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Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Chng I

Cc phn t c bn trong mch in t


1.1 Khi nim v cht bn dn

1. Khi nim
Cht bn dn l cht trung gian gia cht dn in v cht cch
in. Cht bn dn thng gp trong k thut l Gcmany (Ge),
Silc (Si), Indi (In)
2. c im ca cht bn dn.
- in tr ca cht bn dn gim khi nhit tng v ngc li.
- in tr ca cht bn dn thay i theo tinh khit ca
cht bn dn do nu pha tp cht vo trong cht bn dn th c
th thay i c in tr ca cht bn dn.
- Gi tr in tr ca cht bn dn thay i theo cng ca
nh sng chiu vo.
1.2. Cc phn t bn dn
1.2.1.
Cc
cht
bn

dn

thng

dng.

Ge

1. Cht bn dn loi P (Positive)


(Cn c gi l bn dn dng hay bn dn l trng)
- Nu pha vo tinh th Ge tinh khit 1 lng
nh In, (cht In c 3 in t ho tr lp ngoi
In

Ge

cng) th s tng mt l trng ln rt nhiu


trong mng tinh th.
- Trong mng tinh th Ge - In mi nguyn t
ca
In
lin
kt
vi
4
nguyn L
t trng
Ge
Ge

Ge

xung

quanh

In

bng 3 vng lin kt, nn cn thiu 1 in t,


tc l n d ra 1 l trng. Vy l trng ny
khng phi do 1 in t tch ra khi vng lin
tinh th Ge - In
kt m do c s pha trn ca tp cht.
- Cht bn dn c mt l trng nhiu hn
hn mt in t t do nn cht bn dn ny
gi l cht bn dn l trng

Mng

Ge

2. Cht bn dn loi N (Negative)


(Cn c gi l bn dn m hay bn dn in t)
- Nu pha vo tinh th Ge tinh khit 1 lng
As

Ge

Ge

Hong Hnh

in t

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

nh As, (cht As c 5 in t ho tr lp ngoi


cng) th s tng mt in t ln rt nhiu
trong mng tinh th.
- Trong mng tinh th Ge - As
Ge

mi

nguyn

As

ca As lin kt vi 4 nguyn t Ge xung quanh


bng 4 vng lin kt, nn cn tha 1 in t th
Mng
tinh th Ge - As
5 lin kt yu t vi ht nhn v d dng tch ra khi lin kt. Vy
in t ny l do c s pha trn ca tp cht.
- Cht bn dn c mt in t nhiu hn hn mt l trng
nn cht bn dn ny gi l cht bn dn in t
1.2.2 Diode (it) bn dn
1. Cu to
a. K hiu v hnh dng ca it
* K hiu
dng

D
K

D1
DIODE

* Hnh
A
K

b. Cu to
- it c cu to gm 2 ming bn dn loi P v N ghp li vi nhau.
gia 2 cht bn dn hnh thnh lp tip gip P - N. iu kin
bnh thng th lp tip gip nh hng ro ngn cch khng cho in
t v l trng ti hp vi nhau.
- hnh v k hiu quy c: u P
ca ming ghp gi l Ant (A),
u N ca ming ghp gi l Katt
N
P
(K).
Lp tip gip

2. c tnh Vn - Ampe.
* Khi nim: Biu th quan h bng th gia dng in chy
qua it v in p t gia Ant v Katt ca it .
* th
- Phn cc thun: t dng ngun vo dng ca it (Ant), cn
m ngun vo m ca it (Ktt), lc ny it m cho dng in
chy qua.
2

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Phn cc ngc: t dng ngun vo m ca it (Ktt), cn m


ngun vo dng ca it (Ant), lc ny it kho khng cho dng
in chy qua.
Ith
Ung

Ungmax Ung cp

DIODE
R1
1k
V1
D1
10V

D
V1
DIODE
10V
R1
1k
D1

Uth

Um

In
g

* Nhnh Thun:
- Phn p thun, it m cho dng in chy qua.
- Khi t 1 in p l Um vo it th ng c tnh c dng
Parabol (1).
- Khi tng in p thun th ng c tnh gn nh ng thng
(2)
Lc ny in tr thun ca it rt nh.
* Nhnh ngc:
- Phn p ngc, it kho, ch c dng in r rt nh chy qua.
- Khi tng in p ngc th dng r tng chm. Khi in p ngc
mc cho php th dng r gn nh khng i, ng c tnh l
ng (3)
- Khi tng in p ngc n gi tr Umax th dng r tng nhanh
(4) v cui cng it b nh thng (5)
* Kt lun:
- Mun it m th phn cc thun
- Mun it kha th phn cc ngc bng cch t in
p ngc ln D nhng khng t in p qu ln s ph hng D.
3. Tnh chnh lu ca it bn dn.
- Chuyn tip P - N l b phn quan trng nht ca tip xc gia 2
bn dn khc loi. Tu theo in p t vo theo chiu thun hay
ngc m n c c tnh khc nhau.
+ Khi phn cc thun, chuyn tip P - N hp, in tr R nh, dng
in I ln v tng nhanh theo in p U.
+ Khi phn cc nghch, chuyn tip P - N m rng, in tr R rt
ln, dng in rt nh v t thay i theo in p U.
Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Nh vy: Chuyn tip P - N dn in theo 2 chiu khng ging


nhau, nu c in p xoay chiu t vo th n ch dn in
ch yu theo 1 chiu.
Ta gi l tnh cht van hay c tnh chnh lu ca it.
4. c tnh k thut.
Mt it c cc thng s k thut cn bit khi s dng l:
+ Cht bn dn dng ch to.
+ Dng in thun - nghch cc i
+ Dng in bo ho
+ in p nghch cc i.
5. Cch th it
* Kim tra cht lng it: Dng ng h vn nng (thang o in
tr) hoc ng h mmt kim tra
- Cch th:
+ Vn nm xoay v R x 1
+ u 2 que o vi 2 cc it. Ln lt o u que o tm c 2 gi tr in tr khc nhau.
+ in tr c gi tr khong vi trm kil m gi l in tr ngc
Rng
+ in tr t vi chc n vi trm m c khi ti vi K gi l in
tr thun Rth
- Kt lun:
+ Rng cng ln hn so vi Rth cng tt
+ Nu Rng Rth th it b hng
* Xc nh cc cho it
Nu it cn tt nhng khng c k hiu phn bit cc th dng
ng h vn nng (thang o in tr) hoc ng h mmt
xc nh.
- Vn nm xoay v R x 1
- u 2 que o vi 2 cc phn cc cho it
- Nu gi tr in tr o c khong vi trm kil m th c ngha
l lc ny it ang c phn cc ngc. Ta kt lun:
Chn u v pha cc dng pin trong ng h l cc
m it (K)
Chn u v pha cc m pin trong ng h l
cc dng it (A)
- Ngc li: Nu gi tr in tr o c ch khong vi chc n vi
trm m th c ngha l lc ny it ang c phn cc thun. Ta
kt lun:
4

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Chn u v pha cc dng pin trong ng h l cc dng it (A)


Chn u v pha cc m pin trong ng h l cc m
it (K)
nh du cc cc thun li trong qu trnh lm vic sau ny.
6. Cc loi it khc
a. it Zener
- it Zener c cu to ging it thng nhng cc cht bn dn c
pha tp cht vi t l cao hn it thng. it zener thng c s
dng trong cc mch n p.
- K hiu:
Hnh dng
D1
ZENER

b. it pht quang (LED)


- mt s cht bn dn c bit khi c dng in i qua th c
hin tng pht ra nh sng (bc x quang)
- Tu theo cht bn dn m nh sng pht ra c mu khc nhau. Da
vo tnh cht ny ngi ta ch to ra cc n LED khc nhau.
- K hiu:
A

D1
LED1

c. it bin dung
- L loi linh kin bn dn 2 cc c chuyn tip P - N c ch to 1
cch c bit sao cho in dung ca n thay i nhiu theo
in p ngc t vo.
- ng dng: mch t ng iu chnh tn s cng hng, trong cc
b khuch i tn s hoc nhn tn
- K hiu:
D2
VARACTOR

d. it Tunen
- L loi linh kin bn dn 2 cc c chuyn tip P - N c nng tp
cht cao.
- ng dng: Dng trong cc mch khuch i, to dao ng siu cao
tn.
- K hiu:
Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

D2
DIODE

1.2.3. Tranzitor
1. Cu to
- TZT l 1 linh kin in t c ghp li t 3 lp bn dn, sao cho 2
lp lin nhau khc loi, to thnh 2 tip gip P - N
- Tu theo cch sp xp cc vng bn dn m ta c 2 loi TZT l loi
PNP v NPN.
- Min th nht ca TZT c gi l min Emittor, min ny c pha
vi nng tp cht ln nht. Cc ni vi min ny c gi l cc
Emittor (k hiu: E)
- Min th hai ca TZT c gi l min Base, min ny c pha vi
nng tp cht nh nht. Cc ni vi min ny c gi l cc
Base, (k hiu: B)
- Min th nht ca TZT c gi l min Colector, min ny c
pha vi nng tp cht trung bnh. Cc ni vi min ny c gi
l cc Colector (k hiu: C)
- Loi TZT PNP c gi l TZT thun, gm 1 ming bn dn N gia
v 2 ming bn dn P 2 bn. (hnh a). K hiu vi mi tn cc E
c chiu i vo ch chiu i ca dng in trong cht bn dn.
(hnh c)
- Loi TZT NPN c gi l TZT ngc, gm 1 ming bn dn P gia
v 2 ming bn dn N 2 bn. (hnh b). K hiu vi mi tn cc E
c chiu i ra ch chiu i ca dng in trong cht bn dn.
(hnh d)
P

P
C

C
B
Hnh a

B
Hnh b

Hong Hnh

N
E

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip
C

PNP
Q3
Q2

E
Hinh c

NPN

E
Hinh d

2. Nguyn l lm vic
- Xt 1 TZT thun PNP u theo kiu mch cc gc chung.
+ Ngun E1 phn cc thun cho tip gip E - B
+ Ngun E2 phn cc nghch cho tip gip B - C.
C phn cc ng nh vy th TZT mi lm vic c.
- Tip gip EB c phn cc thun nn l trng t vng pht chy
sang vng gc, in t tha t vng gc chy sang pht ti hp vi l
trng.
- Ngi ta ch to sao cho s l trng vng pht rt nhiu so v s
in t tha vng gc.
- Cc in t t cc m ngun E1 ti b xung.
- Dng in t t cc m ngun E 1 vo vng gc sinh ra dng gc
t cc gc ra m ngun
1 TZT lm vic c th ng thi phi c cc iu kin sau:
+ C ngun 1 chiu E1 phn cc thun cho lp tip gip E - B
+ C ngun 1 chiu E12 phn cc ngc cho lp tip gip B C
+ Ngun E2 > E1

1.2.4. Thyritor
SCR
SCR1

K
G

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

1 TRT m cho dng in chy qua th phi c cc iu kin


sau:
+ Phn cc thun cho TRT (Cc dng ngun ni vi Anot, cc
m ngun ni vi Ktt)
+ C xung dng t vo cc iu khin G
1.2.5. Triac

Q5

A1

TRIAC

A2
G

Triac c tc dng nh 2 TRT mc song song ngc, cho nn n m


cho dng in i qua theo c 2 chiu, nu c xung t vo cc
iu khin G
1.2.6. in tr:

R1

R3

R2

10k1k40%
in tr thng
1.2.7. T in
C2
C1
+

1uF
1uF
1uF
T thng

T ho

Hong Hnh

Bin tr

C3

T xoay

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Chng II

mch khuch i
2.1. Mch khuch i dng TZT thng

1. Tng khuch i mc E chung


a. S mch: Gm c
- R1: in tr nh thin m bo cho tip gip pht gc c
phn cc thun vi in p c 0,1 n 0,3 Vn
- R2: in tr ti (tr gnh) a in p t ngun E2 n cc
gp tip gip gc gp c phn cc nghch.
- C1, C2 l t lin lc vi tng trc v tng sau.
- IB l dng in vo - IC l dng in ra
- UV l in p o, UR l in p ra
* Tn hiu vo a ti 2 cc gc pht, tn hiu ra ly 2 cc gp
pht. Cc pht E tham gia c mch vo v mch ra nn c gi l
mch khuch i mc EC
b. Nguyn l lm vic
* Khi a tn hiu xoay chiu UV vo u vo ca mch ta
thy:
+ TZT lm vic, tip gip EB phi c phn cc thun nn
c dng IE mt chiu t dng ngun E1, E2 chy t chn E qua chn
B. Ti y, mt phn nh l
dng IB i qua R1 v m ngun E1, cn phn ln l dng IC chy qua
R2 v m ngun E2 (IE = IB + IC)

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip
C2

10V
1k
V2
C5
R5
1uF
10V
CAP
PNP
C4
Q1
V1
1
1k
R4
0V
V3

C1
T

Ur

R1
+

+
+

Uv

R2

E1

E2

- Trong na chu k dng ca tn hiu vo, in p dng ca


tn hiu lm cho in p ti chn B l U B bt m hn (dng ln),
in p UBE gim, dng IB v IC u gim. St p trn R 2 gim
i lm cho UC tng (theo chiu m), tc l m hn.
- Trong na chu k m ca tn hiu vo, in p m ca tn
hiu kt hp vi in p m ngun E1 lm cho in p ti chn B
l UB cng m hn, in p UBE tng, dng IB v IC u tng.
St p trn R2 tng ln lm cho UC gim (theo chiu
m), tc l dng ln.
* Nh vy in p ra ngc pha vi in p vo. Nu thay i
UV (l UBE) th dng IB, IE thay i dn n IC thay i theo
- Trong mch mc EC, dng in ra ln hn dng vo t hng
chc n hng trm ln.
- Mch din ny c ng dng rt rng ri
2. Tng khuch i mc CC
a. S nguyn l: Gm c
- R1: in tr nh thin m bo cho tip gip pht gc c
phn cc thun
- R2: in tr ti (tr gnh)
- C1, C2 l t lin lc vi tng trc v tng sau.
- IB l dng in vo - IC l dng in ra
- UV l in p o, UR l in p ra
* Tn hiu vo a ti 2 cc gc gp, tn hiu ra ly 2 cc gp
pht. Cc gp C tham gia c mch vo v mch ra nn c gi l
mch khuch i mc CC

10

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:
C5
10V
1k
V2
R5
10V
1k
CAP
PNP
C4
Q1
1uF
V1
1R4
0V
V3

in t cng nghip

C1
T
R1

R2

Ur

+
+

Uv

C2

E1

E2

b. Nguyn l lm vic
* Khi a tn hiu xoay chiu UV vo u vo ca mch ta
thy:
+ TZT lm vic, tip gip EB phi c phn cc thun nn
c dng IE mt chiu t dng ngun E1, E2 chy t chn E qua chn
B. Ti y, mt phn nh l dng I B i qua R1 v m ngun E1,
cn phn ln l dng IC chy v m ngun E2 (IE = IB + IC)
- Trong na chu k dng ca tn hiu vo, in p dng ca
tn hiu lm cho in p ti chn B l U B bt m hn (dng ln),
in p UBE gim, IE gim. St p trn R2 gim i lm cho UE dng hn c trc khi c tn hiu vo.
- Trong na chu k m ca tn hiu vo, in p m ca tn
hiu kt hp vi in p m ngun E1 lm cho in p ti chn B
l UB cng m hn, in p UBE tng, IE tng. St p trn R2
tng ln lm cho UE cng m hn.
* Nh vy in p ra ng pha vi in p vo, ng thi
khuch i in p
UR

do vy U 1
V
- Trong mch ny, khuch i dng in K I t hng chc
n hng trm ln.
- Mch din ny c ng dng rt rng ri

km KU < 1, v: UV = UR2 + UEB v UR = UR2

3. Tng khuch i mc BC

a. S nguyn l: Gm c
- R1: in tr nh thin m bo cho tip gip pht gc c
phn cc thun
- R2: in tr ti (tr gnh)
- C1, C2 l t lin lc vi tng trc v tng sau.
- IE l dng in vo - IC l dng in ra
- UV l in p o, UR l in p ra
Hong Hnh
11

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

* Tn hiu vo a ti 2 cc pht gc tn hiu ra ly 2 cc gp


gc. Cc gc B tham gia c mch vo v mch ra nn c gi l mch
khuch i mc BC

Ie

C2

Ic

C1
R1

R2

R5
1uF
1k
C5
10V
PNP
V3
10V
CAP
Q1
R4
C4
1k
V2
V1

Ur

+
+

Uv

E1

E2

b. Nguyn l lm vic
* Khi a tn hiu xoay chiu UV vo u vo ca mch ta
thy:
+ TZT lm vic, tip gip EB phi c phn cc thun nn
c dng IE mt chiu t dng ngun E1, chy t chn E qua chn B.
Ti y, mt phn nh l dng IB v m ngun E1, cn phn ln l
dng IC chy v m ngun E2 (IE = IB + IC)
- Trong na chu k dng ca tn hiu vo, in p dng ca
tn hiu phi hp vi in p dng ngun E1 lm cho in p ti
chn E l UE dng hn UB, in p UBE tng, IE cng tng. St
p trn R2 tng ln lm cho in p ti chn C (UC) gim ( Theo
chiu m), tc l tng ln, in p ra UR tng ln .
- Trong na chu k m ca tn hiu vo, in p m ca tn
hiu lm cho in p ti chn E l U E bt dng hn so vi UB,
in p UBE gim, IE gim, IC gim theo. St p trn R2 gim nn
lm cho in p ti chn C (U C) tng ln ( Theo chiu m), tc l
gim i, in p ra UR m i.
* Nh vy in p ra ng pha vi in p vo, ng thi
khuch i dng in km KI < 1, v:

I R IC

1
IV I E

- Trong mch ny, khuch i in p K U t hng trm


n hng ngn ln.
- Mch din ny c ng dng trong tng dao ng ca my
thu dao ng n nh.
12

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

2.2. Ghp gia cc tng khuch i


1. Ghp trc tip
Gii thch s :
- R1: in tr nh thin v n nh nhit cho TZT T1
- R2: Va l in tr ti (tr gnh) co TZT T1, va l in tr
nh thin cho TZT T2. Phi chn R2 c tr s sao cho in p UC1
khng qu thp nhng in p UB2 khng qu cao v UB2 cao s lm
hng n T2. ng thi IB2 khng ln qu.

BA

R2

R1
C1

Ur

T2

T1

CAP
1k
L2
PNP
1k
1uH
L1
Q1
Q2
1uH
PNP

Uv

Hnh a
- Thng thng ngi ta chn R2 = 5 n 10 K th UB2 = 0,2
n 0,3 V nhng lc ny UC1 qu thp nn s khng gy mo v
khuch i thp. (hnh a)

R1

BA

R2

C1

T2

T1
Uv

Ur

C2

R3

CAP
1k
L2
PNP
1k
1uH
L1
Q1
Q2
1k
1uH
PNP
CAP

Hnh b
- khc phc nhc im ny trong mch cc pht ca T2 nn
mc thm in tr R3 nng UE2 ln c 1 n 2 V, nh c
th dng R2 tng i nh UC1 = 1,2
n 2,2 V m bo UB2 = 0,1n 0,2 V. (Hnh b)
- T C1 v C2 kh cc hi tip m i vi m tn trong
mch.
Hong Hnh

13

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

2. Ghp bng in dung - in tr

a. Gii thch s
- Cc t C1, C2, C3 l t lin lc, dn tn hiu ra vo gia cc
tng (dng t ho)
- Tng 1:
+ R1, R2 l in tr thin p. R1 iu chnh, chn ch
lm vic cho n T1
+ RE1: n nh nhit cho n T1.
+ CE1: lm ngn mch tn hiu xoay chiu trnh hi tip
m.
+ RC1: in tr ti ca n T1.
- Tng 2:
+ R3 l in tr thin p, c mc theo kiu n nh nhit.
ng thi R3
iu chnh, chn ch lm vic cho n T2.
+ RC2: in tr ti ca n T2.

R1

Rc1

R3

Rc2
+

C3

C1

T1

Uv

R2

Re1

C2

T2

Ur

Ce1

PNP
C6
1k
PNP
1uF
R4
R5
Q3
C4
Q2
1uF
1uF
1k
1k
C5
R6
1k

b. Nguyn l hot ng
- T C1 dn tn hiu ra xoay chiu ca tng trc vo cc
gc v pht ca n T1. Qua T1 tn hiu c khuch i ln.
- Tn hiu ra ly cc gp v pht ca n T1 a qua t C2
vo cc gc v pht ca T2 . tng ny tn hiu li c khuch
i ln 1 ln na.
- Tn hiu ra ly cc gp v pht ca n T2 a qua t C3
vo cc gc v pht ca tng tip theo. C nh th tn hiu s
c khuch i ln nhiu ln.

14

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

* Ch : - Cc t C1, C2, C3 l t lin lc, dn tn hiu xoay


chiu ra vo gia cc tng ng thi ngn tn hiu 1 chiu gia
cc tng. Do vy ngi ta dng t ho.
- Trong mch dng 2 TZT thun, m TZT thun m
th in th UB2 bao gi cng t m hn U C1 nn ngi ta u
chn t nh sau:
+ u cc dng ca t v pha cc gc ca n tng sau:
+ u cc m ca t v pha cc gp ca n tng trc:
c. Nhn xt.
- u im:
+ S n gin, tin cy ln, linh kin
gn nh, d thc hin n nh im lm vic.
+ Gi thnh h
- Nhc im:
+ Khng phi hp c tr khng gia cc tng.
+ Kh khai thc khuch i cng sut ln nht..
Mi tng ch K c 20 n 100 ln.

3. Ghp bng bin p.

a. S mch in
* Tng 1:
- R1 l in tr nh thin, xc nh ch lm vic cho
TZT T1
- R2, R3 l in tr phn p, n nh nhit cho TZT T1
- C1 l t lin lc vi tng trc.
- C2 v C4 l t kh hi tip m i vi xoay chiu
* Tng 2:
- R5 l in tr nh thin, xc nh ch lm vic cho
TZT T2
- R4 l in tr phn p cho TZT T2.
- R6 n nh nhit cho TZT T2
- C3 l t kn mch vo tng kch ng. Nh c C3 v C4 m
ton b tn hiu t th cp my bin p BA1 c a vo cc gc
pht ca n T2.
b. Nguyn l lm vic.
- Tn hiu vo c t C1 dn vo cc gc pht TZT T1 v c
K ln. Khi dng IC1 ca TZT T1 chy qua cun s cp ca my bin
p BA1, n cm ng sang cun th cp. Tn hiu ra t cun th cp
BA1 s c dn vo tng T2.

Hong Hnh

15

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Ti tng ny tn hiu li c K ln. Sau khi tn hiu ra t T2,


qua s cp BA2, cm ng sang th cp BA2, ri c a vo tng
tip theo na hoc ni vi ti.
1k
1mH
L1
1mH
1k
CAP
PNP
Q1
1k
L3
1k
L4
1uH
CAP
L2
Q2
1uH
1k

BA1

R1
C1

BA2

R5

T1

Ur

T2
C3

Uv

R2

C2

R3

R4

C4

R6

- Nu my bin p BA2 c cun s cp gm W 1 vng dy v


cun th cp gm W2 vng dy th t s BA l;
KBA =

W1

W2

ZR
ZV

hay

Z R W1

ZV W2

K 2 BA

- V tr khng ra ca TZT tng trc ln hn tr khng vo ca


TZT tng sau khong 10 n 50 ln nn s vng dy s cp
BA thng gp 3 n 7 ln s vng dy ca th cp BA.
- Nh vy, nu tnh ton v iu chnh t s vng dy
s - th ca cc my bin p sao cho Z V ca tng sau bng ZR
ca tng trc, th s t c K cng sut ln nht.
c. Nhn xt
* u im:
- D dng phi hp c tr khng gia cc tng, chn t s BA
thch hp.
- C th chn c h s K ln nht, ti 10.000 ln.
* Nhc im:
- Cng knh, gi thnh cao, lp rp phc tp.
- Gy mo tn s.
* ng dng: Thng c ng dng cho cc tng K cui v trc
cui.
2.3 Khuch i cng sut
1. Khuch i cng sut n ch A
16

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

* Gii thch s
- C1 l t ni tng (t lin lc). CE l t kh hi tip m.
- RE l in tr n nh nhit cho n.
- R1 l in tr nh thin v xc nh im lm vic cho
n.
- R2 l in tr phn p.
- BA ly tn hiu ra ti (loa)

BA

Loa

R1
C1

Uv

1k
C2
CAP
T1
R3
1to2
SPK1
PNP
Q1
1k
8
1k

T
R2

* H s K ca tng:

Ce

Re

KP

R 'T
= .
RV
2

Trong + l h s K tnh ca TZT mc kiu EC.


+ RT l in tr ti (trn th cp my bin p)
quy i v s cp.
+ RV l in tr vo ca tng.

2. Khuch i cng sut y ko lm vic ch B

* S nguyn l
- Mch dng 2 TZT thay phin nhau lm vic c 2 na chu

k.
- My bin p t ngu BA1 lm nhim v to ra 2 tn hiu U 1 v
U2 bng nhau v ln nhng ngc pha nhau.
- E l ngun phn cc cho TZT T1, T2.
- R1, R2 to ra st p
- My bin p BA2 ly in p ra ti (Loa)

Hong Hnh

17

Mn hc:
L2
Q
SPK1
1k
1uH
V1
1k
1uH
L1
Q1
T3
82
10V
PNP
PNP

in t cng nghip

R1

T1
U1
Loa

Uv
BA1

U2

R2

E
T2

BA2

* Nguyn l lm vic: t tn hiu xoay chiu vo s cp


my bin p BA1, tn hiu c cm ng sang cun th cp BA1. Ti
y ta c:
- Na chu k u: UT1 dng hn UT2 :
+ Nh vy UB1 nhn c tn hiu dng s dng hn so vi UE1 do
vy TZT T1 kho.
+ Ngc li UB2 nhn c tn hiu m s m hn so vi U E2 do
vy TZT T2 m.
+ Dng in i t chn E2 qua tip gip E2B2, qua chn C2 ,
qua s cp my bin p BA2, cm ng sang th cp BA2 v ra ti.
- Na chu k sau: Ngc li, UT2 dng hn UT1 :
+ Lc ny T1 m, T2 kho.
+ Dng in i t chn E1 qua tip gip E1B1, qua chn C1 ,
qua s cp my bin p BA2, cm ng sang th cp BA2 v ra ti.
- Kt lun: Mch ny c dng K vi cng sut ln, hiu
sut cao.

18

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Chng iii

ngun mt chiu
3.1 Khi nim chung
- Trong thc t (lnh vc in t) trn cng mt mch thng c
nhiu dng in khc nhau. C c dng 1 chiu, dng xoay chiu,
v trong nhng dng xoay chiu cng c th c tn s khc nhau.
- Nu ni mch ny vo tng sau th tt c cc thnh phn
u vo tng sau. Nhng c nhng trng hp ch cn a sang mch
sau 1 hoc vi dng in nht nh cn nhng dng khc th
khng cn thit a sang, hoc nu a sang th s gy tc hi
n mch sau.
- V vy cn phi la lc nhng dng bng nhng b lc.
B lc l nhng mch in cn c theo yu cu ca s la lc,
v tnh nng ca cc phn t c bn ca mch in sp xp
b tr nhng phn t gia mch trc v mch sau nhm mc
ch ch a sang mch sau nhng dng in cn thit.
3.2

Lc cc thnh phn xoay chiu ca dng in ra ti.

1 Lc bng t in C
* Tnh nng c bn ca t in l:
- Khng cho dng in 1 chiu qua.
Hong Hnh

19

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Ch cho dng in xoay chiu qua. Dng c tn s thp qua


kh, c tn s cao qua d. Dng c tn s cng cao qua cng d.
*Hnh v
D

+
Uv

C1
DIODE
1uF
D1
1k
R1

R
-

t
h/v Lc bng t nn na chu k

th
- Nhn vo hnh v ta thy: Tn hiu xoay chiu sau khi qua
Diot s c nn thnh tn hiu 1 chiu. Tuy nhin s cn st li vi
thnh phn xoay chiu. Cc phn t xoay chiu ny s chy qua t
in C v ngun, cn cc tn hiu 1 chiu qua ti R.
- th tn hiu 1 chiu qua ti nh hnh v.
2 Lc bng cun dy L
* Tnh nng c bn ca cun dy l:
- Cho dng in 1 chiu qua.
- Cho dng xoay chiu qua nhng dng c tn s thp qua d,
tn s cao qua kh. Dng c tn s cng cao qua cng kh, gn nh
b cn li.
* Hnh v
- Nhn vo hnh v ta thy: Tn hiu xoay chiu sau khi qua Diot s
c nn thnh tn hiu 1 chiu v c th s cn st li vi thnh
phn xoay chiu. Nhng ch c cc tn
D

L
Uv

C1mH
1L1
k
DIODE
R1
D2

O
t
h/v Lc bng cun dy nn na chu k
th

ch c cc tn hiu 1 chiu qua c cun cm L v qua ti R. Cn


cc tn hiu xoay chiu b cn li.
- th tn hiu 1 chiu qua ti nh hnh v.
20

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

3.3 B lc hnh L ngc v hnh .


1 B lc hnh L ngc (Lc tn s thp)
- y l 1 dng b lc hn hp. Gm c cun cm L mc ni
tip vi ti, t in C u song song vi ti.
- Theo c tnh ca t in v cun cm th:
+ Cc sng iu ho c tn s thp qua cun cm d dng,
qua t in kh v th cc sng ny t ngun d dng qua cun
cm L qua ti, cn phn r qua t in rt nh.
+ Ngc li, cc sng iu ho bc cao c tn s ln s b cun
cm L cn li, cc sng ny ch yu i qua t in C.
- Kt qu l trn ti ch gm cc sng iu ho bc thp. c
bit thnh phn 1 chiu hon khng suy gim qua cun cm L v
khng r nhnh qua t C nn c bo ton chuyn n ti.
- Hnh v:
L

L
1mH
L1
R1
1k
C1
1uF

Uv

1mH
L2
R
C
C2
1uF

H/v: B lc

Zt

B lc mc vi

ti
2 B lc hnh .
- y l 1 dng b lc hn hp. Gm c cun cm L mc ni
tip vi ti, t in C1 u song song vi ngun t in C 2 u
song song vi ti.
- Kt qu l trn ti ch gm cc sng iu ho bc thp v
tn hiu 1 chiu
L
Uv

C1

1mH
L1
1uF
1k
R1
C1
C3
1uF

C2

C1

1uF
1mH
L2
C4
R C2
1uF
C2

H/v: B lc
mc vi ti

Zt

B lc

Chng IV

CHnh lu v nghch lu
4.1 Khi nim chung v chnh lu (CL) v nghch lu (NL)

1. Khi nim v CL

Hong Hnh

21

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- CL l bin tn hiu xoay chiu u vo thnh tn hiu 1


chiu u ra. Mt thit b lm nhim v CL c gi l 1 b CL.
- Cc linh kin in t lm nhim v CL thng dng nht l
Diot (CL khng iu khin), hoc dng Thyristor (CL c iu
khin)
- Cch phn loi n gin nht c thit lp nh sau:
1 pha
Hnh tia
Khng iu
khin
S CL :
3 pha
n pha
Hnh cu
C iu khin
VD: S CL 1 pha hnh tia c iu khin
S CL 3 pha hnh cu khng iu khin
............
S khi 1 b CL gm: vo
CL
ra
2. Khi nim v nghch lu (NL)
- Nghch lu l qu trnh bin i tn hiu 1 chiu u vo
thnh tn hiu xoay chiu u ra (Ngc li vi CL)
- C 2 loi s NL chnh:
+ S NL lm vic ch ph thuc vo in p xoay
chiu ca li in.
+ S NL lm vic ch c lp (ngun in c lp
nh acquy, my n)
- Trong mch NL cc linh kin in t chnh lm nhim v NL
thng dng l cc n c iu khin nh: Thyristor hay Tiratron

4.2 Chnh lu dng it


1. Chnh lu cu 1 pha ti thun tr

* S nguyn l (h.a)

a
D4

R1
1k
BRIDGE
T1
D1

Uv
D3

D2

R
N

Hnh a
Gm c
22

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- 1 my bin p 1 pha.
- 1 b CL gm 4 Diot mc thnh 1 mch vng khp kn gi l
cu CL
- Ti l R
* Nguyn l lm vic :
- a tn hiu xoay chiu vo phn s cp MBA, trn cun th cp s
c cm ng 1 tn hiu xoay chiu. a tn hiu ny vo b CL. Xt
qu trnh lm vic ca 1 chu k:
+ Na chu k u, gi thit dng a, m x.
Trn cu CL c cc Diot D 1 v D3 c phn cc thun nn dn.
Cn D2 v D4 phn cc ngc nn kho.
Dng in qua ti c chiu l:
(+) a D1 M R N D3 (-) x
+ Na chu k sau, tn hiu vo c chiu ngc li, dng x, m
a
Lc ny, trn cu CL cc Diot D 1 v D3 c phn cc ngc nn
kho. Cn D2 v D4 phn cc thun nn dn.
Dng in qua ti c chiu l:
(+) x D2 M R N D4 (-) a
* Nh vy c 2 na chu k, tn hiu qua ti u c chiu t M n
N, m bo l tn hiu 1 chiu. Cc chu k sau tng t (tn hiu
vo l hnh sin, ra l nhng na hnh sin lin tip).
* th tn hiu dng in v in p vo ra (h b)
u,i
Hnh b
O

T/2

3T/2
T

(t)
u,iRa

O
T/2

3T/2

(t)
Nhn vo th tn hiu ra ta thy: tn hiu rt mp m
khng bng phng, tn hiu trn ti bng phng ngi ta phi
s dng cc b lc. (Xem chng III)
Hong Hnh
23

Mn hc: in t cng nghip


2. Chnh lu cu 1 pha ti R + L ni tip

* S nguyn l (hnh c)
Gm c
- 1 my bin p 1 pha.
- 1 b CL gm 4 Diot mc thnh 1 mch vng khp kn gi l
cu CL
- Ti l cun dy mc ni tip vi in tr R (Chng hn l 1
ng c) c tng
tr l ZT

a
D4

1k
1uH
BRIDGE
L1
T1
D1

Uv
D3
X

R1

D2

L
N

Hnh c

* Nguyn l lm vic :Tng t nh s hnh a


Ch : Do trn cun dy c in cm L nn khi dng in
qua cun dy, n s bin thin chm hn so vi khi i qua in tr.
Ngha l dng qua ph ti s tng chm v gim chm nn khng
bao gi dng v 0. Tng t nh qua 1 b lc.
th tn hiu dng in v in p ( Hnh d)
u,iV

T/2

3T/2
T

(t)
u,iRa
Hnh d

O
T/2

(t)
24

Hong Hnh

3T/2

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

3. Chnh lu cu 3 pha ti thun tr (Cu Lavinp)


A

D2

D1

D4

D3

1uH
1uH
L1
L6
DIODE
1mH
1uH
L2
L4
DIODE
DIODE
1k
L5
1mH
L3

D6

D5
R1

Hnh e
* S nguyn l (hnh e)
Gii thch s , gm:
- 1 my bin p 3 pha: - s cp c th ni Y hoc , trn s
ny l ni Y
- th cp ni hnh Y
- Cu chnh lu gm 6 it chia lm 2 nhm:
+ Nhm 1 gm D1, D3, D5 u chm Katt (K)
+ Nhm 2 gm D2, D4, D6 u chm Ant (a)
- Ti l R1 u vo 2 u chm A v K
b. Nguyn l lm vic:
th tn hiu vo t cun th cp my bin p ti cu chnh
lu nh hnh f1.
Xt tng khong thi gian nh c tn hiu xoay chiu trn mch th
cp t vo chnh lu, ta c
- Khong thi gian t 0 - t1
+ Tn hiu vo c pha c dng nht; pha b m nht. Trn cu
chnh lu c cc it D5 v D4 dn, cc it cn li u kho.
+ Dng in qua ti c chiu l:
(+)c 5 M R1 N 4 (-)b
- Khong thi gian t :t1- t2 Tn hiu vo c pha a dng nht, pha
b m nht.
+Trn cu chnh lu c cc it D1 v D4 dn; cc it cn li u
kho.
+Dng in qua ti l:
(+)a 1 M R1 N 4 (-) b
- Cc khong thi gian tip theo: tng t.
+Tn hiu 1 chiu qua ti c biu din trn th hnh f2
u,iV
ua
ub
uc

Hong Hnh

25

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip
T/2

(t)

Hnh f1

u,i ra
Hnh f2
0 t1
t2
t3
t4
t5
t6
T
- Kt lun :
+ Tn hiu vo l xoay chiu nhng tn hiu ra l mt chiu
v chy t M N.
+Trong mi khong thi gian u c 2 it thuc 2 nhm dn
nn thi gian chuyn mch l tc thi.
Mun tn hiu ra bng phng ngi ta phi s dng b lc( xem
chng III)
c. u im v ng dng:
-Tn hiu ra bng phng hn so vi chnh lu 1 pha do vy b
lc n gin hn.
- in p ngc trn mi D nh.
- Cng sut ca my bin p gim nh.
ng dng rng ri trong mch chnh lu cng sut ln.

4. Chnh lu cu 3 pha ti R + L
a S nguyn l (hnh g)

D2

D1

D4

D3

D6

D5

1uH
1uH
1uH
L1
L6
DIODE
1mH
1uH
L2
L4
DIODE
DIODE
L5
L7
1mH
L31k
R1

N
Hnh g
Gii thch s :
26

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Ngun v cu chnh lu nh hnh v e.


- Ti gm cun dy mc ni tip vi in tr R1 Tng tr ca
ti l Zt.
b. Nguyn l lm vic:
Tng t nguyn l lm vic ca cu chnh lu v trn hnh e.
Ch :
- Dng in qua ti trong tng thi im s chy t pha dng nht qua 1 D nhm l, qua in tr, qua cun dy, qua 1D
nhm chn v pha m nht.
- Do cun dy c cm khng X L nn s chuyn mch dng
in l khng tc thi m phi mt mt khong thi gian chuyn
mch nht nh l 2 (hoc T/6)
- Trong thi gian chuyn mch, dng qua ti s bin thin
chm (tng chm v gim chm) nn dng bng phng hn so vi
mch CL hnh e.
* th tn hiu qua ti nh hnh v h

u,iV

ua

ub

uc

T/2
T

(t)

u,i ra
Hnh v h
0

4.3

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

Chnh lu dng Thyristor ( CL c iu khin)

*C bao nhiu mch CL dng D th c by nhiu mch tng ng


dng TRT
Hong Hnh

27

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

- Thyriston dn in phi c cc iu kin sau:


+ Phn cc thun cho Thy A > K
+ C dng iu khin a vo cc G
Do vy, dng TRT chnh lu c gi l chnh lu c iu khin.
Cc mch chnh lu dng TRT c ng dng rng ri trong in
cng nghip nh : iu chnh v cp tc ng c; t ng ho
iu chnh in p cho cc thit b c yu cu; iu khin ng
m cc kho in t ch to b nghch lu, b bin tn v.v...

1. CL iu khin cu 1 pha, ti R + L
a. S nguyn l (hnh a)

1k
D4
1uH
D1
R1
D2
D3
BRIDGE
L1
T1

Ti4

Ti1
M

Uv
Ti3
X

Ti2
L
N

Hnh a
Gii thch s gm :
- 1 my bin p 1 pha, cp ngun xoay chiu vo cu chnh lu.
- Cu chnh lu gm 4 TRT mc thnh mch vng khp kn (nh
cu chnh lu dng it).
- Ph ti gm cun dy L ni tip in tr R, tng tr ca ph
ti l Zt.
b. Nguyn l lm vic:
- t tn hiu xoay chiu trn mch th cp my bin p vo
cu chnh lu.
- m TRT cn c b pht xung a xung n cc iu
khin (cc ca G). Gc m ca TRT l gc . Khi thay i gc ta
s thay i c khong thng ca TRT ( ) v t dng chnh
lu v in p chnh lu cng c thay i .
- Xt na chu k u, gi s tn hiu vo c chiu dng a;
m x .
+ Trn cu chnh lu c TRT Ti1 v Ti3 m, cn Ti2 v Ti4 kho.
28

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

+ Dng in qua ti c chiu l:


(+)a Ti1 M Ti N Ti3 (-)x
- Xt na chu k sau; tn hiu vo i chiu
+ ... ngc li, Ti2 v 4 m; cn Ti1 v 3 kho.
+ Dng qua ti c chiu l:
(+)x Ti2 M Ti N Ti4 (-)a
Nh vy , c 2 na chu k, tn hiu qua ti u c chiu t M
N m bo l 1 chiu .
* Ch : Do trn cun dy c cm khng XL nn dng in
qua cun dy s bin thin chm hn so vi in p (tng chm v
gim chm), v vy dng tng i bng phng.
u,i vo
O

T/2
T

(t)
Hnh b1
xung

Hnh b2

u,iRa

Hnh b3

* Tn hiu vo, ra nh hnh v b.

b1 : tn hiu xoay chiu mch th cp my bin p.


b2 : tn hiu xung t vo cc G.
b3 : tn hiu dng v p trn ph ti .
Trn TRT cn c gi tr in p ngc ( khng xt y).

2. CL iu khin cu 3 pha ti R + L
a, S nguyn l (hnh c)

Hong Hnh

29

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Ti2

Ti1

Ti4

Ti3

Ti6

Ti5

1uH
1uH
1uH
L1
L6
D6
DIODE
1mH
1uH
L2
L4
D4
DIODE
DIODE
L5
L7
R11k
D2
D3
1mH
L3
D5
D1

N
Hnh c

Gii thch s gm:


- 1 My bin p 3 pha
- 1 Cu chnh lu gm 6 TRT mc theo mch cu c chia lm 2
nhm.
+ Nhm 1 (l) gm 3 TRT 1; 3; 5 u chm Katt.
+ Nhm 2 ( chn) gm 3 TRT 2; 4; 6 u chm Ant.
- Ph ti gm cun dy ni tip vi in tr c tng tr l Z t

b. Nguyn l lm vic

- t tn hiu xoay chiu mch th cp my bin p vo 2


u cu chnh lu.
- a xung iu khin vo cc G ca TRT m TRT.
TRT no va c phn cc thun va c xung iu khin
th n s m.
Xem th tn hiu vo cu chnh lu v tn hiu xung, nh hnh
v d.
Xt tng khong thi gian lm vic ca tn hiu vo cu chnh lu
v tn hiu xung.
- Xt khong thi gian t1- t2 ta c :
+ Tn hiu vo dng nht pha a; pha b m nht.
+ Ti thi im t1 cp xung trn cu chnh lu c TRT (1) v (4)
m cn cc TRT 2, 3, 5, 6 u kho.
Dng in qua ti l:
(+) a TRT1 M Ti N TRT4 (-)b.
- Tng t, xt cc khong thi gian: t2- t3 ; t3- t4 ; t4- t5 ; t5- t6 ;
t6 - T - t1, ta u thy trong tng khong thi gian ny dng in
u i t : pha dng nht TRT nhm l M ti N TRT
nhm chn pha m nht.
Kt lun: Tn hiu qua ti lun i theo chiu t M N
m bo l mt chiu.
Hong Hnh
30

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Tn hiu dng v p trn ti nh hnh v d .Ngoi ra trn TRT


cn c cc gi tr in p ngc ( khng xt y).
u,i vo

ua

ub

T/6

uc

T/2

2T/3

T/3

T
T

2T/6

(t)

u xung

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

(t)

u,i ra

u ti

i ti

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

(t)

Hnh v d

4 . 4 Nghch lu
1. Nghch lu ph thuc cu 3 pha dng Thyristor

a. S nguyn l: Hnh a
Xt s nn in cu 3 pha cung cp cho 1 my in 1
chiu, mch lm vic ch thun nghch va chnh lu va
nghch lu.

Hong Hnh

31

Mn hc:
A

in t cng nghip
a

Ti2

Ti1

Ti4

Ti3

Ti6

Ti5

1uH
1uH
1uH
L1
L6
1k
R1
D2
D6
DIODE
1mH
1uH
L2
L4
D4
L7
RLY1
L5
D3
5VCOIL
1mH
L3
D1
D5

N
-

Ld

- M +
Ed

Rd

M
+

Hnh a
Gii thch s :
- 1 my bin p 3 pha:
+ S cp u Y, ly ngun t li in xoay chiu
+ Th cp u Y cp ngun cho cu TRT.
- B chnh lu v nghch lu gm 6 TRT mc theo hnh cu ( nhm 1
....; nhm 2.....)
- Cun cm Ld lm nhim v san phng dng in a vo cu NL.
- My in M c th lm vic ch ngun hoc ti.
b. Nguyn l hot ng:
* ch chnh lu: (Tng t mch chnh lu cu 3 pha,
ti R+L)
- Lc ny my in M lm vic ch ng c (ti) tiu
th in 1 chiu (+) M; (-)N.
- in p chnh lu U cao hn sc in ng E ca my
in.
* ch NL.
Nu o chiu sc in ng E ( bng cch i chiu
dng kch t ), v tng gc m ca TRT sao cho /2 cho E
c gi tr cao hn U U c gi tr m nhng dng in qua TRT
vn gi nguyn nh c .
Lc ny cng sut ca c my in 1 chiu v mch xoay
chiu u i du. ng thi my in s lm vic ch
ngun cng sut, cn li in xoay chiu s tr thnh ti.
Kt lun:
Nh vy mch NL ph thuc chnh l mch chnh lu trong in
p 1 chiu sau chnh lu s c i du v gc m ca thy phi
tho mn iu kin:
32

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip


hoc

2. Nghch lu c lp in p cu 1 pha.

a. S nguyn l (hnh v b ).
Gii thch s :
+ E: Ngun ngoi 1 chiu cung cp cho b NL.
+ B NL gm 4 TRT mc theo mch cu kn .
+ Cc it 1 - 4 mc ngc chiu vi cc TRT thng dng cho
ti trong khong thi gian dng in ngc chiu vi chiu dn ca
cc TRT (ngha lTRT ng)
+ Ti R+L ti c tnh cm khng, tng tr ca ti l Z T.
b. Nguyn l lm vic:
- Xt ti thi im cp xung TRT1 v TRT3 m.
+ Lc ny s c dng qua ti, chiu dng in l:
(+) E TRT1 im M ti N TRT3 (-)E
+ in p trn ti bng in p ngun E
- Khi TRT 2 v 4 cha m m TRT1 v 3 ng, do ti c tnh
cm khng nn dng qua cun dy bin thin chm (gim chm,
tng chm). V vy dng in ny s chy qua cc it 1,3 v
ngun. Chiu dng in nh sau:
ti M 1 (+) E (-) E 3 N ti
SCR2
DIODE
SCR
SCR
SCR4
SCR
1k
SCR
DIODE
SCR3
DIODE
SCR1
1uH
D2

- N

D3

Ti2

Ti3

Ti1

Ti4

D1

R1

L1

D4

+ M
+

Chnh ti thi im thng diot 1, 3 lm thay i cc


tnh in p ra trn ti.
Hong Hnh

33

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Nng lng c tch lu trong cun cm L t giai on trc s c tr


li ngun cung cp . Do vy xut hin trng hp tn hiu qua ti v
O.
- Thi im tip theo cp xung TRT2 v 4 m, TRT1 v 3
ng hn.
+ Qu trnh li xy ra tng t s c dng qua ti li tiu th nng lng
t ngun .
+ Khi TRT1 v 3 cha m , TRT2 v 4 ang ng th cun dy li
phng tr nng lng qua it 2, 4 v ngun.
Cc thi im tip theo tng t ; cc cp D v cp TRT ln
lt ng - m.

c. Kt lun

Ngun cung cp E l 1 chiu nhng tn hiu trn ti qua cc thi


im khc nhau u l xoay chiu.
th m t nguyn l hnh thnh dng in p trn ti nh
hnh v c
u,i ti u ti

t1

i ti

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

D 2, 4 m
Ti2, 4 m

Ti1,3 m

Ti1,3 m
Ti2,4 m

Hnh v b

Tham kho: 3. Nghch lu c lp in p cu 3 pha


a. S nguyn l (h. v a)

34

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip

Ti2
SCR
SCR1
1k
R2
1k
R1
DIODE
SCR2
R3
DIODE
SCR
SCR4
DIODE
SCR6
SCR5
DIODE
SCR3
SCR
SCR
SCR
1k
Ti3
D2

D5

Ti5

Ti2
Za

D3

D6

Ti6

Ti3

Zb
D4

D1

Ti1

Ti4
Zc

b. Nguyn l lm vic
h. b
8/3

/3

4/3

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

3600

4200

6
T

(t)

h.c

UA

T/2

h.d

7/3

ng

T/2

3T/2

5400

1
2
3
4
5

3T/2

5/3

Ti
4800

2/3

(t)

IA

Hong Hnh

35

Mn hc:

in t cng nghip
T/2

3T/2

(t)

T
t

Hnh b: Ti mi thi im c 3 Ti m v c 60 0 li c chuyn


mch
Hnh c, e, f: Tn hiu in p cc pha tng ng: A, B, C
Hnh d: Tn hiu dng in pha A
h.e
UB

O
t

h.f

UC

O
t

h. g S tng ng ca ph ti tng thi im khc nhau:


h. g1: Thi im 0 n 600
+

M
Zc

Za
R3
1k
1k
R2
R1
1k

Zb
-

h. g2: Thi im 600 n 1200


36

Hong Hnh

Mn hc:
+

in t cng nghip
+

Za

Zb

Za
1k
R3
1k
1k
R2
R1
N

1k
1k
R6
1k
R5
R4
N

Zb

Zc
-

Zc

h. g3: Thi im 1200 n 1800

Hong Hnh

37