Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

about

Contact

Privacy Policy
Petroleum Corner

Wednesday 1st April 2015

Search and enter

SEARCH

OIL AND GAS

1. Home
2. Oil and Gas

3. LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY


admin12

2 months ago

118

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

1/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Piping shall be sized for the controlling case of flow rate, operating pressure and temperatures. Consideration
should also be taken to start-up and unusual conditions which impact line size. For gas and two-phase lines,
attention shall be given to the effects of change in operating conditions and composition with time.
In general all line sizing shall comply with API RP 14E.
Equipment capacity shall be considered in the sizing of lines.
All gas and liquid - two-phase lines and single phase gas lines shall be sized to satisfy the following
criteria:
The erosion velocity shall not be exceeded.
The pressure drop shall not exceed 0.5 psi /100 foot of pipe (except for flow lines)
For lines in corrosive service where corrosion inhibitor is being used, the gas velocity shall not exceed
45 feet I second. This is not applicable for corrosion resistant alloys and Company shall be consulted
for allowable maximum velocities in the event special alloys are utilized
The worst case combination of pressure and flow over the life of the facility as stated in Process Design
Basis shall be the sizing basis.
No provision for future increased capacity shall be made.
The erosion velocity shall be calculated as outlined in API RP 14E with a constant "C" of 100 for continuous
service and 125 for intermittent service. For duplex stainless steel piping materials a "C" value of 200 may be
used with Company approval.
Compressor recycles and station bypass lines shall be sized on the basis of intermittent service. The Company
may, at its sole discretion, relax the sizing criteria on a case by case basis.
Operating velocities for piping in gas service (continuous duty) shall be limited to below its erosion velocity
and noise level. Company may approve higher operating velocities for specific piping systems on a case by
case basis.
Calculation sheets shall be prepared for the piping configuration of each pump showing the calculations for
suction and discharge conditions, static head, static pressure, vapor pressure at pumping temperature, and the
minimum available NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) including the pressure drop in equipment, piping,
valves, and fittings.
Pressure drop due to piping components other than straight pipe shall be expressed for calculation purposes
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

2/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

as equivalent lengths and added to the overall length of straight pipe in the system. Equivalent lengths for
valves and fittings shall be determined as outlined in the reference 5 (Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings,
and Pipe", Crane Technical Paper No. 410) for hydraulic calculations.
All piping shall be sized I designed to eliminate I minimize the impacts of pressure surge due to transient
operating conditions and events.
Pipe roughness shall be based on the following values:
Table 1.
Pipe roughness
Material

Roughness

Carbon Steel

0.046

Carbon Steel Flare vent Headers (Heavily Corroded)

0.46

Stainless Steel Flare Headers (Hot Rolled, Longitudinally


Welded)

0.046

Duplex/Stainless Steel (New Seamless, Cold Drawn)

0.041

Galvanized Carbon steel

0.15

Epoxy Lined Pipe

0.15

Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE)

0.005

1. Sizing Criteria for Single Phase Liquid Lines


The sizing of single phase liquid lines shall be based on considerations of both pressure drop and velocity in
accordance with the guidelines given below. In determining maximum allowable velocities, consideration shall
also be given to noise and erosion/corrosion aspects.
In systems where sand may be present, a minimum velocity of 3 ft/s shall be maintained for all pipe sizes to
minimize sand depositions in the lines. This may be relaxed for the liquid export pipeline where pigging and
other corrosion control methods are available.
a. Calculation Method
Pipe size will be based on pressure drop calculated using the Darcy equation. Friction factor values should be
taken from a friction factor chart (modified Moody diagram - refer API RP 14)
For pump suction lines handling boiling fluid, lines shall be sized such that the total frictional pressure drop
does not exceed 2 ft of head of the fluid.
Table 2.
Recommended Velocity and Maximum AP for Carbon Steel Liquid Lines
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

3/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

HYDROCARBONS
Velocity ft/s

Maximum AP psi/100
ft

100

5.0 - 8.0

50

6.5 - 10.0

20

10.0 - 16.5

1.3

Gravity Rundown Lines

3.3 - 8.2

0.15

Liquid Feed to Towers

4.0 - 6.5

0.3 - 0.5

Liquids to Reboilers

3.0 - 6.0

0.1 - 0.25

Type of Service
General
Recommendation
Liquid Density, lb/ft3

WATER LINES
General
Recommendation

2.0 - 16.0

0.3 - 2.0

Service Diameter, inch


1"

2.0 - 3.3

2"

3.3 - 5.0

4"

5.0 - 7.0

6"

7.0 - 9.0

8"

8.2 - 10.0

10"

10.0 - 12.0
HYDROCARBONS

Type of Service

Velocity ft/s

12"

12.0 - 14.0

16"

12.0 - 15.0

20"

12.0 - 16.0

Maximum AP psi/100 ft

Pump Suction

See Table 10

See Table bellow

Pump Discharge

6.0-16.5, refer

See Table bellow

Must read

also to Table
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

PROCESS BLOCK DIAGRAM OF NGL P


Design Aspects For Flare Systems
4/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Design Aspects For Flare Systems

bellow
Boiler Feed

8.0 - 15.0

Cooling Water

12.0 - 15.0

Top

Table 3.
Allowable Pressure Drops and Velocities in Piping for Centrifugal Pumps
Maximum Velocity ft/s
Pipe NB inch
Pump

<4"

Allowable P psi/100ft
Pump Suction

Pump
Suction

Pump
Discharge

Pump
Discharge

Boiling
Liquid

Subcooled
Liquid

0.050.20

0.200.60

1.0-1.6

0.200.60

1.0-1.6

4"

4.5

0.050.20

6"

10

0.050.30

0.200.60

1.0-1.6

8"

14

0.100.30

0.501.00

1.6-2.0

>8"

16.5

0.100.30

0.501.00

1.6-2.0

b. Liquids Flowing by Pressure


In general, these lines shall be sized in accordance with Table 9.Lines where flashing may occur upstream of
control valves shall be sized to prevent vapour flash ahead of the valve. Where the available pressure drop is
low the line should be sized such that the actual pipe frictional pressure drop does not exceed 50% of the
available pressure drop.
c. Gravity Flow Lines
Gravity flow lines shall be sized using a maximum pressure drop of 0.15 psi/100 ft equivalent length (based on
1 :500 slopes). This may be exceeded for sub-cooled liquids with large available heads. Caution should be
taken to prevent flashing in barometric legs. Pipes with a diameter below 8 inches shall be designed for 50%
full of liquid, while pipes with a diameter of 8 inches and greater shall be designed for 75% full of liquid.
d. Static Accumulation
The maximum velocity in lines entering/leaving tanks containing hydrocarbons, and not installed with a gas
blanket will be limited to 3 ft/s in the first 30 ft of line to/from the tank in order to reduce the accumulation of
static charge. This criterion applies to tanks containing flammable fluids such as diesel.
e. Other Corrosive Liquids
To minimize corrosion, pipes containing corrosive liquids shall be sized for the maximum velocities and
pressure drops in Table 4.
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

5/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Table 4.
Guidelines for Lines Containing Corrosive Liquids
Maximum AP

Maximum Velocity (ft/s)

Description
(psi/100ft)

NB 4" & smaller

NB 6 " & larger

0.5-1.0

3-3.6 5

Pump suction
Pump discharge

f. Drain
To avoid deposits of solid particles, sewage, closed and open drains shall be designed for the minimum fluid
velocities given below:
Table 5.
Guidelines for Sizing Drain Piping
Service

Minimum Velocity (ft/s)

Sanitary
drains

2.6

Oily
water drains (Open drains)

Other
drains

3.6

However, a minimum size of NB 4" shall be used for the header and NB 3" for the sub-headers.
g. Tank Overflows
Overflows are sized for the maximum net inflow to the tank taking full advantage of the available head above
the overflow.
For overflows through vertical internal pipes, use the Francis formula:
Q=K*D*H1.5
Q = flowrate (ft3/min)
D = pipe internal diameter (ins)
H = liquid height above top of overflow pipe (ins)
K = constant= 1.26 (for above units)
h. Fire Water Lines
Refer to NFPA-20 "Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection" and NFPA-24
"Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances", minimum velocity
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

6/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

criteria of fire water lines shall be 10 ft/s and the line shall not exceed the maximum velocity of 20 ft/s. No
pressure drop criteria restriction for fire water lines.
2. Sizing Criteria for Single Phase Vapor Lines
Table 6.
Recommended Velocity and Pressure Drop for Single Phase Vapour Lines
(Excluding Vent lines)
Operating Pressure (psig)

Maximum Velocity (ft/s)

Pressure Drop (psi/100 ft)

General Recommendation
<36

0.04 - 0.13

36 - 130

0.18-0.31

130 - 566

0.31 - 0.49

566 - 2160

0.49-1.19

Over 2160

0.2% of operating pressure

Compressor Lines
0 - 58

0.15

58 - 130

0.3

130 - 200

0.5

200 - 495

0.5

> 495

0.5

Suction

66

Discharge

98

Anti-surge recycle

246

Notes:
- Reciprocating compressor lines should be sized on a conservative basis with maximum velocities of 40 ft/s.
- The velocity of gases containing wet carbon dioxide is not to exceed 60 ft/s where film forming corrosion
inhibitor is being used. At velocities above this limit corrosion inhibitor loses its effectiveness.
- For continuous flow (including lines in flare systems) the vapour velocity should not exceed the erosion
velocity as calculated in below. The calculated velocity shall not exceed either the maximum recommended
velocity or the erosion velocity. For intermittent flow where pressure drop is not a consideration (eg.
Compressor recycles lines) the velocity should not exceed 130 ft/s.

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

7/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

In addition to the velocity and pressure drop criteria, the maximum allowable vapour velocity relating to the
acceptable noise levels should not normally be exceeded. This velocity is calculated by the formula:
Vmax = 198.5()0.506
Vmax = Maximum allowable vapour velocity (m/s) based on a noise limit of 85 dBA@ 1 m
p = Gas density at flowing conditions (kg/m3)
When the vapour velocity exceeds Vmax for noise limits, consideration should be given to the routing of the
pipe work, and addition of insulation on the piping, before significantly increasing the line size.
- Lines in vacuum service to have pressure drops less than 0.09/100 ft.

3. Sizing Criteria for Gas/Liquid Two Phase Lines


a. flow patterns
Two phase flow in pipes can be classified by flow patterns which describe the type of flow exhibited, with
different flow patterns identified for horizontal and vertical flow. The flow patterns are determined from
standard flow pattern maps.
b. rosion
High velocities in 2 phase lines can cause rapid wear by erosion. The velocity at which erosion may occur is
calculated by the formula given in API RP14E, as follow:

Where
Ve

: erosion velocity (m/s)

: constant (empirical)
: 122 for carbon steel lines in continuous service
: 150 for carbon steel lines in intermittent services
: 250 for duplex and stainless steel lines in non-erosion (continuous) service
: 400-450 for duplex/stainless steel in intermittent service

Mixture density (kg/m3) at operating pressure and temperature (gas density should be used
for single phase gas lines).

Mixture density can be calculated from the following:

Where

: liquid volume fraction

: gas density (kg/m3)

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

8/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

: liquid density (kg/m3)

Maximum velocity shall be maintained below erosion velocity.


c. line sizing
The following criteria can be used to size two phase lines. Gas gathering and long flowlines are excluded from
this procedure and should be sized using proprietary software. Calculate the erosional velocity and determine
the minimum pipe size required to avoid fluid erosion.
Check the flow pattern to ensure that slug flow is avoided - annular mist flow is preferred. However, if
lug flow cannot be avoided due to erosion velocity constraints, then the line size will be accepted.
Calculate the pressure drop as noted in this document.
4. Sizing Criteria for Relief and De-pressuring Lines
For preliminary engineering the guidelines given below should be followed. A preliminary network analysis will
also be undertaken for all principal relieving/de-pressuring cases in order to ensure that the maximum
allowable back pressure at each individual relieving device is not exceeded. Calculations will be performed in
accordance with API RP 520 and API Std 521.
a. relief valve inlet lines
The inlet line pressure drop is to be less than 3% of set pressure calculated at set pressure conditions
assuming flow based on installed relief valve area for conventional and balanced valves. (Note - not for
modulating type pilots) However pressure drop in the inlet line for a pilot valve should be calculated and
considered when determining the relief valve capacity. The inlet line shall not be smaller than the inlet flange of
the relief valve.
b. relief valve outlet lines
The discharge line shall not be smaller than the outlet flange of the relief valve. The computation of the
allowable pressure drop using the required relief capacity is as follows:
Conventional Valves size the discharge line from conventional valves to limit the pressure drop to less
than 10% of the set pressure (gauge).
Balanced Valves Higher pressure drops may be used to affect considerable cost savings. Limit the
pressure drop to 50% of the set pressure (gauge) and to no more than the rating of the internal bellows.
Where there are a number of valves discharging into the same manifold, caution should be exercised to ensure
that the backpressure in the manifold allows all relief valves to discharge properly.
The recommended maximum Mach number to be used is 0. 75, calculated at rated flow rate and downstream
end of header conditions. Back pressure based on installed critical area shall be checked to confirm it is
below the system design pressure.

Note that Mach number for vapour lines is calculated from the following equation:

Where:
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

9/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Vs

: sonic velocity ( m/s)

: ratio of specific heats for the gas (cplcv)

: individual gas constant= 8314/M (J/kg K) M = gas molecular weight

: absolute temperature (K)

c. Flare Headers and Sub-Headers


The equivalent length of headers and sub-headers should be determined by reference 5. The maximum Mach
number used shall be 0. 75, calculated at rated flow rate at the downstream end of line conditions.
d. flare stacks
Flare Stack Diameter is generally sized on a velocity basis although pressure drop should be checked. For
stable flare burning in pipe flares, API std 521 recommends 0.5 Mach for a peak short term infrequent flow,
with 0.2 Mach maintained for the more normal and possibly more frequent conditions. Requirements for pipe
flares and other proprietary designs should be discussed with the vendor.
e. blowdown Inlet lines
The maximum velocity should be limited to 200 ft/s.
f. blowdown outlet lines and high pressure vents
Vent stack diameter is generally sized on a velocity basis although pressure drop should be checked. Since
there is no requirement to maintain a stable flame, the vent tip can be sized for sonic velocity. This minimizes
the size and provides gas dispersion. An allowance must be made in the pressure drop calculation for the
pressure discontinuity which occurs at the tip when sonic velocity is established.
g. atmospheric tank vents
Non-refrigerated atmospheric tank vents are sized on the basis of maintaining an operating pressure that the
tank can safely withstand. Flow rates are determined by consideration of thermal inbreathing and outbreathing, maximum fluid inflow or outflow, and vapour production resulting from fire exposure. Refer to API
Std 2000 for design criteria.
h. vent stacks
If sonic vent tip is applied, the tip shall be sized with 1 Mach for a peak vent load. Venting line and stack size
requirements for proprietary designs should be discussed with the vendor.
5. References
API Std 520 Part I - "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries", 8th
Edition 2008
API RP 520 Part II - "Sizing, Selection and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries", 5th
Edition 2003
API STD 521 - "Pressure-Relieving and De-pressuring Systems'', 5th Edition 2007 4. ASME 831.3 "Process Piping"
http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

10/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

ASME 816.5 - "Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings"


"Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe", Crane Technical Paper No. 410.
API STD 2000 - "Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks", 5th Edition, 1998
GPSA "Engineering Data Book", FPS Version, 1ih Ed. 2004
API STD 617 - "Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical
and Gas Industry Services", ih Edition 2002
API RP 2350 - "Overfill Protection for Storage Tanks In Petroleum Facilities", 2nd Edition 1996
Category:
Tags:

Oil and Gas

Sizing Criteria for Gas Liquid Two Phase Lines

Sizing Criteria for Relief and De-pressuring Lines

Sizing Criteria for Single Phase Liquid Lines

Sizing Criteria for Single Phase Vapor Lines

RELATED POSTS "LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY"

Design Aspects For Flare Systems

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

11/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Equipment Blowdown Scenarios

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

12/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

BLOWDOWN AND LOW TEM PERATURE PHILOSOPHY

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

13/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Specific Relief Valve Sizing Selection

SHARE!

Like

Tweet

Author: admin12

Prev post
Next post

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

14/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

Facebook Comments
Comments

Add a comment...
Also post on Facebook

Posting as Chowdhury Fatema

Comment

F acebook social plugin

NO RESPONSE

LEAVE A REPLY "LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY"

Name *
Mail (not publish) *
Website *

POST COMMENT

RECENT POSTS
Design Aspects For Flare Systems
Equipment Blowdown Scenarios
BLOWDOWN AND LOW TEM PERATURE PHILOSOPHY

CATEGORIES
Oil and Gas

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

15/16

4/1/2015

LINE SIZING CRITERIA PHILOSOPHY | Petroleum Corner

COPYRIGHT Kentooz powered by Wordpress

http://petroleumcorner.com/line-sizing-criteria-philosophy/

16/16

Centres d'intérêt liés