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Introduction:

To evaluate the insulation integrity of an arrester, measure the


power loss (watts-loss or dissipation factor) at a specified voltage
and compare it with previous measurements on the same or
similar arrester. Measurements on a surge arrester should always
be performed at the same or recommended test voltage since
nonlinear elements may be built into an arrester. When using this
test set, all measurements should normally be made at 10 kV.
Except for the specific purpose of investigating surface leakage,
the exposed insulation surface of an arrester should be clean and
dry to prevent leakage from influencing the measurements.
Some types of arresters show substantial temperature
dependence, while others show very little dependence.
Temperature correction curves for each arrester design should be
carefully established by measurement, and all measurements
should be temperature corrected to a base temperature,
Usually 20C. The temperature measurement should be based on
that at the arrester surface. The air temperature should also be
recorded. The surface of the arrester should be at a temperature
above the dew point to avoid moisture condensation .
Test under IEC 60099 .
In substations, surge arrestors appears on two types
1. Single arrester unit
2. Multi-unit arrester stacks.

It is recommended that tests be made on individual arrester units


rather than on a complete multi-unit arrester stack. A single
arrester unit can be tested by the normal ungrounded specimen
test (UST) in the shop; however, it can only be tested by the
grounded specimen test (GST) when mounted on a support
structure in the field.

1. Single arrester unit:


Surge arresters which contains single unit tested by
Insulation resistance test, Capacitance test by tan delta
equipment and leakage current monitor test.
Insulation resistance test:
Insulation resistance test must be carried
out at the surge arresters through Insulation resistance
tester such as Megger. Insulation resistance test must be
carried out between the conductor of bushing and ground of
the bushing. By applying 5KV to the Surge arrester for
1minute, record the value of insulation resistance with
atmospheric temperature.
Capacitance and Dissipation power factor test:
Surge arrester with single unit must be
subject to capacitance and dissipation power factor test by
applying 10 KV through Tan delta equipment with the GST
(Ground Specimen Test) mode. The temperature must be
noted at the time of testing and the values measured must
be compensated to 20C.
The below table show the connections on single unit.
The results must be match with factory reports for their
integrity.
TEST
NO

SURGE ARRESTOR
SYMBOL
INSULATION
TESTED

LOW VOLTAGE
CONFIGURATION
TEST
MODE

SA

GST

MEASURE

TEST CONNECTIONS
TO SURGE
ARRESTOR

GROUN
D

RED

GAURD

BLACK

RED

BLUE

REMARKS

Leakage current monitor test:


For every phase of the surge arrester the leakage
current monitor is available. The monitors must be calibrated and
tested by injecting milliamps current by sverker. Record the
calibrated values with standard values and its error must be
within the limits of respected manufacturer.

2. Multi-unit arrester stack:


Surge arresters which contains multi-unit tested by
Insulation resistance test, Capacitance and dissipation power
factor test by tan delta equipment and leakage current
monitor test.
For the Insulation resistance and leakage monitor test the above
mention procedures in single unit can be followed. For the
capacitance and dissipation power factor the following procedures
must be used.
Table below shows the recommended test procedure for testing
installed multi-unit arrester stacks. When testing in the field,
disconnect the related high-voltage bus from the arrester .

Surge Arrester Test Connections


TEST
NO

SURGE ARRESTOR
SYMBOL
INSULATION
TESTED

LOW VOLTAGE
CONFIGURATION
TEST
MODE

MEASURE

GROUN
D

TEST CONNECTIONS
TO SURGE
ARRESTOR
GAURD

BLACK

RED

BLUE

1.

SA-A

UST

BLUE

RED

2.

SA-B

UST

RED

BLUE

REMARKS

TERMINAL 3
GROUND
TERMINAL 1

GOUND
3.

SA-C

UST

4.

SA-D

GST

RED

BLUE
RED

Note: Apply 10KV for each injection

Typical Multi-Unit Arrester Stack

TERMINAL 3
GUARDED

Record the values as per the requirements and standards with the
temperature at the time of testing. These recorded values of
Dissipation power factor must be corrected to 20C.