Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

INTRODUCTION

In the Philippine society, children are considered blessings from the Lord. They are the
hope of our country as they will be our future leaders. As the National Hero of the Philippines
once said, The youth are the hope of this nation (Agoncillo, 2004). The family needs to take
care, love and nurture their children. But nowadays, many parents and caretakers abuse children.
Some take advantage of their weakness and vulnerability. In the Philippines, physical abuse
among children is one of the most common issues today. According to the review conducted by
the Philippine Pediatric Society, ICD-10 Registry from January 1, 2006 to December 1, 2009,
there were 32 infants (under 12 months) with multiple fractures of the extremities, fractures of
the skull and facial bones and 1,351 children under 3 years with head injuries had been reported
to be caused by domestic violence and physical abuse.
Physical abuse is defined as any injury to the child that is not accidental and can be
manifested in any forms. These includes, but is not limited to bruises, welts, cigarette burns,
cuts and broken bones. It also includes reckless and negligent use of drugs during pregnancy.
The effect of physical abuse adversely affects the natural physical and psychological growth,
and development of the child. The impact may vary depending on the kind and degree of
abuse. Common physical effects of abuse are malnutrition, permanent physical disabilities and
even death. It can also affect their interpersonal communication because most of them have
emotional problems relating to anger, fear, humiliation and an inability to express their
feelings. There are also behavioral problems documented among children who were physically
abused such as aggression, self-destructive behavior, hyperactivity, truancy, inability to form
friendships with peers and poor social skills that interferes with their social relationships. The

other effect of physical abuse in children may also involve the lost of hope about the future,
while other children lose their trust in themselves because of the feeling of hopelessness.
Childrens right in reference to protection from abuse, exploitation and discrimination has
always been articulated in several declarations, codes and laws. Under the law of the Philippine
RA No. 7610, this act also known as Special Protection of Children against Abuse, Exploitation
and Discrimination Act. It provides special protection to children from all forms of abuse,
neglect, cruelty exploitation and discrimination and other conditions, prejudicial their
development; provide sanctions for their commission and carry out a program for prevention
and deterrence of and crisis intervention in situations of child abuse, exploitation and
discrimination. Specifically, the said provision helped identified children as individuals below
eighteen (18) years of age. However, inclusive of the classification of children are those
individuals who are over the age of maturity (i.e., 18 years old) but are unable to fully care for
themselves or protect themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination
because of a physical or mental disability or condition.
Furthermore, there are also agencies that ensures the safety and security of children.
Among these agencies include the UNICEF. This institution is one of the agencies of the United
Nations devoted to serving the world's children. The UNICEF began providing assistance to the
Philippines in November 1948. Since then, the UNICEF and the Philippine government have
been partners in protecting Filipino children. This agency continues to perform the following
duties and obligations: (a) work with child protection councils at local levels of government to
provide a safe and protective environment, (b) help educate families to prevent violence, abuse,
as well as exploitation and enable children-at-risk to protect themselves through rescue, healing
and recovery services, (c) support the development and strengthening of child protection

networks at community, local and national levels, and (d) develop peace advocates among
children in conflict areas and provide them with opportunities to express themselves.
In lieu with the information that were initially presented, the proponents of this paper
proposed to conduct a study that would help establish the correlation of physical abuse among
the children of Bahay Kalinga in relation to their psychosocial wellbeing. Inclusive of the
subjects psychosocial wellbeing are their studies, their interpersonal communication and
attitudes towards other people. Furthermore, it is the goal of this study to also identify the impact
of physical abuse to the childs coping mechanism, and their ideals and aspirations.
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine the significant correlation of physical abuse to the
psychosocial wellbeing of children who were once victims of physical abuse.
Specifically it will seek enlightenment as derived from the following questions.
1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
a. Gender
b. Age
c. Number of Siblings
2. What are the effects of physical abuse in children in terms of their:
a. Studies
b. Interpersonal communications
c. Attitudes toward others
3. What are the factors that prompted physical abused based on the subjects perception?
4. What is/are the common coping mechanism/s of the subjects?
5. How does physical abuse impact the childs dreams and aspirations?
Objective of the Study

The study primarily aimed to determine the significant correlation on the impact of
physical abuse among the children particularly relating to their psychosocial wellbeing. This
paper would hope to identify the different implications of physical abuse to the different aspects
of a childs psychological and social wellness.
Specifically it aims to:
1. Determine the effects of physical abuse in children in terms of their:
1.1 studies
1.2 interpersonal communications
1.3 attitudes toward others
2. Determine the factors that prompted physically abuse as perceived by the subject.
3. Determine the coping mechanisms of physically abused children.
4. Determine the impact of physical abuse to the subjects dreams and aspirations.
Significance of the Study
This study entitled A Correlational Study on the Impact of Physical Abuse among
children to their Psychosocial Wellbeing has been initiated to serve the benefit of the following
sectors of the society:
Victims of Physical Abuse. This paper will serve as an avenue that would help victims
of physical abuse to cope with such a tragic experience. It is the hope of this paper to serve as an
avenue that would help the victims of physical abuse to express themselves without fear of being
reprimanded or penalized for speaking their mind.
Caretakers are among the identified beneficiaries of this study. This paper aims to
provide information that would help the caretakers of the children who were physically abused
particularly in making them aware of the thoughts and feelings of their patients. This could guide

them in appropriating the kind of discipline and guidance that the children need in order to
become better individuals someday.
Families. This study will help the families of the children who are victims of physical
abuse to know the effects of physical abuse to children so that they may be reminded of the right
and appropriate discipline. Furthermore, this study aims to help families see from the eyes of
their children the implications of physical abuse that might help combat domestic violence which
is identified the number one source of abuse among children.
Future Researchers. This study will help them to acquire information about physically
abuse to come up with more studies about other forms of abuses against child as minor
individuals.
However, this study is not ambitious to declare that is will provide a generalize
explanation that would understand the impact of physical abuse but in as much data as possible
aims to provide substantial amount of information that can be utilized for future study.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study focused particularly on physically abused children and how their experiences
of physical abuse impacted their psychological and social wellbeing. Specifically, this study aims
to establish the impact of physical abuse on the childs studies, interpersonal relationships,
dreams, aspiration and coping mechanism. The proponent decided to concentrate on children
who are victims of physical abuse that are under the custody of an agency. The study will request
the participation of 50 respondents, all who are victims of physical abuse. The respondents will
be surveyed using a self-constructed questionnaire that would help guide and facilitate the course
of the study.

The self-constructed questionnaire is formatted using Likert Scale. A five-point rating


scale will be utilized by the questionnaire. Fifteen statements will be included, excluding the
demographic profile. The statements are designed to enumerate the different perceived impact of
physical abuse among children. The respondents are to select how much impact does each of the
items has on them based on their personal experience. After all the data are tabulated, the
proponents of the study will compute of the correlation of physical abuse on the different
identified aspects of a childs psychological and social wellbeing.
Definition of Terms
These were the terms used in this study that was defined operationally.
Lived experience. Refers to the sufferings, thoughts, feelings and emotion happened to them.
Child. Refers to the person who is below 18 years of age and a person who is above 18 but
cannot take care of himself due to certain circumstance.
Physical child abused. Refers to the physical injury inflicted upon the child with cruel and
malicious intent. Physical abuse can be the result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning,
shaking, or otherwise harming a child physically.
Studies. Refers to the devotion of time and attention to acquiring knowledge on an academic
subject, especially by means of books. Also, it refers academic performance of physical abused
children.

Interpersonal communication. Refers to an exchange of thoughts and information between


two or more people. During interpersonal communication there is message sending and message
receiving.
Attitude toward others. Refers to the relationships towards friends, caretakers and teachers.
Dreams. Refers to the something that they have wanted very much to do, be, or have for a long
time.
Aspirations. Refers a hope or ambition of achieving something.

METHODOLOGY

This chapter is enumerates the process and methodologies used by the proponent to
conduct their research on the correlation of physical abuse among the children of Bahay Kalinga
in reference to their psychological and social wellbeing. Inclusive of this chapter are the
following sections: research design, the respondents of this study including the total population
and sampling technique, research instrument, sources of data, and data gathering procedure.
Research Design
The proponent decided to conduct a quantitative research using descriptive research
design. A descriptive research is one that utilizes survey to generate information and data needed
to support the assumptions of the study. Furthermore, a descriptive design is typically used in
social sciences and some health sciences to help determine the cause and effect and the
implications of a given phenomenon to a particular group. Specifically, the proponents intend to
conduct a correlational study that would determine the significant relationship between the
identified variables in the study. In this case the independent variable is physical abuse while the
dependent variable includes the different aspects of the psychological and social wellbeing of an
individual, namely the childs studies, interpersonal relationships, dreams, aspiration and coping
mechanism.
Sampling Technique
The researchers will use purposive sampling technique, which is non-probability
sampling and to identify the appropriate respondents of the study. For a purposive sampling
technique, a criteria is needed to establish who fits into the description of the respondents who
will be included in the study. For this particular study, the researchers identified the criteria for

selection such as physically abused children between the ages of 7-18 years old who are
currently under the custody of Bahay Kalinga in Dasmarias City, Cavite.
Sources of Data
The proponents of this study will utilized two kinds of sources for their data. The primary
source will be comprised of the results generated from the survey questionnaire which is directly
provided by the respondents. Secondary data will be provided by the Head of Bahay Kalinga,
Dasmarias City, Cavite, as well as the volunteers and different care providers in the institution.
Additionally, supplementary data are to be provided from an extensive review of past studies on
the subject of physical abuse among the youth.
Participants of the Study
The respondents of the study will be composed of 50 physically abused children between
ages 7 to 18 years old who were currently under the custody of Bahay Kalinga in Dasmarias
City, Cavite suring the time that the study was conducted. The respondents were selected and
identified using purposive sampling technique.
Research Instrument
The proponents of this study will use a self-constructed survey questionnaire is formatted
using Likert Scale. A five-point rating scale will be utilized by the questionnaire. The verbal
interpretation for the questionnaire is presented in Table 1. Fifteen statements will be included,
excluding the demographic profile. The statements are designed to enumerate the different
perceived impact of physical abuse among children.
Rating Scale

Verbal Interpretation

1
2
3
4
5

Strongly Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

Table 1: Verbal Interpretation


The questionnaire is validated using pre-test and post-test methodology, where 10
respondents were tested to validate the questionnaire. After the pre-test, the respondents were
requested to critique and evaluate the questionnaire. A post-test was again administered to
determine the degree of freedom between the two scores as well as the interval of error.
Data Gathering Procedure
The proponents decided to use a self-constructed survey questionnaire using Likert Scale
format that has a five-point rating scale. Fifteen statements will be included, excluding the
demographic profile. The statements are designed to enumerate the different perceived impact of
physical abuse among children. The respondents are to select how much impact does each of the
items has on them based on their personal experience. Prior to the survey, the proponents will
secure the permission of the Heads of Bahay Kalinga in Dasmarias City, Cavite. After the
consent has been secured, fifty (50) respondents will be selected using the purposive sampling
methodology. The respondents will be explained with the purpose of the study as well as the
directions for completing the survey sheet. The completed survey questionnaire will be collected.
The answers will be tallied and tabulated. After all the data are tabulated, the proponents of the
study will compute of the correlation of physical abuse on the different identified aspects of a
childs psychological and social wellbeing. The proponent will use Pearson Product Moment
Coefficient in computing the correlation between physical abuse and the different aspects of the

psychological and social wellbeing of an individual, namely the childs studies, interpersonal
relationships, dreams, aspiration and coping mechanism.