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SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION

Maria Elizabeth M. Grageda, PTRP, MHPEd


Asst. Professor, National Teacher Training Center
for the Health Professions

DESIRED LEARNING OUTCOMES


Feedback &
Assessment

SMALL GROUP
DISCUSSION

ACTUAL LEARNING OUTCOMES

DESIRED LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Ability to solve problem


Think critically
Show mastery of subject
matter

SMALL GROUP
DISCUSSION

gives opportunities for learners to:


make own judgments and interpretations
present & defend own views
take on role of facilitator

DESIRED LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Manage their own


learning

SMALL GROUP
DISCUSSION

Provision of increased learner


control
Opportunity to reflect on
what they still need to learn

Metacognition
Utilization &
transference
Self-monitoring &
development of
personal
standards

DESIRED LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Moral development
Show expected attitude
and behaviors

SMALL GROUP
DISCUSSION

Exposure to beliefs and values of


others
Reflect on their own beliefs & values

DESIRED LEARNING
OUTCOMES

Communicate effectively
Can work well with
others

SMALL GROUP
DISCUSSION

Encourage divergent thinking


Sharing of ideas and reaching consensus
Involves articulating ideas which can
also serve as preparation for writing

Misconceptions about SGD


Cannot be planned. Relies on
spontaneous and unpredicted
interactions.
Little time & effort required to
prepare.

*Careful planning & close supervision is the key.

Teachers role in SGD


structuring the learning activity and the
learning environment for maximum
interaction
facilitate and stimulate
preparing the learners to ensure they are
ready to engage in SGD

Preparing students for SGD


Ensure prior learning
Provide common reading materials
Help students to work actively towards
understanding of what they read by:
Defining unfamiliar words
Summarizing main points of author
Listing down questions

Preparing students for SGD


Provide key questions
or prompts
Examples:
I wonder why
What caused
This is similar to
This seems important
because
What do they mean by

What I find confusing is


I can relate to this
because
The interesting point here
is
I did not expect
This would be easier to
understand if

Preparing students for SGD


Preparing students for reflective thinking
thinking about the processes & outcomes of
the discussion
Help learners understand how their
preconceived ideas about the topic & the
purpose of the discussion, and the
understanding of how they think influence the
way they will contribute to the discussion

Preparing students for SGD


Whole-class discussions
Contributes to their own prior knowledge
Provides opportunities to integrate their own
ideas with others ideas
Can stimulate more questions and more ideas

Prepare the discussion environment


Ensure an open environment
Be aware of group development
Physical set-up

The Discussion Plan


Establish clear learning outcomes
Outline the subject or topic to be
discussed and why it should be discussed
Decide how to open the discussion
Promote interest and engage the learners
Set the scene

The Discussion Plan


Formulate a clear question to focus the
discussion
Provide supplementary questions
Target HOTS by asking open-ended questions that
encourage learners to generate their own answers
and opinions

Plan how to close the discussion (involving the


whole class)

The Discussion Plan


Plan your summary
Reflection and evaluation

Set the appropriate time

Discussion skills
Reflecting on their own behaviour during and after
the discussion.
Points of reflection:
While listening to
others:
Do I agree? Why?
Do I think that this
is based on fact or
opinion? Why?
Do I really need to
make a comment
at this point?
Why?

After making a
contribution:
Did the others
understand my
point?
Did my contribution
make a real
difference to the
discussion? Why?

After the
discussion:
How could I have
made a more
productive
contribution to
this discussion?

Factors to help make SGD successful


Clear focus on learning
Preparation of and by the learners
Clear set of guidelines for learners
Careful management of the learning
environment
Direction by the teacher
Willing participation of all learners

Factors to help make SGD successful


Monitoring & feedback by the teacher
Careful time management by teacher &
learners
Structured process for bringing learning to a
logical conclusion
Anticipating all possible direction that the
discussion may take

Factors that limit effectiveness of SGD


Students ability to learn in this kind of
environment
Acceptance of membership into the group
Lack of prior knowledge & preparation
Variety of pace of learning among group
members
Discussion of irrelevant issues

Factors that limit effectiveness of SGD

Restrictive structure
Increased time for preparation
Physical arrangement
Dominated by talkative students

Computer-based discussions

E-mail
Chat rooms
Websites and discussion sites
Will follow the same guidelines in planning
and structuring SGDs in the classroom

Summary
SGD is a teaching-learning activity that can
easily be aligned to learning outcomes
Careful planning & supervision is key to
successful SGDs
The teachers role is to provide structure to
the activity & the environment

References
Cuyegkeng, MA, Detoya,G. , Lorenzo, M., Lapitan Jr.,
Laurito, A., Teehankee, B., Vea,R., & Vicencio, E. (2013).
CHED Implementation Handbook for OBE and ISA CHED
TFOTQA (Task Force to Assist the Management of the
Transition to Outcomes-Based and Typology-Based
Quality Assurance).
Kember, D. Best Practice in Outcomes-based Teaching
and Learning at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Center for learning Enhancement & Research, Hong
Kong.
Killen, R. (2007). Teaching Strategies for OBE 2nd Ed.
Juta & Co., Capetown, South Africa.