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COUNCIL OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORTATION & THE ENVIRONMENT


MARY M. CHEH, CHAIR

BICYCLE & PEDESTRIAN WORKING GROUP:


ENFORCEMENT & LIABILITY
Enforcement
1.
Consolidate Traffic Control Officers in MPD Traffic Safety Branch ............................2
2.
Training of Non-MPD Law Enforcement Agencies .......................................................2
3.
Enforcement Data ..........................................................................................................2
4.
Increased Enforcement of Illegal U-Turns ....................................................................2
5.
Reduce Crashes Involving Large Trucks.......................................................................2
6.
Speed Enforcement ........................................................................................................3
7.
Response to Repeat Violators ........................................................................................3
8.
Enforcement of Vehicles Failure to Give Right-of-Way ...............................................3
9.
Signalized Intersections.................................................................................................4
10.
Distracted Driving .........................................................................................................4
11.
Reduce/Eliminate Impaired Driving .............................................................................5
12.
Reduce/Eliminate Dangerous Driving ...........................................................................5
13.
Revise Penalties for Aggressive Driving .......................................................................6
Liability
14.
Strict Liability ................................................................................................................6
15.
Presumed Fault and Vulnerable Users .........................................................................6
16.
Remediation Program ....................................................................................................7
17.
Traffic Camera Video for Crash Victims .......................................................................7
18.
Unmarked Crosswalks ...................................................................................................7
19.
Distracted While Crossing the Road .............................................................................7
20.
Closed Sidewalks and Crosswalks .................................................................................7
Attachments
A.
Strategies to Reduce Collisions Involving Large Trucks
B.
Strategies to Reduce Collisions Caused by Impaired Drivers
C.
Strategies to Reduce Aggressive Driver-Related Crashes

1350 PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE, N.W., SUITE 108


WASHINGTON, DC 20004

Enforcement
1.

Consolidate Traffic Control Officers in MPD Traffic Safety Branch

2.

Training of Non-MPD Law Enforcement Agencies

3.

Enforcement Data

4.

Increased Enforcement of Illegal U-Turns

5.

Reduce Crashes Involving Large Trucks

Traffic safety enforcement is split between two governmental agencies. DDOT deploys
Traffic Control Officers (TCO) District-wide to direct traffic for the smooth and safe
operation of city streets. They provide enforcement and traffic control services to reduce
congestion and increase safety for all road users. TCOs can issue citations for minor traffic
violation and parking infractions, but cannot issue citations for major public safety
violations or make arrests. In addition to their other duties, MPD uniformed officers
provide traffic safety law enforcement city-wide with full arresting authority. However,
MPD lacks a fully dedicated division of traffic safety enforcement officers. Spring and fall
traffic safety enforcement campaigns are carried out District-wide, along with small
enforcement efforts, by uniformed officers under the direction and supervision of the Traffic
Safety Bureaus leadership. This arrangement does not prioritize traffic safety enforcement
as a year-round effort as would a fully committed division of officers. The District should
consider consolidation of the TCO program into MPD or the creation of a dedicated traffic
safety division within MPD. Revenue from the automated enforcement program could be
used to fund the traffic safety division.
MPD officers are learning the new laws for bicycling and walking through increased
training. However, there are dozens of other law enforcement agencies in the District that
may be dispatched to traffic crashes. The knowledge and experience of non-MPD officers in
their handling of crash response or District-specific traffic law can be greatly varied. MPD
should coordinate with their federal patterns on traffic safety enforcement.
The District should collect data on a bi-annual basis for enforcement measures conducted in
the name of bicycle and pedestrian safety. This data should include a break down by race,
neighborhood, disability (if any), and gender. The District should review the data on a
regular basis to ensure that new or existing policies are not adversely affecting select
neighborhoods or particular groups of residents. Additionally, the District should engage
with the broader community before any additional enforcement measures are implemented
to elicit feedback, concerns, support, and potential alternatives.
The District should increase enforcement of illegal U-turns, especially on Pennsylvania
Avenue. U-turns through a dedicated bike lane place bicyclists at great risk of being struck.
The District should consider beginning camera enforcement of illegal U-turns in this area.
Between 2009 and 2013, there were 10 fatalities and 273 serious injuries related to crashes
involving large trucks. Similar to the Minnesota Relevant Evidence Law, the District
should implement Civil Weight Enforcement. This would enable MPD to enter facilities
that record weight transactions and serve civil penalty notices to violators. The District
should also review the fines and penalties for distracted driving and operating vehicles
above the approved load limit. The District should also consider the recommendations
contained in the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (Attachment A).
2

6.

Speed Enforcement

7.

Response to Repeat Violators

Vehicle speeds have a significant effect on pedestrian safety. The risk of pedestrian death
begins to escalate rapidly once a driver exceeds 25 mph and, at the same point, the drivers
field of vision begins to narrow. Unless designated otherwise on a specific street, the
Districts speed limit is 25 mph. But many streets have higher limits, some have lower
limits (generally or at specific times), and MPD does not always enforce at the actual speed
limit. For example, in a 25 mph zone a driver may reach 36 mph, in a 30 mph zone they
may reach 41 mph before they are cited (assuming an officer or camera is present to record
the speed), at which point the driver may not be able to see the pedestrian they are about to
kill or injure, let alone the sign on the side of the street that might tell them they have
reached a 15 mph school zone. Given the potential consequences of driver speeds over 25
mph, and its commitment to Vision Zero, Age-Friendly DC, and the moveDC goal of
prioritizing pedestrian safety, the District should increase or improve enforcement for
driving the actual speed limit.
There are some people and/or companies with multiple (25 or more) moving violations who
either have not paid their tickets, or have paid them but continue to violate District law.
Fines should not be treated as a cost of doing business (whether personal or commercial
business) and the District should consider more significant action against drivers who
commit multiple moving violationssuch as:
1) Escalating fines based upon numbers of offenses (perhaps including after day
fining); 1
2) In cases involving multiple and continuing violations of D.C. Official Code 502201.28, invoking the more significant criminal penalties;
3) Debarment from contracting with the District; and
4) Suspension of District business/professional license or residential parking permits.

8.

Enforcement of Vehicles Failure to Give Right-of-Way

From discussions with MPD officers and observation of some enforcement actions, it
appears that MPD officers cannot cite drivers for failure to stop and give right of way to a
pedestrian at signalized or stop sign controlled intersections. At those intersections, the
driver may be cited for a traffic violation, but the citation will be for running the light or
running the stop sign rather than for a violation of D.C. Official Code 50-2201.28. 2 The
District should ensure that the failure to give the right of way to a pedestrian may be an
enforceable violation. Possible solutions include:
1) MPD should establish a pedestrian crosswalk compliance program or unit to
ensure that cars yield at crosswalks.

http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/03/finland-home-of-the-103000-speedingticket/387484.
2 D.C. Official Code 50-2201.28 may be found at http://dcdecoded.com/50-2201.28/.
1

2) The District should increase the amount of traffic violations that result in injury or
death. Currently, a driver receives a fine associated with the traffic violation but not
for the consequences of that violation.
3) The District should make a criminal charge protecting pedestrians that is
enforceable by the United States Attorneys Office.

9.

Signalized Intersections

According to the Strategic Highway Safety Plan, there were 2,565 serious injuries at
signalized intersections from 2009 to 2013. The District should consider:
1) Increasing the fines for late payment of tickets.
2) Consider the option for driver retraining to eliminate all or some portion of fines.
These courses could be done online.
3) Encourage the public to take the retraining examination when renewing their
licenses.
4) Remedy issues related to intersections that are both signalized and unsignalized
situations where some legs of the intersection have a signal while others do not. An
example of this type of intersection may be found at Nebraska Avenue and
Davenport Street NW. 3 This type of intersection presents safety concerns for
pedestrians and obvious difficulties for MPD enforcement. The District should
ensure that intersections are either signalized or unsignalized, or at a minimum
should enable pedestrians and drivers to have a clear understanding of who has the
right of way.

10.

Distracted Driving

Crashes caused by inattentive drivers are on the rise locally and nationally. The ubiquity of
mobile phones and in-car entertainment systems easily distract the attention of drivers
from the road. According to the Strategic Highway Safety Plan, distracted drivers received
33,603 citations from 2010 to 2012. A study by the National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration determined that while talking on a hands-free phone is no more dangerous
than not, any time a driver does any visual or manual subtaskslike looking for their
phone or turning it on or offrisk went up considerably. About half of all hands-free phone
calls involved at least on such subtask. 4
The District of Columbia was a national leader by passing one of the first distracted driving
laws. But, crashes caused by distraction are still an issue. The current law needs updating.
For example, the current statue only applies to drivers operating a moving vehicle.
Therefore, MPD does not issue tickets to drivers stopped at traffic lights who use their
mobile devices. The District should prohibit the use of all mobile telephones or other

https://www.google.com/maps/@38.952168,77.073752,3a,90y,199h,90t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1sdwxPfZm1nwaNOWHQdYlcmg!2e0!6m1!1e1. The
west and south crosswalks of the intersection are both marked, but there are no pedestrian signals
on either leg. Pedestrians crossing the south crosswalk from west to east can use the vehicle traffic
signals as guidance, but pedestrians crossing east to west cannot see any signal.
4 The full report may be found online at http://www.distraction.gov/downloads/pdfs/the-impact-ofhand-held-and-hands-free-cell-phone-use-on-driving-performance-and-safety-critical-event-risk.pdf.
3

electronic devices while operating a moving motor vehicle, and should consider excluding
any exception for hands-free devices (except in emergencies).
Considering the frequency and severity of crashes caused by distracted drivers, the fine
should be increased and the possibility of increased points or license suspension for
multiple or egregious offenses added. Police enforcement and public education about safety
risk of distracted driving must be increased. The District could further expand additional
restrictions by banning all phone use by drivers within construction zones, school zones,
and near crashes.

11.

Reduce/Eliminate Impaired Driving

Impaired driving remains a major crash risk despite reductions in its prevalence. According
to the Strategic Highway Safety Plan, impaired drivers caused 53 fatalities and 265 serious
injuries from 2009 to 2013. The District should consider implementing the following
proposals:
1) Require civil asset forfeiture of automobile impoundment after multiple DUI
convictions.
2) Include mandatory treatment programs, Administrative License Revocation, and/or
mandatory license suspensions after multiple DUI convictions.
3) Create a civil offense for underage possession of alcohol.
4) Create felony charges for certain repeat offender and serious injury or death cases.
5) Consider issuing specific plates to drivers who are convicted of DUI. For example, in
Ohio, drivers with a restricted license due to a DUI conviction are issued special
yellow license plates with red letters. Studies have shown that the plates result in a
modest, but measurable, reduction in recidivism and enable law enforcement to pay
special attention to at-risk drivers.
The District should also consider the strategies provided in the Strategic Highway Safety
Plan to reduce impaired driver-related crashes (Attachment B).

12.

Reduce/Eliminate Dangerous Driving

The New York City Vision Zero Action Plan includes a number of items intended to reduce
the prevalence of dangerous driving. The District should consider including these measures:
1) Expand the traffic violation of failure to exercise due care to provide additional
enforcement tools against drivers who drive carelessly and injure pedestrians and
bicyclists. Rather than a traffic infraction, the District should make this a
misdemeanor crime.
2) Make it a class E felony 5 for motorists who drive unlicensed or with a revoked or
suspended license and kill or seriously injure someone in the process.
3) Increase the penalty for leaving the scene of a crash to match that of causing injury
while under the influence of drugs or alcohol, a Class E felony.
4) Reform the point system to reevaluate point levels for dangerous driver behavior
and to increase deterrent value of points. The system should ensure that the most

A class E felony can carry a sentence of up to 4 years imprisonment.

dangerous offenses are punished with the most severe point values. For example,
the point value connected to the failure to exercise due care should be increased.
5) Protect workers in work zones from reckless driving. The District should define a
new crime of intrusion into an active work zone and create the new crime of
vehicular manslaughter in an active work zone. Moreover, these new crimes should
cover government employees engaged in working or inspecting work on a highway
among those workers with enhanced protection against assault.

13.

Revise Penalties for Aggressive Driving

According to the Strategic Highway Safety Plan, aggressive drivers caused 70 fatalities and
1,540 serious injuries from 2009 to 2013. The District should consider the following
proposals:
1) Implement an aggressive-driving statute.
2) Enhance penalties for repeat offenders, including higher fines, drivers license
points, immediate license suspension or revocation, probation, or jail.
3) Impose restrictions on plea agreements for aggressive driving violations.
The District should also consider the strategies provided in the Strategic Highway Safety
Plan (Attachment C).

Liability
14.

Strict Liability

15.

Presumed Fault and Vulnerable Users

The safest countries in the world for bicycling and walking shift the burden of protecting
people to the motorist. Drivers and operators of large vehicles are the road users most likely
to cause serious injury or death to others. Strict liability would make a motor vehicle
operator legally responsible for injury or damages caused by his or her acts. Under strict
liability, there is no need to prove fault, negligence or intention on behalf of the driver or
person walking or biking. In the Netherlands, the liability varies based on the error of the
bicyclist or pedestrian. If the bicyclist is error-free then the damages caused by the driver to
the injured bicyclist is completely covered by the drivers insurance. If the bicyclist is
partially at fault, then they receive 50% of the total compensation. And, if they bicyclist
intended to collide with the driver then they receive no recovery.
The District should consider a system with presumed fault for any driver who hits a
pedestrian or bicyclist. Many European countries treat collisions with pedestrians or
bicyclists this wayplacing the burden of not hitting people on the driver. There may need
to be some ability for the driver to demonstrate willful misconduct on the part of the
pedestrian or bicyclists, but the burden of proof should rest with the one operating the
deadly force. 6

http://mobikefed.org/2015/01/how-european-countries-handle-bicycle-pedestrian-insurance-andliability-issues.
6

16.

Remediation Program

17.

Traffic Camera Video for Crash Victims

18.

Unmarked Crosswalks

19.

Distracted While Crossing the Road

20.

Closed Sidewalks and Crosswalks

Minor violations of District traffic laws come with either a fine, points on a license, or both.
The opportunity to address a drivers illegal or dangerous behavior is lost with this
approach. Remediation programs allow an offender to attend a short driver safety course to
forgo a fine or portion of the fine. The curriculum can be designed to address common safety
issues and education about new laws that pertain to safe driving in busy urban areas.
Many drivers are unaware of recent traffic laws, how to operate safely around pedestrians
and bicyclists and how to drive around new bicycling infrastructure. This program could be
administrated by the Department of Motor Vehicles.
When MPD investigates a crash, they shouldas Standard Operating Procedureinform
all parties involved in the crash of the existence (or possible existence) of District-owned
cameras in the area. A website should be created that will quickly let anyone know the
locations of all such cameras as well as example images of the cameras field of view, and
the parties of the crash should be told of that website (as well as a low-tech way to access
the same information). The individuals involved in the crash should also be told of a simple
way to request video relevant to their crashsomething easier than FOIA, perhaps with
the investigating officers assistance.
District law requires that a driver yield the right of way to a pedestrian. It can be difficult
for MPD to enforce the law when a crosswalk is left unmarked. Many people, including
police officers, do not understand what an unmarked crosswalk is and associate pedestrian
right of way only with the presence of markings. Consequently, the presence of unmarked
crosswalks can lead to mistaken faulting of a pedestrian in a crash investigation. DDOT
and MPD should determine how to best address this problemeither by marking all
crosswalks or providing better educational materials to everyone involved, including
officers.
The District should review best practices and assess the need for a Distracted Crossing the
Road law. 7
The D.C. Code currently does not define a crosswalk but does clearly acknowledge
pedestrian right of way at both marked and unmarked crosswalks. The D.C. Municipal
Regulations define a crosswalk as follows:
Crosswalk - that part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the
lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs, or in
the absence of curbs, from the edges of the transversable roadway; or any portion of a roadway
at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other
markings on the surface.

http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/trafficandcommuting/youve-heard-about-distracted-drivingare-you-ready-for-distracted-walking/2015/05/27/864d8e40-04a4-11e5-a428c984eb077d4e_story.html.
7

DDOT often closes crosswalks and sometimes accompanies the closures with signs advising
pedestrians that a crosswalk is closed. More often, however, there is no indication. These
types of crosswalk closures do not appear to be consistent with D.C. Official Code 502201.28 or the definition of crosswalk in the regulations. Moreover, DDOTs authority to
close crosswalks is not clear and at times seems dubious. An example is 22nd and I Street,
NW. 8 DDOT closed the east crosswalk because the agency said that it cannot construct curb
ramps as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Although it may be appropriate for DDOT to have some very limited authority to close
crosswalks, it would be helpful to incorporate the definition of a crosswalk into the statute
and impose some limitations upon the authority and its delegation within DDOT.

https://www.google.com/maps/@38.900697,77.048756,3a,75y,180h,90t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1sduHz5HqYC0w9ZNWPC_qykQ!2e0
8

ATTACHMENT
A

Final Report
District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

1.

Implement the DC Truck Safety Enforcement Plan:


Expand use of technologies that target commercial vehicles.
Identify high-crash corridors and initiate appropriate enforcement
interventions.
Update Truck Route map.

Medium
High

Mid
Long
Term

MPD/
DDOT

2.

Increase safety compliance and strengthen the CDL program:


Increase enforcement on trucks over the legal permitted load.
Increase enforcement to reduce truck and other vehicle speeds.
Pursue aggressive identification of carriers with unsafe
practices (SafeStat), e.g., hours of service, drug and alcohol,
unqualified drivers.
Improve test administration for the CDL:
Increase fraud detection by District and third-party testers.
Improve heavy-truck maintenance:
Increase and strengthen truck maintenance programs and
inspection performance.
Conduct post-crash inspections to identify major problems
and problem condition.

10

Medium

Short
Medium
Term

MPD/
DDOT/
DMV/
Fed. Agens.

3.

Evaluate/Update PD-10 crash reporting form to comply with


MMUCC/SAFETYNET.

Low

Short
Term

MPD

Strategies to Reduce Truck-Related Crashes

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

Table 30: CEA 4.1. Strategies to Reduce Collisions Involving Large Trucks

Enforcement Strategies

119

Final Report

7.

8.
9.

10. Increase the number of law enforcement officers within the motor
carrier unit to 14, to allow:
16-hour/day enforcement weekdays.
Increase safety compliance of motor carriers (ref: Enforcement
Strategy No.2).

Low

Mid Term

MPD/
DDOT/OAG/
DMV

Medium

Medium
Long
Term

DDOT/
MPD

High

DDOT/MPD

High

Long
term
Long
Term

9
8

6
7

High
Medium
High

DDOT/MPD
DDOT

10

Medium

Medium
Medium
Long
Term
Mid
Term

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Lead
Agency/Office

6.

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

5.

Explore option of Civil Weight Enforcement similar to the Minnesota


Relevant Evidence Law, which would enable the MPD to go into
facilities that record weight transactions (bills of lading) and serve civil
penalties notices to violators.
I-295 SB weigh-in-motion (WIM) site:
Increase operating hours and permanently staff existing I-295 SB
(near Blue Plains) WIM scale. Improve the WIM scale facilities:
Secure shelter.
Electronic connection to advanced signing, etc.
Smart System.
For I-295 NB, consider feasibility of a fixed site weight station with at
minimum a single inspection pit.
Identify and establish an extensive network of WIM scales at key port of
entry locations and on high commercial volume corridors to measure
compliance and help target enforcement efforts.
Develop and implement CVISN.
Expand Vehicle Recognition System to include CMVs on key inbound
routes.

Relative Cost to
Implement &
Operate

4.

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Truck-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

DDOT

DDOT/MPD

120

Final Report

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

High

Long
Term

DDOT/ MPD

MediumHigh

Mid
Long
Term

DDOT/
MPD/ DMV/

MPD/ DMV/
DDOT
DDOT/
MPD/ DMV

Medium

Mid Term

Medium

Short
Mid
Term

High

Long
Term

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Relative Cost to
Implement &
Operate

11. Identify new Virtual Weight Stations (VWS) and upgrade all VWS with
additional capabilities for CV monitoring:
Over-height detection system.
Radiation detection system.
Thermal imaging.
VRS.
12. Explore and implement with the DDOT TMC, a Commercial Vehicle
Center (CVC) built around a GIS database connecting the License Plate
Reading (LPR), WIM scales and weight stations, as a central point for
data collection, information processing, and compliance monitoring
system. In addition, establish a Quality Assurance Program as well as a
CVC Center Operator:
Central locations staffed by MPD, DDOT, HSEMA, and other
relevant agencies.
13. Expand the use of Automated Enforcement for size, length, height, and
weight.
14. Review legislation:
Fines and penalties for distracted driving, vehicles above the
approved load limit, cell phone use, no seatbelt use, etc.
Reduce fines for additional retraining for certain offences (TBD).
15. Increase number of data collection points relating to truck volume data.

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Truck-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

HSEMA

DDOT

121

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V.
Difficult)

Relative Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical Timeframe
for Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Strategies to Reduce Truck-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Medium

Mid
Term

DDOT/
MPD

Low-

Low-

Low
Medium

DDOT/
MPD
DDOT/
MPD
DDOT/
DMV/ MPD

Mid
Term
Mid
Term
Short
Mid
Term

Education Strategies
1.

2.
3.
4.

Develop and implement CMV Outreach Program (e.g., Smooth Operator


Program):
Target specific motor camera-related radio channels and provide key
safety information.
Target Special Web site (e.g., Go DC Go) and social media and place
outreach information.
Incorporate related information into DMV driver materials about CMV
regulations and sharing the road with them
Develop information packet for specific outreach to the CMV industry (e.g.
conspicuity requirements, etc.).
Maintain/Update a comprehensive one-stop shop for all commercial vehicle
information, regulations, and processes. This could evolve into a Web portal
that used to track and monitor truck and bus carriers as well as educate the
public and industry regarding commercial buses and freight movement
throughout the city. This also can provide information for residents to
comment on issues dealing with commercial vehicles (format to be
determined based on other DDOT initiatives such as goDCgo).

O
O

122

Final Report

2.

Develop the District of Columbia Freight Plan and tie this plan to the
Commercial Vehicle Safety Enforcement Plan and the SHSP.
Implement a comprehensive truck route signage program to facilitate safe
and efficient truck movement on designated truck routes and avoid local
streets.
Improve/expand overhead obstruction signage (fixed or VMS) and provide
adequate advance notice to allow drivers to make intelligent bypass
decisions.
Post height and weight restriction signage at all bridge underpasses
(low clearance).
Research and implement best practices at locations with high CMV crashes.

High

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Lead
Agency/Office

Implement Truck Safety Enforcement Plan for the District of Columbia

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

1.

Strategies to Reduce Truck-Related Crashes

Relative Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Low
Medium
Medium

Mid
Term
Mid
Term
Long
Term

DDOT/
MPD
DDOT

Medium

Mid
Term

DDOT

High

DDOT/
MPD
DDOT

Low
Medium
Medium

Medium

Medium

Long
Term
Mid
Term
Mid
Term
Mid
Term
Mid
Term

Engineering Strategies

3.

4.

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Explore feasibility and implement accordingly an Enterprise Routing


System for CMVsorigin/destination system considering route limitations.
Review the high CMV-crash corridors and develop/implement treatments
to mitigate these problems.
Establish a key number of truck counting stations to determine truck usage
per year.
Identify potential truck/bike conflict points and implement appropriate
mitigation measures

DDOT

DDOT/MPD
DDOT
DDOT

123

Final Report
District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014
10. Explore the feasibility of a freight village/intermodal facility

Medium
High

11. Explore the feasibility of truck-high priority corridors.

Medium
High

Mid
Long
Term
Mid
Long
Term

DDOT

DDOT

12. See enforcement # 5, 6, and 7

124

ATTACHMENT
B

Final Report
District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

Table 11: CEA 1.2. Strategies to Reduce Collisions Caused by Impaired Drivers

Low

Short
Term

MPD/
ABRA/OAG

Low
Medium

Short
Mid Term

ABRA/MPD/
OAG

Low

Short
Term

MPD

Enforcement Strategies
1.

2.

3.

Reduce excessive drinking and underage drinking:


Continue and expand ID compliance checks with establishments
selling alcohol (e.g., Cops in Shops).
Review best practices in other urban areas and implement new
strategies accordingly.
Establish monthly exchange of noncompliant establishment data
between MPD, ABRA, and OAG.
Partner with ABRA to enforce noncompliant establishments.
Enact beverage service policies:
Expand monitoring/enforcement of beverage service policies for alcohol
servers and retailers.
Retrain all ABC license holders and any staff involved in alcohol sales
every 2 years as part of license requirements.
Partner with ABRA to enforce noncompliant establishments.
Enforce DUI Laws:
Conduct regular, well-published DUI checkpoints.
Strictly enforce open-container and impaired-driving laws.
Enhance DUI detection through special DUI saturation patrols and
related impaired driving enforcement.
Publicize and enforce zero tolerance laws for drivers under age 21.

47

Final Report

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

4.

Prosecute DUI offenders:


Ensure all enforcement agencies using breath-test instruments provide
updated training to OAG staff prior to system going online and on a
regular basis for all new staff.
Assess the feasibility for a common breath-test system for the District
among all enforcement agencies in the mid to long term.

Low

Short
Mid Term

OAG + all
enforcement
agencies

5.

Legislative actions:
Promote legislation to require civil asset forfeiture of automobile
impoundment after multiple DUI convictions.
Encourage stronger enforcement of impaired drivers by including
mandatory treatment programs, Administrative License Revocation
(ALR) and/or mandatory license suspensions.
Develop tools for youths engaged in underage drinking.
Create a civil offense for underage possession of alcohol. Publicize
region-wide DCs intent for strong enforcement and prosecution of DUI
offenses (also listed under Education).
Formulate legislation to create felony charges for certain repeat
offender and serious injury/death cases.

Medium

Short
Term

MPD/
OAG/
DMV/
DCSC/
DOH/
PSA/
CSOSA/
DDOT

6.

Enhance judicial process that identifies and effectively disarms offenders


with multiple DUIs:
Work with VA and MD Courts to exchange DUI conviction data in a
timely manner.
Work with OAG, DCSC, DMV, and MPD to institute an electronic system
for easily obtaining DUI past conviction data for DC-prosecuted cases.

Medium

Mid
Term

OAG/
DMV/
DCSC/MPD/
Federal Courts

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

48

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

7.

Review/Update DUI treatment programs offered at for- and nonprofit


agencies and measure outcomes.

Low

Short
Mid Term

8.

Expand the Traffic Safety focus at MPD:


Safety Training for all officers, retraining every 2 years (to include
refresher classes in Standardized Field Sobriety Tests).
Conduct crash investigation training for all officers, retraining every 2
years.
Review/update the online Ped/Bike training, to be:
Completed every 2 years by MPD officers.
Added to the Academy curriculum.
Expanded to include other Federal Enforcement Agencies.
ARIDE training for law enforcement agencies in the District.
Encourage DRE training for dedicated DUI enforcement officers.
Include Standardized Field Sobriety Test training in the academy.
Recommend issuing a memo to all officers on their role in traffic safety
enforcement, including accurate, timely, and consistent completion of
information on the crash forms.
Encourage establishing a traffic safety coordinator at DMV.

Low
Medium

Mid
Term

ABRA/
DMV/
DOH/
PSA/
CSOSA
MPD/
DDOT/
DMV/
OCME/
OAG/
Federal
Enforce.
Agency

Low
Medium
Low

Short
Term
Short
Term

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

9.

10. Continue to work with hospitals to enable easier consent to blood draws and
access to medical treatment records.

DMV/
DDOT
DOH/ OAG/
MPD

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

49

Final Report

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

11. Encourage screening and brief interventions in treatment centers as


standard medical practice (partner with NHTSA)

Medium

Mid
Term

12. Prosecute, impose sanctions on and treat DUI offenders:


Continue to screen all DUI offenders for substance abuse.
Review/Update legislation to effectively target high BACs and repeat
offenders in line with best practices.
13. Formulate legislation to create felony charges for certain repeat offenders
and serious injury/death cases.
14. Provide support as needed to DCSC:
Develop Community courts aligned with Police Districts.
Provide regular traffic safety briefings/awareness.
15. Provide continuing support to the Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutor to:
Prosecute criminal traffic violations with particular emphasis on DUI.
Review/develop DUI-related legislation.
Conduct training.
Improve interagency communications.
16. Increase OAG access to DUIDestiny from 3 to 5 persons.

10

Medium

Mid
Term

DOH/
Hospital
partners
OAG/
DMV/
DCSC
MPD

Medium

Medium

Mid
Term
Mid
Term

Medium

17. Investigate/implement new and innovative technologies:


Transdermal alcohol sensors to monitor persons involved in DUI
offenses (detect and transmit information about the wearer to a remote
sensor).

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

OAG
DCSC
OAG/
MPD

Short
Term

OAG/
DDOT

Medium

Mid
Term

Medium

Mid
Term

OAG/
DCSC/
DMV
OAG/
DCSC/DMV
CSOSA/PSA

50

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

18. Explore greater ignition interlock sanctions to include first offense.

Medium

19. Work with DPW to have impound lots open/staffed 24/7 and available to all
enforcement agencies within the District.

Low

Mid
Term
Short
Term

20. Develop and implement a state-of-the-practice DUI technology vehicle for


on the road use.

Medium

Short
Term

DMV/OAG/
DCSC
DPW/
DDOT/
MPD
MPD/DDOT

21. Traffic Safety Resource Prosecutor (TSRP):

Medium

Short
Term

DDOT/OAG

Low

LowMedium

Short
Term
Short
Term

OCME/OAG/
MPD/ DDOT
DDOT/OAG

Low

Short
Mid Term

DDOT/MPD/
ABRA

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

Continue TSRP activities in DUI (court room/litigation support,


discovery, community outreach training, etc.)
22. Determine the need for updating the drug screening process and reduction
of turn around time for test results.
23. Work with OAG to establish additional full time employees (prosecutor and
paralegal) to improve turn around time for DUI cases.

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Education Strategies
1.

Develop information targeting excessive drinking and underage


drinking:
Enhance DUI awareness in youth driver-training curricula.
Implement WRAP/NHTSA law enforcement leadership summit
presentations.
Provide training to servers of alcoholic beverages to prevent patron
intoxication and alcohol-impaired driving.

51

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

LowMedium

Short
Mid Term

DDOT/
ABRA/
Safety Orgs.
OAG

Medium

Short Mid
Term

DDOT

Low

Law Enforce

Low

Low

Short
Term
Short
Term
Mid
Term

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

Review best practices in other urban areas and implement new


strategies accordingly.
Focus education on specific audiences:
Work/coordinate with safety-related organizationsNOYS, SADD,
WABA, MADD, TIPS, etc.to spread road safety messages.
Train business owners and alcohol servers on the dangers of impaired
driving.
Work with Metro and others to emphasize and advertise alternative
transportation.
Work with corporate partners to create and/or publicize safe rides
programs.
Develop information on costs of alcohol-related crashes.
Develop and promote image of tough DUI laws and enforcement in DC
(to MD and VA commuters).
Develop and implement outreach campaign/s:
NHTSAs Drunk Driving, Over the Limit, Under Arrest campaign.
WRAPs SoberRide campaigns (Soberman).
Advocate implementation of mandatory SFST training for more law
enforcement officers.
Expand and encourage cooperation between regional safety partners to
identify target enforcement locations, times, etc.
Research and investigate the relationship (if any) between alcohol price and
impaired driving and recommend appropriate strategies.

MPD/
DDOT
DDOT/
MPD/OAG

52

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

LowMedium

Short
Term

DDOT/MPD/
Others

2.

Advance use of technologies to reduce DUI:


Require ignition interlocks as a condition for license reinstatement.
Work with DPW to open parking impound lots for 24 hours.

LowMedium
Low

3.

Explore feasibility of adding place of last drink to crash reporting form.

Low

Short
Term
Short
Term
Short Mid
Term

DMV/DDOT/M
PD
DDOT/
DPW
MPD/ DDOT

Medium

Mid
Term

DOH/
FEMS

Medium

Mid
Term

DOH/
FEMS/
Hospitals

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

7.

Work with local stakeholders (e.g. WRAP) on Sober Ride campaigns and
other alcohol- awareness programs in high schools.

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Engineering Strategies
1.

EMS Strategies
1.

2.

Prehospital professionals
Assess patient(s) and document for signs and symptoms of drug use
problems (DUPs, including alcohol), assess risk factors, and report.
Methodology, assessment tools, reporting protocols, etc., to
be developed.
Nurses (triage/intake):
Perform assessment using appropriate tools such as history, physical
examination, and screening tools.
Document findings of assessment, interventions, and plan of care.
Collaborate with health care team to implement interventions.
Develop communication plan of care to appropriate services.

53

Final Report

6.

Medium

Mid
Term

DOH/
FEMS/
Hospitals

5
5

Short
Mid Term
Mid Term

DDOT/ ALL

Low
Medium
Medium

Low
Medium

Short
Mid Term

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Lead
Agency/Office

5.

Typical
Timeframe for
Implementation

4.

Physicians:
Perform assessment using appropriate tools, such as history, physical
examination, and screening tools.
Document findings of assessment, interventions, and plan of care.
Collaborate with health care team to implement interventions.
Develop communication plan of care to appropriate services.
Advocate in the community for public education, prevention program, and
public policy, and treatment programs for DUPs.
Participate in collaborative research, education, and data gathering to
improve the care of patents with DUPs.
Attempt to create a better more cooperative relationship with law
enforcement as well as educate them about the laws relating to DUI.
Be aware of State laws and consider reporting drug-use problems in
accordance with these laws.

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

3.

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Impaired Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low,
10=V. High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

DDOT/ DOH/
Hospitals
OAG/ MPD/
Other LEAs

54

ATTACHMENT
C

Final Report
District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Typical Timeframe
for
Implementation

Low

Short Term

MPD/
DMV/
OAG/
DCSC/
Fed Enforce.
Agency

Low

Mid Term

MPD/
OAG

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

10

Lead
Agency/Office

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Aggressive Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

Table 10: CEA 1.1. Strategies to Reduce Collisions Caused by Aggressive Drivers

Enforcement Strategies
1.

2.

High-Visibility Enforcement:
Target selected high-crash or high-violation geographical areas (refer
to latest DDOT speed information) using either expanded regular
patrols or designed aggressive driving patrols. Officers focus on
drivers who commit common aggressive driving actions such as
speeding, following too closely, and running red lights. Enforcement
is widely publicized.
Work with other Federal partners to support MPD efforts.
Work with DMV to share violation data in real-time.
Federal partnersNPS.
Organize legislature action committee to review and define aggressive
driving and determine changes to statute/s:
Review penalties and adjudication
Penalty types and levels:
Investigate and implement an aggressive-driving statue.
Consider penalty levels and types for speeding and other
aggressive driving offenses within the context of the
Districts overall driver control and problem driver
remediation system.

39

Final Report

Low
Medium

Mid
Term

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Typical Timeframe
for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

3.

Repeat offenders/investigate and review.


Enhance penalties including drivers license points, immediate
license suspension or revocation, higher fines, and jail or
probation.
Improved traffic record systems to better identify repeat offenders
and allow patrol officers to immediately access a drivers complete
driving record.
Increase penalty for violations with serious consequences (e.g.,
over 25 mph posted speed limit and multiple offences within a
12-month period).
Diversion and plea agreement restriction.
Consider reduced penalty for attending traffic school.
Create aggressive driving statue.
Expand the Traffic Safety focus at MPD:
Safety Training for all officers, retraining every 2 years (to include
refresher classes in ARIDE, SFST, etc.).
Conduct crash investigation training for all officers, retraining every
2 years.
Review/update the online Ped/Bike training, to be:
Completed every 2 years by MPD officers.
Added to the Academy curriculum.
Expanded to include other Federal Enforcement Agencies.
ARIDE training for other law enforcement agencies in the District.

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Aggressive Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

MPD/
DDOT/
DMV/
Federal
Enforce.
Agency

40

Final Report

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical Timeframe
for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

10

Medium

Mid Term

MPD

Medium

Long Term

MPD/
DDOT

Low to
Medium

Mid Term

DMV/MPD

Medium

Mid Term

DDOT Other
DDOT and
Federal
Agency

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Strategies to Reduce Aggressive Driver-Related Crashes

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

4.

5.

6.

Encourage DRE training for dedicated DUI enforcement officers.


Include Standardized Field Sobriety Test training in the academy.
Recommend issuing a memo to all officers on their role in traffic
safety enforcement, including accurate, timely, and consistent
completion of information on the crash forms.
Technology and Enforcement on high-speed corridors:
Automated EnforcementExpand use of cameras for controlling redlight running, speeding, crosswalk violations, STOP-sign violations,
etc.
Investigate and determine the use of new technologies (examples):
Laser speed-measurement equipment (provide more accurate and
reliable evidence of speeding).
Stationary LIDAR.
Evaluate pilot program in a selected high-speed corridor.
Established a Web-based scheduling system with DMV to inform MPD
about hearings.

Education Strategies
1.

Conduct educational and public information outreach campaigns:


Educate roadway users on the dangers of aggressive driving and rules
of the roads (e.g., Smooth Operator campaign).
Sponsor a District-wide conference on road safety (to include
aggressive driving issues/conflicts).

41

Final Report

Implementation
(1=V. Easy,
10=V. Difficult)

Relative. Cost to
Implement &
Operate

Typical Timeframe
for
Implementation

Lead
Agency/Office

Medium

Mid Term

DDOT/DMV

Low
Medium

Mid Term

DMV

Low

Short Term

DMV

Provide real-time information to drivers to keep motorists informed of


roadway conditions and delays to allow them to make appropriate
decisions:
Expand the network of changeable message signs.
Expand Web site/s (e.g., information to the motorist on work zones).
Manage traffic impacts from highway work zones to reduce delays
approaching and within the work areas.

Medium

Mid Term

DDOT

Low

Mid Term

DDOT

3.

Coordinate traffic signals and improve signal timing, especially along


heavily traveled corridors, to reduce vehicle delay and driver frustration.

Medium

Mid Term

DDOT

4.
5.

Identify corridors to focus on aggressive driving Engineering Strategies.


Provide access to crash and violation data in real time.

8
8

7
6

Low
Medium

Short Term
Mid Term

DDOT
MPD/DDOT/
DMV/Others

Strategies to Reduce Aggressive Driver-Related Crashes

2.

3.

4.

Develop materials and target education to specific populations/locations:


Repeat offenders.
Driving schools.
High schools/Universities.
Young adult social sites.
Ensure driver education instructors incorporate aggressive driving traits,
factors, and risks into lesson plans:
Pursue certification process for driver training schools
Review/update, as necessary, the DMV Driver Manual and Test materials
to ensure they contain information on aggressive driving.

Status
(OOngoing,
CCompleted)

Level of Impact
(1=V. Low, 10=V.
High)

District of Columbia Strategic Highway Safety Plan Update 2014

Engineering Strategies
1.

2.

42