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1 Introduction-

Yoga refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India. The word is
associated with meditative practices in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, it
also refers to one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy, and to the goal
toward which that school directs its practices. In Jainism it refers to the sum total of all
activities—mental, verbal and physical.

Major branches of yoga in Hindu philosophy include Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga,
Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga. Raja Yoga, compiled in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and
known simply as yoga in the context of Hindu philosophy, is part of the Samkhya tradition.
Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita,
the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras.

The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings, and is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj,
meaning "to control", "to yoke" or "to unite". Translations include "joining", "uniting",
"union", "conjunction", and "means". Yoga then is about the union of a person's own
consciousness and the universal consciousness. Outside India, the term yoga is typically
associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise. Someone
who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy is called a Yogi.

2.2 Six Branches of Yoga: -

1) Hatha Yoga or Yoga of Postures- Hatha Yoga is perhaps the path of Yoga you are most
familiar with since this is the most popular branch of Yoga in the West. This branch of
Yoga uses physical poses or Asana, Breathing Techniques or Pranayama, and Meditation to
achieve better health, as well as spirituality. There are many styles within this path -
Iyengar, Integral, Astanga, Kripalu, and Jiva Mukti to name a few.

2) Bhakti Yoga or Yoga of Devotion- Bhakti Yoga is the path most followed in India. This
is the path of the heart and devotion. Yogis who practice this branch sees the "One" or the
Divine in everyone and everything. Bhakti Yoga teaches a person to have devotion to the
"One" or to Brahma by developing a person's love and acceptance for all things.

3) Raja Yoga or Yoga of Self-Control- Raja means "royal". This path is considered to be
the King of Yoga and this may be due to the fact that most of its practitioners are members
of religious and spiritual orders. Raja Yoga is based on the teachings of the Eight Limbs of
Yoga found in the Yoga sutras.

4) Jnana Yoga or Yoga of the Mind- Jnana Yoga is the path of Yoga that basically deals
with the mind, and as such, it focuses on man's intelligence. Jnana Yogis consider wisdom
and intellect as important and they aim to unify the two to surpass limitations. Since they
wish to gain knowledge, they are open to other philosophies and religion for they believe
that an open and rational mind is crucial in knowing the spirit.

5) Karma Yoga or Yoga of Service- Karma Yoga is the path of service for in this path, it is
believed that your present situation is based on your past actions. So by doing selfless
service now, you are choosing a future that is free from negativity and selfishness. Karma
Yogis change their attitude towards the good and in the process, change their souls, which
leads to a change in their destiny.

2.3 Yoga Benefits

The most important benefit of yoga is physical and mental therapy. The aging process,
which is largely an artificial condition, caused mainly by autointoxication or self-poisoning,
can be slowed down by practicing yoga. By keeping the body clean, flexible and well
lubricated, we can significantly reduce the catabolic process of cell deterioration. To get the
maximum benefits of yoga one has to combine the practices of yogasanas, pranayama and

Regular practice of asanas, pranayama and meditation can help such diverse ailments such
as diabetes, blood pressure, digestive disorders, arthritis, arteriosclerosis, chronic fatigue,
asthma, varicose veins and heart conditions. Laboratory tests have proved the yogi`s
increased abilities of consciously controlling autonomic or involuntary functions, such as
temperature, heartbeat and blood pressure. Research into the effects of yogic practices on
HIV is currently underway with promising results.
According to medical scientists, yoga therapy is successful because of the balance created
in the nervous and endocrine systems which directly influences all the other systems and
organs of the body. Yoga acts both as a curative and preventive therapy. The very essence
of yoga lies in attaining mental peace, improved concentration powers, a relaxed state of
living and harmony in relationships.

Through the practice of yoga, we become aware of the interconnectedness between our
emotional, mental and physical levels. Gradually this awareness leads to an understanding
of the more subtle areas of existence. The ultimate goal of yoga is to make it possible for
you to be able to fuse together the gross material (annamaya), physical (pranamaya), mental
(manomaya), intellectual (vijnanamaya) and spiritual (anandamaya) levels within your


'Asanas' in Sanskrit means posture. There are around 84 asanas - each one has a special
name, special form and a distinct way of performing. Asanas are designed to promote, a
state of mental and physical well-being or good health. This may be defined as the
condition that is experienced when all the organs function effectively under the intelligent
control of the mind. Asanas have an extraordinary capacity to overhaul, rejuvenate and
bring the entire system into a state of balance.

2.5 Types of Asanas-

1) Surya Namaskar - "Surya" in Sanskrit means "The Sun God" and "Namaskar" means
"connoting obeisance". Surya Namaskar or the sun salutation hence literally means
"saluting to the sun". Surya Namaskar is a series of 12 yoga postures performed in a single
flow. Each movement is co-ordinated with the pranayamas or breathing technique —
inhaling while extending or stretching, and exhaling while folding or contracting.


i) Stand straight as in Tad asana or the mountain pose. Keep you feet together and palms
placed in front of your chest in prayer position. Take several deep breaths.

ii) Inhale and raise your arms up above your head. Gently arch back or bend your head and
upper trunk backwards as far as possible.

iii) Exhale and bend forward. Touch the floor with your fingers and place your hands
besides your feet. Try touching the knees with your forehead and if necessary, bend your

iv) Inhale and stretch the right leg back as far as possible, hence adopting a partial sitting
position. Bend the left leg, keeping your arms straight. Lift your head slightly in the
backward direction.

v) Exhale and bring your left leg behind, keeping it aligned with the right leg. Raise your
body up from the hips and keep you spine and legs straight. Palm should be firmly placed
on the ground. Look down in between the hands. Inhale.

vi) While exhaling, lower your body so that the toes, knees, chest, hands and forehead
touch the floor. But keep you abdomen slightly raised from the ground.

vii) Inhale and stretch forward. Raise your body from the waist. Legs should be straight and
palms under the shoulder by bending the arms from the elbow.

2) Akarshana Dhanurasana- "This posture is known as "Akarshana Dhanurasana"

because while practicing it, the heels and hips are raised.


i) Sit erect.

ii) Stretch out the legs and keep them close together.

iii) Place the palms on the floor at the sides.

iv) Bend the right leg at the knee and crossing the left leg, place the right heel on the
ground beside the left ankle.

v) Grasp the right big toe with the thumb, index and middle fingers of the left hand and the
left big toe with the right thumb, index and middle fingers.

vi) Inhaling and keeping the head erect, pull up the right foot till the right knee comes near
the right armpit and the right big toe touches the left ear. While doing this, the right hand
should pull the big toe of the left leg. While pulling the toes, fix your gaze on the big toe of
the stretched left leg.

vii) Exhaling, bring back the right foot to the floor on the left side of the outstretched left
leg. Release the hands and stretch the legs straight again side by side.

viii) Practice reversing the position of the legs.

3) Samasana- In Sanskrit "sama" means "equilibrium". In this asana the external organs of
the body are kept in such a way that they stand divided into two, hence the name Samasana.


i) Sit with both legs together and stretched, toes erect spine erect and both hands straight
and palms resting on the floor.

ii) Spread both the legs and keep them at a distance of 1 to 1.5 feet.

iii) Fold left leg and place its sole touching inner side of the right thigh.

iv) Fold right leg and place its foot in between the thigh and the calf of the leg.

v) Keep the wrists of both the hands on the respective knees and take Gyana Mudra.

vi) Continue normal breathing.

vii) While releasing from the pose, gradually bring the hands beside the waist.

viii) Straighten the right leg.

ix) Straighten the left leg.

x) Get both the legs together, return to the sitting posture.

4) Sukhasana- 'Bhadra' means 'beneficial' in Sanskrit.


i) Sit erect in Sukhasana.

ii) Stretch the legs forward and keep them together.

iii) Pull the legs inward and bring the feet towards the body, bending the knees outward.

iv) Join the soles and keep the heels and toes together.

v) Form a finger lock and clasp your fingers around the toes and the forepart of the feet.

vi) Keep the trunk and head erect.

vii) Bending your elbows outward, draw in the feet little by little until the heels are in front
of the genitals. While doing this, widen the thighs and allow the knees to bend gently

viii) Lower the knees gently until they touch the floor.

ix) Draw in the heels further and fix them on either side of the perineum.

x) Sit erect.

xi) Release the finger lock, stretch forward the legs and resume the starting position.

5) Bhujangasana –Bhujanga” means “cobra” in Sanskrit. This asana is called

‘Bhujangasana’ as the raised trunk, neck and head while practicing it resemble a cobra
rearing its hood and about to strike, while the joined and stretched legs resemble its tail.


i) Lie flat on your abdomen at full length.

ii) Stretch your arms on the sides with the palms turned upwards.

iii) Rest the forehead and nose on the ground.

iv) Keep your legs and feet together and the whole body straight. Soles must be turned

v) Relax the whole body.

vi) Place the palms flat on the floor exactly beneath the corresponding shoulders with
fingers close together.

vii) Keep the elbows close to the sides.

viii) Place the chin on the ground.

ix) Slowly bend the neck and head backward as far as possible, keeping the chest close to
the ground.

x) Supporting yourself lightly on the hands and forearms and inhaling, raise slowly your
head, shoulders, chest and the upper abdomen (up to the navel) above the ground in a
smooth backward movement, tensing the muscles of the back and the nape of the neck.

xi) Bend the head and neck as far back as possible.

xii) Arch the back and bend the whole spine further back as far as you can, putting very
little pressure on the hands.

xiii) Gaze upwards.

xiv) Maintain this position comfortably, holding your breath.

xv) Exhaling, return slowly to the starting position in the reverse order.

6) Naukasana- "Nauka" means "boat" in Sanskrit. The final position of this asana
resembles a boat. Hence the name Naukasana.


i) Lie straight on your abdomen and chest with your forehead resting on the floor.

ii) Keep the feet together and the arms on the sides.

iii) Stretch out the arms on both sides of the head and keep them parallel.

iv) Turn down the palms on the floor with fingers close together.

v) Keep your forehead on the floor between the upper arms.

vi) Inhaling, raise the arms, head, neck, shoulders, trunk and legs all together slowly and
simultaneously as high as possible without bending the knees and elbows and without any

vii) While doing this, keep the upper arms touching the ears and the feet together.

viii) Bring the head up as high as possible and keep it between the raised upper arms.

ix) Bend the extremities as far back as possible, and the back should be well arched.

x) The whole body should be curved from the fingertips to the toes, both of which should
be on the same level.

xi) Balance the entire weight of the body on the lower part of the abdomen which alone
should touch the ground.

xii) Maintain the posture motionlessly, as long as you can comfortably hold your breath.

xiii) Exhaling return slowly to the starting position.

xiv) Relax completely in Savasana.

7) Tadaasana- Tada" in Sanskrit means "mountain". Hence, this pose is also known as
the Mountain Pose. Although it is the starting position for several standing poses, it is
practiced separately as well. It is a balancing act where your feet are together and hands at
the sides of the body.


i) Stand in an erect position.

ii) Bring your legs together and place your hands by the side of your thighs.

iii) Look straight ahead.

iv) Slowly raise your hands straight in front, up to the arms with the palms facing each other.

v) Again raise your hands this time towards the sky with the fingers pointing upward.

vi) Slowly raise your heels and try standing on your toes. You should raise your heel as
much as you can and also stretch your body as much possible.

vii) Now return to the original position with your heels going back on the ground first.

viii) Slowly bring down your hands.

2.6 Pranayama: The Breathing Exercises of Yoga

Pranayama, as traditionally conceived, involves much more than merely
breathing for relaxation. Pranayama is a term with a wide range of meanings. Patanjali
defines pranayama as "the regulation of the incoming and outgoing flow of breath with
retention." It is to be practiced only after perfection in asana is attained. Pranayama also
denotes cosmic power, or the power of the entire universe which manifests itself as
conscious living being in us through the phenomenon of breathing.

The word pranayama consists of two parts: prana and ayama. Ayama means
stretch, extension, expansion, length, breadth, regulation, prolongation, restraint and control
and describes the action of pranayama. Prana is energy, when the self-energizing force
embraces the body. When this self-energizing force embraces the body with extension,
expansion and control, it is pranayama.

2.7 Types of Pranayama-

The different types of Pranayama are the Bhastrika Pranayam, Anuloma / Viloma,
Kapalbhati, Bhramri, Sitlee, Sitkari, Ujjayi, Vedhene Bandh. The main Pranayama is the
Bhastrika Pranayama.

1. Bhastrika Pranayama- The word ‘Bhastrika’ is a Sanskrit word which means leather
bellow, which was used in the olden times to blow furnaces, where air is forcibly drawn in
and out. This pranayama increases the fire in the body. In this type of pranayama, the
diaphragm movement is used for the internal fire creating physical, Pranic and psychic
heat. Bhastrika constitutes as a very powerful pranayam. Basically, a combination of
Kapalbhati and Ujjaye Pranayam makes one Bhastrika. One who starts practice of
Kapalbhati or Ujjaye finds it very easy to do the Bhastrika.

2. Ujjayi Breath- The Ujjayi technique is a very soothing technique which can be applied to
sectional breathing or used while holding Yoga postures. This type of breathing helps to
increase the lung capacity (and more oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream), energy
levels, and also achieves a state of calmness and mental clarity. In this technique, partially
close the back of your throat, which cover the windpipe, so that as you inhale and exhale
through your nose, the air passes through a narrower air passage in your throat, creating the
sound made by your breathing while you are in a state of deep sleep. This sound can be
likened to the whispering of the letters “hhhhh” expressed on inhalation and exhalation.

3. Bhramri- Bhramri is known as the bee breath. Bhramri helps to clear and strengthen the
respiratory system and improve vocal resonance. It has a calming effect on the body that
uplifts the spirit, and clears and invigorates the mind. In this pranayama, keep your lips
gently closed throughout, inhale deeply, then hum as you exhale, extending the exhalation
as long as possible. Use your abdominal muscles to control the evenness of your breath on
exhalation. Repeat this once more. If you wish to stimulate your lung cells to further
invigorate the vocal resonance and your body, tap your chest with your fists or fingertips as
you hum on the out breath

4. Sitali and Sitkari- Sitali and Sitkari are the two breathing techniques which have a
cooling effect on the body. This technique is very useful during the hot months of the year.

They also calm the nervous system. Sitali, particularly, can alleviate nausea and the
symptoms of asthma.

5. Anuloma Viloma- Anuloma means with the natural order and Viloma means going
against the order. This technique helps to balance and harmonize the functioning of the
right and left hemispheres of the brain. It has a soothing effect on the nervous system and
calms the mind. Because exhalations are longer than inhalation, it encourages the removal
of state air and toxins.



3.1 Introduction

Management games are conducted at B – Schools & played by B – school students. They
aim at improving their managerial skills & traits. Starting from games for communication
& personality development till strategy formulation level. As games are interesting, every
student voluntarily participates in management games. Hence, in addition to regular
Teaching methods, faculty members should introduce games for increasing participation.
The trainers (faculty) can use of management games books or design their own games.
While designing such games participants (students) profile should be taken into

3.2 Steps to Conduct Management Games:-

Step I: Identification of Training Needs

The students training need can be identified based on a discussion with students or with the
help of a survey among students.

Step II: Designing the Package for the Game

Based on training needs identified, a faculty can prepare modules for conducting
management game. As equipments or toys like ball, balloon etc are used some times, the
faculty can also collect those equipments required.

Step III: Arranging the Program

As suitable atmosphere without disturbances has to prevail, the faculty can arrange for a
suitable venue for conducting management game program. The venue has to be fixed
according to number and nature of students. The ideal number required for conducting
management game is between 20 and 30 members at a time. The participants are restricted
with minimum numbers as faculty can have 100 percent interaction. As students have to be
exposed to a different environment during the management games program, institutes can
opt for any other place, other than regular lecture halls (class rooms). The faculty has to
ensure proper audio-visual aids for the program.

Step IV: Conducting Management Game Program

The reference material if any required has to be given to students in advance before starting
program. During beginning of program, students can be grouped based on some icebreaker
exercises. Mostly heterogeneous groups have to be formed so that each of the members can
contribute. After formation of groups if needed, students can be revealed about objective of
program and then game can get started. The students have to be given full liberty while
they participate in the management game program. The faculty should not criticize the
student, rather has to appreciate students during their participation.

Step V: Facilitating the Discussion
As management games are not just meant for entertainment, a discussion has to take place
during program. The faculty has to take initiative for the discussion and stress on the
knowledge acquisition and behavior modification of students based on management game
being conducted.

Step VI: Follow-up

The faculty has to monitor students' performance after program is over. The behavior
modification and skill up gradation of student has to be identified.

3.3 Games:-

1) Stock Market Game-

The faculty artificially allocates an amount of Rs.10,00,000/- for each of the students.
Every student is asked to invest in shares according to their own preference for the amount
being allocated. Even the students can keep some amount as cash reserves for their future
purchases. After few minutes the faculty can announce information pertaining to a
company or industry or economy or any other factor affecting stock market. Now, the
students can start purchasing and selling the shares with others based on the information.
The faculty can continue with such announcements at periodic intervals. After an hour, the
faculty has to calculate the worth of shares and amount with each of the participants. Based
on the students' performance the faculty can facilitate further discussion for knowledge
acquisition part.

2) Prisoners' Dilemma-

This is a classic trust game for teams. It is based on the "Prisoners' Dilemma" in which two
criminals who are arrested after a crime are immediately separated into two police cells.
The police know that they committed the crime but have no evidence. Each prisoner is

approached individually and told that if they confess and implicate the other person, they
will get a significantly reduced sentence.

The dilemma for each prisoner is as follows: -

If I confess, I get a reduced sentence and my colleague gets a full sentence.

If I trust her/him not to confess and keep quiet, but s/he confesses, I get the full sentence. If
I trust her/him not to confess and keep quiet, and s/he does the same, we can both walk
free. Of course, if we both confess, we both get the full sentence!

Unfortunately, we cannot communicate now we are in the cells and I do not know whether
he will honor any agreement we made before we were arrested.

The rules of the game are designed to reflect this dilemma with appropriate win/win,
win/lose and lose/lose scoring.

3) Hollow Square-

This game can be used to help teams understand the impact of communication between
those who develop plans and those who have to implement them. It also highlights helpful
and not so helpful behaviors when planning, assigning or completing tasks. Teams that
regularly work on problem solving will find the game useful for alerting them to factors
that encourage or restrict effectiveness. It can be played at several levels of complexity.

The Game- You divide your group into a Planning Team and an Operations Team. The
Planning Team has 20 mins to prepare a briefing that will enable the Operations Team to
carry out a specific task – the building of a hollow square. The Operations Team then have
to carry out the task working from the briefing they have received without any further input
from Planning. At the end of a time limit both teams review the performance against the
task, quality of briefings, assignments and instructions plus the wider implications for their
work situation.

In the more complex version teams can be chosen to reflect their real work roles or their
level of attention to detail! A longer version can be played with Planning allowed to
intervene halfway through the process.

Typically, the game promotes an active discussion about behaviors, assumptions made by
both teams, quality of delegation and actions to improve communication.

4) Viking Attack – A team building game

Each team is given a set of 33 information cards (most of them relevant, some 'red
herrings'), distributed at random between the team members. The teams are then asked to
work against the clock to discover when and where a fictitious Viking Attack took place. In
order to simulate the need for complementarities and interdependence in successful teams,
members must not show their cards to each other – only read them.

Although it seems a simple problem to solve, the team must elect a leader, set an objective,
organize and delegate the processing of information and listen to each other, if they want to
come close to the present world record of 8 minutes 56 seconds for finding the three-part
solution. This was set, perhaps unsurprisingly, by a group of Scandinavian/British Midland
airline pilots! However, groups of bankers, company directors and engineers have all
succeeded within 15 minutes.

5) Forest Fire – A consensus seeking game

Your group is a helicopter rescue team, responsible for organizing air/land rescues over a
specified geographical area. A forest fire of unprecedented violence has broken out in an
uninhabited region of thickly wooded foothills in the south west of your area. The only
buildings in this vast area are five isolated wooden chalets which were built during the last
war as look-out posts. They are now used exclusively as base camps for volunteers from all
over the world who have been hired by the International Parks Commission to spend some
of their free time surveying and evaluating the terrain for use as a World Recreation Centre.

Each chalet has a radio link with your rescue centre. Your team has already assigned four
of the tiny rescue helicopters to evacuate chalet numbers 1-4 and they cannot be re-
diverted. Using the one remaining rescue helicopter at your disposal, the team's task is to
evacuate the people in chalet no. 5.

However, your helicopter can only rescue one person at a time and it is unlikely that all 10
volunteers can be rescued from the chalet. In fact, the pilot says he may only be able to get
three or four people safely evacuated before the fire reaches the chalet.

Your team must decide the sequence in which the people in the chalet should be rescued.
This is an agonizing decision since only those near the top of the list will stand a realistic
chance of being rescued. The only information available on each volunteer is on his/her
resume card that comes from the IPC confidential personnel files.

Team members may use any criteria they wish in making their personal rescue sequence.
The group must then discuss the problem and reach a consensus on the ranking.

3.4 Benefits of conducting Management Games:-

i. Ensures 100 percent interaction as every student find it
interesting and encouraging.

ii. Knowledge acquisition & skill up gradation of students take place easily & effectively as
100 percent involvement is there from students' side.

iii. Level of confidence among students gets improved, as students participate in

management games voluntarily.
iv. Communication & interpersonal skill of student consistently gets developed, as
management games are highly interactive.

3.5 Conclusion
Thus, management games act as refreshments for the students. They are found to be
entertaining, interesting and informative. They pave way for knowledge acquisition and
skill up gradation. If the University and B – school faculties introduce management games
as one of their teaching methodology, the students' knowledge and skill gets improved.


Emotional Intelligence (EI)

4.1 Introduction: -

Emotions play a vital role in many aspects of leadership. They are the pathway to more
effective decision-making, stronger interpersonal relationships, resilience in the face of
stress, as well as enhanced creativity.

Emotional intelligence (EQ) is a concept that captures a broad collection of individual skills
and dispositions, most often referred to as soft skills or inter and intra-personal skills, that
are outside the traditional areas of specific knowledge, general intelligence, or technical

and professional skills.

Emotional intelligence has been associated with transformational leadership capabilities

such as inspiration, motivation, and vision. According to a number of researches, the
person’s success at work is 80% dependent on emotional intelligence.

Emotional intelligence is all about understanding yourself and how other people react to
you, and then using this knowledge to your advantage and better foster relationships. The
foundation of emotional intelligence is self-awareness: the knowledge of yourself helps you
understand how other people see you.

Emotional intelligence is a powerful tool which helps a person build relationships, using
the knowledge of different behavior types, enhance communication skills, and promote
leadership capabilities. Emotional Intelligence (EI) describes the ability, capacity, skill or,
in the case of the trait EI model, a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess, and manage the
emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. Emotional intelligence is the innate
potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, describe, identify, learn from,
manage, understand and explain emotions.

4.2 There are three main models of Emotional Intelligence (EI):

1) Ability EI models

2) Mixed models of EI

3) Trait EI model

1) The ability-based model-

The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to
make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals
vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to
relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in
certain adaptive behaviors. The model claims that EI includes 4 types of abilities:

i) Perceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures,
voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s own emotions.
Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all
other processing of emotional information possible.

ii) Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive
activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can

capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.

iii) Understanding emotions — the ability to comprehend emotion language and to
appreciate complicated relationships among emotions. For example, understanding
emotions encompasses the ability to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and
the ability to recognize and describe how emotions evolve over time.

iv) Managing emotions — the ability to regulate emotions in both ourselves and in others.
Therefore, the emotionally intelligent person can harness emotions, even negative ones, and
manage them to achieve intended goals.

2) Mixed models of EI-

a) The Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model: The model introduced by Daniel

Goleman focuses on EI as a wide array of competencies and skills that drive leadership
performance. Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs:

i) Self-awareness — the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while
using gut feelings to guide decisions.

ii) Self-management — involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to
changing circumstances.

iii) Social awareness — the ability to sense, understand, and react to others' emotions while
comprehending social networks.

iv) Relationship management — the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while
managing conflict.

Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct
of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that
must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman
posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their
potential for learning emotional competencies. Goleman's model of EI has been criticized
in the research literature as mere "pop psychology" (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008).

b) Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model

Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:

i) The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1999 and the
Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in 2007.

ii) The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and which can be
taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment

iii) The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)- Bar-On defines emotional
intelligence as being concerned with effectively understanding oneself and others, relating
well to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more

successful in dealing with environmental demands. Bar-On posits that EI develops over
time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy. Bar-On
hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average E.Q’s are in general more
successful in meeting environmental demands and pressures.

He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the existence of
emotional problems. Problems in coping with one’s environment are thought, by Bar-On, to
be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales of reality testing,
problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control. In general, Bar-On considers
emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence to contribute equally to a person’s general
intelligence, which then offers an indication of one’s potential to succeed in life. However,
doubts have been expressed about this model in the research literature (in particular about
the validity of self-report as an index of emotional intelligence) and in scientific settings, it
is being replaced by the trait EI model discussed below

3) The Trait EI model-

Trait EI is "a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions located at the lower levels of

personality". In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of their
emotional abilities. This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self
perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to the ability based model
which refers to actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific
measurement. Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework. An
alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy.

The trait EI model is general and subsumes the Goleman and Bar-On models discussed
above. The conceptualization of EI as a personality trait leads to a construct that lies
outside the taxonomy of human cognitive ability. This is an important distinction in as
much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the construct and the theories and
hypotheses that are formulated about it.

4.3 Five Domains of Emotional Intelligence

Goleman identified the five 'domains' of EQ as:

i) Knowing your emotions.

ii) Managing your own emotions.

iii) Motivating yourself.

iv) Recognizing and understanding other people's emotions.

v) Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others.

Emotional Intelligence Domains

a) Self Awareness-
o Emotional Self-Awareness: Reading one’s own emotions and recognizing their impact;
using “gut sense” to guide decisions.

o Accurate Self-Assessment: Knowing one’s strengths and limitations.

o Self-Confidence: A sound sense of one’s self-worth and capabilities.

b) Self Management-
o Emotional Self-Control: Managing disruptive emotions and impulses by controlling one’s
responses effectively.

o Transparency: Displaying honesty and integrity; trustworthiness.

o Adaptability: Flexibility in adapting to changing situations or overcoming obstacles.

o Achievement: The drive to improve performance to meet inner standards of excellence.

o Initiative: Readiness to act and seize opportunities.

o Optimism: Seeing the upside in events.

c) Social Awareness-
o Empathy: Sensing others’ emotions, understanding their perspective, and taking active
interest in their concerns.

o Organizational Awareness: Reading the currents, decision networks, and politics at an

organizational level.

o Service: Recognizing and meeting follower, client or customer needs.

d) Relationship Management-
o Inspirational Leadership: Guiding and motivating with a compelling vision.

o Influence: Wielding a range of tactics for persuasion.

o Developing Others: Bolstering others’ abilities through feedback and guidance.

o Change Catalyst: Initiating, managing, and leading in a new direction.

o Conflict Management: Resolving disagreements.

o Teamwork and Collaboration: Cooperation and team building

Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of
behavioral, emotional and communications theories. By developing our Emotional
Intelligence in these areas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and
successful at what we do, and help others to be more productive and successful too.

The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many
elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organizations, by decreasing conflict,
improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity and

4.4 Importance of Emotional Intelligence

Studies have shown that managers and employees with high emotional intelligence (EI) are
more successful than those who are merely technically qualified. People with high EI are
more liked, cooperative, trusted, resilient, intrinsically motivated, optimistic and better at
dealing with conflicts.
Emotional intelligence affects how one behaves with oneself as well as
with other people, especially during conflicts. This is why emotional intelligence has
become especially important in leadership training. It is generally thought that although
standard intelligence or IQ is a given that can't really be altered; emotional intelligence is
something that can be developed through training. This is why corporate seminars on
emotional intelligence were developed for company executives. But the implications of
emotional intelligence in personal life are equally significant as in the business world.
Improvements in emotional intelligence can result in better personal relationships between
people. One can only imagine just how many marriages and other family relationships as
well as broken friendships can be saved if people had more training in emotional
intelligence. So as long as we are all dealing with others in our everyday lives, emotional
intelligence is a very important concept in order to be successful in life.


Learning from Internal Activities

6.1 Introduction-

Learning is a term which is obtained in a variety of contents organized by the people. It is a

process by which new behaviors are acquired. It is generally said the learning brings
changes in the behavior, we can learn from anyone at anytime but the thing is that we
should have that skill

The department of management in RITEE College has organized several

internal activities for all MBA students where they got the chance to present their creative
skill, leadership skill. Throughout these activities we learn some utter most thing of our life

6.2 Internal activities:-

1) Collage making

2) Ad designing

3) Presentation

4) G.D/Debate

6.3 Benefits of Internal Activities

By these internal activities I have learned several things like:-

a) Coordination

b) Reduces hesitation and stage fear

c) Leadership skill

d) Enthusiasm

e) How to give presentation

f) Self Confidence

g) It provides opportunity to check our self.


The given assignment on Professional/Social Development workshop report covers
various topics like Yoga, Management Games, Emotional Intelligence, presentation on
HTML etc.

In this assignment we have to study different works that is to be done in our daily

While doing the project, we learned how to prepare curriculum

Vitae which is the most important part in our life. We gained the knowledge of Yoga and
its uses which we can implement in our daily life.

In this assignment, we learned the part of Emotional Intelligence and how it can be
used in our daily life and in our work. The study of Management Games is very useful as it
sharpens our mind, thinking ability and provides wide knowledge.

The presentation on HTML gave a wide knowledge of HTML and now we are fully
able to give presentations on any topic.

Lastly, the Internal events that was organized in the college that
include Group Discussions, Collage Making, Debate, Role plays etc gave us a platform to
show our best part.


The given assignment on Professional/Social Development workshop report
covers various topics like Yoga, Management Games, Emotional Intelligence, presentation
on HTML etc.

In this assignment, the firstly I have prepared my Curriculum Vitae.

Secondly I have mentioned an introduction on Yoga, Asanas & its types & its benefits,
Pranayam and types of Pranayam.

After that there is a brief introduction on Management

Games, how to conduct it and some of the Management Games and its advantages. In this
assignment, I have introduced part of Emotional Intelligence and how it can be used in our
daily life and in our work.

Lastly, there is presentation on HTML and its attributes and the Internal events that

was organized in the college that include Group Discussions, Collage Making, Debate,
Role plays etc



Code No.: 536122

A Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement

For the award of the degree of

Master of Business Administration (MBA)

Name of the Student: Aarti Mishra

Session: 2009-2010

Submitted to : Guided by:

Prof. Parag Pateria Prof. Preeti Sagar Yadu
Reader, (HOD) Lecturer,
RITEE, Raipur. RITEE, Raipur.

Department of Management

Raipur Institute Of Technology

Near Mandir Hasaud, Chhatauna Campus, Raipur (C.G.) 492101

 Ted Ne