Kvb wKQzB Zv‡`i
Rb¨ Avm‡Zv bv, d‡j †ivwn½viv ZLb Kv‡q`-B-Avhg gynv¤§` Avjx wRbœvni
wbKU GKwU cÖwZwbwa `j †cÖi‡Yi wm×vš— wbj| Rbve wRbœvn ZLb cvwK¯—v‡bi
¯^vaxbZvi Rb¨ hy× KiwQ‡jb| gymwjg cÖwZwbwa `jwU gvDs`vD n‡Z †ei n‡q
co‡jv Ges 1947 mv‡j jv‡nv‡i Rbve wRbœvni mv‡_ †`Lv Ki‡jv| Zviv
ZrKvjxb weªwUk fvi‡Zi msL¨v Mwiô wn‡m‡e `w¶Y AvivKvb‡K cvwK¯—v‡bi
g‡a¨ Aš—fw©y ³i Rb¨ hy× Ki‡Z A_ev DËi AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb‡`i ¯^vqZ¡
kvmb Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ eg©xq †bZv As mvb †K Pvc †`qvi Rb¨ Rbve wRbœvni
wbKU Av‡e`b Rvbv‡jv| wKš‧ cÖwZwbwa `j Rbve wRbœvni mv‡_ mivmwi
mv¶v‡Zi c~‡e© As mvb Gi we‡kl ivóª`~Z Rbve iwk` Zvi mv‡_ mv¶vZ
K‡ib| As mvb Gi c¶ †_‡K ivóª`~Z Rbve wRbœvn‡K Avk¦¯— Ki‡jb †h,
gymjgvb‡`i AwaKvimg~n mvsweavwbK fv‡e mymsnZ I cÖwZwôZ Kiv n‡e|
Gi Rev‡e Rbve wRbœvn cÖwZwbwa `j‡K Avk¦¯— Ki‡jb †h Zv‡`i wPš—v Kivi
‡Kvb KviY †bB | †h‡nZz AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb‡`i fwel¨‡Zi e¨vcv‡i As
mvb †h cÖwZkÖ
wZ w`‡q‡Q Zv‡Z wZwb (wRbœvn) cwiZ…ß| Gfv‡e AvivKvbx
gymjgvb‡`i welqwU Ae‡njvq P‡j †Mj| evg©vq ¯^vaxbZv Avmvi Rb¨
gymjgvbMY fq I k¼vi g‡a¨ cÖwZ¶v Ki‡Z jvM‡jv|

cvs As m‡¤§j‡bi ci Kbw÷Uy‡q›U G¨v‡m¤^jx Gi Rb¨ †`k e¨vcx cÖ_g


mvaviY wbe©vPb AbywôZ nq 1947 mv‡ji GwcÖj gv‡m| wKš‧ evg©vi cÖv‡`w©kK
miKvi wewfbœ †Luvov ARynv‡Z DËi AvivKv‡b wbe©vPb evavMÖ¯— Ki‡jv| Gfv‡e
AvivKv‡bi gymjgvbiv evg©vi cÖ_g msweavb Lmov Ki‡Z AskMÖnY Kiv †_‡K
ev` c‡o †Mj| Ges wccjm fjv›Uvix AM©vbvB‡Rkb (wc. wf. I)
AvÊviMÖvD‡Ê P‡j †Mj| AvivKv‡b AwZ RvZxqZvev`x gM hviv weªwUk
cybtcÖ‡e‡ki ci AvÊvi MÖvD‡Ê P‡j wM‡qwQj Zviv AvivKv‡bi ¯^vaxbZv jv‡fi
¯^cœ wb‡q GLb KwgDwb÷ Ges wc.wf.I †Z †hvM`vb Ki‡jv|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 122


Aóg Aa¨vq
AvivKvbxiv †Kb ÔivóªÕ AR©b Ki‡Z cvij bv?

123 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


c¨vs js Kbdv‡i‡Ý (Pang long Conference) iv‡óªi bv‡g AvÂwjK
¯^vqZ¡kvmb M„nxZ n‡qwQj †m¸‡jv n‡jv- kvb, KvwPb, Kv‡ib Ges Kvqvn|
G Qvov kvb Ges KvqvnÕi `k eQi ci Zv‡`i AcmviY AwaKvi M„nxZ
n‡qwQj| Pxb AÂj mg~n we‡kl wWwfkb gh©v`vq Aby‡gvw`Z n‡qwQj| Dc‡i
D‡j­wLZ c`gh©v`v †h mKj ¸Yvejxi wfwˇZ cÖ`v‡bi wm×vš— M„nxZ n‡qwQj
†m¸‡jv wb‡gœ D‡j­L Kiv n‡jv-

1. GKwU ¯^‪Q †f․‡MvwjK mxgv‡iLv _vKv|

2. eg©xq‡`i Zzjbvq Ab¨ Avjv`v GKwU fvlv _vKv|

3. GKwU ¯^Zš¿ HwZnvwmK †cÖ¶vcU _vKv|

4. GKwU Avjv`v mf¨Zv _vKv|

5. A_©‣bwZK fv‡e mg_©¨evb wkí‡`¨vM Ges A_©‣bwZK fv‡e AvZœ-


wbf©ikxj GKwU m¤cÖ`vq _vKv|

6. GKwU mymsMwVZ weivU Rbmgwó _vKv|

7. GKwU Avjv`v BDwbU wn‡m‡e wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ cwiwPwZ


†g‡b Pjvi AvMÖn _vKv|

Dc‡i ewY©Z ¸Yvejxi Av‡jv‡K Ges Dc‡i ewY©Z †`k¸‡jvi Zyjbvq


AvivKvbI †Kvb As‡k wcwQ‡q †bB| Ab¨ w`‡K AvivKvb Ôiv‡óªiÕ (State)
¸‡Y ¸Yvwš^Z nIqvi Rb¨ Ab¨vb¨ iv‡óªi Zzjbvq Gi Av‡iv A‡bK BwZevPK I
cÖksmbxq welqvw` i‡q‡Q| wKš‧ AvivKvbxiv ivóª (State) cvIqv †_‡K ewÂZ
wQ‡jv, †Kbbv c¨vs js Kbdv‡i‡Ý Zv‡`i cÖwZwbwaiv GUvi Rb¨ `vexB
†Zv‡jwb| hv‡nvK, AvivKvb cÖwZwbwa‡`i c¶ †_‡K AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ GKwU
Avjv`v I ¯^Zš¿ ivóª MV‡bi `vex bv Kiv, AvivKv‡bi AwaKvsk RbM‡Yi
AvKv¶vi cÖwZdjb n‡Z cv‡i bv| evg©vi Rb¨ ¯^vaxbZv Av‡›`vj‡bi ïi

†_‡KB AvivKvbx †e․×iv GKwU Avjv`v iv‡óªi `vex‡Z Zzjbvg~jKfv‡e GKUv

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 124


fv‡jv Ae¯
v‡b wQj| A_ev Zviv G `vexUv h_vh_ †dviv‡g Dc¯
vcb K‡i‡Q|
wKš‧ G wel‡q Zviv KLbI we‡klfv‡e wQj bv| jʇb AbywôZ Òevg©v
†Mvj‡Uwej m‡¤§j‡bÓ wg: Zzb As MvI (Mr. Tun Aung Gyan) Gi ‡bZ…‡Z¡
cwiPvwjZ AvivKvbx †e․× cÖwZwbwa‡`i AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ GKUv Avjv`v ivóª
`vex Kivi mKj my‡hvM wQj| hvB †nvK, eg©xq †Wwj‡MU‡`i cxovcxwo‡Z
Zviv bxie _vKj, wKš‧ Ab¨ w`‡K kvb Ges KvwPb cÖwZwbwa `‡ji m`m¨iv
Zv‡`i iv‡óªi Rb¨ †Rviv‡jv hyw&³ Dc¯
vcb Kij|

e¯‧Z: A‡bK c~‡e©B As mvb Ges AvivKvbx †e․× †bZ…e„‡›`i g‡a¨ GKwU
†Mvcb Pzw³ m¤úvw`Z n‡qwQj| G g‡g© †h, AvivKv‡b gymjgvb mgm¨v
gxgvsmv Kiv ch©š— AvivKvbxiv ¯^Zš¿ iv‡óªi Rb¨ `vex Ki‡e bv Ges G mgm¨v
mgvav‡bi ciB †Kej eg©xqiv AvivKvb ivóª Aby‡gv`b Ki‡e|

AvivKv‡b gymwjg msL¨v Mwiô RbM‡Yi Dcw¯
wZ AvivKvbx †e․× Ges eg©xq
Df‡qi wbKUB GKUv ev¯—e mgm¨v wn‡m‡e †`Lv w`‡qwQj| Zviv †f‡ewQj †h
AvivKvb hw` GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ cvq Zvn‡j GUv Zv‡`i ¯^v‡_©i
wec‡¶ hv‡e| ZvB †mLvb †_‡K gymjgvb RbMY‡K Kgv‡bvi Rb¨ me ai‡bi
c`‡¶c MÖn‡Yi wm×vš— M„nxZ n‡qwQj| Zviv GUv fv‡jv K‡iB Rvb‡Zv †h
eg©xq‡`i mg_©b Qvov ïay AvivKvbx †e․×iv G KvR Ki‡Z cvi‡e bv| mg‡qi
e¨eav‡b hLb Zv‡`i G j¶¨ AwR©Z n‡e ZLbB AvivKvb †e․×iv Zv‡`i
wbR¯^ ivóª cv‡e| G bxj b·vi m~Î a‡iB 1942 mv‡j gymwjg we‡ivax
nZ¨vhÁ Pvjv‡bv n‡qwQj| Gi D‡Ïk¨ wQj AwaKvsk gymjgvb RbMY‡K bvd
b`xi Icv‡i Zvwo‡q †`qv| GKUv wba©vwiZ cwim‡i Zviv mdjKvgI
n‡qwQj| GK j¶ (1,00,000) wbnZ n‡qwQj Ges Kvjv`vb b`xi c~e©cv‡k¦©i
GjvKv gymwjg msL¨vjNy A‡j cwiYZ n‡qwQj| wKš‧ Zviv Zv‡`i Uv‡M©U
cy‡ivcywi AR©b Ki‡Z cv‡i wb| gymjgvb‡`i‡K cybivq iv‡_Wvs Gi Icv‡i
Zvwo‡q †`qv hvqwb Ges wecyj msL¨K gymjgvb AvwKqve Øx‡c Ges gvq~

125 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


DcØx‡cI †_‡K wM‡qwQj| hy‡×i mgq e„wUk‡`i †_‡K cÖvß A¯¿ e‡j Zviv
ZLb Lye kw³kvjx n‡q D‡VwQj| ¯^vaxbZvi cÖvKKv‡j GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ÔivóªÕ `vex
Kivi cwiw¯
wZUv AvivKvbx †e․ׇ`i wbKU fxwZKi g‡b n‡qwQj| myZivs
gymjgvb mgm¨v cy‡ivcywi mgvavb nIqv ch©š— hy× cieZx© mgq¸‡jv‡Z Zviv
eg©xq‡`i †bZ…‡Z¡ cwiPvwjZ †K›`ªxq miKv‡ii Aax‡b _vKv‡KB cQ›` Kij|
1962 mv‡ji g‡a¨ AvivKvbx‡`i cÖwZ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ÔivóªÕ `vexi cwiw¯
wZ
Av‡iv †ekx AbyK~j n‡jv, ZLb gyRvwn` we‡`ªvn B‡Zvg‡a¨B mg~‡j DrcvwUZ
n‡q‡Q Ges gM †e․×iv AvivKv‡bi Av_©-mvgvwRK, ‣kw¶K Ges ivR‣bwZK
†¶‡Î Av‡iv †ekx AMÖmi n‡qwQj| †h‡nZz gymjgvb‡`i weivU Ask GKwU
mxgvš—eZx© †mbv kvm‡bi Aax‡b e›`x wQj ZvB gymjgvb k¼v Avi †ekx ¯
vqx
nqwb| BD b~ (U Nu) wm×vš— wb‡q‡Qb †h, GUv wQj AvivKvb †e․ׇ`i `xN©
cÖwZ¶xZ cÖwZÁvi cÖwZ m¤§vb †`Lv‡bvi mgq| wKš‧ bx DBb (Ne Win) Gi
†mbv Af~¨Ìvb Zv‡`i G `vex ev¯—evq‡bi cÖwµqv‡K Av‡iv wKQz mgq wejw¤^Z
K‡iwQj| evg©vi ¯^vaxbZvi cÖvKKv‡j AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ ¯^Zš¿ ÔivóªÕ AR©‡b
AvivKvb †e․× †bZv‡`i Abxnv m‡›`nvZxZ fv‡e cÖgvwYZ nq Ô AvivKv‡b ivóªÕ
Aby‡gv`b msµvš— msm`xq weZ‡K©| G wel‡q wb‡gœ Av‡jvKcvZ Kiv n‡jv|

22 †deª
qvix, 1956 mv‡j ivgix msm`xq Avm‡bi cÖwZwbwa BD ev wgqvs (U


Ba Myain) KZ©K „ msm‡` `vwLj K…Z AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`b msµvš—
msweavb ms‡kvab we‡ji Rev‡e miKv‡ii gš¿x †ev wLb gvDs †MBj (Bo
Khin Maung Gale) e‡j‡Qb Ò1947 mv‡j ewMIK As mvb Gi g„Zz¨i c~‡e©
wZwb ivLvBb wefv‡Mi ivLvBb RvwZi welq m¤ú‡K© we‡ePbv K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb
ivLvBb †bZ…e„›`‡K e‡jwQ‡jb, Zviv wb‡RivB G wel‡q wm×vš— wb‡Z cv‡i †h,
Zviv kvb Ges LvwP‡bi b¨vq ¯^Zš¿ ÔivóªÕ MÖnY Ki‡e bv wK e„nr evg©vi Aax‡b
_vK‡e| †mB mgqKvi ivLvBb †bZ…e„›` gvBIwQj wKqvI BD (Myochit Kyaw
U) Ges BD wcwbqv (U Pinnya) g‡b Ki‡Zb †m ivLvBb‡`i Rb¨ GKUv c„_K
ivóª _vKvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB| ZvB Zviv AvivKvb‡K GKwU wefvM (Division)
K‡i ivLvi e¨vcv‡i me©m¤§wZ w`‡qwQ‡jb| Avi G m¤§wZ w`‡qwQj †m mg‡q
hLb msweavb Lmov nw‪Qj|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 126


iv-Uv-bvqv (ivLvBb RvZxq hy³ msMVb) m`m¨ BD njv Uzb cÖ
 (U Hla Tun
Pru) 19 †deª
qvix, 1958 mv‡j AvivKvb ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ msweavb
ms‡kvabx wej †ck Kivi mgq msm`‡K e‡j wQ‡jb †h Ò‡evwMIK As mvs
(Bogyoke Aung San) AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`b w`‡Z m¤§Z
n‡q‡Qb|Ó Zvi G e³e¨ †cvbvwRqvb GjvKvi msm` m`m¨ BD c w_b (U Paw
Thin) KZ…K © mgw_©Z n‡qwQj| wZwb `vex Ki‡jb †h, †evwMIK As mvb
AvwKqv‡ei GKwU MÖvg wK‡qU wLb Uvb G AbywôZ GKwU wgwUs G e‡jwQ‡jb
†h, GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª jvf Kivi Rb¨ AvivKvbx‡`i me©‡gvU PviwU •ewkó¨
wQj| AvivKvb miKv‡ii wbKU GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ BD njv Uzb
(U Hla Tun) KZ…©K msweav‡bi cÖ¯—vweZ ms‡kvabxi Rev‡e gš¿x BD ev m (U
Ba Saw) msm`‡K e‡jwQ‡jb †h hLb wZwb KjKvZvq Rvcvb wec­‡ei
welq¸‡jv wb‡q KvR KiwQ‡jb ZLb wZwb BD †_Bb †c gvB›U (U Thein Pe
Myent) Gi mv‡_ †`Lv K‡i AvivKvb A‡ji fwel¨r wb‡q Av‡jvPbv
K‡iwQ‡jb| wZwb Zvi mv‡_ Avjvc K‡iwQ‡jb †h AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ GKwU
¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ wbR¯^ miKvi MÖnY Kiv wK †m A‡ji †jvKR‡bi Rb¨
me©mvKy‡j¨ Kj¨vYKi n‡e| Gi Rev‡e BD †_Bb †c gvB›U (U Thein Pe
Myent) ej‡jb †h, AvivKvb wefvR‡bi ci †_‡KB AvivKvbx RbMY
HwZnvwmKfv‡e Ges †f․‡MvwjK fv‡e GKwU Avjv`v ¯^Ë¡v wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ
n‡‪Q &Ges GKwU wb‡R‡`i miKvi `vex Kiv Zv‡`i •ea AwaKvi| hvB †nvK,
ïi
 †_‡KB ivLvBb RbMY Ges eg©xq RbMY G‡ZvUvB Avš—wiKZv mnKv‡i
KvR KiwQj †h Zviv my‡L `yt‡L evgv©i cÖwZ `vqe× wQj| G AwaKvi †fvM
Kivi gva¨‡g ivLvBbiv †ekx DcK…Z n‡Z cvi‡e bv Ges eZ©gvb mn‡hvwMZv
Ae¨vnZ ivLvi d‡j Zv‡`i ¯^vfvweK mdjZvI e¨vnZ n‡e| BD ev m (U Ba
Saw) Zvi Av‡jvPbv Pvwj‡q †M‡jb G e‡j †h, 1946-1947 mv‡j evgv©i
¯^vaxbZvi c~‡e© hLb msweavb Lmov Kiv nw‪Qj ZLb wZwb iv-Zv-bvqvÕi
(Ra-Ta-Nya) mfvcwZ Ges Ggwc BD ev gvBqvs (U Ba Myaing) Gi mv‡_
mv¶vZ K‡ib| Zvi mv‡_ Av‡jvPbv K‡iwQ‡jb †h AvivKvb wefv‡Mi AMÖMwZ
I mdjZvi Rb¨ wKfv‡e msweavb iPbv Kiv hvq| Gi Rev‡e BD ev gvBs (U
Ba Myaing) BD †_Bb †c gvB›U Gi b¨vq GKB DËi w`‡jb| BD ev m Zvi

127 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Av‡jvPbv Pvwj‡q †M‡jb †h, 1946-1947 mv‡j ivLvBb G Gd wc Gd Gj
(AFPFL) m`m¨ Ges iv½yb G emevmiZ ivLvBb eyw×Rxex‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU
mfv AbywôZ n‡qwQj| G mfvq G Av‡jvPbv n‡qwQj †h kvb, KvwPb Ges
Kv‡ib AÂj mg~‡ni RbMY GKwU ¯^Zš¿ iv‡óªi Rb¨ `vwe Rvbvw‪Qj|
Avgv‡`i ivLvBb‡`i Rb¨ eZ©gvb Ae¯
vq _vKvB Kj¨vYKi n‡e, bv wK
¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ miKv‡ii Rb¨ `vex KivB Kj¨vYKi n‡e? Gi Rev‡e ZrKvjxb
Ggwc, BD †KqvI wgb (U Kyaw Min) e‡jb, GUv Kiv n‡j AvivKv‡bi wbR¯^
†Kvb dvÊ _vK‡e bv| hw` Avw_©K †Kvb dvÊ bv _v‡K Zvn‡j †mLv‡b wKQzB
Kiv hv‡e bv| Dc‡iv‡j­wLZ msm`xq weZK© †_‡K Avgiv mn‡RB G hewbKv
Uvb‡Z cvwi †h, †Kb AvivKvb GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª ev (State) AR©b Ki‡Z
cvij bv|

hvB †nvK, evg©vi ¯^vaxbZvi ci †h‡nZz ivLvBb‡`i Ae¯
vi w`b w`b DbœZ
nw‪Qj ZLb Zviv AvivKv‡bi Rb¨ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ iv‡óªi `vex Kij| AvivKvb
ivóª AR©‡bi Rb¨ hLb msm‡`i evB‡i Av‡›`vjb ïi
 n‡jv ZLb DËi
AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb Gg.wcÕiv AvivKv‡b GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi wel‡q
gZ cv_©‡K¨ Rwo‡q coj|

beg Aa¨vq
¯^vaxbZv cvieZ©x evg©vi Aax‡b AvivKvb

evgv©q ¯^vaxbZv Avmvi d‡j AvivKvbx RbM‡Yi g‡a¨ wgkª cÖwZwµqv m„wó
n‡qwQj| gymjgvb we‡ivax gM ‡e․×iv Lywk n‡qwQj| Zviv fvej †h Zv‡`i
†Nvi kÎ
 gymjgvb‡`i mv‡_ †gjv‡gkvi †¶‡Î Zviv DËg Ae¯
v‡b i‡q‡Q|
Zviv wPš—v Kij †h, hv Zviv weªwUk Avg‡j Ki‡Z cv‡i wb GLb Zviv Zv
Aev‡a Pvwj‡q †h‡Z cvi‡e| Zviv G †e․×ev‡`i weRq Dj-vm e‡j we‡ePbv
KiZ| hvB †nvK, Zv‡`i ga¨Kvi GKwU †QvU `j, `ytL Abyfe Kij| †Kbbv
AvivKv‡bi ivRv Ges cÖRv meviB GKwU ¯^vaxb AvivKv‡bi `xN©w`‡bi ¯^cœ

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 128


Av‡Mi †P‡q Av‡iv civnZ n‡jv e‡j AbyfZ ~ n‡‪Q| Zviv Dcjwä Ki‡Z
cvij †h, Zviv GLb GKwU bZzb wKš‧ †Mvcb K‡jvbxi Aax‡b P‡j †Mj|

gyRvwn` we‡`ªvn

¯^vaxbZvi ¶wYK c‡iB Òd¨vwmev`x we‡ivax RbM‡Yi ¯^vaxbZv msNÓ


(AFPFL) kvwmZ miKvi e¨e¯
v GKwU weivU msL¨K gymjgvb Kg©KZ©v
Kg©Pvix‡K PvKixPz¨Z K‡i Ges Zv‡`i ¯
v‡b AvivKvbx †e․ׇ`i‡K wb‡qvM
‡`q, hviv µgea©gvb nv‡i gymjgvb m¤cÖ`v‡qi wei
‡× •elg¨ m„wó K‡i
Zv‡`i‡K g‡bvKó w`‡Z jvMj| Zviv Zv‡`i eo‡`i‡K Dcnvm Ki‡Zv Ges
Zv‡`i mv‡_ ‣¯^ivPvix AvPiY Ki‡Zv| wKš‧ †ivwn½v‡`i wei
‡× fyj
ms‡kva‡bi Rb¨ KZ…c © ¶ Av‡`․ †Kvb c`‡¶c MÖnY K‡iwb| Bwg‡MÖkb
(Awfevmb) KZ„©c¶ gvDs`vI, (Maungdow) eyw_WvDs (Buthidaung) Ges
iv‡_WvDs (Rathedaung) AÂj n‡Z AvwKqve ch©š— gymjgvb‡`i ZrciZvi
Dci mxgve×Zv Av‡ivc K‡i| nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb kiYv_©x hviv 1942
mv‡j fvi‡Z cjvqb Ki‡Z eva¨ n‡qwQj Zviv †mLv‡b wd‡i hvevi AbygwZ
†cj bv| Zv‡`i ab-m¤úwË ev‡Rqvß Kiv n‡jv|

1942 mv‡ji nZ¨vh‡Á AvnZiv ZLbI my¯
 n‡q I‡V wb, hLb eg©xq
gymjgvbMY wegvZv myjf AvPi‡Y AwZô n‡q eg©xq KZ…K © 1947 mv‡j
wefvwRZ n‡qwQj| DËß KovB †_‡K Av¸‡b wb‡¶c Kivi gZ Av‡iv bZzb
kvw¯— Ges b„ksmZv gymjgvb‡`i Dci Av‡ivc Kiv n‡qwQj| gymjgvbiv
Gfv‡e Av‡iv msL¨vjNy nw‪Qj| GLb Zv‡`i Aw¯—Z¡ Ges wU‡K _vKv gnv
wec‡`i g‡a¨| R‣bK ‡gvnv¤§` Rvdi whwb KvIqvj Rvdi wn‡m‡e e¨vcK
cwiwPZ Ges whwb wQ‡jb Rvcvbx cÖwk¶YcÖvß GKRb †ivwn½v, wZwb RbMY‡K
msMwVZ Ki‡Z ïi
 Ki‡jb| wZwb fviZ-Dcgnv‡`kxq Kwe Avj­vgv
BKev‡ji MxwZ KweZv †M‡q ‡M‡q gymjgvb Rbmvavi‡Yi †PZbv‡K D¾xweZ

129 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


K‡ib Ges wZwb Zv‡`i wek¦vm, m¤§vb Ges gvnvZ¡‡K i¶vi Rb¨ Zv‡`i Rxeb
I ab-m¤ú` DrmM© Ki‡Z AvnŸvb K‡ib| gymjgvbiv me©vZœKfv‡e Zvi G
Avnev‡b mvov †`q| Rvdi gymjgvb‡`i‡K Aš—f³ ©~ Ki‡Z I cÖwk¶Y w`‡Z
ïi
 Ki‡jb| wKš‧ 1949 mvj ch©š— gyRvwn`‡`i I miKvix evwnbxi g‡a¨
D‡j­L‡hvM¨ †Zgb †Kvb msNl© nqwb|

1949 mv‡j evg©vi bZzb cÖkvmb ¯
vbxq Awaevmx‡`i mgš^‡q GKwU mxgvš—eZx©
wbivcËv evwnbx MVb K‡i, hv evg©v AvÂwjK evwnbx (BTF) bv‡g cwiwPZ|
AvivKv‡b wewUGd (BTF) Gi beŸB fvM MwVZ n‡qwQj AvivKvb †e․ׇ`i
wb‡q, we‡kl K‡i hviv gymjgvb‡`i wPi `ykgb wQj| AvwKqve †Rjv cÖkvmK
wKqvI BD (Kyaw U) Gi wb‡`©kbvq wewUGd (BTF) mgMÖ DËi AvivKv‡b
GKwU mš¿vmx ivR¨ cÖwZ&ôv K‡i| †gwkb Mv‡bi ¸wj‡Z gymjgvb bi-bvix
wkïiv e¨vcK cwigv‡Y nZvnZ nq| nvRvi nvRvi eyw×Rxex, MÖvg cÖavb Ges
Ijvgv‡K KzKzi-Bu`y‡ii gZ nZ¨v Kiv nq| cÖvq mKj gymjgvb MÖvg‡KB gvwUi
mv‡_ wgwk‡q †`qv nq| wewUGd b„ksmZv cÂvk nvRv‡iiI †ekx kiYv_x©‡K
ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b Awfevmb wb‡Z eva¨ K‡i|

gymjgvb‡`i `vexmg~n wQj AwePvi¸‡jv ms‡kvab Kiv| AvBb Abymv‡i


Zv‡`i‡K eg©xq bvMwiK wn‡m‡e emevm Kivi AbygwZ †`qv Ges •¯^ivPvix
Ges Ryjygkvnxi Aaxb Zv‡`i‡K civaxb bv Kiv| Zv‡`i G `vex¸‡jv
gyRvwn` we‡`ªvn‡K evavMÖ¯— K‡iwb eis Av‡iv `ª
Z MwZkxjZv I cÖmviZv
†c‡qwQj| †K›`ªxq miKvi G we‡`ªvn `gb Kivi Rb¨ e¨¯— n‡q co‡jv, hv
evg©vi Ab¨vb¨ ¯
v‡b cÖv`yf©ve n‡qwQj Ges GUv‡K evg©vq wb‡qvwRZ Kiv Am¤¢e
n‡qwQj|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 130


hvB †nvK miKvi ZLb we‡`ªvnx‡`i mv‡_ mg‡SvZv-Avjvc Ki‡Z †ek wKQz
c`‡¶c MÖnY Kij| miKv‡ii GKwU cÖwZwbwa `j Zv‡`i Kv‡Q G‡jv, Zv‡`i
`vex-`vIqvi K_v ïb‡jv wKš‧ G Av‡jvPbv cwi‡k‡l †Kvb djvdj e‡q wb‡q
G‡jv bv| 1949 mv‡ji Ryb gv‡m BDwbqb wgwjUvix cywj‡ki 26Zg
e¨vUvwjqvb AvivKv‡b NuvwU ¯
vcb K‡i we‡`ªvn †NvlYv Kij Ges Zviv
KwgDwbó I wcwfI‡`i mv‡_ K‡i wb‡q wKqvK wcD (Kyaukpyu) mv‡›`v‡q
(Sandoway) Ges G‡`i †Rjv m`i¸‡jvi cZb wb‡q Av‡m| Gfv‡e †Kej
AvwKqve e›`‡i miKvix wbqš¿Y n«vm †c‡qwQj| Ab¨w`‡K gyRvwn`iv mg¯—
DËi AvivKv‡bi AwaKvi wb‡qwQj| Ges AvivKvb †e․× we‡`ªvnx‡`i Aci
`j¸‡jv Ab¨vb¨ †Rjv¸‡jv‡Z Zv‡`i wbqš¿Y wb‡qwQj|

1951 mvj †_‡K 1954 mvj ch©š— miKvwi evwnbx¸‡jv gyRvwn`‡`i wei
‡×
evrmwiKfv‡e wekvj Avw½‡K A‡bK Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡iwQj| kni Ges
cywjk duvwo †h¸‡jv gyRvwn`‡`i wbqš¿‡Y wQj, †m¸‡jv Avevi miKvwi
evwnbx‡`i Øviv cybi
×vi n‡qwQj| G Awfhvb¸‡jv‡Z A‡bK msL¨K
†emvgwiK †jvK‡K •¯^iZvwš¿Kfv‡e AvUK Kiv n‡qwQj, Zv‡`i Dci wbh©vZb
Pvjv‡bv n‡qwQj Ges Zv‡`i‡K nZ¨v Kiv n‡qwQj| we‡`ªvnx‡`i Av¯—vbv
m‡›`‡n A‡bK evox-Ni, R¡vwj‡q †`qv n‡q‡Q| †bZ…‡Z¡i cwieZ©‡bi d‡j Ges
`jMZ hy‡×i Kvi‡Y gyRvwn`iv wKQz mg‡qi Rb¨ †m GjvKvi Kvh©Ki wbqš¿Y
nviv‡jv| 1951 mv‡ji w`‡K gyRvwn`-B-Avhg Rvdi KvIqvj ivR‣bwZK
cÖwZwnsmvi ekeZx© n‡q wbg©gfv‡e wbnZ nb Ges cieZx©‡Z Rbve AveŸvm
bvgK GK e¨w³ ¶gZv `Lj K‡ib| Rvdi KvIqv‡ji Aax‡b Kg©iZ GKRb
¸i
Z¡c~Y© †jd‡U‡b›U K‡Y©j iwk` †ei n‡q Av‡mb Ges eyw_WvDs Gi `w¶Y-
c~e© wdDBgvjx GjvKvq Zvi `j cÖwZôv K‡ib| Aci GKRb `y`©vš— KgvÊvi
Kvwkg whwb cieZx©‡Z Kvwkg ivRv bv‡g e¨vcK cwiwPwZ jvf K‡ib wZwb
wb‡R‡K †NvlYv ‡`b| †mLv‡b miKvwi evwnbx Ges gyRvwn`‡`i wewfbœ `‡ji
g‡a¨ msNl© PjwQj| 1954 mv‡ji ci Kvwkg miKv‡ii Rb¨ GKwU ¸i
Zi
fxwZi KviY n‡q `vuovq| Ges gvIs`vI, eyw_WvDs Ges iv‡LWvDs Gi
AwaKvsk GjvKvq gyRvwn`iv Zv‡`i cÖvavb¨ cybtwe¯—vi K‡iwQj| mg‡qi g‡a¨

131 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


gyRvwn`‡`i mvaviY gymjgvb RbZv †_‡K c„_K Kivi Rb¨ miKvi GKwU
kw³kvjx ivR‣bwZK c`‡¶c MÖnY K‡ib| 25 †m‡Þ¤^i, 1954 mvj, mܨv
8.00 Uvq evg©vi ZrKvjxb cÖavbgš¿x BD by (U Nu) Zvi †iwWI fvl‡Y
†ivwn½v‡K GKwU Avw` b„ZvwËK m¤cÖ`vq wn‡m‡e †NvlYv †`b| ¶z`ª cwim‡i
†ivwn½v‡`i †g․wjK AwaKvi¸‡jvi cybtcÖwZwôZ n‡qwQj| miKvi gymjgvb
†bZ…e„›` Ges msm` m`m¨‡`i eySv‡Z †Póv Ki‡jb †h we‡`ªv‡n hvIqvUv wQj
GKUv e„_v cÖ‡Póv †h‡nZz †ivwn½v‡`i AwaKvi BwZg‡a¨B cybtcÖwZwôZ
n‡q‡Q| gyRvwn`‡`i g‡a¨ `jxq hy‡× e¨_© n‡q ivRbxwZwe`iv miKv‡ii Dci
hy‡× †Kvb weRq †`L‡Z e¨_© n‡jb| Ges gymjgvb‡`i ivR‣bwZK Kvg©Kv‡Ê
DbœwZ †`L‡Z †c‡jb d‡j Zviv RbMY‡K miKv‡ii c¶vej¤^b Ki‡Z DØy×
Ki‡jb| Af¨š—ixY hy‡× wQbœ-wfbœ gyRvwn`‡`i c‡¶ Rb m¤§wZ jvf Kiv
KwVb n‡q coj| RbM‡Yi cÖwZ wek¦vm nvwi‡q Zviv wewfbœ ai‡bi AcKg©
Ges wb‡R‡`i †jvK‡`i Dci AwePvi Kij| gyRvwn`‡`i evovevwo †_‡K
wb‡R‡`i i¶v Kivi Rb¨ A‡bK MÖvgevmx kn‡i ¯
vbvš—wiZ n‡jv|

G ai‡bi my‡hvM MÖnY K‡i 1954 mv‡ji b‡f¤^i †_‡K miKvi gyRvwn`‡`i
bxwZgvjvi wei
‡× Acv‡ikb gbmyb (Operation Monsoon) bv‡gi GKwU
we¯—…Z Awfhvb cwiPvjbv K‡i| gyRvwn`‡`i ¸i
Z¡c~Y© †K›`ª¸‡jv `Lj n‡q
hvq Ges Zv‡`i KwZcq †bZv wbnZ nq| Kvwkg ZLb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b cvwj‡q
†Mj| gyRvwn` Afy¨Ìv‡bi †gi
`Ê †f‡½ ‡Mj| Zv‡`i `jxq KvVv‡gv‡Z
wew‪QbœZv NUvi d‡j cieZx©‡Z gyRvwn` Av‡›`vjb Avev‡iv `ye©j n‡q coj|
wKš‧ GUv `xN©¯
vqx n‡jv| miKvi evwg©R Avwg©iv hv‡`i‡K gyRvwn`‡`i wei
‡×
e¨envi Ki‡Zv, †mB mKj gymjgvb‡`i mnvqZvq ¯
vbxq gymjgvb‡`i mgš^‡q
GKwU †¯^‪Qv‡mex evwnbx MVb K‡ib| gyRvwn`‡`i‡K Avev‡iv wew‪Qbœ Kivi
D‡Ï‡k¨ cÖavbgš¿x BD by Ges cÖwZi¶v gš¿x BD ev my (U Ba Swe) 1959
mv‡j eyw_WvDs Ges gvDsWvI kni mdi K‡ib| Zviv †mB kni¸‡jv‡Z eo
eo ivR‣bwZK Rbmfv K‡ib, †mLv‡b Zviv kvb, KvwPb Ges Kv‡ib
m¤cÖ`v‡qi gZ †ivwn½v m¤cÖ`vq‡K evg©vi GKwU Avw` b„ZvwË¡K †Mvwó wn‡m‡e
D‡j­L K‡ib| Zviv Zv‡`i‡K evg©vi bvMwiK‡`i mgvb AwaKvi cÖ`v‡biI

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 132


cÖwZÁv K‡ib| B‡Zvg‡a¨ gyRvwn` `j¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Avev‡iv wefvRb NU‡jv|
†h‡nZz DËi AvivKv‡b ¯
vbxq ¯^vqË¡kvmb mnKv‡i GKwU Ògymjgvb RvZxq
GjvKvÓ (Muslim National Area) cÖwZôvq miKv‡ii cÖ¯—v‡ei wei
‡× wfbœ
AwfgZ DwÌZ n‡jv| P~ovš—fv‡e gyRvwn`iv Zv‡`i A¯¿ mgc©Y Ki‡Z wm×vš—
wb‡jv Ges 1961 mvj †kl nIqvi c~‡e©B AwaKvsk gyRvwn` miKv‡ii Kv‡Q
AvZœmgc©Y Ki‡jv|

msm`xq MYZš¿Kvjxb AvivKvbx‡`i ivR‣bwZK Kg©KvÊ (1948-


1962 Lªx)

Av‡MB D‡j­L Kiv n‡q‡Q ÔKbw÷Uy‡q›U G¨v‡m¤^jx (Gwm) Gi Rb¨ gvDs`vD


Ges evw_WvDs Gi `ywU GjvKv ev‡` mgMÖ AvivKvb Ry‡o mvaviY wbe©vPb
AbywôZ nq| G wbe©vP‡b gymjgvb †fvUvi wQj- mgMÖ RbmsL¨vi 98 fvM|
hvB‡nvK, ¯^vaxbZvi ci ‡mLv‡b wbe©vPb AbywôZ n‡jv Ges Rbve myjZvb
Avn‡g` I Rbve Avãyj Mvd&dvi G `yB wbe©vPbx GjvKv †_‡K msm` m`m¨
wbe©vwPZ n‡jb| G. wm. wbe©vPb †_‡K ïi
 K‡i 1960 mv‡ji †mbv Af~¨Ìvb
ch©š— Dfq msm‡`i Rb¨ wZbwU mvaviY wbe©vPb AbywôZ nq h_vµ‡g 1951,
1956 Ges 1960 mv‡j| 1951 mv‡ji mvaviY wbe©vP‡b gymjgvbiv 5wU
Avm‡b weRqx nq| Gi g‡a¨ 3wU Avmb wbgœ nvD‡R Ges 1wU Avmb D‪P
nvD‡R wQj| G. Gd. wc. Gd. Gj. weRqx nq 3wU Avm‡b Ges evKx
Avmb¸‡jv `Lj K‡i †bq iv-Uv-bvqv ev ivLvBb RvZxq hy³ msN|
gymjgvb‡`i wbR¯^ †Kvb ivR‣bwZK `j wQj bv| Zviv †Kvb †Kvb mgq ¯^Zš¿
wn‡m‡e `uvwo‡q Avevi KL‡bv ev G. Gd. wc. Gd. Gj. Gi mv‡_ mg_©K `j
wn‡m‡e wbe©vP‡b Ask †bq| 1956 mv‡ji mvaviY wbe©vP‡b DËi AvivKv‡bi
5wU AvmbB cybi
×vi K‡i gymjgvbiv| iv-Uv-bvqv mvwe©K Avm‡bi gvÎ GK
Z…Zxqvsk Avm‡b weRqx nq Ges evKx Avmb¸‡jv `Lj K‡i †bq G. Gd. wc.
Gd. Gj.| 1956 mv‡ji msm` wbe©vP‡b †h mKj gymjgvb Ggwc wn‡m‡e

133 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wbe©vwPZ n‡qwQ‡jb Zvivy n‡jb- Rbve myjZvb Avn‡g`, Rbve Aveyj Lv‡qi,
Rbve BRnvi wgqv, Rbve Aveyj evkvi Ges Rbve Avãyj Mvd&dvi| iv-Uv-
bvqvÕi wbe©vwPZ weL¨vZ m`m¨iv n‡jb, BD wKqvI wgb (U Kyaw Min), BD
gvDs wKqvI Rvb (U Maung Kyawa Zan), BD njv Zzb cÖ
 (U Hla Tun Pru),
BD mvb Zzb w_b (U San Tun Khaine), BD ev †mBb (U Ba Sein), BD
As wKqvI LvBb (U Aung Kyaw Khine), BD c †_Bb (U Paw Thein) cÖgLy |
1957 mv‡j eyw_WvDs DËi wbe©vPbx GjvKvi Rb¨ GKwU Dcwbe©vPb AbywôZ
nq, †h‡nZz Rbve BRnvi wgqvi wbe©vPb evwZj K‡i Zvi wei
‡× ivq cÖ`vb
Kiv nq| mv‡eK msm`xq †m‡µUvix Rbve myjZvb gvngy` weªwUk-fviZ AvBb
mfvq m`m¨ wn‡m‡e wbe©vwPZ nb Ges wZwb BD by (U Nu) gš¿x cwil‡`i
¯^v¯
¨gš¿x wn‡m‡e `vwqZ¡fvi MÖnY K‡ib|

cvj©v‡g‡›Ui ivLvBb (†e․×) m`m¨iv Zv‡`i wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨ ¯^vaxb AvivKvbx


ms‡kvaxq `j (IAPG) bv‡gi GKwU msMVb Kv‡qg Ki‡jv| Zviv AvivKv‡bi
Rb¨ GKwU ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ cvj©v‡g‡›U `vex †ck K‡i| cÖv_wgK
ch©v‡q Zviv †ekx g‡bv‡hvMx wQj bv| wewfbœ GjvKvq ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi
wel‡q cix¶v-wbix¶v Kivi Rb¨ 1947 mv‡j ixR DBwjqvgm& Kwgkb ¯
vwcZ
n‡qwQj| B‡Zvc~‡e© AvivKv‡bi ivóªZ¡ Aby‡gv`‡bi cÖkœ `y‡i ivLv n‡qwQj|
Av‡iv wZbwU AvÂwjK kvqZ¡kvwmZ Kwgkb AvivKv‡b ¯^Zš¿ ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi
wel‡q cix¶v-wbix¶v K‡iwQj | †m wZbwU Kwgkb n‡jv 1948 mv‡j MwVZ
gwš¿ BD bvBI (U Nyo) Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ AvÂwjK ¯^vqZ¡kvmb Kwgkb, 1948
mv‡ji A‡±ve‡i MwVZ m¨vi ev I (Sir Ba Oo) Kwgkb Ges 1950 mv‡j
MwVZ †K‡jBm Kwgkb|

gwš¿ BD bvBI Zzb (U Nyo Tun) Gi †bZ…‡Z¡ MwVZ AvÂwjK ¯^vqZ¡kvmb


Kwgk‡bi Aci wZb m`m¨ n‡jb G¨vKvD›U¨v›U †Rbv‡ij BD wKqvI wgb ( U
Kyaw Min) BD wZb (U Tin) Ges BD Zwb †dZ (U Tin Phet)| AvÂwjK
¯^vqZ¡kvm‡bi Rb¨ Z_¨ AbymÜvb Kivi cwie‡Z© D³ Kwgkb AvivKv‡bi Rb¨

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 134


wb‡gœv³ Zvr¶wYK c`‡¶c¸‡jvi civgk© w`‡q miKv‡ii wbKU GKwU ga¨eZx©
wi‡cvU© †ck Kij|

1. A‣ea Awfevmb Kvh©Ki fv‡e `gb Kivi Rb¨ AvwKqv‡e cvwK¯—vbx


Kbmy¨‡jU `ßi Ges cwðg cvwK¯—v‡b evwg©R Kbmy¨‡jU `ßi
†Lvjv|

2. Av‡iv AwaK Kvh©Kvifv‡e we‡`ªvn `gb Kiv|

3. AvivKvb cwiw¯
wZi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Kg©KZ©v wb‡qvM †`qv|

4. miKvwi `yb©xwZ civqb Kg©KZ©v‡`i wei
‡× Kvh©Kix c`‡¶c MÖnY


Kiv|

5. AvUKZK…‡`i cvewjK j GÊ AW©vi Gi 5 Gi Aby‡‪Q‡`i AvIZvq


G‡b cybt cix¶v-wbix¶v Kiv Ges hviv gyw³ cvIqvi †hvM¨
Zv‡`i‡K †Q‡o †`qv |

6. ZrKvjxb cÖavb wePvicwZ m¨vi ev I (Sir Ba Oo)Õi mfvcwZ‡Z¡


1948 mv‡ji A‡±vei gv‡m cÖavbgš¿x BD by (U Nu) KZ…©K m¨vi ev I
Kwgkb MwVZ nq| G Kwgk‡bi Aax‡b wZbwU Dc-KwgwU MwVZ
n‡qwQj| G¸‡jvi KvR wQj h_vµ‡g Kv‡ib, †gvb Ges AvivKv‡bi
RvZxq welqvw` wb‡q Z`viKx Kiv|

cÖ‡Z¨K Dc-KwgwU MwVZ n‡qwQj GKRb ivóªxq cÖwZwbwa, wZbRb cÖwZwbwa


Ges PviRb mswk-ó GjvKvi cÖwZwbwa wb‡q| Pvi m`m¨ wewkó AvivKv‡bi
RvZxq cÖwZwbwaiv n‡jv BD wKqvI Bb (U Kyaw Yin), BD mvb Zzb As (U
San Tun Aung), BD _v Zzb (U Tha Tun) Ges Rbve myjZvb Avn‡g`|

135 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Zviv 1948 mv‡ji 29 †k A‡±vei Zv‡`i wbR¯^ gZvgZ †ck K‡iwQ‡jb hv
wb‡gœ Dc¯
vcb Kiv n‡jv|

1. AvivKvb welqK GKRb gwš¿ wb‡qvM †`qv Ges GUv‡K msweav‡bi


AvBb wn‡m‡e Aš—f©y³ Kiv|

2. AvivKvb welqK gš¿x‡K mnvqZv Kivi Rb¨ GKwU AvivKvb welqK


KvDwÝj MVb Kiv Ges GUv‡K msweav‡b AvBb wn‡m‡e Aš—f³ y©
Kiv|

3. msweav‡bi 12 Aby‡‪Q` Abyhvqx, AvivKvb RbM‡Yi B‪Qvbymv‡i


AvivKvbx welqK gš¿Yvjq I AvivKvb welqK KvDwÝj KZ„K ©
AvivKvb GjvKvi hveZqx Kg©KvÊ m¤úv`b Ki‡Z cÖ‡qvRbxq weavb
I AvBb Kvbyb •Zwi Kiv|

4. cuvP eQi ci G Kg© cwiKíbvi djvd‡ji Dci wbf©i K‡i


AvivKvbx RbM‡Yi B‪Qvbyhvqx GUv cybivq cix¶v-bxix¶v Ges
ms‡kvab Kiv n‡e| A_ev GUv cy‡ivcywi evwZj Ki‡Z n‡e|

D³ KwgwUi AvivKvbx (ivLvBb) cÖwZwbwa BD k bvI (U Shwe Baw) wb‡gœv³


cÖ¯—ve¸‡jv †ck K‡ib|

1. AvivKv‡bi cÖvK…wZK m¤ú`¸‡jv‡K Kv‡R jvMv‡bv Ges wkí


KviLvbvi Dbœqb NUv‡bv|

2. AvivKv‡bi Rbc_, ¯
jc_ Ges †ijc‡_i Dbœqb NUv‡bv|

3. D‪P wk¶v I KvwiMix wk¶vmn AvivKv‡bi gvbm¤§Z wk¶ve¨e¯
vi


Av‡iv DbœwZ mvab Kiv|

4. ¯^v¯
¨ I wPwKrmv e¨e¯
vi DbœwZ Kiv |

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 136


5. K…wl Ges evwYR¨ cÖwZôv‡bi Dbœqb Kiv |

6. evg©vi DËi cwðg mxgv‡š— †h †Kvb mgm¨v mgvav‡bi j‡¶¨ Ges


AvBb k„‫‫‬Ljv cwiw¯
wZ wVK ivL‡Z GK A_ev `yÕ e¨vUvwjqvb ivLvBb
Avwg©‡K ¯
vqx •mb¨ evwnbx‡Z †gvZv‡qb ‡`qv|

7. †evgvs †÷U (PÆMÖvg cvnvox GjvKv) Ges AvIqv wKDb (my›`ieb)


GjvKvq emevmiZ ivLvBb RvwZ‡K cybev©m‡bi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq
¶gZv cÖ`vb Kiv|

8. AvBb cÖYqb I ivR¯^ Av`v‡qi ¶gZv cÖ`vb Kiv|

9. AvivKvb wefv‡Mi cÖ‡Z¨KwU wel‡q ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb Aby‡gv`b Kiv|

KwgwUi eg©xq m`m¨iv Avjv`v iv‡óªi aviYv‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb Kij| wKš‧ Zviv
mycvik Ki‡jb †h, ¯^vqZ¡kvmbmn AvivKvb‡K evg©vi Aax‡b GKwU wefvM
evbv‡bv DwPZ| AvivKvb welqK gwš¿ wb‡qvM †`qvi cwie‡Z© ïay RvZxq
cvj©v‡g‡›U Avwg© MV‡bi ¶gZv †`qv Ges †m ai‡bi AvivKvb wefvMxq
KvDwÝj MVb Kiv DwPZ hv n‡e Av‡iv †ekx Kvh©Ki|

Z`‡š—i Pvi eQi ci 1952 mv‡j m¨vi ev I (Sir Ba Oo) Kwgkb hw`I
Kv‡ib Ges gb wi‡cvU© †ck Ki‡Z cvi‡Zv ZeyI Zv‡`i Rvbv g‡Z ¸i
Z¡c~Y©
Kvi‡Yi Rb¨B AvivKvb welqK wi‡cvU© †ck Kiv nqwb|

1950 mv‡ji 26 †k RyjvB AvivKvb wefvMxq Kwgkbvi wg. †Kjxi


mfvcwZ‡Z¡ †Kjx (Kelly) Kwgkb MwVZ n‡qwQj g~jZ AvivKv‡b ¯^Zš¿ ÔivóªÕ
Aby‡gv`‡bi m¤¢ve¨Zv AbymÜvb Kivi Rb¨| G wel‡q AbymÜvb Ges Z`š—
Kiv n‡jv| wKš‧ †Kjx Kwgk‡bi wi‡cvU© miKvixfv‡e †NvlYv Kiv n‡jv bv|

137 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


myZivs AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi wel‡q P~ovš— wm×v‡š— Avmvi cwie‡Z© `xN©
m~wÎZvq wbcwZZ n‡jv|

cy‡iv msm`xq †gqv` a‡iB Uv-bvqv (Ta-Naya) m`m¨iv †ivwn½v‡`i wei
‡×


kÎ
fvevcbœ AvPiY K‡i‡Q| Zviv †ivwn½v‡`i‡K KvjvP (Kalas) ÔPvUMvBq¨vÕ
e‡j Acev` w`‡Zv Ges Zviv †ivwn½v‡`i‡K Zv‡`i mgK¶ e‡j ¯^xK…wZ w`Z
bv| Zviv me©`v †ivwn½v‡`i fveg~wZ© weK…Z Ki‡Z †Póv Ki‡Zv| GgbwK Zviv
gymjgvb Ggwc †`i‡K Awfhy³ Ki‡Zv| Zviv wbe©vP‡b weRqx nIqvi Rb¨ G
Gd wc Gd Gj Gi †g․b Aby‡gv`b wb‡q e¨vcK msL¨K PÆMÖvgevmx‡K A‣ea
fv‡e AvivKv‡b cvVv‡bvi cwiKíbv K‡iwQj| Zviv †ivwn½v‡`i‡K bvMwiKZ¡
†`qvi e¨vcv‡i weiƒc g‡bvfve †cvlY Ki‡Zv| Zviv †e․× wf¶z‡`i‡K gyRvwn`
Af~¨Ìv‡bi wei
‡× Abkb ag©NU cvjb Ki‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ Ki‡Zv| Ges GKwU
wn›`y ag© wfwËK ivóª cÖwZôvi Rb¨ Zviv gymjgvb Ggwc‡`i wei
‡× Pvc cÖ‡qvM
Ki‡Zv| †ivwn½v‡`i cÖwZ iv-Uv-bvqv m`m¨‡`i Giƒc we‡Ølc~Y© g‡bvfv‡ei
Kvi‡YB eg©xq ivRbxwZwe`iv gymjgvb Ggwc‡`i †_‡K Zv‡`i mvnvh¨
mn‡hvwMZv `~‡i mwi‡q wb‡jv| 1958 mv‡j ÔGd wc Gd GjÕ hLb `yÕwU MÖ
‡c
wef³ n‡q coj, ZLb AvivKvb ivóª AR©‡bi m¤¢vebv A‡bKUv D¾¡j n‡q
DV‡jv| cÖavbgš¿x BD by (U Nu) †NvlYv Ki‡jv †h hw` 1960 mv‡ji mvaviY
wbe©vP‡b weRqx n‡Z cv‡i Zvn‡j †m AvivKvbivóª‡K Aby‡gv`b w`‡e| G Gd
wc Gd Gj Gi Dfq MÖ
‡cB Zv‡`i ¯^ ¯^ w`‡K AvB G wc wR (IAPG) ‡`i
mg_©b jv‡fi †Póv Kij| wKš‧ iv-Uv-bvqv (Ra-Ta-Naya) BD by Gi Iqv`v
cvIqvi ci Zv‡KB mg_©b †`qvi wm×vš— wb‡jv| AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi
welqwU AwaKvsk gymjgvbB Lye ¸i
Z¡ mnKv‡i wb‡qwQj, †h‡nZz Zviv AvksKv
†eva Ki‡Zv †h gNiv hw` AvivKv‡bi ¶gZvq Av‡m Zvn‡j Zviv 1942
mv‡ji b¨vq Av‡iKwU fxwZKi cwiw¯
wZ •Zwi Ki‡e| GiB mg_©‡b DËi
AvivKv‡bi gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i Rb¨ GKwU ¯^vqZ¡kvwmZ iv‡óªi `vex Rvbv‡jv|
†h GjvKvwU n‡e gN Kg©KZ©v ev Zv‡`i cÖfvewenxb iv½yb †K›`ªxq miKvi
KZ…K© mivmwi wbqwš¿Z| Zv‡`i by¨bZg `vex wQj ‡K›`ªxq miKvi kvwmZ
GKwU ¯^Zš¿ †Rjv •Zwi Kiv| gymjgvb GgwcivI cvj©v‡g‡›U Ges MYgva¨‡g

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 138


GKB `vex Dc¯
vcb K‡iwQj| gymjgvb gh©v`vi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡L A‡bK
†ivwn½v mvgvwRK mvs¯‥…wZK msMVb w¶ß I D‡ËRbvKi Kg©KvÊ Pvjy
K‡iwQj|

wbe©vP‡b weRqx nIqvi ci BD by AvivKvb welqK mKj mgm¨vi Z`š— Kivi


Rb¨ GKRb Z`š— Kwgkb wb‡qvM w`‡qwQ‡jb| †ivwn½v RvwgqvZzj Djvgv G
Z`š— Kwgk‡bi wbKU AvivKv‡bi gymjgvb‡`i Ae¯
vi Dci GKwU my`xN© I
mywe¯—…Z ¯§viKwjwc †ck K‡iwQj| Zviv GKwU Avjv`v †Rjv cÖwZôvi Rb¨
`vex Rvwb‡qwQj hvi GKwU wbR¯^ †Rjv cwil` Ges ¯
vbxq ¯^vqZ¡kvmb
_vK‡e| mg‡SvZv mgvavb ¯^iƒc ¯§viKwjwci †jLKMY G k‡Z© m¤§Z n‡jv
†h †RjvUv n‡e AvivKvb iv‡R¨iB GKwU Ask| hvB‡nvK Zviv cxovcxwo
K‡iwQj †h †Rjvi mswk­ó welq I Zvi mgm¨vejx Ges Kg©KZv©-Kg©Pvix
wb‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î ivóª cÖavb‡K mwVK civgk© w`‡eb mswk­ó KvDwÝj|

†ivwn½v hye msMVb 1961 mv‡ji 31 RyjvB AbywôZ GKwU wgwUs Gi wm×v‡š—
miKv‡ii cÖwZ Avnevb Rvwb‡qwQ‡jb AvivKv‡b ¯^vqZ¡ kvwmZ iv‡óªi Aby‡gv`b
bv †`qvi Rb¨| KviY 1942 mv‡ji `v½vi ci †_‡K gymjgvb I †e․ׇ`i
g‡a¨ mv¤cÖ`vwqK Am‡š—vl GLbI weivR Ki‡Q| evowZ mZK©Zv mnKv‡i
†ivwn½v QvÎ mOMVbI Abyiƒc wmÜvš— wb‡qwQj| Zviv mZK© K‡iwQj †h mKj
cÖwZev` m‡Ë¡I hw` ivóª cÖwZôvi e¨cv‡i wm×vš— nq Zvn‡j GUvi Rb¨
AvivKv‡bi wefvRb cÖ‡qvRb n‡e Ges gymjgvb‡`i Rb¨ Avjv`v ¯^vqZ¡kvmb
wb®úwË n‡e|

cvjv©‡g‡›Ui gymjgvb m`m¨iv GKB fv‡e miKv‡ii Kv‡Q Ges Z`š— KwgwUi
Kv‡Q Av‡e`b Ki‡jv Aš—f³ y© bv Kivi Rb¨| G ai‡bi ivóª •Zwii e¨vcv‡i
Zv‡`i ‡Kvb AvcwË †bB| wKš‧ ïaygvÎ eyw_WvDs gvDs`vI Ges iv‡_WvDs

139 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


†Rjvi Ask e¨ZxZ †hLv‡b gymjgvbiv wQj msL¨vMwiô| †ivwn½v‡`i Aw¯—Z¡
wbwðZ Kivi Rb¨B G †Rjv¸‡jv‡K Aek¨B GKwU c„_K BDwbU wn‡m‡e MVb
Ki‡Z n‡e| AvivKvbx‡`i Dci Pvc cÖ‡qvM K‡i GKK ivóª MVb Kiv m¤¢eZ
ivóªwU‡K Avev‡iv bZzb i³cv‡Zi w`‡K avweZ Ki‡e|

wKš‧ AvivKvb gymjgvb‡`i msMVb (G Gg I)I AvivKv‡b ¯^Zš¿ ivóª


Aby‡gv`‡bi wel‡q wfbœ gZ †cvlY K‡ib| Z`š— KwgwUi wbKU †ck K…Z
GKwU ¯§viK wjwc‡Z G Gg IÕi mfvcwZ myjZvb gvngy` Ggwc we¯—vwiZ
D‡j­L K‡ib †h, Zviv †Kej gvÎ `ywU k‡Z© AvivKvb ivóª‡K mg_©b w`‡e| hw`
AviKvbx †e․×iv Zv‡`i `vex¸‡jv‡K mg_©b †`q hw` iv‡óªi msweavb hw`
gymjgvb‡`i agx©q mvs¯‥…wZK A_©‣bwZK, ivR‣bwZK, cÖkvmwbK Ges wk¶vMZ
wbðqZv Aš—f³ y© K‡i| bZzb AvivKvb iv‡óªi cÖavbMY ch©vqµ‡g `vwqZ¡ cvjb
Ki‡e| ivóª cªavb gymjgvb n‡j †÷U KvDw݇ji w¯úKvi n‡e GKRb
Agymjgvb Ges Zvi mnKvix n‡e Av‡iK Rb gymjgvb| Gfv‡e
avivevwnKfv‡e ch©vqµg AbymiY Kiv n‡e| GKB ai‡bi e¨e¯
vcbv Kvh©Ki
n‡e wewfbœ ai‡bi wb‡qvM, KwgwU Ges msMV‡bi †ejv‡ZI| GK-Z…Zxqvs‡ki
Kg iv‡óªi gš¿x gymjgvb n‡e bv| gymjgvb‡`i Rb¨ Kvh©Ki †Kvb AvBbB cvk
n‡e bv hw` bv Ges hZ¶Y bv KvDw݇ji msL¨vMwiô gymjgvbiv GUvi Rb¨
‡fvU w`‡e| gymjgvb GjvKvq PvKzixi wb‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î ivóª cÖavb Zvi
gwš¿mfvi gymjgvb m`m¨‡`i civgk© AbyhvqxB KvR Ki‡e| mKj miKvwi
c`, cvewjK mvwf©m, †c․imfvi c` Ges Ab¨vb¨ mKj c`¸‡jv‡Z wb‡qv‡Mi
†ejvq gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i RbmsL¨vi kZKiv nvi Abyhvqx GKwU we‡kl
As‡ki myweav †fvM Ki‡e| gymjgvb‡`i Rb¨ eivÏK…Z †cvó¸‡jv‡Z wb‡qvM
cvIqvi Rb¨ gymjgvb cÖwZ‡hvMxiv wb‡R‡`i g‡a¨B cÖwZØw›ØZv Ki‡e| miKvi
Lye g‡bv‡hvM mnKv‡i gymjgvb‡`i wk¶vMZ I A_©‣bwZK cÖ‡qvRb¸‡jv cyiY
Ki‡e| †Kvb wk¶v_©x‡KB Zvi ¯^xq ag© e¨ZxZ Ab¨ a‡g©i K¬v‡m Ask MÖnY
Ki‡Z eva¨ Kiv n‡e bv| cÖ‡Z¨K ag©xq †MvôxB mKj wk¶v cÖwZôv‡b Zv‡`i
¯^ ¯^ ag© Abykxjb Kivi AbygwZ cv‡e| cÖ‡Z¨K Ges †h †Kvb ag©xq †Mvôx

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 140


PvB‡j Zvi wbR¯^ agx©q cÖwZóvb ¯
vcb Kivi AbygwZ cv‡e Z‡e Zv miKvi
KZ…K
© Aby‡gv`b Kwi‡q wb‡Z n‡e|

gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i wbR¯^ we‡kl †ivwn½v fvlv Ges ms¯‥w… Z Dbœqb Kivi
e¨vcv‡i Ges Zv‡`i ag© m¤cÖmviY Ki‡Z m¤ú~Y© ¯^vaxb n‡e| gymjgvb‡`i
welq¸‡jvi Rb¨ GKRb we‡kl Kg©KZv© wb‡qvM Kiv n‡e hvi KvR n‡e
gymjgvb‡`i Awf‡hvM Ges mgm¨v¸‡jv Z`š— Kiv Ges †m¸‡jvi wel‡q ivóª
cÖav‡bi Kv‡Q wi‡cvU© Kiv| AvivKvb ivóª cÖwZôvi cieZ©x 10 eQ‡ii Rb¨
ivóª n‡Z m‡i wM‡q cÖ‡Z¨K †Rjvq- we‡kl K‡i DËi AvivKv‡bi †Rjv¸‡jvq
AwaKvimg~n ¯
wMZ K‡i ivLv n‡e Ges iv½y‡b †K›`ªxq miKv‡ii mivmwi
wePvi e¨e¯
vq cwiewZ©Z n‡e|

`xN© w`b ci miKvi gvDs`vI, eyw_WvDs cÖ‡`k Ges iv‡_WvDs cÖ‡`‡ki


cwðgvs‡k GKwU we‡kl gvq~ mxgvš—eZ©x cÖkvmb (MFA) cÖwZôv Kivi †NvlYv
w`‡jb| †hUv mivmwi †K›`ªxq miKv‡ii wbqš¿‡Y cwiPvwjZ n‡e| †mbv
Kg©KZv©MY KZ©K„ kvwmZ nIqvi Rb¨ GUvi ¯^vqZ¡ kvmb wQj bv| hw` GUv
AvivKv‡bi wePvi e¨e¯
vi Aaxb bv n‡Zv Zvn‡j bZzb G e¨e¯
vcbv †ivwn½v
†bZ…e„‡›`i mg_©b jvf Ki‡Z m¶g n‡Zv| G cÖkvm‡bi cÖK…Z ev¯—evqb Ges
Kvh©KvwiZv ïi
 nq 31 gvP©, 1961 mvj †_‡K| ¯
vbxq gymjgvb‡`i Aš—
fyw© ³‡Z GKwU we‡kl cywjk evwnbx- hv Ôgvq~ B‡qÕ (Mayu Ye) bv‡g cwiwPZ-
M‡o I‡V Ges AvBb k„‫‫‬Ljv cwiw¯
wZi DbœwZ n‡Z ïi
 K‡i| 1962 mv‡ji
ïi
‡ZB miKvi AvivKvb ÔivóªÕ cÖwZôvi Rb¨ GKUv Lmov AvBb cÖ¯Z ‧ K‡i|
gymjgvb‡`i `vexi mv‡_ m½wZ †i‡L gvq~ †Rjv ev` iv‡L| †mbv wec­e
msNwUZ nq 1962 mv‡j| bZzb G miKvi AvivKv‡b ivóª cÖwZôvi cwiKíbv
evwZj K‡ib| wKš‧ gvq~ †Rjv ZLbI we‡kl kvmbvax‡b †_‡K hvq, hv 1964
mv‡ji 1jv †deª
qvix ¯^ivóª welqK gš¿Yvj‡qi Aax‡b cÖwZôv Kiv n‡qwQj|

141 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 142
`kg Aa¨vq
†mbv kvm‡bi Aax‡b AvivKvb
AvivKv‡b †mbv Af~¨Ìv‡bi cÖfve

2iv gvP©, 1962 mvj, ZrKvjxb evgx©R †mbv cÖavb †Rbv‡ij wb DBb (Ne
Win) GKwU i³cvZnxb †mbv Af~¨Ìv‡bi gva¨‡g ¶gZv `Lj K‡ib| wZwb
msweavb wejyß K‡ib Ges msm`xq e¨e¯
v †f‡½ †`b| iv‡óªi mKj ¶gZv-
AvBb, wePvi Ges wbe©vnx- ¯^qswµqfv‡e Zvi †bZ…‡Z¡ MwVZ wec-ex KvDwÝj
(RC) Gi wbqš¿bvax‡b P‡j hvq| Avi. wm bZzb GKwU ivR‣bwZK `‡ji
†NvlYv †`q hv evg©v †mvmvwj÷ †cÖvMÖvg cvwU© ev (BSPP) bv‡g cwiwPZ|
GQvov Ab¨vb¨ mKj ivR‣bwZK `j¸‡jv‡K wbwl× †NvlYv Kiv nq| we. Gm.
wc. wc mgMÖ‡`k e¨vcx Gi kvLv-cÖkvLv cÖwZôv K‡i| AvivKv‡b †KejgvÎ
AvivKvbxq †e․×ivB (ivLvBb) bZzb G ivR‣bwZK `‡j Aš—f©~w³ †c‡qwQj|
Avi. wmÕi Dci ¶gZv cwiewZ©Z nIqvq Avi, wm AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`‡bi
e¨vcv‡i cÖwZÁv Ki‡jv Ges AvivKv‡bi AwbðqZv ax‡i ax‡i †K‡U †Mj|

143 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


1963 mv‡ji †deª
qvix gv‡m Avi,wm miKvi †`‡ki mgMÖ e¨vsK Ges
e¨emvwqK cÖwZôvb‡K RvZxqKiY Kij| AvivKv‡b AwaKvsk evwYwR¨K
¯
vcbv wQj gymjgvb‡`i Aax‡b| G bZzb miKv‡ii Avg‡j gymjgvbMY
e¨vcK A_©‣bwZK wech©‡qi gy‡L c‡o| Ab¨w`‡K, AvivKv‡bi Aci cÖv‡š— ¶z`ª
cwim‡i e¨emv-evwYR¨ cÖmvi jvf K‡iwQj| AvivKv‡b mKj evwYwR¨K
cÖwZôvb-¯
vcbv †QvU ev eo GgbwK gyw` I Pv‡ji †`vKvb †_‡K ïi
 K‡i
wWcvU‡g›U †÷vi meB gymjgvb‡`i gvwjKvbvaxb wQj| G¸‡jvi meB
RvZxqKiY K‡i Avi,wm miKvi|

¶gZvq myiw¶Z wb DBb (Ne Win) Zvi cy‡iv‡bv P¶zïj AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½v
gymjgvb‡`i wei
‡× cÖwZ‡kva wb‡Z ïi
 Kij| gymjgvb‡`i PjvP‡ji Dci
mxgve×Zv Av‡ivc Ki‡Z Avi, wm miKvi AvivKvb wefvMxq KZ…©c‡¶i Kv‡Q
GKwU cÖÁvcb †cÖiY K‡i| ivóª wbqwš¿q MYgva¨g (wgwWqv) †ivwn½v
gymjgvb‡`i‡K weRvZxq e‡j cÖPvi Ki‡Z jvM‡jv| wb DBb wb‡RB hLb
wZwb msev` Kg©x‡`i mv‡_ K_v ej‡Zb ZLb wZwb †ivwn½v gymjgvb‡`i
wec‡¶ we`ª
cvZœK fvlv e¨envi Ki‡Z| wZwb AwfgZ †`b †h, AvivKvbx
†e․ׇ`i DwPZ G mKj ÔKvjvmÕ (Kalas) †`i wei
‡× h_vh_ c`‡¶c MÖnY
Kiv|

wb DBb KZ…K © wØZxq c`‡¶cwU wQj AvivKvb cÖkvmb‡K †e․×xqKiY Kiv|


†h me gymjgvb cywjm m`m¨ cÖvwš—K cÖkvm‡bi mgq wb‡qvM cÖvß n‡qwQj
Zv‡`i mevB‡K ewn®‥vi Kiv n‡qwQj bZzev evg©vi ga¨eZx© A‡ji A‡bK
`~‡i cÖvwš—K mxgv‡š— Zv‡`i‡K e`jx Kiv n‡qwQj| Ab¨vb¨ D‪P c`¯
 gymjgvb
Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K nq †Rvi c~e©K Aemi wb‡Z eva¨ Kiv n‡qwQj bZzev Zv‡`i‡K
DËi AvivKvb n‡Z ¯
vbvš—wiZ Kiv n‡qwQj| KwZcq miKvwi Awd‡mi
†Kivbx Ges wKQz wk¶K e¨ZxZ Ab¨vb¨ mKj †cvó c~iY Kiv n‡qwQj eg©xq
A_ev gM‡`i Øviv, hv‡`i ga¨ n‡Z wKQz msL¨K c~e© cvwK¯—vb n‡Z m‡e gvÎ

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 144


Awfevmb K‡i‡Q| 1964 mv‡j Avi,wm cÖkvmb we‡kl gvq~ cÖvwš—K cÖkvmb
(Gg Gd G) wejyß K‡i †`q Ges †m GjvKvq ¯^ivóª gš¿Yvjq wbqš¿Yvaxb
AvwKqve †Rjvi wePvi e¨e¯
v Avev‡iv Pvj~ K‡i| 1964 mv‡j AvivKv‡bi
mKj mvgvwRK I mvs¯‥…wZK msMVb¸‡jv wbwl× Kiv nq| G mKj
msMVb¸‡jv n‡jv- 1956 mv‡j cÖwZwôZ BDbvB‡UW †ivwn½v msMVb (URO),
1960 mv‡j cÖwZwôZ †ivwn½v hye msMVb (RYO), iv½yb wek¦we`¨vjq †ivwn½v
QvÎ msMVb (RURSA) †ivwn½v Rv‡gqvZzj D‡jgv (RJU) AvivKvb RvZxq
gymwjg msMVb (ANMO) Ges AvivKvb gymwjg hye msN (ARMY)| †ivwn½v
†j½y‡qR †cÖvMÖvg- hv evg©v eªWKvwós mvwf©m (BBS), iv½yb n‡Z m¤cÖPvi Kiv
n‡Zv- 1956 mv‡ji A‡±ve‡i evwZj †NvlYv Kiv nq|

17 †g, 1964 mv‡j 50 I 100 wKqv‡Ui mKj e¨vsK †bv‡Ui gy`ªv g~j¨ iwnZ
Kiv n‡qwQj, hv cÖavbZt AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½v gymjgvb‡`i Dci e¨vcK cÖfve
†d‡jwQj|

hvB †nvK, AvivKvbx †e․×iv Zv‡`i AbyMZ Kg©KZv©‡`i I ¯
vbxq we. Gm. wc.
wc m`m¨‡`i mnvqZvq mÂq K…Z mKj A‡_©i g~j¨ Av`vq Ki‡Z m¶g
n‡qwQj| †`vKvb-cvU RvZxqKiY, gy`ªvg~j¨iwnZKiY Ges gymjgvb‡`i
Pjv‡divi Dci mxgve×Zv Av‡iv‡ci ci †ivwn½v‡`i A_©‣bwZK †gi
`Ê
†f‡½ co‡jv| AvvKvb †e․×iv RbM‡Yi †`vKvb †_‡K †fvM¨ cY¨ Lye m¯—v
`v‡g G‡b Ges †m¸‡jv Kv‡jvevRv‡i wewµ Kivi gva¨‡g AwZ mn‡RB gybvdv
nvwZ‡q wb‡jv| c~‡e© kn‡ii †h mKj Af¨š—ixY e¨emv-evwYR¨ gymjgvb
e¨emvwqKMY KZ…K © cwiPvwjZ n‡Zv, GLb Zvi meB P‡j †M‡Q †e․ׇ`i
nv‡Z| mvgvb¨ K‡qKRb miKvwi PvKzix Rxex e¨ZxZ †Kvb gymjgvbB miKvwi
fvZv weZiY wbq‡gi my‡hvM-myweavi AwaKvix n‡Zv bv| Ab¨w`‡K mKj †e․×
GUv †_‡K my‡hvM-myweav †fvM Ki‡Zv| mxgvš— e¨vwc e¨emv-evwYR¨ ZLb
GK‡PwUqv wbqwš¿Z n‡Z jvM‡jv AvivKvbx †e․× I miKvwi ms¯
v¸‡jv Øviv|

145 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wKQz msL¨K gymjgvb e¨emvqx hviv Zv‡`i Rxeb evwR †i‡L e¨emv-evwYR¨
cwiPvjbv KiwQj, Zv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i jv‡fi meUzKzB Zv‡`i e¨emvi
myweav‡fvMx †e․× Askx`vi‡`i Rb¨ †Q‡o w`‡Z n‡qwQj| †mbv miKvi
AvivKvbx †e․ׇ`i DcvR©‡bi mvwe©K my‡hvM-myweav •Zwi K‡i w`‡qwQj|

†mbv kvmb ax‡i ax‡i AMÖmi n‡Z jvMj Ges we. Gm. wc. wc Av‡iv †ekx
kw³kvjx n‡jv| A‡bK `wi`ª AvivKvbx †e․× gymjgvb‡`i m¤ú‡` ivZvivwZ
abx n‡q †Mj, evg©vi wewfbœ b„-ZvwË¡K †Mvôxi Aš—M©Z cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³ hLb
N„wbZ we. Gm. wc. wc kvm‡bi Aax‡b `vwi‡`ªi KkvNv‡Z wePwjZ ZLb †Kej
AvivKvbx †e․×iv G kvmb †_‡K myweav †fvM KiwQj| we. Gm. wc. wc cÖkvmb
cy‡ivcywifv‡e ZvivB wbqš¿Y Ki‡Zv, gymjgvbiv G‡Z AskMÖnY Ki‡Z AbygwZ
†cZ bv|

1967 mv‡j iv½y‡b Pvj Ges Ab¨vb¨ †g․wjK Lv`¨ mvgMÖxi gvivZœK msKU
†`Lv w`j| AvivKv‡b Drcvw`Z e¨vcK cwigvY Pvj evg©vq cvwV‡q †`qv
n‡qwQj | d‡j AvivKv‡b Pvj msK‡Ui m„wó n‡qwQj| G Kvi‡YB AvwKqv‡e
†mbv miKv‡ii wei
‡× `v½v †Rvi`vi n‡qwQj| †mbv Rvš—viv AZ¨š— K‡Vvi
nv‡Z G `v½v `gb Ki‡jv| G‡Z A‡bK †jvK gviv †Mj| 1967 mv‡ji gnv
msK‡Ui mgq A‡bK gymjgvb `~wf©‡¶ gviv wM‡qwQj|

hvB †nvK, †mbv miKvi KZ©K „ AvivKvbx gymjgvb‡`i gvbweK AwaKvi


j‫‫‬N‡bi aviv jvMvgnxb fv‡e Pj‡Z _v‡K| †mbv Kg©KZ©vMY KZ©K „ iv‡Zi
†kl cÖn‡i †Kvb Iqv‡i›U QvovB cÖfvekvjx- cÖL¨vZ gymjgvb‡`i‡K †MÖdZvi
Kiv, Zv‡`i Dci AgvbweK wbh©vZb Pvjv‡bv Ges Puv`v Av`v‡qi ci Zv‡`i‡K
†Q‡o †`qv ZLbKvi w`‡b GKUv wbZ¨‣bwgwË&K Kg©m~Px‡Z cwiYZ n‡qwQj|
AvBb cÖ‡qvMKvix ms¯
v¸‡jv‡K Ges wePviK‡`i‡K gymjgvb‡`i Dci wbh©vZb

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 146


Pvjv‡bvi w`Kwb‡`©kbv ‡`qv n‡qwQj Ges Zv‡`i‡K b¨vq wePvi cvevi
AwaKvi †_‡K ewÂZ Kiv n‡qwQj|

AvZœcÖZ¨qx gM †e․×iv cÖ‡Z¨K RvqMvq gymjgvb‡`i‡K AvµgY Ki‡Z jvMj,


Zviv Zv‡`i‡K cÖnvi Ki‡Zv& Ges Zv‡`i ab m¤ú` jyU K‡i wbZ| hLb
gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i G `ytL `y`©kvi wel‡q cywjk duvwo¸‡jv‡Z Awf‡hvM Ki‡Zv
ZLb Awfhy³ `y®K…wZKvix‡`i wei
‡× e¨e¯
v MÖn‡Yi cwie‡Z© wewfbœ wg_¨v
Awf‡hv‡Mi ARynv‡Z gymjgvb‡`i‡K `wÊZ Ki‡Zv| cywjk KZ©„K G ai‡bi
AvPiY gymjgvb‡`i‡K AvZw¼Z K‡i Zzj‡jv, GgbwK Zviv b¨vq wePvi cÖv_©bv
Ki‡ZI fq †c‡q †Mj| †mbv miKvi Zvi ¶gZv MÖn‡Yi ci †_‡KB Av‡iv
wbg©gZvi mv‡_ Z_vKw_Z ÔAwfevmb Z`š— AwfhvbÕ Ae¨vnZ †i‡LwQj|
kvixwiK wbh©vZb, bvix‡`i DZ¨³ Kiv, Ges Pv`vevwRi Awf‡hvM e¨ZxZ
A‣ea Awfevmx nIqvi Kvi‡Y A‡bK wbiciva †ivwn½v‡K †Rj kvw¯— eiY
Ki‡Z n‡qwQj| wKqvKZvI (Kyawktaw), gªny vDs (Mrohaung), cvD³vI
(Pauktaw), †geb (Myebon), wgbevqv (Minbya) cÖfw„ Z kn‡ii nvRvi nvRvi
†jvK‡K Zv‡`i Nievox n‡Z †Rvic~eK © Zvwo‡q †`qv n‡qwQj| cwiw¯
wZi
wkKvi n‡q G me †jv‡Ki A‡b‡KB c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b Awfevmb wb‡qwQj| 1987
mv‡j ÔG¨vg‡bw÷ B›Uvib¨vkbv‡jiÕ GKwU cÖwZ‡e`‡bi Askwe‡kl GLv‡b
D‡j­L Kiv †h‡Z cv‡it evg©vq A‣ea AbycÖ‡e‡ki Awf‡hv‡M 1956 mv‡j
A_ev cieZ©x eQi¸‡jv‡Z 34 Rb ev½vjx es‡kv™¢~Z gymjgvb‡K AvUK Kivi
NUbvq G¨vg‡bw÷ B›Uvib¨vkbvj Mfxi D‡ØM cÖKvk K‡i| wewfbœ Awf‡hvM
_vKv m‡Ë¡I G¨vg‡bw÷ B›Uvib¨vkbv‡ji D‡ØM wQj †h Zviv (ev½vjx)
ZrKvjxb c~e© cvwK¯—vb n‡Z A‣eafv‡e evg©vq cÖ‡ek K‡iwQj, Zviv
cÖKZ… c‡¶ ivLvBb iv‡óªi RvZK evgx©R bvMwiK, Ges Zviv Zv‡`i msL¨vjNy
b„-ZvwË¡K esk I a‡g©i Kvi‡Y ¯
vbxq KZ…c
© ¶ KZ…K © AvUK n‡qwQj| Zv‡`i
A‡bK‡KB Awf‡hvM ev wePvi QvovB m‡›`n ekZ AvUK Kiv n‡qwQj, Zv‡`i
AvU‡Ki ci †_‡K Zv‡`i‡K Ges Av‡iv A‡bK‡K †R‡j e›`x K‡i ivLv
n‡qwQj| hw`I Zv‡`i wec‡¶ ivq †NvlYv Kiv n‡qwQj Ges hv weeiY

147 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


Abyhvqx GK w`b n‡Z K‡qK gvm ch©š— e„w× Kiv n‡qwQj Ges Zv eûhyM
Av‡MB AwZevwnZ n‡qwQj|

†e․× wbôziZv gymjgvb‡`i Rxeb‡K AwZó K‡i Zzj‡jv| cÖavbZ wek¦we`¨vj‡q


wWMÖx avix I måvš—‡`i mgš^‡q †ivwn½v eyw×Rxex‡`i GKwU `j †Mvc‡b GKwU
cÖwZ‡iva msMV‡bi Av‡qvRb Ki‡jv| hvi bvg †ivwn½v ¯^vaxbZv evwnbx
(RIF)| G msMV‡bi D‡Ï&k¨ wQj evwg©R •¯^ikvm‡bi Kej n‡Z Zv‡`i
RbMY‡K gy³ Kiv| Avi. AvB. Gd. DËi AvivKv‡bi kni I MÖvg¸‡jv‡K
Ges g~j evg©vq emevmiZ †ivwn½v‡`i g‡a¨ KwZcq mvsMVwbK †mj cÖwZôv
Ki‡jv| G msMVb¸‡jv Zv‡`i msMÖvg-Av‡›`vj‡b †Rviv‡jv mg_©b cvIqvi
Rb¨ we‡`‡ki mv‡_ †hvMv‡hvM ïi
 Ki‡jv| hrmvgvb¨ cyivZb gyRvwn`
`j¸‡jvi mv‡_I G msMVb¸‡jv †hvMm~Î ¯
vcb Ki‡jv| gyRvwn` msMVb¸‡jv
wKQz A¯¿-k¯¿mn AvivKv‡bi R½j¸‡jv‡Z †Kvb g‡Z wU‡K wQj|

1967 mv‡j †ivwn½v gymjgvb‡`i GKwU weivU msL¨v‡K D‡j­wLZ kni¸‡jv


†_‡K ewn®‥vi Kiv n‡qwQj Ges Zv‡`i‡K ‡b․Kvq K‡i eyw_WvDs G P‡j †h‡Z
eva¨ Kiv n‡qwQj| †mLvb †_‡K Zviv gvDs`vI G †c․Q‡jv Ges †mLv‡b `xN©
w`b Zviv †Lvjv AvKv‡ki bx‡P w`b AwZevwnZ Ki‡jv| ¯
vbxq †jvKRb
Zv‡`i Rb¨ Lv`¨ mieivn Ki‡Zv| Awfevmb KZ©„c¶ Zv‡`i‡K bvd b`x
w`‡q cvwK¯—v‡b AbycÖ‡e‡ki †Póv K‡iwQj| G mKj wbivciva gymjgvb‡`i
cÖwZ AgvbweK AvPi‡Y AwZô n‡q gvDs`vI Gi gymjgvbiv Avi. AvB. Gd
†bZv Rbve myjZv‡bi †bZ…‡Z¡ miKv‡ii Kg©Kv‡Êi wei
‡× cªwZev` K‡i Ges
GK ch©v‡q GKRb Awfevmb Kg©KZ©v cÖüZI nq| Zr¶Yvr KwZcq Avi.
AvB. Gd mg_©K †MÖdZvi n‡q †R‡j e›`x nq| †MÖdZvix Gov‡Z Rbve
myjZvb c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b cvwj‡q hvb| myjZvb cvwK¯—v‡b _vKv Ae¯
vq Zvi
we‡`k welqK †m‡µUvix Rbve †gvnv¤§` Rvdi, whwb we.G Rvdi wn‡m‡e
†ekx cwiwPZ, Zv‡K ewn®‥vi Kiv nq| hLb Rbve †gvnv¤§` Rvdi Avi. AvB.

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 148


Gd Gi †bZ…‡Z¡i `vwqZ¡fvi MÖnY Ki‡jb| ZLb Rbve myjZvb 1970 mv‡j
evg©v KZ©„c‡¶i Kv‡Q AvZœmgc©Y Ki‡jb| c~e© cvwK¯—v‡bi ¯^vaxbZv Av‡›`vjb
ïi
 n‡jv| Rbve Rvdi whwb cvwK¯—vbx •mb¨evwnbxi mv‡_ †hvM mv‡hvk _vKvi
Kvi‡Y we‡kl cwiwPZ wQ‡jb, c~e© cvwK¯—v‡b Ae¯
vb Kivi e¨vcv‡i Lye fxwZi
g‡a¨ wQ‡jb| wZwb Rvdi _vbxi †bZ…‡Z¡ cyivZb gyRvwn` evwnbxi mv‡_ m¤úK©
¯
vcb Ki‡jb Ges fvBm †cÖwm‡W›U wn‡m‡e Zvi `‡j †hvM `vb Ki‡jb|
hy×Kvjxb mg‡q Ges hy× cieZx© mg‡q ARm&ª cwigvY AZ¨vaywbK A¯¿-k¯¿
evsjv‡`‡k Avmv ïi
 Ki‡jv| Rvdi _vbx e¨vcK cwigvY A¯¿ msMÖn Ki‡jv|
Ges Zvi kw³ `ª
Z e„w× †cj| K‡qK eQ‡ii Rb¨ evg©xR miKvi M‡elYv
K‡i †`L‡jv †h, mxgvš—eZx© GjvKvq Kx NUwQj| Ges Zvi (Rvdi _vbx)
Kvh©µ‡gi cÖwZ AÜfv‡e `„wó †dj‡jv| hvB †nvK AvivKvb †e․ׇ`i Aš—‡i
GKUv Pvcv AvZ¼ weivR KiwQj| kÎ
i wei
‡× hy× Kivi cwie‡Z© Rvdi
_vbx Zvi wb‡Ri †jvKR‡bi g‡a¨ jyU ZivR ïi
 Ki‡jb Ges wb‡Ri fvM¨
iPbvi Kv‡R e¨¯— _vK‡jb| 1973 mv‡j Rvd‡ii wei
‡× AvµgYvZ¥K ‡ekxi
fvM evgx©R •mb¨ Zv‡K Zvi mKj `~M© Z¨vM Ki‡Z Ges evg©v-evsjv‡`k mxgvš—
n‡Z cvwj‡q †h‡Z eva¨ Ki‡jv| Rvd‡ii ab m¤úwË Ges Zvi ¯¿xMY evgx©R
•mb¨ KZ…K © AvUK n‡jv| †m mgq mxgv‡š— Zvi j¨vd‡Ub¨v›U we.G Rvdi _vB
AwaKvsk Rbej‡K evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU‡Z wbivcËv †`qvi wewbg‡q Zv‡`i‡K
we.wW.Avi. Gi wbKU AvZœmgc©Y Kiv‡Z cwiKíbv Ki‡jb| Rbve we.G
Rvdi ZLb PÆMÖv‡g wd‡i ‡M‡jb| †mLv‡b wZwb GKwU ¯
vbxq †nv‡U‡ji
e¨e¯
vcK wn‡m‡e KvR ïi
 Ki‡jb| wKš‧ wZwb wKQz cÖexb gyRvwn`‡`i mv‡_
†hvM mvRkI Ae¨vnZ iL‡jb, hviv ZLbI Zv‡`i A¯¿¸‡jv Rgv †`qwb|

we. Gm. wc. wc miKvi KZ…©K AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`b

1974 mv‡j we. Gm. wc. wc me© cÖ_g Òwccjm Ks‡MÖmÓ Avnevb Ki‡jv Ges
hv we. Gm. wc. wc KZ©K „ DÌvwcZ msweavb Aby‡gv`b Ki‡jv| bZzb G
msweavb mve©Rbxb KvVv‡gv‡Z AvivKv‡b ivóª Aby‡gv`b Ki‡jv| bZzb
AvivKvb iv‡óª kZfvM †e․× KZ…c© ¶ wb‡qvM †`qv n‡qwQj| eg©xq‡`i‡K D‪P&

149 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


c‡` Ges ¯
vbxq AvivKvbx †e․ׇ`i‡K cÖkvm‡bi wb‡gœi c`¸‡jv‡Z wb‡qvM
†`qv n‡qwQj| ÔAvivKvb †÷U KvDwÝjÕ wQj evg©v mg_©K AvivKvbx †e․ׇ`i
wbqš¿Yvax‡b| Zviv †ivwn½v‡`i wei
‡× Avev‡iv lohš¿ †Rvi`vi K‡i|
Z_vKw_Z Awfevmb Z`‡š—i bv‡g mk¯¿ Awfhvb Pj‡Z _v‡K| gymjgvb‡`i
Dci wbh©vZ‡bi gvÎv GK fqsKi iƒc aviY K‡i| wkw¶Z †ivwn½v hyeKiv
jvwÃZ n‡Z _v‡K Ges Zv‡`i‡K miKvwi PvKzix‡Z wb‡qvM w`‡Z A¯^xK…wZ
Rvbv‡bv nq| †ivwn½v‡`i Rb¨ e¨emv-evwYR¨ cÖvq eÜB K‡i ‡`qv nq|

gymjgvb •elg¨ Ges gvivZœK †eKvi‡Z¡i Kvi‡Y m„ó Rvbgv‡ji wbivcËvi


Afve A‡bK gymjgvb‡K evsjv‡`‡ki mxgv‡š— Awfevmb MÖnY Ki‡Z ZvwoZ
K‡iwQj| A‡b‡K Avevi evgx©R Kg©KZ©v‡`i‡K Dr‡KvP cÖ`v‡bi gva¨‡g g~j
evg©vq AbycÖ‡ek K‡iwQj| gymjgvb‡`i G cÖevnUv e„w× †cj †h‡nZz we. Gm.
wc. wc miKv‡ii mgqKvj `xN©vwqZ Kiv n‡qwQj| we. Gm. wc. wc kvmb
Avg‡j wb BDb (Ue Win) GKevi mdi K‡iwQ‡jb| AvwKqve wegvb e›`‡ii
evwni †M‡U Aew¯
Z GKwU my›`i gmwR` †`‡L wZwb LyeB ¶zä n‡qwQ‡jb|
hLb †e․× †bZ…e„›` AvivKv‡bi A_©‣bwZK mdjZv m¤ú‡K© Zv‡K AewnZ
Ki‡jb ZLb wZwb Zv‡`i‡K ej‡jb †h Kvjv‡`i m¤§y‡L G ai‡bi cÖ‡R±
MÖnY Kiv wQj AcÖ‡qvRbxq| ZrKvjxb cvðvZ¨ †mbvevwnbxi KgvÊvi
†Rbv‡ij wZb I (Tin Oo), cieZx©‡Z whwb Avwg© cÖavb n‡qwQ‡jb Ges
eZ©gv‡b b¨vkbvj wjM di †W‡gv‡µmx (N.L.D) Gi †Pqvig¨vb wn‡m‡e †R‡j
wQ‡jb, AvivKvb iv‡óªi †M‡RUavix c`¯
 Kg©KZ©v‡`i GK mfvq wZwb
e‡jwQ‡jb †h miKvi AvivKv‡b D`xqgvb Kvjv mgm¨v †gvKv‡ejv Kivi Rb¨
20 eQi †gqv`x GKwU cwiKíbv MÖnY K‡i‡Q|

gymjgvb‡`i‡K AvivKvb †Q‡o P‡j †h‡Z eva¨ Kiv‡Z AvivKvbx †e․×iv we.
Gm. wc. wc miKv‡ii c¶ †_‡K D¯‥vbx †c‡qwQj| Zviv AwaK gvÎvq
AvµgYvZœK n‡q DV‡jv, †h‡nZz gymjgvb‡`i mv‡_ †jb‡`b ev AvPvi-AvPiY

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 150


Ki‡Z Zv‡`i‡K c~Y© ¯^vaxb ¶gZv †`qv n‡qwQj| gymjgvbiv µgea©gvb nv‡i
c‡_ Nv‡U, nv‡U-evRv‡i Ges Kg©‡¶‡Î Zv‡`i Avµg‡Yi wkKvi n‡Z jvMj|
AvwKqve kn‡i A‡bK¸‡jv ‡Mvcb ea¨f~wgi Lei mÜvb cvIqv wM‡qwQj|
†mLv‡b DØv¯‧ wkï‡`i Ges wew‪Qbœ †jvK‡`i AcniY K‡i wb‡q wM‡q nZ¨v
Kiv nq| gymjgvb‡`i agx©q Kvh©vejx nvwm Zvgvmvi wel‡q cwiYZ n‡jv|
AvwKqv‡ei kZ eQ‡ii cy‡iv‡bv Rv‡g gmwR` msjMœ IqvK‡di Rwg ev‡Rqvß
Kiv n‡jv Ges †mLv‡b mvwi mvwi †`vKvb cvU wbg©vY Kiv n‡jv, Avi Gme
†`vKv‡b cÖKv‡k¨ ïKz‡ii gvsm wewµ Kiv n‡Zv| gmwR‡`i cÖ‡ek Øv‡i GKwU
weivU Wv÷web ¯
vcb Kiv n‡qwQj| hLb gmwR‡`i wfZ‡i bvgvR Pj‡Zv
ZLb gmwR‡`i w`‡K †bvsiv wRwbm cÎ Ges cv_i Quz‡o gviv n‡Zv| avwg©K
†jvK‡`i‡K Acgvb Ac`¯
 Kiv n‡Zv, Zv‡`i `vwo gyÊb K‡i †`qv n‡Zv
Ges Zv‡`i Uzwc †K‡o ‡bqv n‡Zv| gmwR‡` Ges gmwR‡`i Avw½Yvq ïKi
XywK‡q †`qv n‡Zv| Kei ¯
vb mg~n D‡‪Q` K‡i †mLv‡b cvqLvbv, evm
Uvwg©bvj Ges d‡ji evMvb wbg©vY Kiv n‡Zv| gmwR` gv`ªvmv Ges cweÎ
¯
vcbv¸‡jv Aev‡a aŸsm Kiv n‡Zv| •mb¨iv gv‡S gv‡S RyZv mnKv‡i gmwR`
gv`ªvmvq cÖ‡ek Ki‡Zv Ges †mLv‡b gvZvj Ae¯
vq c‡o _vK‡Zv|

†ivwn½v‡`i Dci Ryjyg wbh©vZb Ae¨vnZ _vKvi d‡j Zv‡`i RgvUeuvav


wbôziZvi ewntcÖKvk NU‡jv| cyivZb Avi. AvB. Gd Kg©xe„›`mn GK`j
hyeK, AvBbRxexmn wek¦we`¨vj‡qi wWwMÖavixiv, Wv³vi Ges nvB ¯‥zj
wk¶v_x©iv 1975 mv‡ji †k‡li w`‡K AvÊvi MÖvD‡Ê P‡j †Mj| we.G Rvd‡ii
†bZ…‡Z¡ Zviv mevB Ô†ivwn½v †c‡Uªv‡qwUK d«›UÕ G †hvM w`j| we. G Rvdi c~e©
†_‡KB PÆMÖv‡g KvR KiwQj| cyivZb gyRvwn` `j¸‡jvi evKxiv Avi. wc.
Gd. Gi mv‡_ wg‡k †Mj| GLb Avi.wc.Gd AvivKvb n‡Z Av‡iv A‡bK
bZzb hyeK‡K Aš—fy©³ Ki‡Z jvM‡jv Ges Zv‡`i‡K wewfbœ e¨v‡P wgwjUvix
cÖwk¶Y w`j|

151 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


wKs WªvMb Awfhvb (1978)

20 eQi †gqv`x †ivwn½v wbg©~j cwiKíbvi Afxó j‡¶¨ †cu․Qvi Rb¨ AvivKvb
ivóª KZ©c
„ ¶ iv‡óªi m‡e©‪‪ wbe©vnx wefvM †÷U KvDw݇ji mivmwi ZË¡veav‡b
b¨vMvwgb ev wKs WªvMb Acv‡ikb bv‡g gymjgvb RvwZ-†Mvôx wbg~j © Awfhvb
cwiPvjbv Ki‡jv| G Awfhv‡bi D‡Ïk¨ wQj gymjgvb‡`i‡K fxZ-mš¿¯— K‡i
†Zvjv Ges Zv‡`i‡K AvivKvb Z¨v‡M eva¨ Kiv| G AwfhvbwU ïi
 n‡qwQj
1978 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡mi AvwKqv‡ei me© e„nr gymwjg MÖvg mvwKdviv n‡Z
Ges hv AwZ Aí mg‡qi g‡a¨ mg¯— GjvKvq Qwo‡q c‡o| AvivKv‡b
gymjgvb bvix,cyi
l, hyeK, e„× wbwe©‡k‡l mK‡ji MY †MÖdZvi, wbh©vZb, al©Y
Ges nZ¨vi Lei DËi AvivKv‡bi Ab¨vb¨ kni¸‡jvi gymjgvb‡`i‡K fxlY
fv‡e nZvk Ki‡jv| cywjk, †mbvevwnbx Ges Awfevmb Kg©KZ©v‡`i wb‡q
MwVZ b¨vMvwgb evwnbx Lye `ª
Z eyw_WvDs GjvKvq †c․‡Q †Mj Ges †mLv‡b
Zviv Îv‡mi ivRZ¡ Kv‡qg Ki‡jv| eyw_WvDs b¨vMvwgb nZ¨vh‡Ái me© wbK…ó
`„‡k¨ cwiYZ n‡jv| nvRvi nvRvi gymjgvb bi-bvix‡K †R‡j wb‡¶c Kiv
n‡jv, Zv‡`i A‡bK‡‡K Avevi wbh©vZb K‡i nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv| AvUK
†K›`ª¸‡jv‡Z gymjgvb igYx‡`i‡K Aev‡a al©Y Kiv n‡Zv| Awfhv‡bi
wbôziZvq fxZ mš¿¯— n‡q Ges Rvb gv‡ji wbivcËv, m¤§vb gh©v`vi cy‡iv
AwbðqZv †`L‡Z †c‡q weivU msL¨K gymjgvb Zv‡`i Ni evox †Q‡o P‡j
†h‡Z jvM‡jv Ges Zviv K¬vš—-cwikªvš— n‡q `yM©g cvnvox c_ Ges b`x bvjv
cvo n‡q G‡m evsjv‡`‡ki mxgv‡š— VuvB Rgv‡jv| cw_g‡a¨ †jvjyc gM †e․×
Ges wbivcËv Kgxiv Zv‡`i wRwbmcÎ Ges A_©Kwo †Rvi K‡i wQwb‡q wb‡jv|
A‡bK kiYv_x©‡K ¸wj K‡i nZ¨v Kiv n‡jv Ges A‡bK‡K fvix †evSv
mnKv‡i †b․Kvq cvi nIqvi mgq Li‡mªvZv bvd b`x‡Z Wywe‡q gviv n‡jv| †h
mKj MÖv‡gi evwm›`viv hLbB Zv‡`i MÖvg †Q‡o P‡j †Mj ZLbB ¯
vbxq gMiv
Zv‡`i Ni evox‡Z jyÉb ïi
 Ki‡jv, †m¸‡jv‡K Av¸‡b wb‡¶c Ki‡jv Ges
Mevw`c︇jv‡K wb‡q ‡Mj| GK gv‡mi g‡a¨ kiYv_x‡`i msL¨v wZb jvL

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 152


(3,00,000) Qvwo‡q ‡Mj Ges Zviv mevB evsjv‡`kx KZ©c
„ ¶ KZ…K
© wbwg©Z
A¯
vqx K¨v¤ú¸‡jv‡Z Avkªq wb‡jv|

evsjv‡`k miKvi Awfhvb _vgv‡Z eg©xq miKvi‡K Zvobv w`‡Z e¨_© †Póv
Kij| evgx©R miKvi †h †Kvb fyj KvR Ki‡Z cy‡ivcywi A¯^xK…wZ Rvbvb|
Ges Zviv †NvlYv Kij †h gvgjvi f‡q A‡bK ev½vjx A‣ea Awfevmx †`k
†Q‡o cvwj‡q †Mj| †mmgq †`‡k miKvwi Av`g ïgvix PjwQj|

RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkb (UNHCR) Zvr¶wYKfv‡e AwbwðZ wQj


†h G mKj cjvZK‡`i‡K kiYv_x© wn‡m‡e AvL¨vwqZ Kiv n‡e wKbv| wd«j¨vÝ
mvsevw`K d«vb‡KvBm nUvi (Francois Haughter) Zvi GKwU cÖZ¨¶`k©x
cÖwZ‡e`b cÖKv‡ki gva¨‡g G m‡›`‡ni Aemvb NUv‡jb| wZwb Zvi cÖwZ‡e`‡b
D‡j­L K‡ib †h- G mKj gymjgvb kiYv_x©iv evg©xR •mb¨‡`i A‡¯¿i gy‡L
Zv‡`i †`k Z¨vM Ki‡Z eva¨ nq|

UNHCR P~ovš—fv‡e Zv‡`i‡K cÖK…Z kiYv_©x wn‡m‡e mbv³ K‡ib Ges Zv‡`i
Rb¨ ÎvY Kg©myPx ïi
 K‡ib| wekvj msL¨K gymjgvb kiYv_©x‡`i Dcw¯
wZ
we‡k¦i we‡kl K‡i gymjgvb iv󪸇jvi g‡bv‡hvM AvKl©Y Ki‡Z m¶g nq|
hw`I evg©v cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q Zvi RbMY‡K wdwi‡q wb‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbvq,
cieZ©x‡Z Avš—Rv©wZK Pv‡c bZRvby nq|

evsjv‡`‡ki gvwU‡Z 9 gv‡mi AwaK mgq kiYv_x©‡`i Ae¯
v‡bi ci, Zv‡`i


wdwi‡q †bqvi c_ cÖk¯— Ki‡Z 1979 mv‡j Dfq †`‡ki g‡a¨ GKwU wØ-
cvw¶K Pzw³ mv¶wiZ nq| UNHCR Gi cwimsL¨vb Abyhvqx `yÕ jvL

153 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


(2,00,000) †jvK Zv‡`i evox N‡i wd‡i hvq| Ab¨w`‡K Pwj­k nvRvi ‡jvK
kiYv_©x wkwei¸‡jv‡Z gviv hvq Ges evKxiv evsjv‡`k mgv‡R Qwo‡q wQwU‡q
hvq| `yf©vM¨ekZ wØcvw¶K Pzw³‡Z †ivwn½v‡`i emev‡mi welqwU wQjbv|
d‡j fwel¨‡Z evg©vq emevm Kiv Zv‡`i Rb¨ m¤ú~Y© AwbwðZ n‡q co‡jv|

wb DBb Gi bZzb bvMwiKZ¡ AvBb

1979 mv‡j kiYv_x© cÖZ¨veZ©‡bi d‡j bZzb bvMwiKZ¡ AvBb Kvh©Ki nq


1982 mv‡j| bZzb G AvBb bvMwiK‡`i‡K wZbwU K¨vUMwi‡Z web¨¯— K‡i|
G¸‡jv n‡jv- RvZxq (National), mn‡hvMx (Associate) Ges wfb †`k
n‡Z G‡m bvMwiK (Naturalised)| AvBb Gi wØZxq Aa¨v‡qi (bvMwiKZ¡)
wZb Gi Aby‡‪Q` Abyhvqx 1823 mv‡ji weªwUk `L‡ji c~‡e© †h mKj b„-
ZvwË¡K †Mvôx evg©vq emwZ ¯
vcb K‡iwQj Zv‡`i mevB‡K RvZxq
(National) K¨vUvMwi‡Z ‡djv n‡q‡Q| weªwUk kvmbvg‡j †h mKj †jvK
evg©vq AbycÖ‡ek K‡iwQj ZvivB mn‡hvMx (Associate) Ges Naturalised
bvMwiK| `yÕ bvMwiK K¨vUvMwii g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ n‡‪Q- †h mn‡hvMx bvMwiKMY
BDwbqb wmwU‡Rbwkc G¨v±-1948 Abyhvqx `iLv‡¯—i gva¨‡g Zv‡`i bvMwiKZ¡
Aby‡gv`b Kwi‡q wb‡qwQj| Ab¨w`‡K hviv B‡Zvc~‡e© Zv‡`i bvMwiKZ¡
Aby‡gv`b Kwi‡q †bqvi Rb¨ Av‡e`b K‡i wb GLb Zv‡`i‡K Abyiƒc
Aby‡gv`‡bi Rb¨ we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i| Avi G‡`i‡KB Naturalised bvMwiK
wn‡m‡e ‡kªYx web¨vm Kiv n‡q‡Q| †m †`‡ki AvBb mn‡hvMx I Naturalised
bvMwiK‡`i‡K m¤ú‡`i gvwjK nIqv I ivR‣bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ê Ask MÖnY Ki‡Z
wb‡lavÁv Rvwi K‡i‡Q| AvB‡bi 4 Aby‡‪Q‡`i wm×vš— Abyhvqx †h †Kvb b„-
ZvwË¡K †Mvôx- †mUv RvZxq †nvK A_ev bv †nvK- AvB‡bi Av`vj‡Zi Dci
wbf©i Ki‡Z cv‡i bv Ges †÷U KvDw݇ji wm×vš— Abyhvqx we‡kl Ae¯
vq
_v‡K| miKvi •¯^iZvwš¿K fv‡e ‡ivwn½v‡`i‡K RvZxq bvMwiK‡`i ZvwjKv
†_‡K ev` w`‡qwQj| miKvi G fvb a‡i wQj †h, Zviv wQj AvivKvb ¯
vcbvi
Zv‡`i kZvwã cÖvPxb BwZnv‡mi Pig D‡cw¶Z 1823 DËi Awaevmx|
†ivwn½v‡`i‡K ivówenxb RbM‡Y cwiYZ Kivi K~U †K․kj mnKv‡i wb DBb G

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 154


c`‡¶c MÖnY K‡iwQj| Zvi D‡Ïk¨ wQj †ivwn½v‡`i‡K AwZ mn‡R †`k
†_‡K Zvwo‡q †`qv|

bZzb bvMwiKZ¡ AvBb Pvjy nIqvi d‡j Ges †ivwn½viv weRvZxq wn‡m‡e
AvL¨vwqZ nIqvi d‡j gymjgvb‡`i Ae¯
v Av‡iv †kvPbxq n‡q co‡jv|
BwZg‡a¨ miKvi mgMÖ AvivKvb e¨vcx gymjgvb we‡ivax Av‡›`vjb I `v½vq
cÖKvk¨ fv‡e c„ô‡cvlKZv Ki‡jv| `w¶Y AvivKv‡bi †ivwn½viv- hviv †mLv‡b
msL¨v jNy wQ‡jb- gvivZœK fv‡e 1982 DËi `v½vi Ke‡j c‡o| mvb‡`v‡q,
U½yc, ¸qv, wKqvKwcD, ivgix Ges †Q`yev kniZjx¸‡jvi A‡bK gymjgvb
Aa~¨wlZ MÖvg‡K gmwR` mnKv‡i D‡‪Q` K‡i †`qv A_ev ¸wo‡q ‡`qv nq
A_ev R¡vwj‡q †`qv nq| DËi AvivKv‡b AvwKqve †Rjvq A‡bK MÖvg
†Rvic~e©K Lvwj K‡i †djv nq Ges †Rvi c~e©K ¯
vbvš—i Kg©m~Pxi AvIZvq
kZvãx cÖvPxb A‡bK gmwR`‡K ¸uwo‡q †`qv nq| †ivwn½v‡`i †_‡K
†Rvic~e©K Av`vqK…Z cwikªg GLb KzrwmZ K„Z`v‡mi cwikª‡g cwiYZ
n‡qwQj| †hLv‡b f~³‡fvMxiv gvbyl e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡Zv bv Ges Zv‡`i mv‡_
†h †Kvb ai‡bi AvPiY Kiv n‡Zv| G mKj bi cïiv Pig wbôziZv, wbh©vZb
Ges nZ¨vKv‡Êi †nvZv wQj| AvivKvb n‡Z g~j evg©v ch©š— †ivwn½v‡`i
Av‡›`vjb cyivcywifv‡e wbwl× Kiv n‡qwQj| `xN©w`b †_‡KB †ivwn½viv g~j
evg©vq emevm K‡i AvmwQj| Zviv Awfevmb KZ…c © ¶ KZ…©„K †MÖdZvi
n‡qwQ‡jb Ges Zv‡`i‡K AvivKv‡b cvwV‡q †`qv n‡qwQj| ïaygvÎ hviv
KZ©„c¶‡K Dr†KvP w`‡Z ‡c‡iwQj ZvivB †mLv‡b emevm Ae¨vnZ ivL‡Z
†c‡iwQj|

RbmsL¨v ZvwË¡K wPÎ cwieZ©‡bi j‡¶¨, AvivKvb ivóª KZ„c


© ¶ B‡Zvg‡a¨ mgMÖ
DËi AvivKv‡bi AÂj¸‡jv‡Z †e․× MÖvg wbg©v‡Yi GK gnvcwiKíbv MÖnY
Kij| cvnvox DcRvwZ gyis, PvKgv Ges QvK- hviv cvnvox GjvKvq emevm
Ki‡Z mPvivPi myL Abyfe Ki‡Zv- Zv‡`i‡K wbgœf~wgi w`‡K Avm‡Z wb‡`©k
†`qv n‡jv gymjgvb‡`i †_‡K wQwb‡q †bqv mgZj f~wg‡Z Zv‡`i‡K emwZ
¯
vcb Ki‡Z ejv n‡jv| A‡bK †e․× gM AvivKv‡bi Ab¨vb¨ Ask †_‡K Ges

155 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


evsjv‡`k †_‡K G‡m gymjgvb Aa~¨wlZ GjvKvq emwZ ¯
vcb Ki‡jv| bZzb
MÖvg¸‡jv‡Z AmsL¨ c¨v‡MvWv I gywZ© wbg©vY Kiv n‡jv, hv Kvh©Z DËi
AvivKv‡bi †Pnviv cwieZ©b K‡i w`j| bZzb evwm›`v‡`i AZ¨vPv‡i gymjgvbiv
G‡ZvB AwZô n‡q DV‡jv †h Zviv e¨vcK msL¨vq AvivKv‡bi evB‡i P‡j
†h‡Z D`¨Z n‡jv|

B‡Zvg‡a¨ Af¨š—ixY `jxq †Kv›`‡j Avi. wc. Gd †bZ…‡Z¡ cwiPvwjZ cÖwZ‡iva


Av‡›`vjb wØav wef³ n‡q co‡jv| KviY 1978 mv‡ji kiYv_©x msKU †_‡K
Avmv my‡hvM myweav¸‡jv‡K h_vh_ Kv‡R jvMv‡Z Avi. wc. Gd †bZ…e„›` e¨_©
n‡qwQj| KwZcq Avi. wc. Gd cÖwZôvZv m`m¨ wSwg‡q cov cÖwZ‡iva
Av‡›`vjb‡K 1982 mv‡j cybivq mÄxweZ K‡i Zzj‡jv| G D‡Ï‡k¨ Zviv
†ivwn½v mwjWvwiwU AiMvbvB‡Rkb (RSO) Gi bv‡g Av`wk©K †PZbv, K‡Vvi
Kg©m~Px Ges cwiPvjbvi Abyfw~ Z‡K †Rvi`vi K‡iwQj| RSO Gi †bZ…‡Z¡
†ivwn½v cÖwZ‡iva Av‡›`vjb cybR©xeb jvf Ki‡jv| RSO eZ©gv‡b G
Av‡›`vjb‡K P~ovš— j‡¶¨ wb‡q hvIqvi Rb¨ kZfvM mg_©b †RvMv‡jv|

†h‡nZz Z…Zxq hy‡Mi P~ovš— eQi¸‡jv‡Z GK `jxq ‣¯^iZvwš¿K kvmb e¨e¯
v


AbycÖ‡ek K‡iwQj †m‡nZz †`kwUi A_©bxwZ Lye `ª
Z aŸs‡mi w`‡K avweZ
nw‪Qj| evg©v ZLb GKwU ¯^‡ívbœZ †`‡k (LDC) cwiYZ n‡jv| KwZcq
myweav‡fvMx †mbvm`m¨ e¨ZxZ mgMÖ †`‡ki RbMY `vwi‡`ªi KkvNv‡Z
wb‡®úwlZ nw‪Qj| wbZ¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq `ªe¨ mvgMÖxi gvivZœK msKU †`Lv w`j|
wRwbmcÎ we‡kl K‡i Pv‡ji g~j¨ e„w×i d‡j AvivKv‡bi mvaviY RbM‡Yi
g‡a¨ Am‡š—vl `vbv †eu‡a DV‡jv|

1987 mv‡ji †m‡Þ¤^i gv‡mi 25, 35 I 75 wKqv‡Ui e¨vsK †bvU iwnZ


Kivi d‡j RbMY gnv we‡ùvi‡Y †d‡U co‡jv| 1988 mv‡ji gvP© gv‡m

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 156


iv½yb cÖ‡K․kj Bbw÷wUDU (RIT) Gi wbKU GKwU †QvU Pv‡qi †`vKvbI G
Av‡›`vj‡b Rwo‡q) †M‡jv Ges Av‡›`vj‡bi P~ovš— cwiYwZ nUv‡bvi Rb¨
cÖ‡qvRbxq Kvh©µg m¤úbœ Ki‡jv | eû `jxq MYZš¿ cªwZôv I we. Gm. wc.
wc kvmb we‡jv‡ci `vex‡Z AvivKvbmn mgMª †`‡k Pjgvb GK`jxq
mgvRZvwš¿K kvm‡bi wei
‡× Av‡›`vjb µ‡gB †Rvi`vi n‡q DV‡jv| cÖ_g
w`‡K G Av‡›`vjb wk¶v_©xMY KZ©„K ïi
 nq| Ges cieZ©x‡Z MY Av‡›`vj‡b
cwiYZ nq| †h‡nZz Av‡›`vjb¸‡jv‡K wbôzifv‡e `gb Kiv n‡jv †m‡nZz
cieZ©x‡Z miKvwi Kg©KZ©v, Kg©Pvix I †mbvm`m¨‡`i Ask MÖn‡Y Av‡›`vjb
Av‡iv †Rvi`vi n‡jv| wb DBb hLb †`L‡Z †c‡jb †h, cwiw¯
wZ ax‡i ax‡i
wbqš¿‡Yi evB‡i P‡j hv‡‪Q ZLb wZwb Zvi ¶gZv i¶vi Rb¨ GKwU PvZzix
†K․k‡ji gva¨‡g K‡qK gv‡mi g‡a¨B iv‡óªi kxl©¯
vbxq e¨w³‡`i‡K cwieZ©b
K‡i †dj‡jb| Zvici gvs gvs (Maung Maung) †K emvgwiK ivóªcwZ wn‡m‡e
wb‡qvM w`‡jb| wZwb ¶gZvq G‡m mvgwiK AvBb Zz‡j w`‡jb| wKš‧ RbMY
Zvi G wb‡qvM‡K cÖZ¨vL¨vb Ki‡jv Ges Zviv GKwU Aš—e©Z©x miKvi MV‡bi
`vex Rvbv‡jv| GKB mv‡_ Zviv we. Gm. wc. wc Gi wejywß `vex Ki‡jv|
Zv‡`i G MY Av‡›`vjb Ae¨vnZ fv‡e Pj‡Z _vK‡jv|

mv¤cÖ`vwqK Ø›Ø Ges cy‡iv‡bv kÎ
Zv mevB fy‡j †Mj Ges m¤¢eZ cÖ_gev‡ii
gZ mgMÖ †`‡ki RvZxq ivR‣bwZK `j¸‡jv GKwU mvaviY wel‡q Av‡›`vjb
Kivi Rb¨ GKwÎZ n‡jv| AvivKv‡b gymjgvb I †e․ׇ`i g‡a¨ `xN© w`b a‡i
k¼v I kÎ
Zv weivR KiwQj| wKš‧ G `ywU agx©q `jI nv‡Z nvZ wgwj‡q
miKv‡ii wei
‡× †¯­vMvb †`qv ïi
 Kij| †iWµm wPý mn Bmjv‡gi meyR
cZvKv †e․×ev‡`i njy` e¨vbv‡ii cv‡k †kvfv cvw‪Qj| ivRavbx AvwKqv‡e
Ges gymjgvb wbqwš¿Z Ab¨vb¨ kni- gvDsWvD, eyw_WvDs Ges iv‡_WvDs G
Rbmgv‡ek Ges cÖwZev` mgv‡ek AbywôZ n‡jv| G mgv‡ek Ges cÖwZev`
mfv¸‡jv‡Z gymjgvb I ‡e․× Avcvgi RbZv Ges †e․×wf¶z I gymjgvb
Djvgv mK‡jB MYZš¿ DËi wec­‡ei mdjZvi Rb¨ GK‡hv‡M Ask MÖnY
Ki‡jv|

157 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


AvivKv‡b Gm. Gj. I. Avi. wm Gi wbh©vZb

1988 mv‡ji 18B †m‡Þ¤^i NUbvi bvUKxq cwieZ©‡bi ga¨w`‡q R‣bK wb


DBb Z_vKw_Z †mbv Af~¨Ìv‡bi myi ms‡hvRb K‡ib| Zvi mg_©‡b †emvgwiK
gvs gvs‡K DrLvZ Kiv nq| †mbv m`m¨iv †÷U j GÊ AW©vi †i‡÷v‡ikb
KvDwÝj (S.L.O.R.C)-Gi bv‡g †mbvcÖavb †Rbv‡ij m gvs (Saw Maung) Gi
†bZ…‡Z¡ ¶gZv `Lj K‡i| cwiw¯
wZ cy‡ivcywi wbqš¿Y jv‡fi c~‡e© S.L.O.R.C
wZb nvRv‡iiI AwaK MbZš¿ cwš
 Av‡›`vjbKvix‡K nZ¨v K‡i| QvÎ Ges
ivR‣bwZK Kg©x‡`i‡K AvUK Kiv nq| Zv‡`i‡K wbh©vZb ‡m‡j wb‡¶c Kiv
nq A_ev nZ¨v Kiv nq| Zv‡`i g‡a¨ †_‡K GKwU wekvj msL¨K †jvK mxgvš—
AwZµg K‡i cÖwZ‡ekx †`k¸‡jv‡Z cvwj‡q hvq A_ev mxgvš—eZx© GjvKvq
miKvi we‡ivax wec­ex `j¸‡jvi mv‡_ †hvM †`q|

AvivKv‡b gymjgvb‡`i‡K S.L.O.R.C m`m¨‡`i †ivlvb‡j co‡Z nq|


S.L.O.R.C gymjgvb‡`i Dci cªwZ‡kva wb‡Z kyi
 K‡i| wbivcËv evwnbxi
m`m¨MY N„Yvf‡i gymjgvb‡`i cÖwZ wPrKvi K‡i e‡j- Ô†Zviv Kvjv| †Zv‡`i
Av‡›`vjb Kivi †Kvb AwaKvi †bB| GUv †Kej †e․ׇ`i AwaKvi|Õ ¶wY‡Ki
g‡a¨B weivU msL¨K MYZš¿cš
x Av‡›`vjbKvix‡K †MÖdZvi Kiv nq| Zv‡`i
Dci wbh©vZb Pvjv‡bv nq| †R‡j Zv‡`i‡K KwVb kvw¯— cÖ`vb Kiv nq| ¯‥zj,
K‡jR, Ges wek¦we`¨vj‡qi A‡bK QvÎ Ges hyeK mxgvš— AwZµg K‡i
evsjv‡`‡k cvwj‡q hvq| A_ev Zviv wec­ex `j¸‡jv‡Z †hvM ‡`q|
S.L.O.R.C ZLb Z_vKw_Z A_©‣bwZK we‡`ªv‡n cwZZ n‡jv| A‡bK gymjgvb
¶z`ª e¨emvqx‡K AvUK Kiv n‡jv, Zv‡`i Dci wbh©vZb Pvjv‡bv n‡jv Ges
Zv‡`i‡K `xN© †gqv‡`i Rb¨ †R‡j cvVv‡bv n‡jv| Zv‡`i wKQz msL¨K
†jvK‡K LwY cwi®‥viKvix wn‡m‡e A_ev Kzwj wn‡m‡e `w¶Y AvivKv‡b
wgwjUvix d«›U jvB‡b cvwV‡q †`qv n‡jv Ges Zv‡`i evwYwR¨K ¯
vcbvmg~n
ev‡Rqvß Kiv n‡jv|

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 158


AvKw¯§K fv‡e S.L.O.R.C Gi †bZ…e„›` †NvlYv Ki‡jv †h Zviv ¯^vaxb Ges
my›`i eû`jxq wbe©vPb Abyôv‡bi Av‡qvRb Ki‡Z hv‡‪Q| 27 †m‡Þ¤^i
S.L.O.R.C ivR‣bwZK `j †iwR‡÷ªkb AvBb Rvix Ki‡jv| AvivKv‡bi
gymjgvbiv Zv‡`i ivR‣bwZK `j¸‡jvi †iwR‡÷ªkb Ki‡Z Aby‡gv`b †cj|
wKš‧ wbe©vPb Kwgkb †Kvb `‡ji bv‡gi mv‡_ †ivwn½v kãwU MÖnY Ki‡jv bv|
d‡j gymjgvb‡`i‡K Zv‡`i ivR‣bwZK `j¸‡jvi bvg †ivwn½v e¨ZxZ Ab¨
bv‡g ivL‡Z n‡jv| 1990 mv‡ji †g gv‡m mvaviY wbe©vPb Abyôv‡bi wVK c~e©
gyn~‡Z© AvwKqv‡ei †Kvb GK wbe©vPbx GjvKv †_‡K Ôb¨vkbvj †W‡gv‡µwUK
cvwU© di wnDg¨vb ivBUmÕ (NDPHR) `‡ji gymjgvb cÖv_©x Rbve Kvwkg‡K
MYZš¿cš
x Af~¨Ìv‡bi mgq AvivKv‡b †Rj fv½‡Z cÖ‡ivwPZ Kivi wg_¨v
Awf‡hv‡M †MÖdZvi Kiv nq| S.L.O.R.C KZ©c „ ¶ Zv‡K 14 eQi Kviv`‡Êi
ivq †`b| wbe©vP‡bi c~‡e© Zvi AvU‡K AvwKqv‡ei Dfq Avm‡b gymjgvb‡`i
weR‡q cÖwZeÜK wn‡m‡e lohš¿ Kiv nq| 1990 mv‡ji mvaviY wbe©vP‡b
gymjgvbiv AvwKqv‡ei GKwU Avm‡b Ges gvDs`vD I eyw_WvDs wbe©vPbx
GjvKvi 4wU Avm‡b weRqx nq| RbmsL¨vi wfwˇZ hw` wbe©vPbx GjvKv MVb
Kiv n‡Zv Zvn‡j gymjgvbiv Av‡iv †ekx Avm‡b weRqx n‡Z cvi‡Zv|
AvivKvb jxM di †W‡gv‡µmx (ALFD) †ekxi fvM Avm‡b weRqx nj| Ab¨
w`‡K NLD AvivKv‡bi 10wU Avmb jvf Ki‡jv|

hvB‡nvK, S.L.O.R.C KZ…©c¶ wbe©vP‡bi djvdj‡K ¯^xK…wZ Rvbv‡Z A¯^xK…wZ


Rvbv‡jv| S.L.O.R.C KZ©c „ ¶ ¶gZv n¯—vš—i Ki‡Z A¯^xK…wZ Rvbv‡bvi d‡j
mvaviY RbMY we¶zä n‡Z ïi
 Ki‡jv| ZLb S.L.O.R.C KZ©c „ ¶ wKQz bZzb
mgm¨v m„wói gva¨‡g cÖK…Z ¸i
Z¡c~Y© Bmy¨ n‡Z Rbmvavi‡Yi g‡bv‡hvM mwi‡q
wb‡Z cyivZb †K․kj Aej¤^b Ki‡jv| S.L.O.R.C evsjv‡`‡ki mv‡_ GKwU
mxgvš— mgm¨v m„wói wm×vš— wbj, †h‡nZ yGUv fvj K‡iB Rvbv wQj †h, Zv‡`i
loh‡š¿i mgywPZ Reve †`qvi gZ †Rviv‡jv ‡Kvb Ae¯
vb evsjv‡`‡ki wQj
bv| Avš—Rv© wZK mxgv‡iLv AwZµg K‡i evg©xR †mbviv evsjv‡`‡ki GKwU

159 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb


mxgv‡š—i AvDU †cv‡ó AvNvZ nvb‡jv| wKQz •mb¨‡K nZ¨v Ki‡jv Ges mKj
A¯¿-k¯¿ I †Mvjvevi
` wQwb‡q wb‡q †Mj| webv D¯‥vwb‡Z Avµg‡Yi †Ri a‡i
mgMÖ mxgvš— Ry‡o c~Y©gvÎvq k¼v I D‡ØM weivR Ki‡jv| GiB my‡hv‡M
S.L.O.R.C KZ…c © ¶ †ivwn½v gymjgvb‡`i Dci ee©‡ivwPZ wbh©vZ‡bi gvÎv
eû¸‡Y evwo‡q w`j| Zviv gymjgvb‡`i MÖvg¸‡jv‡K D‡‪Q` Ki‡jv, Zv‡`i
gmwR`, gv`ªvmv‡K ¸wo‡q w`j| MY‡MÖdZv‡i gË n‡q DV‡jv| GQvovI
cÖnvi, wbh©vZb, nZ¨v, MYal©Y, K‡q`kªg, Av‡›`vj‡b c~Y© wb‡lavÁv Ges †Rvi
c~e©K D‡‪Q‡`i †bkvq Zviv cvMj n‡q DV‡jv| nvRvi nvRvi kiYv_x©
evsjv‡`‡k Avkªq MÖnY Ki‡Z ïi
 Ki‡jv| Dfq †`‡ki ARmª †mbvevwnbx
cy‡iv mxgvš—eZ©x GjvKvq hy‡×i cwiw¯
wZ •Zwi Ki‡jv| 1992 mv‡ji GwcÖj
gv‡mi g‡a¨ evsjv‡`‡k kibv_©x‡`i msL¨v wZb jv‡Li (3,000000) AwaK
Qvwo‡q †Mj| B‡Zvg‡a¨ S.L.O.R.C cÖkvmb ‡ivwn½v‡`i wei
‡× e¨vcK wg_¨v
cÖPviYv ïi
 Ki‡jv Ges miKvi we‡ivax we‡`ªvnx‡`i Avkªq †`qvi Rb¨ Zviv
evsjv‡`k miKvi‡K Awfhy³ Ki‡jv| mxgvš— mgm¨v m„wó Kivi gva¨‡g
S.L.O.R.C cÖkvmb Kgc‡¶ ¶wYK mg‡qi Rb¨ n‡jI eg©xq Rbmvavi‡Yi
†¶vf Dckg Ki‡Z mdj n‡qwQj| hvB‡nvK, GK Avjvc Av‡jvPbvi
ga¨w`‡q `yÕ miKviB Zv‡`i cvi¯úwiK ¯^v‡_©i Rb¨ mxgvš— D‡ËRbv wbim‡b
m¤§Z n‡qwQj Ges kiYv_©x mgm¨vmn mKj ¸i
Z¡c~Y© mgm¨v¸‡jvi mgvavY
Ki‡jv| 1992 mv‡ji GwcÖ‡j Dfq †`‡ki g‡a¨ GKwU wØ-cvw¶K mg‡SvZv
Pzw³ ¯^v¶wiZ n‡qwQj| 1979 mv‡j Abyiƒc Av‡iKwU Pzw³ ¯^v¶wiZ n‡qwQj
hvi d‡j kiYv_©xiv wbivc‡` Ges †¯^‪Qvq Zv‡`i †`‡k cÖZ¨veZ©‡bi my‡hvM
†c‡qwQj|

hw`I eg©xq miKvi †ivwn½v‡`i cÖwZ my›`i AvPi‡Yi e¨vcv‡i evsjv‡`k


miKvi‡K A‡bK cÖwZkªywZ w`‡qwQj| wKš‧ AvivKv‡bi wfZiKvi Ae¯
vi
Av‡`․B †Kvb Dbœqb N‡U bvB| eis w`‡bi ci w`b Gi Ae¯
v Av‡iv bvRyK
n‡q c‡owQj| AvivKv‡b Aiw¶Z cwiw¯
wZ weivR Kivi d‡j AwaKvsk
kiYv_x© †mLv‡b wd‡i A¯^xK…wZ Rvbv‡jv| Zviv `vex Ki‡jv †h BDbvB‡UW
b¨vkbm nvBKwgkb di wiwdDwR (UNHCR) KZ©K „ AvivKvb mxgv‡š— GKwU

AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb 160


†K›`ª ¯
vcb Kiv n‡jv| †h †K‡›`ªi KvR n‡e kiYv_©x ¶wZcyiY I cybe©vmb
cÖwµqvq Z`viwK Kiv| Avš—R©vwZK Pvc e„w× cvIqv m‡Ë¡I S.L.O.R.C GKwU
mg‡SvZv ¯§viK ¯^v¶i K‡i| †hUv mv‡eK‡`i‡K AvivKv‡bi Af¨š—‡i KvR
Ki‡Z AbygwZ †`q| UNHCR Kg©KZ©v‡`i g‡Z, G mg‡SvZv ¯§viKwU
†ivwn½v‡`i Dci Av‡ivwcZ mKj Kv‡jv AvBb Acmvib Ki‡Z Ges Zv‡`i‡K
eg©xq bvMwiK wn‡m‡e ¯^xK…wZ w`‡Z mnvqZv K‡i| wKš‧ S.L.O.R.C KZ©„c‡¶i
AZxZ fÊvwgc~Y© †iKW© Ges †ivwn½v‡`i Dci Zv‡`i Pjgvb ee©‡ivwPZ
wbh©vZ‡bi d‡j Zv‡`i fwel¨Z wPiZ‡ii Rb¨ AwbwðZ †_‡K †Mj|

mgvß

161 AvivKv‡bi BwZnvm : AZxZ Ges eZ©gvb