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# http://nrich.maths.

org

http://nrich.maths.org/public/viewer.php?obj_id=6089

NRICH

## To find the materials go to the website:

http://nrich.maths.org
On the top right-hand side click on Courses.
Then click on the link to the Introduction to Integrating Rich Tasks.

## Draft materials, 11/11/08

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Introduction
This series of professional development resources is designed to support
classroom practice.
The resources are divided into four phases of development giving time for
reflection and practice. They have been designed to be tackled in order but
we are aware that colleagues will be starting from different places and may
wish to step into and out of the activities according to their particular need.
Many of the resources involve using various materials. These documents are
found in the appendices.

thinking skills
Activity 1.1
Activity 1.2
Activity 1.3
Activity 1.4
Activity 1.5

What makes a task rich? In this activity you will try out some
problems and then identify what makes them "rich".
How can we encourage higher-order thinking skills?
What is meant by higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)?
How do higher-order thinking skills relate to rich tasks and
problem solving?
How do pupils progress in their problem solving?

Activity 2.1
Activity 2.2

## What do teachers do to support learners engaging with rich

'HOTting up' your existing classroom materials.

Activity 3

## Phase 4 - Reflection and review

Activity 4.1
Activity 4.2
Activity 4.3

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Peer observation
Evaluating a theme
Thinking about what to do next

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## Activity 1.1 - What makes a task rich?

To help to answer this question we suggest that you try some unfamiliar
problems yourself. In this activity you are first asked to spend some time
working on a problem, ideally with a colleague, before trying to identify what
we mean by a 'rich' task and what would make doing the particular problem
you have studied a 'rich' activity for your pupils.
You will need the following resources:

## List of attributes of rich tasks [Appendix 1]

Blank 'rich task' template [Appendix 2]
Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS1
Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets [Appendix 4]
Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS2 Got It [Appendix 5]
Exemplar template for Got It [Appendix 6]

What to do:

## Try one of the suggested problems on your own or with another

colleague. [Appendix 3 or Appendix 5]
Look at the short list of attributes of a rich task described in Appendix 1.
problem.
Use the blank template (Appendix 2), which lists the attributes of a rich
on could be described as a rich task. Remember that a rich task does
not have to have all the attributes and much will depend on how it is
used in the classroom.
Join with other colleagues and compare your template with theirs.
You might like to finish by looking at the completed template for the
problem you tried (Appendix 4 or Appendix 6). These represent our
own experiences of using the tasks in classrooms so they may look
different to your own. There are of course many answers. It would
also be worth looking at the notes section of the problem on the
website.

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## Activity 1.2 How can we encourage higher-order

thinking skills?
To help to answer this question here are two tasks for you to do which we

## distinguish between problems that encourage higher-order thinking

skills and problems which don't
develop problems of your own that support higher-order thinking skills

In this activity we shall focus on what we are looking for in our pupils when
they are engaged in using higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).
You will need the following resources:

## Set of cards for matching [Appendix 7]

Document of strategies for modifying tasks [Appendix 8]

## The cards in Appendix 7 contain some lower-order questions and,

focusing on the same mathematical topic, some more challenging
questions - ones that require higher-order thinking skills. Pair them up.
Now, with colleagues, answer the following questions:
o What do you think higher-order thinking skills are?
o What do tasks that encourage higher-order thinking skills look
like?
Look at these notes on higher-order thinking skills and compare them
with your ideas. Are there any major differences? What is your
response to those differences?

## Instead of replacing a lower-order problem with a different problem, we

can often modify it. How can we adapt lower-order maths problems so
they promote HOTS? Appendix 8 outlines four key strategies that will
help to increase the challenge of standard questions in the classroom:
o Here's the answer, what could the question be?
o Make up your own ...
o What if ...?
Look at a problem you have recently set one of your classes and
discuss how it could be transformed into one requiring higher-order
thinking skills. Jot down your ideas and keep them for Activity 2.2

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## Activity 1.3 What is meant by higher-order thinking

skills (HOTS)?
This task, and the one following it, builds on Activity 1.2
You will need the following resource:

## Bloom's taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing

complexity and ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The
descriptions of the skills are listed in Appendix 9]. Try to put them in
order of complexity. When you have done this, and discussed what you
think are the most challenging activities, you might wish to look at the
pyramid of skills known as Bloom's taxonomy at the foot of this page.

Think of a lesson you have recently given - what level of thinking were

'Bloom's Taxonomy'
Bloom's Taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing complexity and ability to use
higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).

Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The
classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto:
Longmans, Green.

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## Activity 1.4 How do higher-order thinking skills

(HOTS) relate to rich tasks and problem solving?
This task aims to identify how rich tasks and problem solving fit together.
You will need the following resources:

## Bloom taxonomy descriptor cards [Appendix 9]

Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]
Problem-solving cycle [Appendix 11]

## Higher-order thinking skills are not about mathematical content knowledge.

Just like it is possible to engage in very hard questions that involve a high
level of content knowledge but few problem-solving skills, it is also possible to
identify very difficult problems that only need very low levels of mathematical
content knowledge. In the former case, you are going to need well-tuned
knowledge skills and in the latter, your HOTS.
What is a problem?
A problem is something you do not immediately know how to solve. There is a
gap between where you are and even getting started on a path to a solution.
This means that something that is a problem to your students is something
that they cannot get to grips with immediately and requires thinking and
playing time. By playing with the mathematics, patterns and connections often
reveal themselves. We need to arm our pupils with a repertoire of skills to
help them step into problems independently rather than immediately turning to
us as teachers to ask what to do! We can begin by selecting problems with
engaging starting points which invite pupils to step in (such as a game). Once
they get started, the richness comes from what happens next. Ideas begin to
emerge from playing with the initial situation and sometimes from posing
problems of their own.
What is problem solving?
The need to apply problem-solving techniques to a problem is an indicator
that it has the potential to be a rich task. Problem solving requires you to have
a problem to solve, which may be one you have been given or one you have
posed for yourself. The activity that we call 'problem solving' is a complex one
and can be considered as a cycle of activity (though the cycle often requires
us to move backward and forward whilst maintaining a general sense of
direction). There are many models of the problem solving cycle. Possibly the
most well known is the one described by Polya in his book How to Solve It
(1957), which is a must-read for those of us interested in improving our pupils'
problem-solving skills. Here is one we use at NRICH:

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## (Appendix 11 is a larger version of the above which might be easier to read.)

The application of the problem-solving cycle is a high-order skill. Evidence
suggests that few pupils utilise the problem-solving cycle effectively. One
important thing to note is the emphasis the cycle places on the high-order
thinking skills described by Bloom. It is therefore not surprising that most
pupils do not naturally have a sense of where they are and what they might do
next. One of our aims when teaching mathematics is to help pupils become
familiar with this process and have confidence to use it.
See Polya, G. (1957). How to Solve it, Princeton University Press.
How do rich tasks, the problem-solving cycle and higher-order thinking
skills fit together?

Cut out the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and lay them
out.
Link them with the rich task description cards (Appendix 12) and with
the different aspects of Bloom's taxonomy (Appendix 9).

We feel that any problem has the potential to be a rich task but this depends
on us as teachers offering those opportunities to our pupils. We will talk about
this in Activity 2.1 .

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## Activity 1.5 How do pupils progress in their problem

solving?
In the previous activity you were asked to think about the connections
between higher-order thinking skills, problem solving and rich tasks. In the
next set of activities we want to think about how we can support our pupils in
problem solving.
You will need the following resources:

## Progression cards [Appendix 13]

Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]
For reference you may want to refer to the progression list
[Appendix 14]

We have based this activity on the National Strategy's Primary Framework
Assessment Guidelines. We are not asking you to think about assessment but
about process skills and progression. The guidelines are based on three
areas: problem solving, reasoning and communicating.
There are two parts to this task. There is no 'right answer' to either part but
the activities are designed to make you think about:

## the mathematical thinking and problem-solving skills you want your

learners to develop
the sorts of things your pupils will be doing
the development of thinking and problem-solving skills over time
(progression)

It is the discussion you have as you undertake the task which is key. By
making sense of phrases and describing what you mean by them in your own
words you will come to your own view about how they inform what you are
First you will need a set of the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and
of the progression cards (Appendix 13).
[The Progression Cards are based on lists for Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 so you
might like to think about what would come before L2 and after L5.]
Lay the cycle cards out and then distribute the progression cards amongst
them. There will be quite a lot of discussion about what some of these mean.
Remember that there is no right answer and a lot depends on your
interpretation of a card's meaning. In the end you should put each card under
the heading that feels like the 'best fit'. Do not agonise for too long on each
card - you can change your mind at any time. When we did this task at NRICH
we moved things around quite a lot during the second part of the task!

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The second part of the task is about ordering the cards under each of the five
progression. What would you expect learners at different stages to be able to
do? When we did this task we found it useful to group cards that seemed to
be about similar things together before trying to order them. So, for example,
under Analysis-Reasoning we found a few cards that seemed to be about
'organising' so we pulled these out and put them in order .
The lists are not meant to be exhaustive so you might want to add some cards
When you have finished the tasks you might find it useful to refer to the
progression list (Appendix 14) as this will enable you to map what you have
done to the Strategy document.

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## Activity 2.1 What do teachers do to support learners

This pair of tasks build particularly on Activities 1.1, 1.3 & 1.4. The aim is to
look at a problem and think about what we can do to help make it rich. This is
because, regardless of a problem's potential, the way it is used affects its
richness.
You will need the following resources:

## Rich task cards [Appendix 12]

Rich task sheet - what teachers can do [Appendix 15]
What teachers do - master template sheet [Appendix 16]
Suggested NRICH problem [Appendix 18]
What teachers do - Magic Vs sheet [Appendix 17]

Stick each of the rich task cards (Appendix 12) on a separate A3 sheet. As a
group, move around the sheets and add ideas for what you could do as
teachers to help support each aspect of a rich task. This will be very general
at this stage. If you need help some ideas are given on the what teachers can
do sheet (Appendix 15). These ideas will become more specific when applied
to a particular problem.
Work on the NRICH problem Magic Vs (Appendix 18) so you feel confident
that you know it well.

Fill in the column of the master sheet (Appendix 16) labelled 'What
pupils could do'.
Now fill in the column 'What teachers might do'. As you do this, think
about the sorts of things you might do in the lesson to encourage pupils
to tackle the problem and behave in the ways you have suggested in
the middle column.

## Appendix 17 is what we produced when we tried this at NRICH.

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## Activity 2.2 'HOTting up' your existing classroom

materials
So far we have given you activities to work with that are on the NRICH
website. However, you probably have many activities you use in your own
lessons that have the potential to be rich, or richer. The aim of this activity is
to draw your attention to those problems and think about how you can use
them to develop higher-order thinking skills and problem-solving skills, and
what you might do to support this in the classroom.
You will need the following resources:

## What teachers do - master template sheet [Appendix 16]

What to do:
This links to the work on higher-order thinking skills and Activity 2.1 on rich
tasks. Here the aim is for us to think about what we can do as teachers with
problems we already use. The emphasis is on what we do in the classroom
rather than adjusting the problem itself as we did in Activity 1.2.
Retrieve your jottings from the second task in Activity 1.2 and then, working in
a pair, consider what you would do to as a teacher to support this problem.
Use the blank template (Appendix 16) and the ideas of Activity 2.1 (where we
did a similar task for Magic V's) to help.
Why not share any good ideas with us at NRICH by emailing us?
nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

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## Activity 3 Integrating rich tasks into the whole

curriculum
The aim of this activity is to integrate some rich tasks into curriculum planning.
Although there are other possibilities, at this stage we will look at two sources

NRICH
exisiting schemes of work

All the work we have done so far should feed into this activity, which is
designed to be the starting point for a longer period of planning and
development. The long-term aim is for you to think about your teaching and
how it can be enhanced, but to start with you will need to select something
that is realistic and achievable. You can always extend what you do at a later
date.
You will need the following resources:

## Your existing scheme of work

The NRICH curriculum mapping documents [Appendix 19 for KS1 and
Appendix 20 for KS2 but the versions online will be more recent]
The NRICH site - particularly the Maths finder, which you can find at
http://nrich.maths.org/public/leg.php

First a reminder that we are not assuming that you are going to change
everything now, you are just making a start. For this reason, we suggest you
could begin by planning for a mathematical topic that you will teach this term.
There are many different approaches to planning for the integration of rich

Look at your current scheme of work and use the content mapping
documents to find problems that are a good fit with the particular topic
you are covering.
Consider what using and applying skills you want your pupils to
develop and use the process mapping documents to identify
appropriate problems. You might use these as one-off problems but
they will also address subject content knowledge so why not use them
when you are covering that topic in your scheme of work?
Identify a theme to work on for a longer period of time. Examples of
themes are:
o problems that employ several aspects of content knowledge (e.g.
factors and multiples)
o the development of problem-solving skills (the whole process)
o the development of particular mathematical thinking skills (e.g.
'working systematically' or 'visualising')
o an application of mathematics (e.g. time and its measurement)

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The mapping documents will help with the first two approaches suggested
above (content and process blocks). There are no specific documents
designed to support the third approach but the Maths finder and Packages on
NRICH can help. There is also a 'search NRICH' option found at the top of
every NRICH page.

You may want to access the Curriculum mapping documents on the website,
or use the versions provided in Appendices 19 & 20 (note the versions online
will be the most up-to-date).
Alternatively (or in addition) you could identify potentially rich tasks you are
already using and extend them in the ways you did in Activities 1.1 and 1.2.
Whichever approach you take, for each problem you will need to spend time
thinking about why it is rich (for the problems from the NRICH mapping
documents this has already been done) and what you will need to do in the
classroom to support pupils in making the most of them (as in Activity 2.1). As
you try things out, you will refine ideas and will feed back to your colleagues
what worked well and why.
This is no small task and that it is why it is worth starting with something small
and achievable rather than trying to do everything all at once.
We will look at evaluation in the next Activity.

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into the curriculum: Peer observation
Having started to embed rich tasks into your scheme of work you will need to:

## assess what works and what does not

make decisions on how to extend your mapping
consider what further support you might need

This Activity, along with Activities 4.2 and 4.3 are designed to help you with
the above.
The best way to go about evaluating and reviewing a particular lesson is to
work with a colleague. However, what is suggested here can be used as a
means of self-reflection. Before the lesson you will need to prepare:

The "what teachers do" sheet [Appendix 16]

## Either use this opportunity to do some peer observation, with a colleague

using the prepared observation/reflection sheet, or during and after the lesson
use the sheet to jot down some notes of your own.
Discuss or reflect on:

## what was successful

what you would do differently next time
what key things pupils did that could be highlighted or drawn out more
in future

## Use this to inform planning for next time.

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into the curriculum: Evaluating a theme
Undertaking the same sort of observation/reflection activity as you did in
Activity 4.1 for individual lessons or a group of lessons is an important part of
evaluating the success of a theme or series of linked lessons within a gven
topic. In addition however, you need to look at the group of lessons more
holistically.
To do this you will need to consider:

## the aims or learning objectives for this group of lessons including:

o what content you were hoping to cover
o what using and applying/problem-solving skills you were hoping
o what connections you were hoping to make
o which aims were met/not met. Try to describe why and, where
appropriate, how things might be improved. This might involve
being more realistic about your aims or thinking of other ways in
which you might approach the theme or support pupils whilst
working on a theme.

## how the pupils responded over all:

o did they enjoy it?
o did they reach the level of working you expected?
o did the work cater for their individual needs (were the support
and extension ideas and materials appropriate)?

## Then update your planning documents:

How you will modify the theme in future? This might involve removing it
from your scheme of work or revising the 'what teachers do' sheet and
lesson plan.
List your recommended next steps. Include key points for colleagues
who might try the same theme themselves.

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into the curriculum: Thinking about what to do next
Build on your experiences, adding in new material and trying it out. Using the
mapping documents can ensure a range of experiences for your pupils. It is
not enough to employ a concept or process once, you will need to revisit
these again and again, each time thinking about how the pupils will develop.
For example, when considering problem-solving skills, pupils will develop in
different ways, such as:

## Becoming more independent with you having to do less supporting in

order for them to think of ideas of their own.
Applying more sophisticated content knowledge
Being more equipped to talk about their mathematics
More able to apply what they know in less familiar settings
Better able to make connections with things they have done before
Showing greater sophistication and organisation in their recording
methods.

## How does your scheme of work allow this to happen?

The important thing to do is:
Reflect - evaluate - modify if necessary

At NRICH we are really interested in finding our more about your experiences.
Do email us so we can share your ideas and findings with others.
nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

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Appendix 1

## a copy for each pair of teachers

Current research evidence indicates that students who are given opportunities to
work on their problem solving enjoy the subject more, are more confident and are
more likely to continue studying mathematics, or mathematics related subjects,
beyond 16. Most importantly, there is also evidence that they do better in standard
tests.
Rich tasks can enable pupils to:

step into them even when the route to a solution is unclear, getting started and
exploring is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging abilities

of mathematics

## include intriguing contexts

have opportunities to observe other people being mathematical or see the role of
mathematics within cultural settings

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Appendix 2

## a copy for each teacher

Step into a problem even when the route to a
solution is unclear (see definition of a
problem below), getting started and exploring
is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities.
Pose as well as solve problems, make
conjectures

contexts

## Offer opportunities to broaden students

problem-solving skills

knowledge

## Have potential to reveal underlying principles

or make connections between areas of
mathematics

## Offer opportunities to observe other people

being mathematical or the role of mathematics
within cultural settings

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Appendix 3

## a copy for each teacher of either

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

## This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.

materials are available on the site from: tinyurl.com/6ysepn
may be necessary to type .notebook at the end of the filename and to change the
filetype to All files. Please check that you are running a new enough version of the
SMARTboard software (version 9.5 or later).

There are three baskets, a brown one, a red one and a pink
one, holding a total of ten eggs.
The Brown basket has one more egg in it than the Red basket.
How many eggs are in each basket?

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Appendix 4

## a copy for each teacher of either

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6
Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets, showing how it can be used in the
classroom.
The version online include links to view the video-clips and images.

## Introducing the task so that

the children can get started

## The teacher encourages some general exploration of the

situation by changing the context (sweets rather than eggs) and
simplifying the problem (only 6 in total, as opposed to 10).
Rather than having three unknowns to begin with, as in the
sweets in the third bag?) and then two (what could be in the
second and third bags?).

## The problem allows children

to make conjectures

Clip Eggs1.wmv
When shown the bag of four sweets, the children immediately
begin to make conjectures. One suggests the other two bags
will have one sweet each because 2 and 4 make 6. Then
another pupil suggests that there could be 2 in the second bag
and zero in the other.

## The task allows children to

work at a range of levels

Clip Eggs2.wmv
Here the resources provided allow this child to work on the
problem in the way he feels comfortable, which is a good
assessment opportunity for the teacher.
Image EggsA.gif
This learner has recorded the possible combinations using
number sentences and has worked in a very systematic way.
Note the sum which has been squeezed in near the top of the
list it would be good to talk to him about the reasons for this.
(There is a repetition here so this might be worth discussing
too.)

## The problem offers

opportunities for children to
use different methods

Clip Eggs3.wmv
Here the teacher draws attention to the childrens different ways
of representing the problem (drawing sweets, using numerals,
drawing dots, writing number sentences), emphasising why
each is helpful. Interestingly, some children chose to opt for a
different way following this discussion.
Image EggsB.gif
This pupil has chosen to represent five sweets in the quincunx
arrangement, like that on a dice. Perhaps this is to make
subsequent counting easier?

students problem-solving
skills

Clip Eggs4.wmv
Having been shown there are two sweets in the first bag and
three in the second bag, the children talk about whether they
need to see the number of sweets in the third bag.
So I dont need to X-ray the last one?
Another pupil responds, You do! Just to see
Youd like to check it using that?
Its still going to be 1.
This highlights the fact that it may be satisfying to check that our
conjectures are true before moving on.

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Appendix 5

## a copy for each teacher of either

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

## This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.

Notes about the task, including a projectable, online, interactive presentation of the

GOT IT
GOT IT is an adding game for two. You can play against the computer or with
a friend.
The first player chooses a whole number from 1 to 4.
Players take turns to add a whole number from 1 to 4 to the running total.
The player who hits the target of 23 wins the game.
To change the game, choose a new GOT IT! target or a new range of

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Appendix 6

## a copy for each teacher of either

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

## WHY IS GOT IT A RICH TASK?

Step into a problem even when the route to a
solution is unclear (see definition of a
problem below), getting started and exploring
is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities.

## The game is an engaging one and pupils are often

motivated to find strategies in order to beat the
interactivity, to beat the teacher.

conjectures

## Pupils often extend the problem to different target

numbers and a different range of numbers quite
naturally. Other extensions include choosing a
range of numbers that do not start at 1.

## Some pupils are excited to discover that the person

reaching 18 first will win. You can simplify the
starting point further with a lower target number and
smaller range of numbers. At the highest level the
generalisation to any target, any range requires
high-level thinking and analytical skills

contexts

## This is a different and engaging context to meet and

engage with mathematics

## It is interesting to see the different ways in which

pupils come to an understanding of why their
strategy works.

## Offer opportunities to broaden students

problem-solving skills

## Working backwards is a very useful skill in this

case.
Generalising results to any target and range and
identifying the exceptions.

## Deepen and broaden mathematical content

knowledge

explain patterns and relationships, conjecture,
generalise and predict.
At the highest levels they should justify their
generalisations using convincing arguments and
proofs.

## Have potential to reveal underlying principles

or make connections between areas of
mathematics

## For example the unexpected connection with

factors and multiples

## It is not obvious that employing some mathematics

will guarantee that you can always win.

## Offer opportunities to observe other people

being mathematical or the role of mathematics
within cultural settings

## Pupils challenging the teacher or computer and

explaining what they will do next and why whilst
others observe and listen

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Appendix 7

## a copy for each pair of teachers (4 pages)

HOTS1
These cards contain some lower-order questions and, focusing on the same
mathematical topic, some more challenging questions - ones that require higher-order
thinking skills. Cut them out and pair them up.

1. Fractions

2. Triangles

What is half of 6?

## What is half of 10?

What is half of 2?

3. Fair Feast

4. Grab it!

## Here is a picnic that Chris and Michael are going

to share equally:

## Play on a blank 100 grid with a partner. Take

turns to choose a number. If your number can be
divided exactly by 2, score 2 points. If it can be
divided exactly by 3, score 3 points and so on.
(You can decide whether or not to count 1 and
the number itself.)
What are good numbers to pick? Why?
What's the best number to pick?
What are poor numbers to pick? Why?

5. Take Away

6. Hard or Easy?

sums:

## Look at the take away sums. Find the easiest, the

hardest, and three which are not hard or easy. Do
them and write down (or say) why you've chosen
these five sums.

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7. Making Sticks

8. Domino Sorting

## Kimie and Sebastian were making sticks from

interlocking cubes. Kimie made blue sticks 2
cubes long. Sebastian made red sticks 3 cubes
long. They both made a lot of sticks.

## Sort them into two groups, one with an odd

number of spots and one with an even number of
spots.
Do you have any dominoes left over? Why, or
why not?
Now put the dominoes into pairs. The number of
spots on each pair of dominoes must make a total
of 5.

## Kimie put her blue sticks end to end in a long

line. Sebastian put his red sticks end to end in a
line underneath Kimie's.

## How many pairs can you make?

Can they make their lines the same length? How
many sticks could Kimie use? How many would
Sebastian put down? How long is the line
altogether?

## Which dominoes are left over?

Can you pair them up in any different ways so
that each pair adds up to 5?

## Can they make any other lines?

Which dominoes are left over now?
Are there any dominoes which are always left
over?
Can you explain why?

9. Seven Sticks

## Explore the triangles that can be made with

seven sticks of the same length.

20 + 2155 + 5648 + 50 ...etc

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12. Squares

## This game is for two players. You need ten cards

with the digits 0 to 9 on them. It might also be
useful to have a two pieces of paper or card with
two boxes drawn on them to represent a twodigit number.

## Plot the three points listed below and then find

the co-ordinates of the fourth point that is needed
to complete a square:

Turn the cards face down and mix them up. The
aim of the game is to make the closest number to
decides whether that is the units or tens digit of
their number and places it on their paper in front
of them. Each player then takes a second card
which becomes the missing digit of their twodigit number. The winner is the player whose
number is closer to 100. You could have a points
system so that the player with the closer number
scores 1 point and then play first to 10.

## (c) (4,5) (3,6) (2,5)

(d) (5,5) (4,8) (7,9)
(e) etc.

14. Symmetry

of string.

## Make a quadrilateral with one line of symmetry.

Make a quadrilateral with two lines of
symmetry.
Make a quadrilateral with three lines of
symmetry.
Make a quadrilateral with four lines of
symmetry.
etc

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What is:
5+4?
3+9?
2+5?

16. U Two
You need a 1-50 number grid and a partner. Take
turns to draw a 5 square U shape on the grid.
going until you can't fit any more Us on the grid,
the bigger score. Your U could be upside down,
or on its side.

3+3?

17. Sharing

78 or 87?
92 or 91?
99 or 101?

19. Square It

20. Multiples

## With a partner take it in turns to mark any spot

on a square dotty grid (you should use different
colours).

## The winner is the first to have four marks that

can be joined by straight lines to form a square.

## Squares can be of any size and can be tilted.

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Appendix 8

## a copy for each pair of teachers

HOTS2
Encouraging Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
can you adapt ordinary maths questions so that they promote HOTS? Here are four
key strategies that will help you to increase the challenge of standard questions in the
classroom.
.

## A. Here's the answer, what could the question be?

Instead of: 3+3, 4+3, 5+3, 6+3......
Instead of: What is the area of a rectangle which measures 4cm by 6cm?
Ask: If the area of a rectangle is 24cm2 what could its measurements be?
Lists of practice questions and closed questions can immediately be made more
challenging in this way, and this change allows children to show what they know and
can do. You may well be surprised by the quality of their work! Some children will
work systematically to produce their responses; this indicates that they have analysed
the numerical structure.
Make up some examples of your own.

## B. Make up your own

Instead of: 456 - 354, 1008 - 783, 6666 - 3333, 7065 - 4999, ......
Ask: Choose the easiest and hardest subtraction sums, work them out, then make up
an easy and hard example for someone else, saying why you think there are easy and
hard.
Choosing requires analysis, making up new questions requires synthesis, and sharing
and discussing with another requires evaluation.
Can you make up some similar examples involving other operations? How about
other mathematical topics such as space and shape?

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C. What if?

Instead of: Find the different ways you can dress the teddy.
Ask: What if there were two teddies?
What if there were two hats as well?
What if there were three T-shirts?
What if... ?

Instead of: Put the L on the grid so that the sum of the squares it covers is 225.
Ask: What if the sum is different?
What if the shape is not an L?
What if the grid is the two times table?
What if...?
Offering choice often increases children's motivation and hence engagement in a task.
They have to understand the structure of the question in order to make sensible 'what
if' suggestions. They will need to identify what aspects of the problem can be varied analysis and synthesis.
Look at questions you have recently given your pupils to do. Can you think of
some what if questions.
How would you encourage pupils to come up with what if questions of their
own?
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Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know
you've got them all?

## Instead of: Make a triangle by joining three dots.

Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know
you've got them all?

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Appendix 9

## a copy for each pair of teachers

BLOOMS DESCRIPTORS
Cut the cards out and put them in a line to reflect the order of development,
complexity and demand (which represent the higher order thinking skills).

Analysis

Evaluation

seeing pattern
organization of parts
recognition of hidden meanings
identification of components

## compare and discriminate between

ideas
assess value of theories,
presentations
make choices based on reasoned
argument
verify value of evidence
recognize subjectivity

## Question Cues: analyze, separate,

order, explain, connect, classify,
arrange, divide, compare, select,
explain, infer

## Question Cues: assess, decide, rank,

convince, select, judge, explain,
discriminate, support, conclude,
compare, summarize

Application

Knowledge

use information
use methods, concepts, theories in new
situations
solve problems using required skills or
knowledge

## observation and recall of information

knowledge of dates, events, places
knowledge of major ideas
mastery of subject matter

## Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate,

calculate, complete, illustrate, show,
solve, examine, modify, relate, change,
classify, experiment, discover

## Question Cues: list, define, tell,

describe, identify, show, label, collect,
examine, tabulate, quote, name, who,
when, where, etc.

Comprehension

Synthesis

understanding information
grasp meaning
translate knowledge into new context
interpret facts, compare, contrast
order, group, infer causes
predict consequences

## use old ideas to create new ones

generalize from given facts
relate knowledge from several areas
predict, draw conclusions
Question Cues: combine, integrate,
modify, rearrange, substitute, plan,
create, design, invent, what if?,
compose, formulate, prepare,
generalise, rewrite

## Question Cues: summarize, describe,

interpret, contrast, predict, associate,
distinguish, estimate, differentiate,
discuss, extend

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Appendix 10

## a copy for each pair of teachers

Represent
Identify the mathematical aspects of a
situation or problem
choose between representations
simplify the situation or problem,
using appropriate variables, symbols,
diagrams and models
select mathematical information,
methods and tools to use.

Analyse
Use appropriate mathematical procedures
make mathematical diagrams that
represent a situation or the
information given

Analyse
Use mathematical reasoning
make connections within mathematics
and use knowledge of related
problems
visualize, be systematic, and identify
and classify patterns

calculate accurately
record methods, solutions and
conclusions

## explore the effects of varying values

and make and begin to justify
conjectures and generalisations

working

## Interpret and evaluate

form convincing arguments

work logically

## Communicate and reflect

communicate findings effectively and
discuss results

## consider the appropriateness and

accuracy of results and conclusions

mathematics

exceptions

## consider the elegance and efficiency

of other approaches to the problem

## relate findings to the original context,

identifying whether they support or
refute conjectures

## make connections between the

current situation and outcomes, and
situations and outcomes they have
met before

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Appendix 11

## The Problem-Solving Cycle

Represent
Identify the mathematical aspects of a situation
or problem
choose between representations
simplify the situation or problem, using
appropriate variables, symbols, diagrams and
models
select mathematical information, methods and
tools to use

Analyse
Use appropriate mathematical procedures
Communicate and reflect
communicate findings effectively and discuss results
engage with someone elses mathematics
consider the elegance and efficiency of other
approaches to the problem
make connections between the current situation and
outcomes, and situations and outcomes they have met
before

## make mathematical diagrams that represent a situation

or the information given
calculate accurately
record methods, solutions and conclusions
estimate, approximate and check working

## Use mathematical reasoning

make connections within mathematics and use
knowledge of related problems
visualise, be systematic and identify and classify
patterns
explore the effects of varying values and make and
begin to justify conjectures and generalisations
work logically

NRICH 2008

## form convincing arguments

consider the appropriateness and accuracy of
results and conclusions
look at data to find patterns and exceptions
relate findings to the original context, identifying
whether they support
or refute conjectures
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Appendix 12

## a copy for each pair of teachers

step into a problem even when the
route to a solution is unclear, getting
accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities

make conjectures

## extend knowledge or apply

knowledge in new contexts

## have opportunities to broaden their

problem-solving skills

content knowledge

## potentially reveal underlying

principles or make connections
between areas of mathematics

## observe other people being

mathematical or see the role of
mathematics within cultural settings

## employ different methods

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Appendix 13

## a copy for each pair of teachers (2 pages)

PROGRESSION CARDS
begin to develop own ways of recording

## begin to look for patterns in results as they

work and use them to find other possible
outcomes

## recognise information that is important to

solving the problem, determine what is missing
and develop lines of enquiry

## begin to understand and use formulae and

symbols to represent problems

start

## break a several-step problem or investigation

into simpler steps

own

## check answers and ensure solutions make

sense in the context of the problem

## select the mathematics they use in a wider

range of classroom activities, e.g.

## check as they work, spotting and correcting

errors and reviewing methods

## show understanding of situations by describing

them mathematically using symbols, words
and diagrams

written work

## check their work and make appropriate

corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less
than 100 cannot give a total more than 200

## try different approaches and find ways of

overcoming difficulties that arise when they are
solving problems

## understand a general statement by finding

particular examples that match it

diagrams

## consider efficient methods, relating problems

to previous experiences

## decide how best to represent conclusions,

using appropriate recording

## use classroom discussions to break into a

problem, recognising similarities to previous
work

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## develop an organised approach as they get

into recording their work on a problem

conclusions

## discuss their mathematical work and begin to

explain their thinking, e.g.

## draw simple conclusions of their own and give

an explanation of their reasoning

## Use their own strategies within mathematics

and in applying mathematics to practical
context

## when they have solved a problem, pose a

similar problem for a partner

## Identify and obtain necessary information to

carry through a task and solve mathematical
problems

## With support adopt a suggested model or

systematic approach

## identify more complex patterns, making

generalisations in words and begin to express
generalisations using symbolic notation

## With support begin to appreciate the need to

record and develop their own methods of
recording

## identify patterns as they work and form their

own generalisations/rules in words

## With support describe the strategies and

methods they use in their work

## make a generalisation with the assistance of

probing questions and prompts

## With support find a starting point, identifying

key facts/relevant information

## With support listen to others explanations, try

to make sense of them, compare.
evaluate

## make their own suggestions of ways to tackle

a range of problems

## With support make connections and apply their

knowledge to similar situations

## organise their work from the outset, looking for

ways to record systematically

## With support move between different

representations of a problem e.g. a situation
described in words, a diagram etc.

order

## With support test a statement such as The

number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be
shared equally by 3 children

problem

## With support use apparatus, diagrams, role

play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem

## predict what comes next in a simple number,

shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give
reasons for their opinions

## With support use pictures, diagrams and

symbols to communicate their thinking, or
demonstrate a solution or process

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Appendix 14

## Progression Card List

Based on the National Strategy's Primary Framework Assessment Guidelines for mathematics L2, L3,
L4, L5 2008
L2
L2
L2
L2

1.0x
1.1
1.2
1.3

L2
L2
L2
L2
L2

1.4
1.5
2.0x
2.1
2.2

L2
L2

3.0x
3.1

L2

3.2

L2
L2

4.0x
4.1

L2

5.0

L3
L3
L3
L3
L3

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.0

L3

2.1

L3

2.2

L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4

3.0
3.1
3.2
4.0
4.1
4.2
5.0
6.0
6.1
7.0
7.1
7.2
1.0x
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2.0
3.0x
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.0
4.1
4.2

select the mathematics they use in some classroom activities e.g. with support
With support find a starting point, identifying key facts/relevant information
With support use apparatus, diagrams, role play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem
With support move between different representations of a problem e.g. a situation described
in words, a diagram etc.
With support adopt a suggested model or systematic approach
With support make connections and apply their knowledge to similar situations
discuss their work using mathematical language, e.g. with support
With support describe the strategies and methods they use in their work
With support listen to others explanations, try to make sense of them, compare.
evaluate
begin to represent their work using symbols and simple diagrams, e.g. with support
With support use pictures, diagrams and symbols to communicate their thinking, or
demonstrate a solution or process
With support begin to appreciate the need to record and develop their own methods of
recording
explain why an answer is correct, e.g. with support
With support test a statement such as The number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be
shared equally by 3 children
predict what comes next in a simple number, shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give reasons for
their opinions
select the mathematics they use in a wider range of classroom activities, e.g.
use classroom discussions to break into a problem, recognising similarities to previous work
put the problem into their own words
choose their own equipment appropriate to the task, including calculators
try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving
problems
check their work and make appropriate corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less than
100 cannot give a total more than 200 and correct the addition
begin to look for patterns in results as they work and use them to find other possible
outcomes
begin to organise their work and check results
begin to develop own ways of recording
develop an organised approach as they get into recording their work on a problem
discuss their mathematical work and begin to explain their thinking, e.g.
use appropriate mathematical vocabulary
talk about their findings by referring to their written work
use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams
understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it
make a generalisation with the assistance of probing questions and prompts
review their work and reasoning,
respond to What if? questions
when they have solved a problem, pose a similar problem for a partner
develop own strategies for solving problems, e.g.
make their own suggestions of ways to tackle a range of problems
make connections to previous work
pose and answer questions related to a problem
check answers and ensure solutions make sense in the context of the problem
review their work and approaches
Use their own strategies within mathematics and in applying mathematics to practical context
present information and results in a clear and organised way, e.g.
organise written work, e.g. record results in order
begin to work in an organised way from the start
consider appropriate units
use related vocabulary accurately
search for a solution by trying out ideas of their own
check their methods and justify answers
identify patterns as they work and form their own generalisations/rules in words

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PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R

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L5
L5

1.0
1.1

L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5

1.2
1.3
2.0x
2.1
3.0
3.0

L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5

3.1
3.2
3.3
4.0
4.1
4.2

L5

4.3

Identify and obtain necessary information to carry through a task and solve mathematical problems
recognise information that is important to solving the problem, determine what is missing and
develop lines of enquiry
break a several-step problem or investigation into simpler steps
consider efficient methods, relating problems to previous experiences
check results, considering whether these are reasonable, e.g.
check as they work, spotting and correcting errors and reviewing methods
solve word problems and investigations from a range of contexts
show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and
diagrams
organise their work from the outset, looking for ways to record systematically
decide how best to represent conclusions, using appropriate recording
begin to understand and use formulae and symbols to represent problems
draw simple conclusions of their own and give an explanation of their reasoning
explain and justify their methods and solution
identify more complex patterns, making generalisations in words and begin to express
generalisations using symbolic notation
use examples and counter-examples to justify conclusions

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PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
R

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Appendix 15

## A RICH TASK WHAT TEACHERS CAN DO

Step into a problem even
when the route to a solution
is unclear, getting started
accessible to pupils of wide
ranging abilities.

## Ideas for teacher support

Selecting appropriate tasks and problems for example those
with a low threshold and a high ceiling.
Asking pupils to spend a little time on their own then working in
and how to get started
Think  Pair  Share
Encouraging some general exploration of the situation before
pinning things down
Considering and sharing different ways of representing the
information
Thinking about things like this you have seen before.

## Pose as well as solve

problems, make conjectures

## It is a challenge for pupils to pose their own problems so a first

step is to model asking what if questions yourself.
Encourage learners to think about the things they can vary in a
problem and to conjecture about the effect of any variation.
At the end of a problem ask what next? or If we had time
what might we do next?
Highlight occasions where pupils do pose their own problems
and share them with the group. Put unanswered questions and
conjectures on a board.
Use a conjecture board. When pupils come up with a
conjecture they write it up and get others to consider it and
either prove it or find a counter example
Encouraging and discussing different ways of tackling a
problem.
Interpreting and evaluating findings can offer opportunities to
work at a range of levels.
Think about problems with open starting points, open middles
and open ends these all contribute to allowing pupils to work
at different levels.
Generalisation enables extension and the use of algebra can
extend problems. Reflect on the algebra, when it is used, and
how it represents underpinning structure of a problem. For
example:
Why does .. generate a Fibonacci sequence?
Set problems that offer scope to extend knowledge or which are
set in new contexts.
Ask questions of learners that encourage them to make
connections:
Have you done something before that was similar?
What mathematics is in this problem?

## Extend knowledge or apply

knowledge in new contexts

NRICH 2008

## Encourage a range of representations at the start of the work.

Discuss ideas for different approaches.
Discuss different approaches, their effectiveness and efficiency
at the end of the work.
Value different approaches as representing learners different
understandings and levels of confidence.
Realise that methods used often reflect learners progress,
areas of strength and weaknesses.

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## Aspects of a rich task

Offer opportunities to

mathematical content
knowledge

## Ideas for teacher support

Talk about what a pupil is doing. For example:
How will you collect the data?
Was that a good method, are there other ways that might have
been more efficient?.
Can you be more systematic?
Can you generalise?
Use problems that offer challenging contexts in which can help
develop content knowledge
Highlight the mixture of skills pupils are bringing to bear of
problems:
In this problem you needed to be able to in order to .
Ask pupils what mathematics they used to tackle the problem,
new things they have learnt and what they feel more confident

## Have potential to reveal

underlying principles or
make connections between
areas of mathematics

## Problems like this might not be as engaging at first sight their

fascination comes from the patterns or ideas they reveal as you
work on them. For example:
The relationship between square and triangular numbers might
come out of work on triangular numbers.
Games or problems that have the same underpinning
mathematics (e.g. nim or variations on noughts and crosses)

## Use games or challenges.

Use problems that reveal interesting patterns.
Identify mathematics in unfamiliar settings. When you notice
some mathematics why not draw attention to it and use it. For
example the sun shining through the window, arrangements of
the desks, work on sports day such as laying out the track and
recording results.
When you see something intriguing in some mathematics draw
pupils attention to it. For example, an unexpected pattern in
geometry or arithmetic that needs to be explained. That two
shapes with the same volume look completely different. Make a
at odd moments over a period of time.

Offer opportunities to
observe other people being
mathematical or the role of
mathematics within cultural
settings

## Model being stuck sometimes.

Allow pupils to ask and work on problems you do not know the
Use video and films related to mathematics being used or which
put mathematics in historical and cultural contests. For
example, when tackling a problem involving a Fibonacci
sequence show some examples of its occurrence in the world
around us. When talking about being stuck discuss what
mathematicians do. When doing work on time look at how this
has been measured in the past.

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Appendix 16

## WHAT TEACHERS DO MASTER SHEET

step into a problem even when
the route to a solution is unclear,
getting started and exploring is
made accessible to pupils of wide
ranging abilities.

make conjectures

## extend knowledge or apply

knowledge in new contexts

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## What teachers might do

http://nrich.maths.org

students problem-solving skills

mathematical content knowledge

## have potential to reveal

underlying principles or make
connections between areas of
mathematics

## offer opportunities to observe

other people being mathematical
or the role of mathematics within
cultural settings

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Appendix 17

## MAGIC Vs WHAT TEACHERS DO

Text in italics shows examples from a single lesson, with associated video-clips and images. This is not intended to be a model lesson.
What pupils might do
What teachers could do
step into a problem even when
By starting with the challenge of making a Magic V
Allow pupils to engage with the attributes of a Magic V by
the route to a solution is unclear
pupils wide ranging abilities can get into this problem.
identifying similarities and differences between a Magic V
(see definition of a problem
and a non-magic V.
Sharing early findings can move the challenge on to
Pupils are given a very open task to work on initially
below), getting started and
finding all the solutions.
pupils of wide ranging abilities.
teacher funnels the suggestions to focus on particular
ideas
Clips MagicV1.wmv, MagicV2.wmv, MagicV3.wmv
and image MagicVA.jpg
Give pupils time to work on the problem on their own
Use Think pair share
Ideas about what you notice and then conjectures pupils
might make
Share different ways of recording
pose as well as solve problems,
make conjectures
problems and making conjectures, for example:
What do you notice?
Why is the number at the bottom always odd?
Can we justify that
A pupil conjectures that this is the case if you have 3 odd
numbers and 2 even numbers, but that if you have 3 even Write conjectures on the board.
numbers and two odd ones then the bottom number will
Encourage the whole group to work on an idea posed by
be even. Clip MagicV4.wmv
one of their class.
Will it always be odd?
I think the number at the bottom is odd because there are
more odds in the numbers 1-5 than evens.
If I can find two pairs of numbers that add to the same
total to go on the two arms of the V then it doesnt matter
which number goes at the bottom.
A pupil tries to find an example that satisfies this
conjecture:
Clip MagicV5.wmv

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## extend knowledge or apply

knowledge in new contexts

NRICH 2008

## I think that opposite numbers in the arms of the V will

have the same difference. See the clip MagicV6.wmv
for further explanation of this. The pupils in this clip
decide, wrongly, that this conjecture is incorrect.
Pupils who do not readily work in a systematic way can
gain insights into the value of being systematic and
organised in their thinking. Some pupils are able to see
why odd numbers must go at the bottom and the most
able are able to develop convincing arguments for what
will happen for any V.
A pupils explains that he tried putting an even number at
the bottom but then found he was left with three odds and
an even which dont make an even total and therefore
cant be split equally between the two arms. This proof
by contradiction is a higher-order skill that children rarely
use. The clip MagicV7.wmv exemplifies this. [This clip
also exemplifies the value of giving pupils thinking time.]
New knowledge can then be applied to different scenarios
such as crosses or, more challenging Hs.
The clip MagicV8.wmv shows a pupil trying a Magic
Cross.

## This does not require the application of high level content

knowledge but this means that proof and convincing
arguments associated with the setting can be shared and
understood. I have often seen generalisations produced
(for example if there are more odds an odd goes at the
bottom) that can be refuted. Refutation is a higher order
thinking skill that pupils rarely employ rigorously.

Page 43

## Encourage pupils to write down findings; the teacher could

demonstrate good recording methods to the class, or
could share ideas that the pupils have developed.
Provide materials (such as cards) for pupils to manipulate,
so they can have greater confidence to try some ideas
rather than aiming for an immediately correct solution.
See the clip MagicV6.wmv for an example of this.
[Discussion point: should we allow all children to choose
whether or not to use materials such as cards, or only
issue them to certain pupils?]
Have ideas for extending the problem ready but try to
encourage pupils to come up with ideas of their own with
you helping them to select fruitful routes
Encourage able pupils to generalise be ready with
counter examples to get them rethinking. For example
always an odd at the bottom does not work with the
numbers 2,3,4,5,6 so set them the problem with different
numbers.
What are the variables/what can we change?
how do you know that will always be the case
When tackling problems in new contexts (such as larger
Vs, crosses or, more challenging Hs). Ask pupils not only
to solve the problems but to describe what strategies they
re-employed.
What things worked and what didnt?
What was the same and what different

http://nrich.maths.org

## This task opens up a wide range of methods for finding

solutions and offers room for much discussion.
A pupil asks a friend to explain their idea with greater
clarity: clip MagicV9.wmv.
An alternative method is described in clip
MagicV10.wmv and image MagicVB.jpg. The five
numbers add to a total of 15, so once one number is
chosen to go at the bottom of the V (in this example, 5),
the rest (10) must be split equally between the two arms
of the V.

students problem-solving skills

## Being systematic is at the core of this problem.

This child demonstrates all the possible arrangements for
a certain magic total: clip MagicV12.wmv and image
MagicVC.jpg
Another child then explains how she uses the previous
clip to work out how many Magic Vs there are altogether:
clip MagicV13.wmv
Identifying pattern and generalisation then enables similar
problems to be tackled more efficiently (Have you seen
something like this before?)
explain patterns and relationships, conjecture, generalise
and predict.
At the highest levels they should justify their
generalisations using convincing arguments and proofs.

## Share different methods and discuss efficiency and

effectiveness. An efficient method is only useful if you can
use it.
For example: the sum of the numbers 1 5 is 15 to share
equally in the two arms an odd goes at the bottom and the
rest is shared so:
15-5 = 10, then 10/2 is 5. A total of 5 in each arm means
1+4 and 2+3.
15-3 = 12, then 12/2 is 6. A total of 6 in each arm means
1+5 and 2+4
In the clip MagicV11.wmv the teacher draws attention to
the efficient way that one group worked. They shared out
the task so they all tried different possibilities.
Share efficient and systematic recording methods and
approaches to the problem.
Ask pupils if they would tackle a similar problem in the
same or a different way next time. Why?
Where else has it been useful to be systematic in this
way?

mathematical content knowledge

## Less able pupils will be honing their number bond and

mental calculation skills. They can be encouraged to look
at different starting numbers and different sized Vs. Use
pieces of paper to layout and try things out.
Establishing rules for adding odd and even numbers
including simple proofs (picture proofs). For example
odd+odd=even might look like:
::::::.+.::::::=:::::::::::::
More able pupils can be encouraged to generalise rules
and assess peers on the rigour of their proofs.

NRICH 2008

Page 44

http://nrich.maths.org

## Aspect of a Rich Task

have potential to reveal
underlying principles or make
connections between areas of
mathematics

## What pupils might do

A powerful underlying concept here is the relationships
between even and odd numbers and sums of consecutive
numbers.

## Pupils are intrigued by identifying efficient and labour

saving strategies

## offer opportunities to observe

other people being mathematical
or the role of mathematics within
cultural settings

## As a teacher you can model efficient techniques for

solution to stimulate discussion
Now this is what I call efficient followed by modelling
the process.
I have also found pupils seeing patterns in underpinning
mathematics that I had not noticed and it is good for
pupils to see you having to struggle to understand
someone elses idea.

NRICH 2008

Page 45

## What teachers could do

See above re odds and evens.
That you can add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers in
a Magic V and it will still work. Although a Magic T looks
the same, if the trunk of the T is longer than the arms it
does not work why?
Where else is it useful to be systematic? Where have we
worked before where we have listed all possible
outcomes?
Dipping games rely on odds and evens can you arrange
to make sure that a particular person is left at the end.
Discussing efficient strategies
For example the method described above works because
it is efficient and there is a clear structure. How about
other methods, do they generalise?
Why do you like this method or someone elses method
more?
When pupils suggest ideas and strategies try to take on
the role of learner asking questions such as:
Why did you do that?
What should I do if
Would it work if I?
- even if you think you know.
In clip MagicV14.wmv and image MagicVD.jpg the
teacher explicitly draws attention to the use of proof by
contradiction as a powerful way to approach this problem.
Clip MagicV15.wmv shows the teacher highlighting how
findings from Magic Vs can be applied to other letter
shapes.

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 18

## This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.

Magic Vs
Place each of the numbers 1 to 5 in the V shape below so that the
two arms of the V have the same total.

## How many different possibilities are there?

What do you notice about all the solutions you find?
Can you explain what you see?
Can you convince someone that you have all the solutions?
What happens if we use the numbers from 2 to 6? From 12 to 16?
From 37 to 41? From 103 to 107?
What can you discover about a V that has arms of length 4 using
the numbers 1-7?

NRICH 2008

Page 46

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 19

for Activity 3

## NRICH www.nrich.maths.org problems linked to

the Framework for teaching mathematics in Foundation, Year 1 and Year 2
N.B. This is work in progress
Foundation

Year 1

Year 2

## Strand 1 - Using and Applying

Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve
practical problems

## Solve problems involving counting, adding, subtracting,

doubling or halving in the context of numbers, measures
or money, for example to 'pay' and 'give change'

## Solve problems involving addition, subtraction,

multiplication or division in contexts of numbers,
measures or pounds and pence
NRICH: The Brown Family

of objects

## Describe a puzzle or problem using numbers, practical

materials and diagrams; use these to solve the problem
and set the solution in the original context

## Identify and record the information or calculation needed

to solve a puzzle or problem; carry out the steps or
calculations and check the solution in the context of the
problem
NRICH: Birthday Cakes
NRICH: The Amazing Splitting Plant

## Answer a question by selecting and using suitable

equipment, and sorting information, shapes or objects;
display results using tables and pictures

and using suitable equipment and selecting, organising
and presenting information in lists, tables and simple
diagrams

## Describe simple patterns and relationships involving

numbers or shapes; decide whether examples satisfy
given conditions

## Describe patterns and relationships involving numbers or

shapes, make predictions and test these with examples
NRICH: Caterpillars

## Describe solutions to practical problems, drawing on

experience, talking about their own ideas, methods and
choices

## Describe ways of solving puzzles and problems,

explaining choices and decisions orally or using pictures

## Present solutions to puzzles and problems in an

organised way; explain decisions, methods and results
in pictorial, spoken or written form, using mathematical
language and number sentences

## Count reliably at least 20 objects, recognising that when

rearranged the number of objects stays the same;
estimate a number of objects that can be checked by
counting
NRICH: Making Sticks
NRICH: Biscuit Decorations

## Read and write two-digit and three-digit numbers in

figures and words; describe and extend number
sequences and recognise odd and even numbers
NRICH: Ring a Ring of Numbers
NRICH: Domino Sequences
NRICH: Domino Number Patterns
NRICH: Next Domino

## Strand 2 - Counting and Understanding Number

Say and use number names in order in familiar contexts

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org
Know that numbers identify how many objects are in a set

## Compare and order numbers, using the related

vocabulary; use the equals (equals) sign

## Count up to 100 objects by grouping them and

counting in tens, fives or twos; explain what each digit in
a two-digit number represents, including numbers where
0 is a place holder; partition two-digit numbers in
different ways, including into multiples of 10 and 1
NRICH: Grouping Goodies

## Read and write numerals from 0 to 20, then beyond; use

knowledge of place value to position these numbers on
a number track and number line
NRICH: Tug of War

## Order two-digit numbers and position them on a

number line; use the greater than (greater than) and less
than (less than) signs
NRICH: 100 Square Jigsaw

counting

## Say the number that is 1 more or less than any given

number, and 10 more or less for multiples of 10

## Estimate a number of objects; round two-digit

numbers to the nearest 10

## Count aloud in ones, twos, fives or tens

NRICH: Incey Wincey Spider

## Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of

shapes and sets of objects
NRICH: Halving
NRICH: Happy Halving

## Observe number relationships and patterns in the environment

and use these to derive facts

## Derive and recall all pairs of numbers with a total of 10

and addition facts for totals to at least 5; work out the
corresponding subtraction facts
NRICH: Cuisenaire Environment
NRICH: Domino Sorting

## Derive and recall all addition and subtraction facts for

each number to at least 10, all pairs with totals to 20 and
all pairs of multiples of 10 with totals up to 100
NRICH: Weighted Numbers
NRICH: Number Balance

## Count on or back in ones, twos, fives and tens and use

this knowledge to derive the multiples of 2, 5 and 10 to
the tenth multiple NRICH: Are You Well Balanced?
NRICH: Buzzy Bee

## Understand that halving is the inverse of doubling and

derive and recall doubles of all numbers to 20, and the
corresponding halves
NRICH: The Tomato and the Bean

## Recall the doubles of all numbers to at least 10

NRICH: Magic Plant

## Derive and recall multiplication facts for the 2, 5 and 10

times-tables and the related division facts; Recognize
multiples of 2, 5 and 10
NRICH: Clapping Times
NRICH: Lots of Lollies

## Use language such as 'more' or 'less' to compare two

numbers
Use ordinal numbers in different contexts
Recognise numerals 1 to 9

## Use knowledge of number facts and operations to

estimate and check answers to calculations

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org
Strand 4 Calculating
Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects
and subtraction to taking away

can be done in any order; use practical and informal
written methods to support the addition of a one-digit
number or a multiple of 10 to a one-digit or two-digit
number
NRICH: Number Lines
NRICH: Getting the Balance

## Add or subtract mentally a one-digit number or a multiple

of 10 to or from any two-digit number; use practical and
informal written methods to add and subtract two-digit
numbers
NRICH: Butterfly Flowers
NRICH: Number Round Up

## In practical activities and discussion begin to use the

vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting

## Understand subtraction as take away and find a

difference by counting up; use practical and informal
written methods to support the subtraction of a one-digit
number from a one digit or two-digit number and a
multiple of 10 from a two-digit number

## Understand that subtraction is the inverse of addition

and vice versa; use this to derive and record related
NRICH: Secret Number

## Use the vocabulary related to addition and subtraction

and symbols to describe and record addition and
subtraction number sentences
NRICH: 2,4,6,8

## Represent repeated addition and arrays as

multiplication, and sharing and repeated subtraction
(grouping) as division; use practical and informal written
methods and related vocabulary to support multiplication
and division, including calculations with remainders
NRICH: Share Bears

Share objects into equal groups and count how many in each
group

## Solve practical problems that involve combining groups

of 2, 5 or 10, or sharing into equal groups

## Use the symbols plus, -, multiplied by, divided by and

equals to record and interpret number sentences
involving all four operations; calculate the value of an
unknown in a number sentence (e.g. square divided by 2
equals 6, 30 square equals 24)

## Use familiar objects and common shapes to create and

recreate patterns and build models
NRICH: Chairs and Tables
NRICH: Repeating Patterns

## Visualise and name common 2-D shapes and 3-D solids

and describe their features; use them to make patterns,
pictures and models
NRICH: Building with Solid Shapes

## Visualise common 2-D shapes and 3-D solids; identify

shapes from pictures of them in different positions and
orientations; sort, make and describe shapes, referring
to their properties
NRICH: Matching Triangles
NRICH: Complete the Square
NRICH: Skeleton Shapes

## Use language such as circle or bigger to describe the shape

and size of solids and flat shapes

## Identify objects that turn about a point (e.g. scissors) or

about a line (e.g. a door); recognise and make whole,
half and quarter turns
NRICH: Turning

## Identify reflective symmetry in patterns and 2-D shapes

and draw lines of symmetry in shapes

## Use everyday words to describe position

NRICH: Coloured Squares

## Visualise and use everyday language to describe the

position of objects and direction and distance when
moving them, for example when placing or moving
objects on a game board
NRICH: 2 Rings

and movement

## Strand 5 Understanding Shape

NRICH 2008

Page 49

http://nrich.maths.org
Recognise and use whole, half and quarter turns, both
clockwise and anticlockwise; know that a right angle
represents a quarter turn
NRICH: Turning Man

Strand 6 - Measuring
Use language such as 'greater', 'smaller', 'heavier' or 'lighter'
to compare quantities

## Estimate, measure, weigh and compare objects,

choosing and using suitable uniform non-standard or
standard units and measuring instruments (e.g. a lever
balance, metre stick or measuring jug)
NRICH: Sizing Them Up
NRICH: Wallpaper

## Estimate, compare and measure lengths, weights and

capacities, choosing and using standard units (m, cm,
kg, litre) and suitable measuring instruments
NRICH: Little Man

## Use everyday language related to time; order and sequence

familiar events and measure short periods of time
NRICH: Snap

## Use vocabulary related to time; order days of the week

and months; read the time to the hour and half hour

## Read the numbered divisions on a scale, and interpret

the divisions between them (e.g. on a scale from 0 to 25
with intervals of 1 shown but only the divisions 0, 5, 10,
15 and 20 numbered); use a ruler to draw and measure
lines to the nearest centimetre
Use units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days) and
know the relationships between them; read the time to
the quarter hour; identify time intervals, including those
that cross the hour
NRICH: Stop the Clock

## Strand 7 - Handling Data

Sort familiar objects to identify their similarities and differences

## Answer a question by recording information in lists and

tables; present outcomes using practical resources,
pictures, block graphs or pictograms
NRICH: Noah

## Answer a question by collecting and recording data in

lists and tables; represent the data as block graphs or
pictograms to show results; use ICT to organise and
present data

## Count how many objects share a particular property,

presenting results using pictures, drawings or numerals

## Use diagrams to sort objects into groups according to a

given criterion; suggest a different criterion for grouping
the same objects
NRICH: Sort the Street

## Use lists, tables and diagrams to sort objects; explain

choices using appropriate language, including 'not'
NRICH: Carroll Diagrams

NRICH 2008

Page 50

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 20

for Activity 3

## NRICH www.nrich.maths.org problems linked to

the Framework for teaching mathematics in Years 3, 4, 5 and 6
Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 6-7

## Solve one-step and two-step

problems involving numbers,
money or measures, including
time, choosing and carrying out
appropriate calculations
NRICH: A Square of
Numbers

## Solve one-step and two-step

problems involving numbers,
money or measures, including
time; choose and carry out
appropriate calculations, using
calculator methods where
appropriate
NRICH: The Puzzling Sweet
Shop
Represent a puzzle or problem
using number sentences,
statements or diagrams; use
these to solve the problem;
present and interpret the
solution in the context of the
problem

## Solve one-step and two-step

problems involving whole
numbers and decimals and all
four operations, choosing and
using appropriate calculation
strategies, including calculator
use
NRICH: Money Bags
NRICH: Amys Dominoes
Represent a puzzle or problem
by identifying and recording the
information or calculations
needed to solve it; find possible
solutions and confirm them in
the context of the problem
NRICH: Sealed Solution
NRICH: Prison Cells

## Solve problems by breaking

down complex calculations into
simpler steps; choose and use
operations and calculation
strategies appropriate to the
numbers and context; try
alternative approaches to
overcome difficulties; present,
interpret and compare solutions
Represent information or
unknown numbers in a problem,
for example in a table, formula
or equation; explain solutions in
the context of the problem

## Suggest a line of enquiry and

the strategy needed to follow it;
collect, organise and interpret
selected information to find

## Plan and pursue an enquiry;

present evidence by collecting,
organising and interpreting
information; suggest extensions
to the enquiry

## Identify and use patterns,

relationships and properties of
numbers or shapes; investigate
a statement involving numbers
and test it with examples

## Explore patterns, properties and

relationships and propose a
general statement involving
numbers or shapes; identify
examples for which the
statement is true or false
NRICH: Up and Down
Staircases

## Solve multi-step problems, and

problems involving fractions,
decimals and percentages;
choose and use appropriate
calculation strategies at each
stage, including calculator use
NRICH: Two Primes Make
One Square
NRICH: Whats it Worth?
Tabulate systematically the
information in a problem or
puzzle; identify and record the
steps or calculations needed to
solve it, using symbols where
appropriate; interpret solutions
in the original context and
check their accuracy
NRICH: Counting Cards
Suggest, plan and develop lines
of enquiry; collect, organise and
represent information, interpret
results and review methods;
questions
Represent and interpret
sequences, patterns and
relationships involving numbers
and shapes; suggest and test
hypotheses; construct and use
simple expressions and
formulae in words then symbols
(e.g. the cost of c pens at 15
pence each is 15c pence)
NRICH: Sticky Triangles

## Represent the information in a

puzzle or problem using
numbers, images or diagrams;
use these to find a solution and
present it in context, where
appropriate using .p notation
or units of measure

## Follow a line of enquiry by

deciding what information is
important; make and use lists,
tables and graphs to organise
and interpret the information
NRICH: Sweets in a Box
Describe patterns and
relationships involving numbers
or shapes, and use these to
solve problems

NRICH 2008

Page 51

## Develop and evaluate lines of

enquiry; identify, collect,
organise and analyse relevant
information; decide how best to
represent conclusions and what
Generate sequences and
describe the general term; use
letters and symbols to represent
unknown numbers or variables;
represent simple relationships
as graphs

## Strand 2 - Counting and Understanding Number

http://nrich.maths.org
Describe and explain methods,
choices and solutions to
puzzles and problems, orally
and in writing, using pictures
and diagrams

## Report solutions to puzzles and

problems, giving explanations
and reasoning orally and in
writing, using diagrams and
symbols

## Explain reasoning using

diagrams, graphs and text;
refine ways of recording using
images and symbols

## Explain reasoning and

conclusions, using words,
symbols or diagrams as
appropriate
NRICH: Make 37
NRICH: Got It!

## Explain and justify reasoning

and conclusions, using notation,
symbols and diagrams; find a
counter-example to disprove a
conjecture; use step-by-step
deductions to solve problems
involving shapes

## Read, write and order whole

numbers to at least 1000 and
position them on a number line;
count on from and back to zero
in single-digit steps or multiples
of 10

## Recognise and continue

number sequences formed by
counting on or back in steps of
constant size

## Count from any given number in

whole-number and decimal
steps, extending beyond zero
when counting backwards;
relate the numbers to their
position on a number line
NRICH: Swimming Pool
NRICH: Tug Harder!
NRICH: First Connect Three

## Find the difference between a

positive and a negative integer,
or two negative integers, in
context
NRICH: Consecutive
Numbers
NRICH: Sea Level

## Compare and order integers

and decimals in different
contexts

## Partition three-digit numbers

into multiples of 100, 10 and 1
in different ways

## Partition, round and order fourdigit whole numbers; use

positive and negative numbers
in context and position them on
a number line; state inequalities
using the symbols less than and
greater than (e.g. -3 greater
than -5, -1 less than plus1)
Use decimal notation for tenths
and hundredths and partition
decimals; relate the notation to
money and measurement;
position one-place and twoplace decimals on a number
line

## Explain what each digit

represents in whole numbers
and decimals with up to two
places, and partition, round and
order these numbers

## Use decimal notation for tenths,

hundredths and thousandths;
partition, round and order
decimals with up to three
places, and position them on
the number line

## Order a set of fractions by

converting them to decimals

## Express a smaller whole

number as a fraction of a larger
one (e.g. recognise that 5 out of
8 is five eighths); find equivalent
fractions (e.g. seven tenths
equals fourteen twentieths, or
nineteen tenths equals 1nine
tenths); relate fractions to their
decimal representations

Recognise approximate
proportions of a whole and use
fractions and percentages to
describe and compare them, for
example when interpreting pie
charts

## Recognise the equivalence

between decimal and fraction
forms of one half, quarters,
tenths and hundredths

## Understand percentage as the

number of parts in every 100
and express tenths and
hundredths as percentages

## Express a larger whole number

as a fraction of a smaller one
(e.g. recognise that 8 slices of a
5-slice pizza represents eight
fifths or 1three fifths pizzas);
simplify fractions by cancelling
common factors; order a set of
fractions by converting them to
fractions with a common
denominator
NRICH: Chocolate
Express one quantity as a
percentage of another (e.g.
express pound400 as a
percentage of pound1000); find
equivalent percentages,
decimals and fractions

## Round two-digit or three-digit

numbers to the nearest 10 or
100 and give estimates for their
sums and differences

## Read and write proper fractions

(e.g. three sevenths, nine
tenths), interpreting the
denominator as the parts of a
whole and the numerator as the
number of parts; identify and
estimate fractions of shapes;
use diagrams to compare
fractions and establish
equivalents

NRICH 2008

Page 52

## Use ratio notation, reduce a

ratio to its simplest form and
divide a quantity into two parts
in a given ratio; solve simple
problems involving ratio and
direct proportion (e.g. identify
the quantities needed to make a
fruit drink by mixing water and
juice in a given ratio)

## Strand 3 - Knowing and Using Number Facts

http://nrich.maths.org
Use diagrams to identify
equivalent fractions (e.g. six
eighths and three quarters, or
seventy hundredths and seven
tenths); interpret mixed
numbers and position them on
a number line (e.g. 3 one half)
Use the vocabulary of ratio and
proportion to describe the
relationship between two
quantities (e.g. 'There are 2 red
red'); estimate a proportion (e.g.
'About one quarter of the apples
in the box are green')

## Use sequences to scale

numbers up or down; solve
problems involving proportions
of quantities (e.g. decrease
quantities in a recipe designed
to feed six people)
NRICH: Blackcurrantiest

## Solve simple problems involving

direct proportion by scaling
quantities up or down
NRICH: Orange Drink
NRICH: Pumpkin Pie
Problem

## Derive and recall all addition

and subtraction facts for each
number to 20, sums and
differences of multiples of 10
and number pairs that total 100

## Use knowledge of addition and

subtraction facts and place
value to derive sums and
differences of pairs of multiples
of 10, 100 or 1000

## Derive and recall multiplication

facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10
times-tables and the
corresponding division facts;
recognise multiples of 2, 5 or 10
up to 1000
NRICH: Growing Garlic
Use knowledge of number
operations and corresponding
inverses, including doubling and
halving, to estimate and check
calculations

## Identify the doubles of two-digit

numbers; use these to calculate
doubles of multiples of 10 and
100 and derive the
corresponding halves

## Use knowledge of place value

two-digit numbers to derive
sums and differences and
doubles and halves of decimals
(e.g. 6.5 plus over minus 2.7,
half of 5.6, double 0.34)
Recall quickly multiplication
facts up to 10 multiplied by 10
and use them to multiply pairs
of multiples of 10 and 100;
derive quickly corresponding
division facts

## Use knowledge of place value

and multiplication facts to 10
multiplied by 10 to derive
related multiplication and
division facts involving decimals
(e.g. 0.8 multiplied by 7, 4.8
divided by 6)
Use knowledge of multiplication
facts to derive quickly squares
of numbers to 12multiplied by12
and the corresponding squares
of multiples of 10
NRICH: One Wasnt Square

## Derive and recall multiplication

facts up to 10 multiplied by 10,
the corresponding division facts
and multiples of numbers to 10
up to the tenth multiple
NRICH: Multiplication Square
Jigsaw
NRICH: Shape Times Shape
NRICH: What do you Need?

## Identify pairs of factors of twodigit whole numbers and find

common multiples (e.g. for 6
and 9)
NRICH: Multiples Grid
NRICH: Music to my Ears
NRICH: Multiplication
Squares
NRICH: Flashing Lights

## Recognise that prime numbers

have only two factors and
identify prime numbers less
than 100; find the prime factors
of two-digit numbers
NRICH: Factors and
Multiples Game

## Recognise and use multiples,

factors, divisors, common
factors, highest common factors
and lowest common multiples in
simple cases
NRICH: What's in the Box?
NRICH: Factor-Multiple
Chains
NRICH: The Moons of Vuvv

## Use knowledge of rounding,

number operations and
inverses to estimate and check
calculations
Identify pairs of fractions that
total 1

## Use knowledge of rounding,

place value, number facts and
inverse operations to estimate
and check calculations

## Use approximations, inverse

operations and tests of
divisibility to estimate and check
results

## Make and justify estimates and

approximations to calculations

NRICH 2008

Page 53

## Consolidate rapid recall of

number facts, including
multiplication facts to 10
multiplied by 10 and the
associated division facts

## Recognise the square roots of

perfect squares to 12 multiplied
by 12

Strand 4 - Calculating

http://nrich.maths.org
combinations of one-digit and
two-digit numbers
NRICH: Super Shapes

## Add or subtract mentally pairs

of two-digit whole numbers (e.g.
47 plus 58, 91 - 35)
NRICH: Twenty Divided Into
Six

## Develop and use written

methods to record, support or
of two-digit and three-digit
numbers

## Refine and use efficient written

two-digit and three-digit whole
numbers and pound.p

## Multiply one-digit and two-digit

numbers by 10 or 100, and
describe the effect

## Multiply and divide numbers to

1000 by 10 and then 100
understanding the effect; relate
to scaling up or down
NRICH: The Deca Tree

## Use understanding of place

value to multiply and divide
whole numbers and decimals
by 10, 100 or 1000

## Use practical and informal

written methods to multiply and
divide two-digit numbers (e.g.
13 multiplied by 3, 50 divided by
4); round remainders up or
down, depending on the context

## Develop and use written

methods to record, support and
explain multiplication and
division of two-digit numbers by
a one-digit number, including
division with remainders (e.g.
15 multiplied by 9, 98 divided by
6)
Find fractions of numbers,
quantities or shapes (e.g. one
fifth of 30 plums, three eighths
of a 6 by 4 rectangle)
NRICH: A Bowl of Fruit
NRICH: Fractional Triangles

## Refine and use efficient written

methods to multiply and divide
HTU multiplied by U, TU
multiplied by TU, U.t multiplied
by U and HTU divided by U

## Understand that division is the

inverse of multiplication and
vice versa; use this to derive
and record related multiplication
and division number sentences
NRICH: Secret Number

NRICH 2008

## Extend mental-methods for

whole-number calculations, for
example to multiply a two-digit
by a one-digit number (e.g. 12
multiplied by 9), to multiply by
25 (e.g. 16 multiplied by 25), to
subtract one near-multiple of
1000 from another (e.g. 6070 4097)
Use efficient written methods to
numbers and decimals with up
to two places
NRICH: Reach 100

## Find fractions using division

(e.g. one hundredth of 5 kg),
and percentages of numbers
and quantities (e.g. 10percent,
5percent and 15percent of
pound80)

Page 54

## Calculate mentally with integers

and decimals: U.t plus over
minus U.t, TU multiplied by U,
TU divided by U, U.t multiplied
by U, U.t divided by U

## Use efficient written methods to

decimals, to multiply and divide
integers and decimals by a onedigit integer, and to multiply
two-digit and three-digit integers
by a two-digit integer
Relate fractions to multiplication
and division (e.g. 6 divided by 2
equals one half of 6 equals 6
multiplied by one half ); express
a quotient as a fraction or
decimal (e.g. 67 divided by 5
equals 13.4 or 13two fifths );
find fractions and percentages
of whole-number quantities
NRICH: Andys Marbles
NRICH: Would you Rather?
NRICH: Forgot the Numbers
Use a calculator to solve
problems involving multi-step
calculations

## Understand how the

commutative, associative and
distributive laws, and the
relationships between
operations, including inverse
operations, can be used to
calculate more efficiently; use
the order of operations,
including brackets
Consolidate and extend mental
methods of calculation to
include decimals, fractions and
percentages
NRICH: Route Product

## Use standard column

integers and decimals, and to
multiply two-digit and three-digit
integers by a one-digit or twodigit integer; extend division to
dividing three-digit integers by a
two-digit integer
NRICH: Two and Two
NRICH: Trebling
NRICH: All the Digits
Calculate percentage increases
or decreases and fractions of
quantities and measurements

## Use bracket keys and the

memory of a calculator to carry
out calculations with more than
one step; use the square root
key

## Strand 5 - Understanding Shape

http://nrich.maths.org
Find unit fractions of numbers
and quantities (e.g. one half,
one third, one quarter and one
sixth of 12 litres)
NRICH: Fair Feast

## Use a calculator to carry out

one-step and two-step
calculations involving all four
operations; recognise negative
numbers in the display, correct
mistaken entries and interpret
the display correctly in the
context of money

## Use a calculator to solve

problems, including those
involving decimals or fractions
(e.g. find three quarters of 150
g); interpret the display correctly
in the context of measurement

## Relate 2-D shapes and 3-D

solids to drawings of them;
describe, visualise, classify,
draw and make the shapes
NRICH: Building Blocks
NRICH: The Third Dimension

## Draw polygons and classify

them by identifying their
properties, including their line
symmetry
NRICH: Lets Reflect

## Describe, identify and visualise

parallel and perpendicular
edges or faces; use these
properties to classify 2-D
shapes and 3-D solids
NRICH: Where Are They?

## Use correctly the vocabulary,

notation and labelling
conventions for lines, angles
and shapes

## Draw and complete shapes with

reflective symmetry; draw the
reflection of a shape in a mirror
line along one side

## Visualise 3-D objects from 2-D

drawings; make nets of
common solids
NRICH: A Puzzling Cube

## Identify, visualise and describe

properties of rectangles,
triangles, regular polygons and
3-D solids; use knowledge of
properties to draw 2-D shapes,
and to identify and draw nets of
3-D shapes
NRICH: Square It
NRICH: Cut Nets
parallel and perpendicular lines
in grids and shapes; use a setsquare and ruler to draw
shapes with perpendicular or
parallel sides

## Make and draw shapes with

increasing accuracy and apply
knowledge of their properties
NRICH: Making Cuboids

## Extend knowledge of properties

and use these to visualise and
solve problems, explaining
reasoning with diagrams
NRICH: Nine-pin Triangles
NRICH: Transformations on
a Pegboard
NRICH: Cut it Out

## Read and record the vocabulary

of position, direction and
movement, using the four
compass directions to describe

## Recognise horizontal and

vertical lines; use the eight
compass points to describe
direction; describe and identify
the position of a square on a
grid of squares
NRICH: Square Corners
Know that angles are measured
in degrees and that one whole
turn is 360degrees; compare
and order angles less than
180degrees

## Complete patterns with up to

two lines of symmetry; draw the
position of a shape after a
reflection or translation

## Visualise and draw on grids of

different types where a shape
will be after reflection, after
translations, or after rotation
through 90degrees or
one of its vertices
Use coordinates in the first
complete shapes that meet
given properties
NRICH: A Cartesian Puzzle
NRICH: Eight Hidden
Squares

## Know the sum of angles on a

straight line, in a triangle and at
a point, and recognise vertically
opposite angles

## Use a set-square to draw right

angles and to identify right
angles in 2-D shapes; compare
angles with a right angle;
recognise that a straight line is
equivalent to two right angles

NRICH 2008

## Estimate, draw and measure

acute and obtuse angles using
an angle measurer or protractor
to a suitable degree of
accuracy; calculate angles in a
straight line
NRICH: Six Places to Visit

Page 55

## Use all four quadrants to find

coordinates of points
determined by geometric
information
NRICH: Coordinate Tan
NRICH: Ten Hidden Squares

http://nrich.maths.org

Strand 6 - Measuring

## Know the relationships between

kilometres and metres, metres
and centimetres, kilograms and
grams, litres and millilitres;
choose and use appropriate
units to estimate, measure and
record measurements

## Read, to the nearest division

and half-division, scales that
are numbered or partially
numbered; use the information
to measure and draw to a
suitable degree of accuracy

## Read the time on a 12-hour

digital clock and to the nearest
5 minutes on an analogue
clock; calculate time intervals
and find start or end times for a
given time interval
NRICH: Two Clocks

NRICH 2008

## Estimate angles, and use a

protractor to measure and draw
them, on their own and in
shapes; calculate angles in a
triangle or around a point
NRICH: How Safe Are You?

## Identify all the symmetries of 2D shapes; transform images

using ICT
NRICH: Symmetry Challenge
NRICH: Coordinate
Challenge
Construct a triangle given two
sides and the included angle

## Choose and use standard

metric units and their
abbreviations when estimating,
measuring and recording
length, weight and capacity;
know the meaning of 'kilo',
'centi' and 'milli' and, where
appropriate, use decimal
notation to record
measurements (e.g. 1.3 m or
0.6 kg)
Interpret intervals and divisions
on partially numbered scales
where appropriate to the
nearest tenth of a unit

## Read, choose, use and record

standard metric units to
estimate and measure length,
weight and capacity to a
suitable degree of accuracy
(e.g. the nearest centimetre);
convert larger to smaller units
using decimals to one place
(e.g. change 2.6 kg to 2600 g)

## Select and use standard metric

units of measure and convert
between units using decimals to
two places (e.g. change 2.75
litres to 2750 ml, or vice versa)

## Convert between related metric

units using decimals to three
places (e.g. convert 1375 mm
to 1.375 m, or vice versa)

## Interpret a reading that lies

between two unnumbered
divisions on a scale

## Solve problems by measuring,

estimating and calculating;
measure and calculate using
imperial units still in everyday
use; know their approximate
metric values

## Draw rectangles and measure

and calculate their perimeters;
find the area of rectilinear
shapes drawn on a square grid
by counting squares
NRICH: Torn Shapes

## Draw and measure lines to the

nearest millimetre; measure
and calculate the perimeter of
regular and irregular polygons;
use the formula for the area of a
rectangle to calculate the
rectangle's area
NRICH: Fitted

## Read and interpret scales on a

range of measuring
instruments, recognising that
approximate and recording
results to a required degree of
different scales, for example
when using different
instruments
Calculate the perimeter and
area of rectilinear shapes;
estimate the area of an irregular
shape by counting squares
NRICH: Numerically Equal

Page 56

## Calculate the area of rightangled triangles given the

lengths of the two perpendicular
sides, and the volume and
surface area of cubes and
cuboids
NRICH: More
Transformations on a
Pegboard

## Strand 7 - Handling Data

http://nrich.maths.org

collecting, organising and
interpreting data; use tally
charts, frequency tables,
pictograms and bar charts to
represent results and illustrate
observations; use ICT to create
a simple bar chart
Use Venn diagrams or Carroll
diagrams to sort data and
objects using more than one
criterion
NRICH: Venn Diagrams
NRICH: More Carroll
Diagrams

NRICH 2008

## Read time to the nearest

minute; use am, pm and 12hour clock notation; choose
units of time to measure time
intervals; calculate time
intervals from clocks and
timetables
NRICH: Wonky Watches
NRICH: Clocks

## Read timetables and time using

24-hour clock notation; use a
calendar to calculate time
intervals
NRICH: How Many Times?
NRICH: 5 on the Clock

identifying what data to collect;
organise, present, analyse and
interpret the data in tables,
diagrams, tally charts,
pictograms and bar charts,
using ICT where appropriate

## Describe the occurrence of

familiar events using the
language of chance or
likelihood

## Compare the impact of

representations where scales
have intervals of differing step
size

## Answer a set of related

questions by collecting,
selecting and organising
relevant data; draw
conclusions, using ICT to
present features, and identify
NRICH: Real Statistics

## Describe and predict outcomes

from data using the language of
chance or likelihood
NRICH: Domino Pick
NRICH: Odds or Sixes?
NRICH: Twelve Pointed Star
Game
NRICH: Same or Different?
Solve problems by collecting,
selecting, processing,
presenting and interpreting
data, using ICT where
appropriate; draw conclusions
and identify further questions to
NRICH: It's a Tie

## Construct frequency tables,

pictograms and bar and line
graphs to represent the
frequencies of events and
changes over time

## Construct and interpret

frequency tables, bar charts
with grouped discrete data, and
line graphs; interpret pie charts
NRICH: Match the Matches

set of data

## Describe and interpret results

and solutions to problems using
the mode, range, median and
mean

Page 57

## Understand and use the

probability scale from 0 to 1;
find and justify probabilities
based on equally likely
outcomes in simple contexts
NRICH: Roll These Dice

## Explore hypotheses by planning

surveys or experiments to
collect small sets of discrete or
continuous data; select,
process, present and interpret
the data, using ICT where
appropriate; identify ways to
extend the survey or
experiment
Construct, interpret and
compare graphs and diagrams
that represent data, for example
compare proportions in two pie
charts that represent different
totals
Write a short report of a
statistical enquiry and illustrate
with appropriate diagram