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Linguistic Intelligence is a part of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligence theory that deals

with an individual's ability to understand both spoken and written language, as well as their
ability to speak and write themselves. In a practical sense, linguistic intelligence is the extent to
which an individual can use language, both written and verbal, to achieve goals.[1]In addition to
this, high linguistic intelligence has been linked to improved problem solving, as well as to
increased abstract reasoning.[2]
In many cases, only the verbal aspects are taken into consideration. This is usually referred to
as verbal intelligence or verbal fluency, and is commonly a reflection of an individual's overall
linguistic intelligence.

Measurement and testing[edit]

In general, it is difficult to test for linguistic intelligence as a whole, therefore verbal intelligence
is often measured instead. This is done using various types of verbal fluency tests.[4][6][12]

Verbal fluency tests[edit]

Semantic Fluency Test - Subjects are asked to produce words in groups, such as
animals, kitchen tools, fruits, etc. This type of test focuses on the subject's ability to
generate words that have meaning to them. This test has been found to be sensitive to age.

Formal Fluency Test - Subjects are asked to produce words given specific letter-based
rules. This test has been found to be sensitive to education level. [12]

Initial Letter Fluency Test - A type of formal fluency test where the subject is
asked to list words starting with a specific letter.[12]

Excluded Letter Fluency Test - A type of formal fluency test where the subject is
asked to list words that do not contain a certain letter.[12]

Verb Fluency Test - Subjects are asked to list verbs. Subjects are then tested on their
ability to use listed verbs.[12]

Verbal Reproduction Test - Subjects are asked to listen to a monologue. They are then
asked to repeat the monologue, and the subject is scored based on the number of words
and lemmas used from the original monologue.[1]

Verbal fluency in children[edit]

In one series of tests, it was shown that when children were given verbal fluency tests, a larger
portion of their cortex activated compared to adults, as well as activation of both the left and
right hemispheres. This is most likely due to the high plasticity of newly developing brains.[13]

Possible conflict[edit]
Recently, a study was done showing that verbal fluency test results can differ depending on the
mental focus of the subject. In this study, mental focus on physical speech

production mechanisms caused speech production times to suffer, whereas mental focus
onauditory feedback improved these times.[14]

Disorders affecting linguistic intelligence[edit]

Main article: Speech-language pathology
Since linguistic intelligence is based on several complex skills, there are many disorders and
injuries that can affect an individual's linguistic intelligence.

Damage and injury in the brain can severely lower ones ability to communicate, and therefore
lower ones linguistic intelligence. Common forms of major damage
are strokes, concussions, brain tumors, viral/bacterial damage, and drug-related damage. The
three major linguistic disorders that result from these injuries are aphasia, alexia, and agraphia.
Aphasia is the inability to speak, and can be caused by damage to Broca's area or the motor
cortex.[7] Alexia is the inability to read, which can arise from damage to Wernicke's area, among
other places.[7] Agraphia is the inability to write which can also arise from damage to Broca's
area or the motor cortex.[7]In addition, damage to large areas of the brain can result in any
combinations of these disorders, as well as a loss of other abilities. [7]

Pure language disorders[edit]

There are several disorders that primarily affect only language skills. Three major pure language
disorders are Developmental verbal dyspraxia, specific language impairment, and stuttering.
Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) is a disorder where children have errors in consonant
and vowel production.[11] Specific language impairment (SLI) is a disorder where the patient has
a lack of language acquisition skills, despite a seemingly normal intelligence level in other
areas.[11] Stuttering is a fairly common disorder where speech flow is interrupted by involuntary
repetitions of syllables.[11]
Spatial Intelligence is an area in the theory of multiple intelligences that deals with spatial
judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind's eye. It is defined by Howard Gardner as a
human computational capacity that provides the ability or mental skill to solve spatial problems
of navigation, visualization of objects from different angles and space, faces or scenes
recognition or to notice fine details. Gardner further explains that Spatial Intelligence could be
more effective to solve problems in areas related to realistic, thing-oriented, and investigative
occupations. This capability is a brain skill that is also found in people with visual impairment. As
researched by Gardner, a blind person can recognize shapes by a non-visual way. The spatial
reasoning of the blind person allows them to translate tactile sensations into mental calculation
of length and visualisation of form.

Origin of the concept[edit]

Spatial intelligence is one of the nine intelligences on Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple
Intelligences, each of which is composed of a number of separate sub capacities. An
intelligence provides the ability to solve problem or create products that are valued in a
particular culture. Each intelligence is a neurally based computational system that is activated
by internal or external information.Intelligences are always an interaction between biological
proclivities and the opportunities for learning that exist in a culture. The application of this theory
in the general practice covers a product range from scientific theories to musical compositions
to successful political campaigns.[1] Gardner suggested a general correspondence between

each capability with an occupational role at the workplace, for examples: for those individuals
with linguistic intelligence he pointed journalists, speakers and trainers; scientist, engineers,
financiers and accountants on logical-mathematical intelligence; sales people, managers,
teachers and counselors on thepersonal intelligence; athletes, contractors and actors on bodilykinesthetic intelligence; taxonomists, ecologist and veterinarians onnaturalistic intelligence;
clergy and philosophers on existential intelligence and designers, architects and taxi drivers
on spatialintelligence.[1]