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The Seven Ancient

Wonders of the
World
Go to the following link: http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/
1. Whose writings described the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World
found?
Herodotus, in his work History
2. Who was he and when were they written?

Wrote in the 5th century B.C.


Key Greek historian
Wrote about Great Pyramid at Giza, Hanging Gardens
of Babylon, etc.
3. Fill out this chart: click onto the images, this will take you to
all the Wonders!

What is the
Wonder?
The Great Pyramid
of Giza

Where is the
Describe the
Wonder located? Wonder!
At the city of Giza,
a necropolis of ancient
Memphis, and today
part of Greater Cairo,
Egypt

Great pyramid was


145.75 m (481 ft)
high, but has since
lost 10 m from top
Built around 2560 BC
as a tomb for
Egyptian pharaoh
Khufu of the 4th
Dynasty
Constructed of 2
million blocks of
stone, and covered
with a casing of
stones to smooth its
surface
Contains a number of
corridors, galleries,
and escape shafts, in

addition to the Kings


burial chamber
Series of vaulted
gardens, terraces
Covered with exotic
plants, animals,
waterfalls, and
exquisite treasures

The Hanging Gardens of


Babylondid they really
exist? Although they were
discussed extensively by
Greek historians and
poets, Chaldean tablets
from the time of
Nebuchadnezzar do not
contain any known
reference to the Hanging
Gardens

Mesopotamia
East bank of the
Euphrates River, 50 km
south of Baghdad, Iraq

Statue of Zeus at Olympia

ancient town of
Olympia, on west of
modern Greece, near
Athens

Huge statue made of


ivory and gold, with
scepter inlaid with all
metals, and eagle
perched on scepter
Sandals and robe are
gold
Zeus seated on
magnificent throne

Temple of Artemis at
Ephesus

ancient city of Ephesus,


in Turkey

The Mausoleum at
Halicarnassus

Bodrum, Halicarnassus,
Turkey

Served as
marketplace and
religious institution
Pilgrims brought gifts
of gold and ivory
Huge marble temple
with spacious
courtyard
20m high ionic
columns
Burial place of the
ancient king
Made of marble, with
exquisite statues of
horses and men
Sarcophagus made
of white alabaster
and decorated with
gold
Surrounded by an
ionic columnade,
supported an

The Colossus of Rhodes

Located at the
entrance of the harbor
of the Mediterranean
island of Rhodes in
Greece

The Light house of


Alexandria

On the ancient island of


Pharos, now a
promontory within the
city of Alexandria in
Egypt

elaborate, decorated
pyramid roof
Bronze statue on a
base of white marble
So large that when it
fell, Pliny wrote, Few
people can make
their arms meet round
the thumb

Tallest building on
earth
Ensured a safe return
to the Great Harbour
Mysterious mirror
whose reflection was
visible for over 50km
off shore
Summit adorned by
statues of Poseidon

Tour of the Hanging Gardens of NeoBabylon


Now just look up Mesopotamias Wonder using the following link:
http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/gardens.html

1. Describe the Hanging Gardens that Nebuchdrezzar built for his wife.

The art of royal luxutry


Plants cultivated above ground level, on a series of vaulted
terraces
Stairway leading to the highest terraces
Stone colonnades supported the entire structure
Water pumped to the highest terrace fell in streams and irrigated
the gardens
Constant irrigation kept plants healthy and vegetation lush

2. Describe the technology of the Hanging Gardens.

Pumps well-concealed in the structures interior brought water to


the highest levels of the terraces
Water falls were used to irrigate the plants, which helped keep the
vegetation lush and healthy

Babylon the City


While touring the ancient city of Babylon Answer the followingvisit this
link
http://www.ancientsites.com/aw/City/23
Visit both Babylon and Neo-Babylon.
1. When was the first city founded?
2800 B.C. by Sargon of Akkad
2. Who was the principle god of the city?
Merodach was the divine patron of the city
3. How contentious of an area was Babylon from the Sumerian to Assyrian
time periods?
Very contentious was the capital of three empire (Sargons, the first dynasty
of Babylon, and Hammurabis empie)
Claimed supremacy over western Asia
4. The King who built the city of Neo Babylon in 580 BCE was..
Nebuchadnezzer
5. The entrance into the city is the ____________Ishtar ___________ Gate.
(Take a look at the map of Neo-Babylon.)

Herodotus
Accounts of Babylon
Go to the following link
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/greek-babylon.html
Please read through this primary source (sections to read are listed following
the question). And, answer the following.
1. How does Herodotus describe the city? (I.178-182)

City lies on a broad plain


Surrounded by a broad deep moat
Inside moat is great city wall with brass gates
Sides of moat with bricks baked with soil from inside the moat
City divided by the Euphrates, a broad, deep, swift stream which
rises in Armenia and empties into the Erythrean Sea
Three-four story houses
Streets run in straight lines (grid-like system)
Two walls: outer wall (main defense) and inner wall (smaller, but still
very strong)
Center of each division of town held a fortress and a ziggurat
(temple)
Temple housed a couch where the god was supposed to have slept

2. Who is the god of Babylons temple and how does Herodotus describe its
wealth? (I.183-184)
Murduk
In addition to statue of gold, large table and throne of gold
Also two altars outside the temple, one of which is solid gold
3. How does Herodotus describe the customs, dress and women of
Babylon? (I.195-96, I.198-99)

Linen tunic reaching to the feet


Above this, another tunic made of wool
Short white cloak thrown around them
Peculiar shows
Long hair, turbans, perfumes
Everybody carries a seal and a carved, decorated walking stick
One custom concerns selling all of the damsels to be wed
Most beautiful were sold first, with all the rich men bidding for the
loveliest maidens

No man was allowed to sell his daughter to the man of his choice,
only to the highest bidder
Herodotus says it is their wisest custom
Another custom is to bury their dead in honey, with funeral
lamentations like the Egyptians
Yet another custom is that once a man and wife have made love,
they must sit before burning incense until dawn, at which point they
wash. They will not touch any of their common vessels until they
have washed at day break
One shameful custom: every woman must once in her life go an sit
in the temple of Venus (Ishtar) and consort with a stranger, who
must be the first one to throw a silver coin on her lap
Done to satisfy the goddess

4. Overall, how does Herodotus describe Babylon?


He generally describes Babylon favorably, even though he feels that some of
their practices are rather odd, such as the necessity of all women to consort
with a stranger to pay tribute to Venus (Ishtar).

5. Do you detect Herodotus bias in the primary source?


Yes. As a Greek, he has been biased by his native country and culture. As a
result, he bases his impressions of the city and culture on his beliefs of what is
reasonable or normal in Greece. For example, he comments that some of
their customs are wise while others are shameful. He comments that
some of their beliefs are not creditable, and generally approaches the new
city and its culture with the curiosity and critical eye of a stranger. It is
noticeable that Herodotus often compares certain customs with those he is
familiar with, or has noticed in other cultures. As a newcomer to the city, he
appears to be trying to relate what he sees to that with which he is familiar.

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