Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 76

PHARMACIST

EVALUATING EXAMINATION
SYLLABUS
The Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada

2015
Copyright 2015 by The Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, all rights reserved. The
information contained herein is provided solely for personal, non-commercial use.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 3
BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES ......................................................................... 4
BIOCHEMISTRY........................................................................................................... 5
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENOMICS .............................................................. 6
PHYSIOLOGY/ FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY .............................................................. 7
IMMUNOLOGY .......................................................................................................... 12
MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY .................................................................................... 13

PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES .......................................................... 16


PHARMACEUTICS AND DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS........................................ 17
PHARMACOKINETICS & BIOPHARMACEUTICS ................................................ 23
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ........................................................................................ 26
PHARMACOLOGY ..................................................................................................... 31
TOXICOLOGY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY .................................................... 36
BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS ................................................ 38

PHARMACY PRACTICE CLINICAL SCIENCES ........................... 43


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY ................................................................................................ 44
CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY / LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC TESTING ... 48
PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS .................................................................................. 52
HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION ......................................... 57
PATIENT CARE PROCESS ........................................................................................ 58
SPECIAL POPULATIONS .......................................................................................... 59
NUTRITION ................................................................................................................. 59

PHARMACY PRACTICE - PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE SKILLS. 60


PRESCRIPTION PROCESSING AND PRODUCT PREPARATION ........................ 61
PRESCRIPTION CALCULATIONS ........................................................................... 62
COMMUNICATION / PATIENT COUNSELLING ................................................... 63
DRUG INFORMATION .............................................................................................. 64
LITERATURE EVALUATION / RESEARCH METHODS / EVIDENCE-BASED
DECISION-MAKING .................................................................................................. 65
MEDICATION / PATIENT SAFETY PRACTICES.................................................... 66
LAW / JURISPRUDENCE ........................................................................................... 67
PROFESSIONALISM/ ETHICS .................................................................................. 68
COLLABORATIVE PATIENT CARE ........................................................................ 69

BEHAVIOURAL, SOCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PHARMACY


SCIENCES................................................................................................... 70
PHARMACY MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 71
CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM .................................................................... 73
PHARMACOECONOMICS ........................................................................................ 75
BIOSTATISTICS ......................................................................................................... 76

EVALUATING EXAMINATION SYLLABUS


INTRODUCTION
This syllabus has been compiled to guide candidates who are preparing to write the
PEBC Pharmacist Evaluating Examination. It contains sample outlines of Canadian
university level pharmacy course outline material, in subject areas that are considered
important to the foundational knowledge base for preparation for the practice of
pharmacy. It is emphasized that the material found within this syllabus gives selected
sampling from a variety of sources, and its purpose is to serve as a guide to the
curriculum content of current pharmacy education in Canada. This information may be
helpful in your preparation to write the Pharmacist Evaluating Examination. However,
this syllabus should not be interpreted to be the blueprint for the construction of any
questions for the Pharmacist Evaluating Examination. PEBC examination questions are
developed independently of this syllabus.
The syllabus is organized into four sections that correspond to the four major subject
areas represented on the Pharmacist Evaluating Examination. These include:
Biomedical Sciences
Pharmaceutical Sciences
Pharmacy Practice
Clinical Sciences
Professional Practice Skills
Behavioural, Social and Administrative Pharmacy Sciences
Both formal education and practice experience prepare you for the Pharmacist
Evaluating Examination, Pharmacist Qualifying Examination and licensure as a
pharmacist. In order to determine what additional learning needs you have, prior to
taking the examination, you should assess the knowledge and skills that you have
already acquired, in comparison with the subject areas evaluated in the Pharmacist
Evaluating Examination.
Remember that language proficiency will also affect your performance. Written and
verbal language proficiency and communication skills, at a level satisfactory for a health
professional, are essential for your preparedness for taking the PEBC examinations.
Once you have identified your learning needs, it is your responsibility to find suitable
reference sources, materials and/or additional experience to prepare for the Pharmacist
Evaluating Examination. A partial list of references and learning resources (review
guides, textbooks, federal legislation and internet resources) is available on the PEBC
website.

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES
Biochemistry
Genomics and Molecular Biology
Physiology/Functional Anatomy
Immunology
Medical Microbiology

BIOCHEMISTRY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The following topics should provide a fundamental understanding of biochemistry
covering the topics of: intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic
acids and porphyrins; photosynthesis; the biochemical significance of hormones; and the
molecular basis of information transfer for cell integrity and well being.
TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOCHEMISTRY
Intermediary Metabolism
Enzymes reaction rates and kinetics, the influence of xenobiotics, vitamins and trace
elements
Carbohydrates, structure and function, synthesis/degradation
Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle, glyoxylate cycle and pentose phosphate cycle
Biosynthesis of lipids, regulation by insulin and glucagon, steroid hormones and
atherosclerosis
Oxidative degradation of amino acids
Fatty acid oxidation, formation of ketone bodies
ATP and bioenergetics including oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport and the
effects of xenobiotics
Macromolecules
Nucleic acids
Protein synthesis, effects of puromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenical, streptomycin,
tunicamycin and diphtheria toxin
Chromosome structure, DNA replication and transcription, effects of antibiotics, cancercausing viruses
Lipids and membranes

MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENOMICS


Molecular biology is an area of study that concerns the molecular basis of cell regulation,
control of biochemical functions such as metabolism, secretion, gene expression,
response mechanisms and other activities to preserve cell integrity and life.
Genomics encompasses recent advances in the field of molecular biology and the
rapidly developing understanding of genetic information in life forms. Study of genomics
aims to understand the structure and functions of the human genome and focuses on
identifying the mapping of genes and DNA sequences, and the molecular interplay of
genes and their role in biochemical processes and disease.
TOPICS OF STUDY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENOMICS
Molecular Biology: Basis of Information Transfer for Cell Integrity and Well-being
Structure and functions of proteins and lipids
Biochemistry and cellular organization
Essential amino acids, degradation of purines and uric acid production
Cell signalling (neurotransmitters, hormones)
Cellular growth (the cell cycle)
Genomics
Organization of the human genome
Gene expression and regulation
DNA structure and function
Instability of the human genome:
Replication, Mutation and DNA repair
Recombination and Developmental genetics
Relationship between genes and proteins
Structure and function of proteins
Protein folding and conformation
Transcription into RNA
mRNA translation into proteins
Genetic engineering and cloning of genes
Cell-based DNA cloning
Cloning vectors
Molecular pathology - Identifying human disease genes
Applications: Gene therapy and other molecular genetic-based therapeutic approaches
6

PHYSIOLOGY/ FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This course explains normal physiology of the human body (with emphasis on cellular
mechanisms), and gives a general review of systemic human anatomy (with clinical
applications). The goal of this course is to provide a basic understanding of how the
human body is structured, in order to understand its function or dysfunction in the
presence of disease.
TOPICS OF STUDY: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
Respiration
How the body obtains oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide
The balance of respiration and of the pH level in body fluid
Changes during exercise and various disease states
Kidneys
How kidneys regulate the volume and composition of the body fluids
How kidneys function during malnutrition and various diseases
Hormonal regulation
Blood and the Immune System
Cellular and molecular components of the blood and their roles in oxygen transport,
clotting mechanisms and bodys defence mechanisms
Immunology dealing with normal immune reactions
Causes of AIDS
Problems with tissue transplants
Cardiovascular System
The structure and contractile properties of the heart
Mechanical forces regulating blood pressure
Hormonal and neural regulating mechanisms
Interactions of commonly used drugs with the cardiovascular system

TOPICS OF STUDY: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY contd.


Gastrointestinal System
Gastric acid secretion
How the body obtains nutrients, water, and electrolytes
Transfer into plasma and various tissues
Hormonal and neural regulatory factors in normal and diseased states
Elimination of undigested food
Neurophysiology
Description of biological membranes and ionic channels
The basis of bioelectricity
Detailed explanation of synaptic transmission
The synapse as a primary subject of action of various drugs which act upon the
nervous system
Major sensory systems such as the somatosensory, visual and auditory systems
The pain perception
Neural control of skeletal musculature
Basal ganglia disorders such as Parkinsons and Huntingtons Chorea
Mental illnesses
Temperature Regulation
The homeostatic mechanisms regulating body temperature
In normal condition
During disease
During exercise
Endocrinology & Reproduction
The hypothalamic system controlling hormonal release
The pituitary gland; the thyroid gland; the adrenal gland
The reproductive cycle and its hormonal controls

TOPICS OF STUDY: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY


Introduction to Anatomy
The anatomical position; movement
Ultrastructure of the cell
Examination of basic tissue types of the body, and their function
The Integument
Histology of skin
The Musculoskeletal System
Types of muscle; histology of muscle
How movement occurs
Regional study - role of calcium in skeletal contraction
Diaphragm; upper limb; lower limb; clinical aspects
The Cardiovascular System
Mediastinum
Arteries versus veins - histological approach
Blood as a tissue
Heart - adult versus fetal structure and flow of blood
Coronary circulation; conducting system; clinical aspects
Regional supply
The Respiratory System
Histological survey
Pleura and pleural cavity; breathing movement
Clinical aspects, development of respiratory system

TOPICS OF STUDY: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY contd.


The Digestive System
Anterior abdominal wall
Palate and oral cavity; salivary glands
Esophagus
Peritoneal cavity
Abdominal viscera
Histological aspects and function
Clinical anatomy: Small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas
Blood supply including portal venous system and the first-pass effect
The Nervous System
Introduction to terminology
Synaptic morphology; neurotransmission
Organization of the nervous system
Central Nervous System
Spinal Cord: anatomy; meninges; major ascending and descending tracts
Brain: gross anatomical features, location and function meninges
Cerebral Hemispheres - sulci, gyri, major sensory and motor regions
Brain Stem; Cerebellum; Ventricles
CSF: flow, composition, function; blood supply- clinical anatomy
Peripheral Nervous System
Cranial nerves; spinal nerves; dermatomes; brachial plexus;
lumbosacral plexus - pudendal and sciatic nerves- clinical anatomy
Autonomic Nervous System
Centres of control; sympathetic and parasympathetic systems;
neurotransmitters
Organs of Special Sense
Eye, Ear, Olfaction, Taste

10

TOPICS OF STUDY: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY contd.


The Urinary System
Function; components and relations
Kidneys - location, gross anatomy; histology; flow of urine; ureter, bladder, male and
female urethra; pelvic diaphragm
The Reproductive System
Bony pelvis and perineal region; urogenital triangle; anal triangle; male external
genitalia; the breast; the placenta; early embryology; susceptibility of the fetus to critical
periods of development
The Endocrine System
Pituitary gland
Thyroid gland
Pancreas
Parathyroid glands and adrenal glands
Gross anatomy; functional significance; clinical aspects
The Lymphatic System
Significance
Gross anatomy and histology of lymphatic tissue
Lymphatic vessels; lymph node
Spleen, thymus, appendix

11

IMMUNOLOGY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
In this course, an overview is presented of the immune system, immune responses,
defence mechanisms against infectious disease and treatment applications. The study of
vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases is included.
TOPICS OF STUDY: IMMUNOLOGY
Overview of the Immune System
Specificity and memory
Cells and organs of the immune system
Clonal selection theory
Humoral Immune Responses
Antibodies: structure, classes, and function
Cell Mediated Immune Responses
T cell subsets and functions
T cell receptor
MHC (Major Histocompatability Complex) molecules
Antigen processing and MHC-restricted presentation
T cell recognition of antigens
Implications to Vaccine Design
Conventional and modern vaccines
Hybridoma Technology and Monoclonal Antibodies
Clinical applications: as research tools and as diagnostic and therapeutic agents
(eg: OKT3 and HA-1A)
See also: Section under Biotechnology and Pharmacogenetics

12

MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course of study includes the general biology of micro-organisms and an overview of
the host response to infection. Focus is on the main categories of human infections, their
epidemiology, prevention and antimicrobial treatment. Topics also included are sterility
and disinfection.
TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Introduction to Microbiology
Bacterial structure, replication and classification
Bacterial pathogenesis and virulence factors
Normal microbial flora / Host response to infection
Principles of diagnostic microbiology
Bacterial Infections
Infections of the circulatory system
Endocarditis
Infections of bones and joints
Osteomyelitis, arthritis, prostheses
Skin and Wound infections
Cellulitis, Impetigo, wounds
Infections of the gastrointestinal tract
Food poisoning, gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated colitis
Infections of the eye
Conjunctivitis
Infections of the Urogenital Tract
Urinary tract infections
Sexually transmitted infections
Infections of the CNS
Meningitis
Abcesses

13

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY contd.


Infections of the respiratory tract
Otitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis
Tuberculosis
Pneumonia, bronchitis, pleurisy, croup
Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia

Antimicrobial Agents
-Lactams, Cephalosporins
Quinolones
Macrolides, Clindamycin, Tetracyclines
Aminoglycosides, Vancomycin
Sulfonamides and Trimethoprim
Metronidazole, Chloramphenicol
Viral Infections
Properties, structure, replication, and transmission
Viral pathogenesis, host response and principles of diagnostic virology
Sites of viral infections
Respiratory tract
CNS
Prion diseases
Gastrointestinal tract
HIV and AIDS
Herpes viruses
Viral hepatitis
Measles, mumps, rubella
Chickenpox and shingles
Infections in the fetus and newborn
Skin, mucous membranes
Childhood Fevers
Antiviral Agents

14

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY contd.


Parasitology
Protazoal Diseases
Protazoas and Helminths
Malaria
Ectoparasites
Lice, Scabies, Ticks
Mycology
Properties, structure, replication, and transmission
Systemic Mycoses
Candida
Aspergillus
Histoplasmosis
Blastomycosis
Coccidiodomycosis
Cryptococcosis
Superficial Mycoses
Dermatophytes
Antifungal Agents
Sterilization and Disinfection
Hospital epidemiology
Infection control methods (Clean room, Laminar Flow Hood)
Immunoprophylaxis and Vaccines

15

PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES
Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Systems
Phamacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics
Medicinal Chemistry
Pharmacology
Toxicology and Clinical Toxicology
Biotechnology and Pharmacogenetics

16

PHARMACEUTICS AND DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
In this course of study, the emphasis is on physico-chemical properties related to the
design and formulation of dosage forms and optimal delivery of drugs to a site of action
for therapeutic usefulness. This study includes the role of biopharmaceutics, preformulation principles, drug stability and physical pharmacy in the development of safe
and effective dosage forms. Bioequivalence, routes of administration and new design
innovations are included.
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
Solids and Solid Dosage Forms
The solid state
Bonding - Van der Waals, H bonding, covalent, electrostatic, metallic
crystal systems and habits
Crystallization - saturated and supersaturated solutions, crystal growth
Crystallinity - amorphous solids, degree of crystallinity, crystal defects
Polymorphism - effects on formulation, bioavailability
Hydrates and solvates - hygroscopicity, deliquescence, phase diagrams, effects
on formulation, bioavailability, lyophilization
Eutectic mixtures, solid solutions, clathrates and inclusion compounds
Solid dosage forms
Properties of powders, handling of powders, drying, mixing and milling
Particle size analysis - definitions, methods
Tableting - excipients and formulation, methods of granulation, tablet
compression
Tablet coating - methods and types of coating
Capsules - hard gelatin, soft gelatin, non-gelatin based capsules, formulation
Evaluation tests - uniformity of weight, content, dissolution, disintegration,
hardness, friability
Sustained/controlled release - formulation, effect on bioavailability
Effervescent powders and tablets - formulation, storage

17

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS contd.


Solutions and Solubility
Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Solutions
1st law, enthalpy, work
2nd law, entropy
Gibbs free energy and chemical potential
Phase equilibria
Pharmaceutical Solvents
Waters, alcohols, hydroalcohols, cosolvents
Aqueous and non-aqueous solutions
Syrups, elixirs, tinctures, collodions, spirits, liniments
Solvent/Solute Interacation
Intermolecular bonding, functional groups, prediction of drug solubility in water
Liquid-Liquid solution
Ideal and non-ideal solutions, Raoults law, partial miscibility
Solid-Liquid solutions
Colligative properties, solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, ionic
equilibria, buffers, isotonicity
Gas-Liquid Solutions
Solubility of gases, Henrys law.
Factors affecting solubility
pH, pKa, salts, temperature, esterification, complexation, solubilization, particle
size, cosolvency, polarity, solubility parameters
Dissolution
Theory, methods of measuring dissolution rate, factors affecting dissolution rate
Hixon-Crowell Cube-Root Relation, Noyes-Whitney equation
Types of dissolution apparatuses
USP Dissolution monographs and acceptance criteria
In vitro-in vivo correlation
Partition
Ficks first and second laws, Nernst distribution law, pH-partition theory,
steady state and non-steady state diffusion

18

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS contd.


Surface Chemistry and Dispersed Dosage Forms
Surface Chemistry
Interfacial tension, spreading, contact angle, tendency of wetting
Nature & properties of surfaces, interfaces-absorption at liquid & solid interfaces
Surfactants - classification, properties, pharmaceutical applications (HLB,
wetting, solubilization, detergency)
Emulsions
Emulsion types, applications, emulsifying agents
Physical stability - creaming, coalescence, cracking, inversion
Formulation, preservation
Microemulsions - formulation, physicochemical properties, applications
Suspensions
Desired characteristics, applications
Electrical properties, Zeta potential, Nernst potential
Physical stability - flocculation, deflocculation, sedimentation
Formulation
Rheological properties of vehicles including hydrocolloids, thixotropy, rheopexy,
structured vehicles
Drug Stability
Drug stability
Physical, chemical, microbiological stability - definitions, causes of instability
Chemical stability
Mechanisms of degradation - hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis
Zero and first order degradation - rate equations, half-life, shelf-life
Effect of temperature, ionic strength, solvents and pH on reaction kinetics
Factors affecting rates of hydrolysis and oxidation, stability programs, stability
testing, accelerated stability studies
Stabilization of drugs against hydrolysis, oxidation and photolysis
Intrapulmonary Drug Delivery
Components of aerosols - propellants, valves, containers
Formulation of aerosols - solutions, suspensions, emulsions
Design of aerosols - metered dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, nebulizers, spacer
devices
Inhalation therapy - deposition of particles in the lungs, metered dose inhalers, powder
inhalers, nebulizers

19

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS contd.


Dermal Drug Delivery
Skin structure - nature of barrier to percutaneous absorption
Percutaneous absorption - diffusion, partitioning, flux
Factors affecting percutaneous absorption - skin intactness, age, site, hydration, partition
coefficient, solubility, penetration enhancers and formulation
Types of dermatological vehicles - ointments, creams, gels, liquids, pastes, selection of
appropriate vehicle in topical drug therapy
Parenteral Drug Delivery
Methods of sterilization, sterility testing, pyrogen testing, tests for particulate matter
Routes of administration - advantages, disadvantages
Formulation - vehicles, additives, osmolarity, osmolality, particle size
Principles of aseptic technique, reconstitution, intravenous admixtures and causes of
incompatibilities
Total parenteral nutrition - design of solution, preparation, administration, complications
Ophthalmic, Otic, Nasal Drug Delivery
Ophthalmic Drug Delivery
Cornea as a barrier to drug absorption
Formulation - tonicity, sterility, pH additives
Otic Drug Delivery
Site of drug administration
Formulation
Nasal Drug Delivery
Formulation pH, additives
Rectal and Vaginal Drug Delivery
Physiology, local and systemic effects
Rectal and vaginal suppositories
Definition and uses
Preparation, excipients, density displacement factors
Stability
Vaginal tablets, ointments, creams, gels and aerosol foams

20

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS contd.


New Drug Delivery Systems
Controlled/targeted delivery
Controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery - definitions, rationale,
comparison to conventional delivery systems
Parenteral polymeric delivery systems - biodegradable, non-degradable
polymers, reservoirs, matrices, mechanisms of drug release, formulation of
implants, microspheres, nanospheres
Liposomes - formulation, interaction with cells, applications, targeting
Transdermal drug delivery - applications, mechanisms of controlled release
formulations
Immunoconjugates and new innovations
Protein drug delivery
Protein drug delivery - formulation strategies to stabilize proteins, formulation of
protein/peptide drugs using conventional injections, formulation of polymer
implants or microspheres
Nasal and pulmonary delivery - physiology, use of penetration enhancers
Buccal delivery and other potential delivery systems
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
Batch Record
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Lot number
Product Quality Control and Risk Management
Places
Premises and equipment
People
Personnel and quality assurance
Processes
Sanitation program and operations
Products
Specifications, stability, samples, batch records, recall reporting, sterile products
Pharmaceutical Analysis
Chromatographic Separation Methods
Thin Layer and Paper Chromatography
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC has a major emphasis)
Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC)
21

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACEUTICS & DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS contd.


Other chromatographic detectors
Fluorescence
Radiometric assays (gamma and beta counting)
Spectrophotometry and other analytical methods
Ultraviolet-visible
Infrared and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry
Atomic absorption
Mass spectrometry
Gel electrophoresis and Western blot

22

PHARMACOKINETICS & BIOPHARMACEUTICS


COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course is designed to cover biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics concepts.
Biopharmaceutics considers the interrelationship of the physicochemical properties of
the drug, the dosage form in which the drug is given, and the route of administration on
the rate and extent of systemic drug absorption. Pharmacokinetics involves the time
course of drug disposition in the body: the kinetics of drug absorption, distribution and
elimination (excretion and metabolism). This includes the effect of pathophysiological
changes on the pharmacokinetics of drugs and applications in pharmacotherapy. A
selected group of drugs is discussed in the context of therapeutic drug monitoring.
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOKINETICS & BIOPHARMACEUTICS
Compartment Concepts
One compartment open model
Multicompartmental models
Model-independent pharmacokinetics
Absorption
Kinetics of oral drugs (absorption and elimination)
Kinetics after one dose
Kinetics after multiple doses
Zero-order absorption model
First-order absorption model
Significance of absorption rate constant
Physiologic factors related to oral absorption
Modified release of drug products
Distribution and Protein Binding
Physiologic factors
Volume of distribution
Kinetics of protein binding

23

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOKINETICS & BIOPHARMACEUTICS contd.


Elimination and Clearance Concepts
Drug clearance
Renal clearance
Hepatic clearance
Biotransformation
Kinetics of Intravenous (IV) Drugs
IV Bolus
IV infusion
IV intermittent infusion
Multiple daily dosage regimens
Kinetics of Doses
After constant input
After 1st order input
Model-Independent Pharmacokinetics
Nonlinear pharmacokinetics
Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Issues
Clinical application of pharmacokinetics
Dosage regimens
Effects of pathophysiologic changes: monitoring and adjustment of doses in renal and
hepatic dysfunction
Kinetics of drug interactions
Special populations
Pediatric patients
Pregnant and lactating women
Geriatric patients

24

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOKINETICS & BIOPHARMACEUTICS contd.


Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Drugs in renal failure: Aminoglycosides; Cyclosporine A
Drugs with saturable kinetics: Phenytoin; Salicylates
Drugs with linear kinetics: Theophylline; Digoxin; Procainamide
Examples of Pharmacokinetics Calculations
Pharmacokinetic rate constants
Apparent volume of distribution, elimination rate constant, half-life, clearance
Blood drug concentration following IV bolus dose administration
One compartment model
Two compartment model
From urinary excretion data for one compartment open model
Looking at drug concentration vs. time curves
Determining what model the drug follows
Clearance rates
Loading doses and time to reach steady state

25

MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The following list of topics indicates the breadth of material presented in Medicinal
Chemistry courses. Some topics are closely integrated with other courses, and therefore
it is difficult to define the precise depth of knowledge that is required in all sections.
TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
Fundamental Aspects of Organic Chemistry
Chemical bonding: introductory aspects, such as atomic orbitals, molecular orbitals,
localized versus delocalized chemical bonding, specific bond types (e.g.,
covalent and ionic), aromaticity and tautomerism.
Nomenclature of organic chemistry
Stereochemistry
Solubility
Acidity and basicity
Functional groups
Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
Alcohols and phenols
Ethers
Aldehydes and ketones
Amines
Carboxylic acids
Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids
Sulfonic acids and sulfonamides
Heterocycles
Alkyl halides: halothane, isoflurane, etc.
Nitrates, nitrites, and nitroglycerin
Antioxidants in pharmaceutical preparations
Fundamental Concepts of Medicinal Chemistry:
Structure-activity relationships
Ionization and pKa values: electronic effects in medicinal compounds
Metabolism: routes of metabolism, specific isozymes, induction and inhibition of
enzymes giving rise to specific drug interactions, and genetic polymorphism of
clinical relevance.
Transporters
Chemical and physical properties of related medicinal compounds
26

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY contd.


Biological properties: absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, pharmacological
activity
Nomenclature that is specific to medicinal chemistry
Drug/Receptor Interactions: Theory and Practice
Drug-receptor binding: importance of the equilibrium dissociation constant
Fraction of bound receptors and the analogous enzyme-substrate relationships
Importance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions
History of Selected Anti-infective Agents
Dihydropteroate synthetase inhibitors and bacteriostatic agents
Sulfanilamides and sulfones compared with p-aminobenzoic acid
Avoiding crystalluria through ionization
Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors and related biochemical pathways
Review of Ion Channels (Sodium, Potassium and Calcium)
State dependent interactions of voltage-gated ion channels
Resting state and use-dependent blocking
Local anaesthetics and anti-arrhythmic agents
Ion channel-related adverse effects of drugs
Therapeutic Applications of Steroids
Cholesterol regulation and atherosclerosis: e.g., HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors
Steroids and gonadotropins.
Estrogens and progestin, including selective estrogen receptor modulators
Corticosteroids
Carbonic Anhydrase and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: therapeutic applications
ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists
27

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY contd.


Comparison with diuretics in antihypertensive applications
Nicotinic Receptors
Applications in the peripheral and central nervous systems
Muscarinic Receptors
Importance in the heart and smooth muscles
General importance in the autonomic nervous system
Atropine: discussion of structures of anticholinergics
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: indirect-acting cholinergic agonists
Adrenergic Receptors
General importance of the adrenergic or sympathetic nervous system
Agonists as vasoconstrictors, presynaptic alpha2 receptors
Beta-blockers and treatment of hypertension
Treatment of asthma and beta2-selective agonists
Amphetamines and MAO Inhibitors
Review of the structure of the blood-brain barrier
Discussion of amphetamines: CNS stimulants and anorectic agents
Selected MAO-A and MAO-B inhibitor structural classes
Dopamine Receptors
L-dopa therapy in the treatment of Parkinsonism: decarboxylase inhibitors
Antipsychotic therapy by neuroleptic agents: important structural classes
Serotonin Receptors
General importance in the central nervous system
Reuptake inhibitors and antidepressants
Some antiemetic and migraine therapeutic agents

28

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY contd.


Histamine Receptors
Histamine and its role as a local hormone
Antihistamines (H1 antagonists) and treatment of allergies
H2 antagonists: development of these agents
Acid suppression by other mechanisms: proton pump inhibitors
GABA Receptors
General importance in the central nervous system
Review of barbiturates and benzodiazepines
GABA deficiencies and certain diseases of the central nervous system
DNA Intercalating Agents (anticancer and antibacterial applications)
Review of the DNA structure
Essential molecular characteristics of intercalating agents
Review of important antitumour antibiotics as well as antibacterial agents
Opioid Analgesics
Morphine: structural link with the enkephalins
Enkephalins and endorphins
Codeine, heroin and meperidine and others related to morphine
Eicosanoids
Endogenous compounds: prostanoids and leukotrienes
COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition (NSAIDs)
Leukotriene receptor antagonists and eicosanoid enzyme inhibitors.
Platelet activating factor, membrane lipids, and antiplatelet agents
Antibiotics
Agents acting as protein synthesis inhibitors in bacteria
Agents acting on cell membranes, including antibacterial and antifungal applications
29

TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY contd.


Mechanisms and structures of agents with narrow and broad spectrum profiles
Microtubules (anticancer, antifungal, antibacterial applications)
Paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vinca alkaloids as antitumor agents
Griseofulvin: antifungal therapies
Colchicine in gout and selected anthelmintic agents
Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin and glucagon
Hypoglycemic agents
Selected agents for treating insulin resistance
Amino Acids, Proteins, Enzymes & Peptide Hormones
Important hormones such as thyroid hormones
Peptidomimetics and peptide synthesis: e.g., hormones of hypothalamic origin such as
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (superagonists)

30

PHARMACOLOGY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The study of basic pharmacological principles is applied to representative clinically
important drugs having their primary actions on various organ systems of the body. The
course includes a study of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of infectious
and neoplastic diseases.
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOLOGY
General Principles of Pharmacology
Drug absorption, disposition, biotransformation, elimination
Receptors
Receptor theory, macromolecular structure of receptors, signal transduction
mechanisms, molecular pharmacology
Drug/Receptor interactions
Evidence of specific receptor-mediated processes
Agonists/antagonists
Dose-response curves
Desensitization and supersensitivity
Autonomic Pharmacology (Autonomic Nervous System)
Drugs and catecholamine metabolism
Sympathomimetics
Adrenoceptor blockade
Cholinomimetics
Anticholinesterases
Muscarinic blockade
Ganglionic blockade
Neuromuscular blockade
Anaesthetics
Local anaesthetics
General anaesthetics

31

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOLOGY contd.


Pharmacology of Inflammation
Chemical mediators of inflammation
Histamine, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, bradykinin, platelet activating factor,
cytokines
Anti-inflammatory drugs
ASA, NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors
5-ASA
Immunosuppressants
Drugs used in the treatment of inflammatory diseases
Asthma
Rheumatoid arthritis
Gout
Central Nervous System Pharmacology
Pain and opioid analgesics
Anxiolytic drugs
Hypnotic drugs
Neuroleptic drugs
Antidepressants
Psychostimulants
Anti-Parkinson drugs
Antiseizure drugs
Anti-Alzheimers drugs
Drugs Affecting the Haematopoietic System
Iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, erythropoietin
Immunosuppressants used for heart transplantation

32

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOLOGY contd.


Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Antiarrhythmic drugs
Cardiac glycosides and inotropic drugs
Vasodilators
Calcium channel blockers
Beta-blockers
ACE inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor antagonists
Nitrates
Antihypertensive agents
Hemostasis and Thrombosis
Vitamin K
Oral anticoagulants
Heparins (including low molecular weight heparins)
Anti-Xa inhibitors
Anti-platelet drugs
Fibrinolytics and anti-fibrinolytic drugs
Antihyperlipidemic Drugs
Diuretics
Cancer Chemotherapy
Alkylating agents, antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, plant alkaloids, hormones,
Adjunctive agents including antiemetics

33

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOLOGY contd.


Gastro-Intestinal Pharmacology
Drugs affecting GI motility
Drugs affecting gastric secretion
Drugs for eating disorders
Anti-obesity drugs
Endocrine Pharmacology
Insulin and oral hypoglycemics
Corticosteroids
Thyroid and anti-thyroid drugs
Androgens and anabolic steroids
Estrogens and anti-estrogens, progestins, hormonal contraception (oral and other
routes)
Vasopressin
Oxytocin
Bone mineral homeostasis
Anti-Microbial Agents
Antibacterial drugs
Beta-lactam antibiotics, cephalosporins, sulphonamides, trimethoprim,
tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, erythromycin, macrolides,
ketolides, lincosamides, fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, polymyxin, bacitracin,
metronidazole, nitrofurantoin, antimycobacterial agents
Antiviral drugs
Antifungal drugs
Antiprotozoal drugs
Anthelmintic drugs

34

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOLOGY contd.


Drugs of Abuse
Ethanol, amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines (including flunitrazepam),
nicotine, cannabis, GHB, cocaine/crack, heroin, ketamine, methadone, nitrites, solvents,
hallucinogens: ecstasy, PCP, LSD, mescaline

35

TOXICOLOGY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Concerned primarily with drug-induced diseases, this course provides a framework for
understanding the broad spectrum of toxicological problems encountered in pharmacy
practice, in drug development and regulation, and in medical research. Central
biochemical mechanisms and the relevance of factors influencing toxicological
expression will be included.
TOPICS OF STUDY: TOXICOLOGY & CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
Introduction to Toxicology
Perspective: subdisciplines, magnitude, monitoring, resources
Pharmacological principles: relation of toxic response to frequency, dose and tissue
concentration
Discrimination among toxins
Mechanisms
Receptor-mediated vs. reactive intermediate-mediated toxicity
Covalent binding, oxidative stress
Elimination, bioactivation, detoxification, cytoprotection and macromolecular repair
Modulators of Chemical Toxicity
Pharmacological factors
Disposition, biotransformation, renal elimination
Physiological factors
Species, strain, age, sex, genetics, diet, pregnancy, functional reserve capacity,
tolerance
Pathophysiological factors
Diseases of hepatic, renal cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal and
biochemical systems
Neurodegenerative Disease
Hepatic Toxicology
Mechanisms and clinical consequences

36

TOPICS OF STUDY: TOXICOLOGY & CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY contd.


Toxicological Evaluation
Chemical measurements
Biological relevance of measuring active and inactive parent chemical and
metabolites, stereoisomers and reactive intermediary metabolites
Biochemical measurements of cellular response
Histological and functional measurements, animal models, in vivo and in vitro studies, ex
vivo human assessment
Chemical Teratogenesis
Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis
Immunological Toxicology
Chemicals and Environmental Toxins
Alcohols, glycols, aldehydes, nitrates and nitrites, sulfide, hydrocarbons
Carbon monoxide, cyanide
Pesticides
Metals
Corrosives
Plants
Warfare chemical weapons
Drug Toxicity
Analgesics and Anti-inflammatory drugs
Opioids
CNS stimulants and depressants, antidepressants, hallucinogens
Anticholinergics
Cardiovascular drugs
Vitamins
Venoms

37

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
In this course, the basic science and the pharmacotherapeutic implications of
biotechnology-derived drugs are dealt with in some depth. The emphasis is on recent
developments in the area and on the probable direction that future research in that field
will take. An overview of the immune system, immune responses and treatment
applications is also presented.
TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS
Introduction to Biotechnology
Modern biotechnology and its impact on development of drugs and pharmacy practice
Pharmacoeconomics of biotechnology drugs
Recombinant DNA Technology and Production of Protein Drugs
Review of protein biosynthesis in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Regulation of gene expression
Methods of creating recombinant DNA
Isolation of cloned genes
cDNA cloning, genomic DNA cloning
Expression of Recombinant Proteins
Host cells, expression vectors
Strategies in design of recombinant plasmids for pharmaceuticals (e.g. human
growth hormone)
Industrial Production of Protein Drugs
Modern fermentation technology
Requirements for bacterial, yeast and mammalian cell culture
Overview of fermenter design and fermentation processes
Large-scale production of protein pharmaceuticals with examples
Production of Biotechnology drugs
Cultivation and downstream processing
Issues to consider in production and purification of proteins

38

TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS contd.


Formulation of biotechnology drugs
Sterility, pyrogen removal
Excipients used in biotechnology drugs (parenteral formulations)
Shelf-life of biotechnology drugs
Delivery of biotechnology drugs: route of administration and absorption
enhancement; rate-controlled delivery; site-specific delivery
Pharmacists role with biotechnology products
Dispensing biotechnology drugs: handling and special considerations; storage;
preparation; administration; patient assessment and monitoring; outpatient/home
care issues
Pharmacotherapeutics of approved biotechnology products (clinical and regulatory
aspects)
Hematopoietic growth factors
Interleukins and interferons
Insulin
Growth hormones
Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator and factor VIII
Follicle stimulating hormone
Monoclonal antibody-based pharmaceuticals
Biotechnology-related Techniques
Polymerase chain reaction
DNA sequencing
DNA hybridization
Protein engineering
Site-directed mutagenesis
Antibody engineering
Peptide chemistry/medicinal chemistry
Peptidomimetic drugs
Rational design of peptide drugs
Nucleic acid technologies
Antisense oligonucleotides
DNA triplex technology
Ribozymes
Catalytic antibodies (abzymes)
In vitro screening and combinatorial chemistry

39

TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS contd.


Transgenic (TG) Animals
Production of TG animals by DNA injection (gain-of-function)
Production of TG animals by homologous recombination (loss-of-function)
Protein production in TG animals
TG animal models of disease and application in drug discovery and development
TG animal patents
Gene Therapy
Approaches and targeted diseases
Methods for ex vivo and in vivo delivery of genes to somatic cells
Applications to diseases
ADA deficiency, cystic fibrosis, and cancer
Case studies of current clinical trials
ADA in immunodeficiency and IL-2 in cancer
Future prospects
Potential diseases where gene therapy could be applied to or is currently used for
treatment
Gene transfer methods
Viral vectors (retrovirus vectors, adenovirus vectors, etc.)
Pharmacogenomics and genotyped prescribing (future role for pharmacists)
Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy
Inhibition of gene expression by oligonucleotides
Design of oligonucleotides and approaches to delivery
Small interfering RNA (siRNA)
Mechanism, potential applications

40

TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS contd.


Immunology: Overview of the Immune System
Specificity and memory
Cells and organs of the immune system
Clonal selection theory
Humoral immune responses
Antibodies: structure, classes, and function
Cell mediated immune responses
T cell subsets and functions
T cell receptor
MHC molecules
Antigen processing and MHC-restricted presentation
T cell recognition of antigens
Implications to vaccine design
Monoclonal Antibodies
Hybridoma technology
Applications: as research tools, and as diagnostic and therapeutic agents
(e.g., OKT3 and HA-1A)
Vaccines: Biotechnology Approaches
Cloned proteins: Hepatitis B
Synthetic peptides: AIDS
Synthetic carbohydrates: Cancer
Attenuated organism with site-specific mutation: Cholera
Vaccine delivery systems
Live vectors
Pharmaceutical formulations
Cytokines
General characteristics, classification
Origin, molecular characteristics and physiological function of each cytokine
Therapeutic cytokines
Interferons, Interleukins and colony stimulating factors

41

TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PHARMACOGENETICS contd.


Erythropoietin
Thrombolytic Agents
Comparison of t-PA, streptokinase, and urokinase
Formulation of Protein and Peptide Drugs
Problems: stability, bioavailability and routes of administration
Recent approaches in protein and peptide drug delivery

42

PHARMACY PRACTICE Clinical Sciences


Pathophysiology
Clinical Biochemistry/ Laboratory and Diagnostic Testing
Pharmacotherapeutics (including Prescription, Non-prescription and
Complementary Therapy)
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
Patient Care Process (Assessment/ Intervention/ Monitoring/ Follow-up/
Documentation)
Special Populations (including Geriatrics, Pediatrics, Pregnancy and Lactation)
Nutrition

43

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This course is designed to cover the basic mechanisms of pathophysiology, laboratory
investigation and follow-up associated with diseases.
TOPICS OF STUDY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Cell Injury and Death
Mechanisms of Cell Injury
Ischemia/Hypoxia
Free Radicals
Chemical Injury
Laboratory Investigation
Morphology - Reversible Injury, Necrosis, Apoptosis
Biochemical changes
Genetics
Common Chromosomal Syndromes
Pharmacogenetics
Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders
Metabolic Acid-Base disorders
Disorders of Oxygenation
Inflammation
Acute Inflammation
Chronic Inflammation
Inflammatory events and mediators
Edema
Immunopathology
Hypersensitivity reactions
Four major types: anaphylactic, cytotoxic, immune complex, delayed
Autoimmune diseases

44

TOPICS OF STUDY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY contd.


For the following diseases, please review the: etiology, pathogenesis, clinical
presentation and lab investigation
Obstructive Lung Disease
Asthma
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
Gastrointestinal Diseases (Non- Neoplastic)
Reflux esophagitis (GERD)
Peptic ulcer disease / Dyspepsia
Gastritis
Acute haemorrhagic/erosive gastritis
Chronic non-erosive gastritis
Infectious gastritis (i.e., Helicobacter pylori)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Crohns disease
Ulcerative colitis
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
Liver Disease
Cholestasis
Hepatitis (A, B, C)
Cirrhosis
Drug-induced hepatotoxicity
Tumours
Liver biochemistry (see Clinical Biochemistry section)
Renal Disease
Acute renal insufficiency
Chronic renal insufficiency
Lab investigation (see Clinical Biochemistry section)
45

TOPICS OF STUDY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY contd.


Endocrinology
Thyroid Disorders
Hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism
Adrenal Disorders
Cushings Syndrome
Addisons Disease
Pheochromocytoma
Metabolic bone disorders
Osteoporosis
Osteomalacia
Pagets Disease
Glucose Metabolism and Disorders
Diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2)
Cardiovascular
Dyslipidemia
Ischemic Heart Disease
Myocardial Infarction
Hypertension
Congestive Heart Failure
Dysrhythmias
Coagulation and thrombotic disorders
Haematology
Anemias
Normocytic (i.e., thalassemias, sickle cell anemia)
Microcytic (i.e., iron deficiency anemia)
Macrocytic (i.e., vitamin B12 deficiency and folic acid deficiency)
Haemostatic disorders

46

TOPICS OF STUDY: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY contd.


Neurology
Neurodegenerative diseases
Alzheimers Disease and dementias Parkinsons Disease
Pain and headache
Acute or chronic
Migraine
Nociceptive or neuropathic
Seizure disorders
Stroke
Psychiatry
Anorexia, bulimia and eating disorders
Anxiety and agitation disorders
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Bipolar disorder
Depression (major depression)
Insomnia
Schizophrenia
Carcinogenesis and Neoplasia
Genetic basis of carcinoma
Sites
Lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms
Gynecologic neoplasms
Urinary tract neoplasms
Hematology (i.e., leukemia and lymphoma)
Skin Neoplasms (i.e., malignant melanoma and others)
Cancer of the bone, brain, breast, prostate

47

CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY / LABORATORY AND


DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This course studies the important elements of clinical biochemistry and relevant
diagnostic tests and laboratory investigations associated with organ systems and
diseases.
TOPICS OF STUDY: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY / LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC
TESTING
Routine Hematology
Hematocrit and hemoglobin
Red blood cell count
Red cell indices (MCV, MCH, MCHC)
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
WBC differential (components)
Platelets
Hematologic Diagnostic Tests
Anemias (Iron, Ferritin, TIBC)
Coagulation tests (INR, aPTT, PT and other factors)
Coombs test
Electrolytes and Blood Chemistry
Sodium
Potassium
Chloride
Glucose (random or FBG)
BUN
Creatinine
Uric Acid

48

TOPICS OF STUDY: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY / LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC


TESTING contd.
Cholesterol
Total serum protein
Arterial Blood Gases (PaO2, PaCO2)
pH
Anion gap
Bicarbonate
Liver Biochemistry
Bilirubin
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Transaminases (AST, ALT)
Albumin
Prothrombin and INR
-Fetoprotein
Bone Metabolism
Bone mineral density
Minerals (calcium, phosphates)
Magnesium
Vitamin D
Renal Function and Disorders
Urinalysis
Urine electrolytes
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Serum creatinine
Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and Renal Blood Flow
Methods of calculation and use of nomograms
49

TOPICS OF STUDY: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY/LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC


TESTING contd.
Creatinine clearance
Inulin clearance
Para-amino hippuric acid (PAH) clearance
Gastrointestinal Tract
Fecal fat
Schillings test
Occult blood
Endoscopy
Barium enema, CT scan
Pulmonary Function Tests
Pulmonary function testing (FEV1)
Histamine, methacholine challenge test
Neurology
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)
Cardiovascular Diagnostic Tests
Cardiac Isoenzymes (including Creatine kinase)
Troponin
Lipoprotein profile (LDL, HDL, Triglycerides, Cholesterol)
Neoplasm Screening
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Breast self-examination
Mammogram
Pap smear
Biopsy
50

TOPICS OF STUDY: CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY/LABORATORY AND DIAGNOSTIC


TESTING contd.
Endocrinology
Hypothalamus-Pituitary axis
Prolactin
Growth hormone (GH)
Gonadotropins (LH and FSH)
Thyrotropin (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)
Adrenal disorders
Plasma cortisol
Urine and serum osmolality
Thyroid Function
TSH
T3 suppression test
T4 (Thyroxine - direct and indirect)
Thyroid iodine uptake
Sex Hormones
Androgens
Estrogens
Progestins
Pregnancy testing
Diabetes and Glucometry
Glucose tolerance Test
Fasting blood glucose
Serum and urine glucose
Urine ketones
Glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C)
Infectious disease / Immunologic / Rheumatologic /Other Tests
HIV tests
Western blot
CD4+ T-cell counts
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Laboratory Aspects of Antimicrobial Agents
Culture and Sensitivity Assay

51

PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
(INCLUDING PRESCRIPTION, NONPRESCRIPTION AND
COMPLEMENTARY THERAPY)
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This course reviews the therapeutic approaches to the most frequently encountered
diseases and critical issues relevant to pharmacy practice, using a problem-solving
approach. Prescription medication, self-care (over-the-counter) medications, nonpharmaceutical (e.g., lifestyle) approaches as well as alternative therapies are included.
Patient-specific factors, goals of treatment, desired patient-specific outcomes, care plan
(options and management), patient education, monitoring parameters (including
laboratory investigations) and evaluation of efficacy and adverse effects of therapy must
be considered, in order to optimize patient care.
BASIC PRINCIPLES
Using a patient-centred care approach, a drug therapy problem is prevented or resolved
using a process which involves the following steps:
1.
Identifying pertinent patient information and assessing its relevance
2.
Establishing desired clinical and therapeutic outcomes
3.
Determining and assessing possible pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment options
4.
Selecting the most suitable option for the patient
5.
Justifying the proposed therapy (explaining the rationale)
6.
Developing and implementing the care plan (including education and
monitoring)
7.
Following up on the interventions (assessing efficacy and adverse effects)
8.
Documenting findings related to the patients care
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS
For the following diseases, therapeutics considerations should include
prescription medication, self-care (over-the-counter) treatments, nonpharmaceutical approaches as well as alternative (complementary) treatments.
Respiratory Diseases
Asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
Croup
Smoking cessation

52

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS contd.


Dermatology
Acne
Acne Rosacea
Allergic dermatitis
Burns
Cellulitis
Dermatomycosis
Diaper rash
Dry skin
Impetigo
Pediculosis and scabies
Onychomycosis
Sunburn and photosensitivity reactions
Viral infections (including chicken pox, herpes and shingles)
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Acute Otitis media
Allergic rhinitis
Bacterial conjunctivitis
Bacterial sinusitis
Glaucoma
Mucositis
Pharyngitis
Teething
Viral upper respiratory tract infections
Gastroenterology
Cirrhosis
Constipation
Crohn's disease
Diarrhea
Dyspepsia and Peptic ulcer disease
Esophagitis
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastrointestinal bleeding
Hepatotoxicity and liver dysfunction
Infant feeding problems including colic
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: including Crohns disease and Ulcerative colitis
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nausea and vomiting
Pseudomembranous colitis

53

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS contd.


Cardiovascular diseases
Angina
Cardiac insufficiency (including congestive heart failure)
Cerebrovascular accident (including ischemic stroke)
Venous thromboembolism (DVT and PE)
Dyslipidemia and hypercholesterolemia
Endocarditis prophylaxis
Hypertension
Myocardial infarction
Rhythm disorders
Urology
Benign prostate hypertrophy
Prostate cancer
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Urinary incontinence
Urinary tract infections (cystitis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis)
Musculo-skeletal diseases
Chronic pain
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
Osteoarthritis
Osteoporosis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Skeletal pain
Post-operative pain
Tendonitis and sport injuries
Gynecology
Bacterial vaginitis
Contraception (including emergency contraception)
Endometriosis
Erectile dysfunction
Fertility
Menopause
Pregnancy
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
Sexually transmitted infections
Vaginal candidiasis

54

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS contd.


Infectious Diseases
Bone and joint infection (osteomyelitis)
Central nervous system infection
Infections of the traveller
Endocarditis
Fungal infections
Gastrointestinal infections
HIV and AIDS (including opportunistic infections)
Intra-abdominal infections
Malaria prevention
Meningitis
Pneumonia (community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial)
Respiratory tract infections (lower and upper)
Sepsis and septic shock
Skin and soft tissue infections
Surgical prophylaxis
Tuberculosis
Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
Neurology
Alzheimers disease and other dementias
Headaches (migraine, tension headache, rebound headache)
Neuropathic pain
Parkinson's disease
Seizure disorders (including partial, generalized, status epilepticus and others)
Endocrinology
Breast cancer
Diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2)
Hypothyroidism
Hyperthyroidism
Psychiatry
Aggressive behaviour
Anxiety disorders
Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive psychosis)
Depression
Drug withdrawal syndromes
Insomnia and sleep disorders
Panic disorder
Personality disorders
Schizophrenia

55

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS contd.


Nephrology
Chronic renal dysfunction
Nephrotoxicity
Renal transplantation
Other
Anemias
Chemotherapy and related toxicities
Dehydration
Fluid and electrolyte disorders
Obesity

56

HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION


GENERAL DESCRIPTION
This course reviews the principles of health and wellness in the provision of individual
and population-based health and wellness information.
TOPICS OF STUDY: HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION
Development of Health Promotion Strategies
Health and wellness of individuals and groups
Collaboration with other health care providers
Public Health Agency of Canada
Travel health
Vaccines and immunizations
Disease prevention
Preventative health services (e.g., immunizations, tobacco cessation counseling)

57

PATIENT CARE PROCESS


TOPICS OF STUDY: PATIENT CARE PROCESS
Assessment
Meet the patient and establish the therapeutic relationship
Elicit relevant information from the patient
Determine whether the patients drug-related needs are being met and identify drug
therapy problems:
The patient requires drug therapy but is not receiving it,
The patient is taking or receiving the wrong drug,
The patient is taking or receiving too little of the right drug,
The patient is taking or receiving too much of the right drug,
The patient is not taking or receiving the drug or is taking or receiving the drug
inappropriately,
The patient is experiencing an adverse reaction to the drug,
The patient is experiencing a drug interaction (including drug-drug, drug-food, druglaboratory test, drug-disease, or drug-blood product),
The patient is taking or receiving a drug for no medically valid indication or substance
abuse.
Care Plan
Establish goals of therapy
Select appropriate interventions for:
Resolution of drug therapy problems
Achievement of goals of therapy
Prevention of drug therapy problems
Schedule a follow-up evaluation
Follow-up Evaluation
Elicit clinical and/or lab evidence of actual patient outcomes and compare them to the
goals of therapy to determine the effectiveness of drug therapy
Elicit clinical and/or lab evidence of adverse effects to determine the safety of therapy
Assess patient for any new drug therapy problems
Schedule the next follow-up evaluation
Documentation
Document clinical status and any changes in pharmacotherapy that are required
Application of privacy legislation and ethical considerations
Preparation and maintenance of patient records (includes profiles, charts, etc)

58

SPECIAL POPULATIONS
TOPICS OF STUDY: SPECIAL POPULATIONS
Unique pharmacotherapeutic considerations for special populations including:
Neonates
Pediatrics
Geriatrics
Pregnant women
Lactating women

NUTRITION
TOPICS OF STUDY: NUTRITION
Human biochemistry
Digestion
Function of nutrients in the body
Dietary requirements and Canada Food Guidelines
Assessment of nutritional status
Malnutrition and effects on health
Metabolism and transport of nutrients
Regulation of blood glucose
Weight management and eating disorders
Nutrigenomics
Genetic make-up and diet influences on health
Nutritional Control of Chronic Disease Risk
Obesity as a risk factor

59

PHARMACY PRACTICE - Professional Practice Skills


Prescription Processing and Product Preparation (including Non-sterile and
Sterile Compounding)
Prescription Calculations
Communication / Patient Counselling
Drug Information
Literature Evaluation / Research Methods / Evidence-Based Decision Making
(including Pharmacoepidemiology)
Medication / Patient Safety Practices
Law / Jurisprudence
Professionalism / Ethics
Collaborative Patient Care

60

PRESCRIPTION PROCESSING AND PRODUCT


PREPARATION
TOPICS OF STUDY: PRESCRIPTION PROCESSING AND PRODUCT
PREPARATION
Accurate interpretation of prescription orders
Application of legislative requirements (federal legislation) see Jurisprudence section
also
Extemporaneous compounding
Sterile preparations and pharmaceutical biohazards
Safe storage, handling and disposal of drugs
Cold chain management
Checking processes for dispensing prescriptions, including:
Appropriateness of medication choice
Therapeutic duplication
Correct dosage, route, dosage form, regimen and duration of therapy
Allergies and contraindications
Drug interactions
Compliance issues (adherence)
Financial considerations (pricing, third party billing, quantity restrictions, etc)

61

PRESCRIPTION CALCULATIONS
TOPICS OF STUDY: PRESCRIPTION CALCULATIONS
Systems and units of measure (including metric system, SI)
Intersystem conversion
Dosage calculations
Amount of drug
Number of doses
Dosing based on body weight, body surface area
Dosing based on age or pharmacokinetic parameters
Compounding calculations (non-sterile and sterile)
Ratio and proportion
Percentage
Dilution and concentration
Stock solutions
Alligation
Electrolyte solutions (milliequivalents, millimoles, osmolarity)
Dosing calculations for parenteral medications
Reconstitution
Infusion flow rate
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
Prescription processing calculations
Dispensing fees
Insurance co-payments

62

COMMUNICATION / PATIENT COUNSELLING


TOPICS OF STUDY: COMMUNICATION / PATIENT COUNSELLING
Pharmacist Interactions in the workplace
Effective dialogue with clients, caregivers and other health providers
Individual consultations
Presentations to a group
Staff relations
Development of effective communication skills
Dialogue and interviewing techniques/process
Verbal and nonverbal listening
Probing and gathering information
Empathy, assertive skills
Cultural diversity and other patient variables
Patient counselling and education on prescription medications, including:
Confirmation of identity of the client
Indication for use of the medication
Directions for proper use
Duration of therapy and onset of action
Management of common adverse effects, interactions and therapeutic concerns
Storage and handling requirements
Compliance issues (adherence) and missed doses
When to seek medical attention and follow-up
Non-pharmacological and lifestyle measures
Patient counselling and education for administration of various dosage forms, including:
Pulmonary delivery
Ophthalmic, otic and nasal delivery
Topical products
Vaginal and rectal delivery
Transdermal delivery
Oral, sublingual and buccal dosage forms
Parenteral products
Other
Patient counselling and education to promote adherence to regimens and therapy
Strategies to optimize adherence
Identification of under-utilization of medication
Identification of over-utilization of medication
Patient counselling and education on diagnostic/monitoring tools, including:
Home blood glucose monitoring
Blood pressure monitors
Home pregnancy/ovulation test kits
Thermometers
Peak Flow meters
Patient counselling and education on non-prescription medications
Self-care topics and issues
63

TOPICS OF STUDY: COMMUNICATION / PATIENT COUNSELLING contd


Patient counselling and education on no public access medications
Patient counselling and education on herbal and complementary therapies
Patient counselling and education on home health care, including:
Medical supplies
Aids for daily living
Foot care
Wound care
Other

DRUG INFORMATION
TOPICS OF STUDY: DRUG INFORMATION
Selection of Suitable References and Information Databases
Cochrane Collaborative Library
Medline
Primary, secondary, tertiary references
Response to Drug Information Requests

64

LITERATURE EVALUATION / RESEARCH METHODS /


EVIDENCE-BASED DECISION-MAKING
(including PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY)
TOPICS OF STUDY: LITERATURE EVALUATION / RESEARCH METHODS /
EVIDENCE-BASED DECISION-MAKING (including PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGY)
Evaluation of Drug Literature and Scientific Information
Clinical Trials
Evidence-based medicine
Clinical Practice guidelines
Measures of frequency, prevalence, incidence, cumulative incidence
Population types, life expectancy, risk
Research Methods:
Experimental, causal-comparative, correlational, descriptive, historical
Randomized, case control, cohort, case reports, anecdotal, population studies
Study designs: placebo controlled, cross-over, washout, factorial, N of 1, parallel
Critical Appraisal of Research:
Relative risk reduction or benefit, absolute risk reduction or benefit, odds ratio,
number needed to treat
Conflict of interest, publication bias, research funding source, research ethics,
institutional review boards (IRB), Cochrane Collaboration and similar agencies

65

MEDICATION / PATIENT SAFETY PRACTICES


TOPICS OF STUDY: MEDICATION / PATIENT SAFETY PRACTICES
Policies and procedures to ensure safety and effectiveness of persons, medical products
and pharmacy services
Canada Vigilance Program - adverse drug reaction monitoring
Development of actions and strategies and actions to prevent incidents
Error-prone abbreviations and dosage designations
Look-alike and sound-alike drug names
Identification, management, and documentation of medication incidents (errors)
National System for Incident Reporting (NSIR). Canadian Medication Incident Reports
and Prevention System (CMIRPS)
Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP)
Health Canada MedEffect: advisories, warnings and recalls
Medication reconciliation
Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI) Safer Healthcare Now!

66

LAW / JURISPRUDENCE
TOPICS OF STUDY: LAW / JURISPRUDENCE
Provincial Regulatory Authorities (PRAs)
NAPRA
Federal law, prescriptive authority and regulatory issues
Food and Drugs Act and Regulations
Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
Precursor Control Reulations
Benzodiazepines and other Targeted Substances Regulations
Narcotic Control Regulations
Marihuana medical access
Methadone
Maintenance treatment
For pain management
Privacy legislation

67

PROFESSIONALISM/ ETHICS
GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The study of Ethics encompasses consideration of basic ethical principles and values
that form the ethical foundations for the provision of care by the health professions
including Pharmacy practice.
TOPICS OF STUDY: PROFESSIONALISM / ETHICS
Ethical principles
Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy, Justice, Veracity, Fidelity
Patient Consent and Decision-making
Capacity, encumbrances, competency
Patient surrogates: substituted judgement, best interest judgment, advance
directives, living wills, children and minors, the place of the family
Confidentiality and privacy
Advocacy for the Patient
Conflict between the pharmacist and other health care providers about patient
care
Respect for Life and the Autonomy of Patients
Contraception, emergency contraception, abortion
Euthanasia, assisted suicide
Palliative care, pain management, and end-of-life care
Pharmacist conscience clause
Other Issues in Pharmacy and Health Care Ethics
Clinical drug trials research and the place of pharmaceuticals in advancing health
Health reform and allocation of limited resources
Interdisciplinary decision-making
Ethics committees
Conflict of interest (gifts from patients and the pharmaceutical industry)
Access to health care and pharmaceuticals in underdeveloped countries
Professionalism
Trust, integrity, competence, respect, virtues, compassion, collegiality

68

COLLABORATIVE PATIENT CARE


TOPICS OF STUDY: COLLABORATIVE PATIENT CARE
Collaboration with other health care professionals to optimize patient outcomes
Referral to other health care providers for specific services
Identifying need
Most appropriate resource or health care professional
Effective working relationships
Establishing rapport
Decision-making strategies
Accountability
Conflict resolution
Scopes of practice
Promotion of health and wellness in the community

69

BEHAVIOURAL, SOCIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE


PHARMACY SCIENCES

Pharmacy Management (including Financial, Personnel, Marketing, Quality


Improvement, Risk Management and Workplace Safety)
Canadian Health Care System
Pharmacoeconomics
Biostatistics

70

PHARMACY MANAGEMENT
(including Financial, Personnel, Marketing, Quality Improvement,
Risk Management and Workplace Safety)
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACY MANAGEMENT
Basic Responsibilities of Management
The classical functions of management
Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, controlling, reviewing,
leading, budgeting
Entrepreneurship
Risk and innovation
Components of the business plan
Market analysis
Business structure and corporate governance
Product or service offering
Competitive strategy
Positioning
Financing
Human and physical resources, operations and monitoring of performance
Risk management
Workplace Safety
WSIB (Workplace Safety and Insurance Board)
WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System)
Marketing Management in Pharmacy
General principles of marketing
"4 P's" of marketing management
Merchandising
Human Resource Management in Pharmacy
Theories of management and organizational behaviour
Job descriptions, delegation, leadership and styles of management
Trade unions, contracts and collective bargaining
Employee motivation, performance appraisal, discipline
Recruitment and retention of staff
Increasing role of pharmacy technicians

71

TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACY MANAGEMENT contd


Financial Management in Pharmacy
Financial statements
Basic accounting procedures
Interpretation of Balance sheet, Income Statement information
Measures (ratios) of financial performance of a business
Profitability, Solvency, Liquidity, Inventory control
Community Pharmacy Management
Forms of Legal Ownership
Sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, cooperative
Pharmacy Ownership Structures
Independents, chain, franchise, food store, mass merchandise, specialty, mail
order, banner groups, central fill facilities
Medication Use Management Procedures
Cognitive pharmacy services, medication reconciliation, medication safety
procedures, medication errors, continuous quality improvement
Hospital Pharmacy Management
Drug Distribution Control Systems
Unit dose, automated dispensing devices, IV additive services, computer-based
order entry, controlled drug handling, drug disposal procedures, drug
identification and labelling, investigational drugs, automated medication records,
electronic health records
Medication Use Management Procedures
Clinical pharmacy activities, formulary systems, Pharmacy and Therapeutics
committees, medication reconciliation, medication safety procedures, medical
errors, documentation by pharmacists in the health record, medication
counselling, drug use review, continuous quality improvement, risk management

72

CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM


TOPICS OF STUDY: CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
Governance and Standards
About Health Canada (see Health Canada website also)
Branches and Agencies
Canadas Health Care System (Medicare)
Responsibilities of federal government in regulating health care services, new
drug approval and manufacturing (Health Canada) and the Canada Health Act
Health Canada: Delivery of Drugs and Health Products
New Drug Development and Approval
Drug Product Database
Special Access (to drugs) Program
MedEffect: Advisories, warnings and recalls
Canada Vigilance Program - adverse drug reaction monitoring
Natural Health Products
Responsibilities of provincial governments in regulating health care services, professions
and drug distribution
Function of provincial regulatory authorities in the establishment of standards for
pharmacy practice and registration of pharmacists
National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (NAPRA)
National drug scheduling (schedule I, schedule II, schedule II, and unscheduled
status)
Model Standards of Practice
PIPEDA- Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
www.privcom.gc.ca look for print version link
The Pharmaceutical Industry and related agencies
Pharmaceutical Industry
New Drug Development and Approval by Health Canada
Pharmaceutical marketing and advertising
Regulation of Advertising
Canadas Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (Rx & D)
Canadian Generic Pharmaceutical Association (CGPA)
Non-prescription Drug Manufacturers Association of Canada (NDMAC)
Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH)
Healthcare technology assessment
Common Drug Review directorate
Patented Medicines Prices Review Board (PMPRB)
Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Canada
73

TOPICS OF STUDY: CANADIAN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM contd


Contemporary Issues in the Structure and Functioning of the Canadian Health
Care System
Financing and the cost of health care services
Health expenditures and trends
Delivery of health care (primary, secondary)
Care and changing models of primary care
Access to privately funded (market driven) health care providers and facilities
Telehealth resource services
Human resources (shortages of health care personnel and changing scopes of
practice)
Pharmacy Law and Regulation of the Profession
Provincial regulation of pharmacy practice and the operation of pharmacies
Potential liability of pharmacists under federal and provincial statutes
Potential liability of pharmacists in civil disputes
Application of business law to the operation of pharmacies
Scientific and Humanistic Approaches to Modern (Western) Medicine and
Pharmacotherapy
Evidence-based practice
Complementary and alternative therapies
Pharmacists role in preventing medical error and drug-related misadventure
Medication adherence and promotion of healthy lifestyles and wellness
Health literacy
Cultural competency and diversity
Health care of at risk populations (e.g., mental illnesses, First Nations, seniors,
drug dependencies)
Hospital Pharmacy Practice Developments
Medication reconciliation
Regional management of institutional health system pharmacies
Recruitment and retention of pharmacy personnel
Medication use safety systems
Promoting seamless care
Community Pharmacy Practice Developments
Reimbursement for clinical pharmacy services
Influence of 3rd party drug insurance plans on pharmacy practice
Rural and remote pharmacy practice
Prescriptive authority for pharmacists
Collaborative medication management with physicians and other providers

74

PHARMACOECONOMICS
TOPICS OF STUDY: PHARMACOECONOMICS

Health Care Economics


Supply and Demand Factors
Hospitals and health care facilities capacity
Physician services
Population demographics and incidence of disease
Chronic disease management
Pricing and Demand for Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacy Services in Canada
Influence of pharmaceutical industry marketing and advertising
Patented Medicines Prices Review Board (PMPRB)
Pharmacist professional fees
Markups, rebates and discounts
Cognitive fees
Third Party Prescription Insurance Plans and Payment Policies
Role of private payers and provincial drug plans
Formulary restrictions (generic substitution, therapeutic interchange and nonformulary drugs)
Role of copayments and deductible limits
Prescription quantity limitations
Prior (special) authorization policies
Reference-based drug policies
Drug Use Management Strategies
Drug Use Review agencies
Academic detailing
Educational support to prescribers and pharmacists
Clinical practice guidelines and protocols

Pharmacoeconomics
Types of pharmacoeconomic analyses
Cost-effectiveness
Cost-benefit
Cost-minimization
Cost utility

Related pharmacoeconomic concepts


Health utilities
Quality of life tools
Willingness to pay
Time trade-off analyses
Discounting
Preferences
Societal costs and benefits vs. individual costs and benefits
Sensitivity analyses
75

BIOSTATISTICS
TOPICS OF STUDY: BIOSTATISTICS
The Definition of Population
Sample, sampling, sample size, clusters, stratified
Sample error, sampling bias, representativeness
Inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria
The Characteristics of Data:
Types of data: continuous, interval, ordinal, nominal, ratio, qualitative, surveys
Distribution of data: normal, non-normal, skewed
Precision, validity, reliability, accuracy
Variables: dependent, independent, confounding
Outcomes and endpoints: primary, secondary, clinical, laboratory, quality of life,
economic
Data Analysis
Descriptive analysis: mean, median, mode, relative position, variability,
relationships
Inferential: hypothesis testing, significance, variance, confidence interval, power,
error, probability, frequency, prediction, causality, correlation
Statistical Tests: parametric, nonparametric, meta-analysis
Significance: clinical, statistical, limitations, assumptions

76