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NRICH
Integrating Rich Tasks

To find the materials go to the website:


http://nrich.maths.org
On the top right-hand side click on Courses.
Then click on the link to the Introduction to Integrating Rich Tasks.

Draft materials, 11/11/08

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Integrating Rich Tasks


Introduction
This series of professional development resources is designed to support
teachers working together, thinking about, and integrating rich tasks into
classroom practice.
The resources are divided into four phases of development giving time for
reflection and practice. They have been designed to be tackled in order but
we are aware that colleagues will be starting from different places and may
wish to step into and out of the activities according to their particular need.
Many of the resources involve using various materials. These documents are
found in the appendices.

Phase 1 - Thinking about rich tasks, problem-solving and higher-order


thinking skills
Activity 1.1
Activity 1.2
Activity 1.3
Activity 1.4
Activity 1.5

What makes a task rich? In this activity you will try out some
problems and then identify what makes them "rich".
How can we encourage higher-order thinking skills?
What is meant by higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)?
How do higher-order thinking skills relate to rich tasks and
problem solving?
How do pupils progress in their problem solving?

Phase 2 - Using rich tasks in the classroom


Activity 2.1
Activity 2.2

What do teachers do to support learners engaging with rich


tasks?
'HOTting up' your existing classroom materials.

Phase 3 - Integrating rich tasks into the whole curriculum


Activity 3

Integrating rich tasks into the whole curriculum.

Phase 4 - Reflection and review


Activity 4.1
Activity 4.2
Activity 4.3

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Peer observation
Evaluating a theme
Thinking about what to do next

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Activity 1.1 - What makes a task rich?


To help to answer this question we suggest that you try some unfamiliar
problems yourself. In this activity you are first asked to spend some time
working on a problem, ideally with a colleague, before trying to identify what
we mean by a 'rich' task and what would make doing the particular problem
you have studied a 'rich' activity for your pupils.
You will need the following resources:

List of attributes of rich tasks [Appendix 1]


Blank 'rich task' template [Appendix 2]
Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS1
Eggs in Baskets [Appendix 3]
Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets [Appendix 4]
Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS2 Got It [Appendix 5]
Exemplar template for Got It [Appendix 6]

What to do:

Try one of the suggested problems on your own or with another


colleague. [Appendix 3 or Appendix 5]
Look at the short list of attributes of a rich task described in Appendix 1.
Discuss how they link to your own experiences when solving the
problem.
Use the blank template (Appendix 2), which lists the attributes of a rich
task, to make your own notes about why the problem you have worked
on could be described as a rich task. Remember that a rich task does
not have to have all the attributes and much will depend on how it is
used in the classroom.
Join with other colleagues and compare your template with theirs.
You might like to finish by looking at the completed template for the
problem you tried (Appendix 4 or Appendix 6). These represent our
own experiences of using the tasks in classrooms so they may look
different to your own. There are of course many answers. It would
also be worth looking at the notes section of the problem on the
website.

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Activity 1.2 How can we encourage higher-order


thinking skills?
To help to answer this question here are two tasks for you to do which we
hope will help you to:

distinguish between problems that encourage higher-order thinking


skills and problems which don't
develop problems of your own that support higher-order thinking skills

In this activity we shall focus on what we are looking for in our pupils when
they are engaged in using higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).
You will need the following resources:

Set of cards for matching [Appendix 7]


Document of strategies for modifying tasks [Appendix 8]

The first task

The cards in Appendix 7 contain some lower-order questions and,


focusing on the same mathematical topic, some more challenging
questions - ones that require higher-order thinking skills. Pair them up.
Now, with colleagues, answer the following questions:
o What do you think higher-order thinking skills are?
o What do tasks that encourage higher-order thinking skills look
like?
Look at these notes on higher-order thinking skills and compare them
with your ideas. Are there any major differences? What is your
response to those differences?

The second task

Instead of replacing a lower-order problem with a different problem, we


can often modify it. How can we adapt lower-order maths problems so
they promote HOTS? Appendix 8 outlines four key strategies that will
help to increase the challenge of standard questions in the classroom:
o Here's the answer, what could the question be?
o Make up your own ...
o What if ...?
o All answers
Look at a problem you have recently set one of your classes and
discuss how it could be transformed into one requiring higher-order
thinking skills. Jot down your ideas and keep them for Activity 2.2

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Activity 1.3 What is meant by higher-order thinking


skills (HOTS)?
This task, and the one following it, builds on Activity 1.2
You will need the following resource:

Bloom taxonomy descriptor cards [Appendix 9]

Task

Bloom's taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing


complexity and ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The
descriptions of the skills are listed in Appendix 9]. Try to put them in
order of complexity. When you have done this, and discussed what you
think are the most challenging activities, you might wish to look at the
pyramid of skills known as Bloom's taxonomy at the foot of this page.

Think of a lesson you have recently given - what level of thinking were
you expecting of your pupils?

'Bloom's Taxonomy'
Bloom's Taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing complexity and ability to use
higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).

Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The
classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto:
Longmans, Green.

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Activity 1.4 How do higher-order thinking skills


(HOTS) relate to rich tasks and problem solving?
This task aims to identify how rich tasks and problem solving fit together.
You will need the following resources:

Bloom taxonomy descriptor cards [Appendix 9]


Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]
Problem-solving cycle [Appendix 11]
Rich task cards [Appendix 12]

Higher-order thinking skills are not about mathematical content knowledge.


Just like it is possible to engage in very hard questions that involve a high
level of content knowledge but few problem-solving skills, it is also possible to
identify very difficult problems that only need very low levels of mathematical
content knowledge. In the former case, you are going to need well-tuned
knowledge skills and in the latter, your HOTS.
What is a problem?
A problem is something you do not immediately know how to solve. There is a
gap between where you are and even getting started on a path to a solution.
This means that something that is a problem to your students is something
that they cannot get to grips with immediately and requires thinking and
playing time. By playing with the mathematics, patterns and connections often
reveal themselves. We need to arm our pupils with a repertoire of skills to
help them step into problems independently rather than immediately turning to
us as teachers to ask what to do! We can begin by selecting problems with
engaging starting points which invite pupils to step in (such as a game). Once
they get started, the richness comes from what happens next. Ideas begin to
emerge from playing with the initial situation and sometimes from posing
problems of their own.
What is problem solving?
The need to apply problem-solving techniques to a problem is an indicator
that it has the potential to be a rich task. Problem solving requires you to have
a problem to solve, which may be one you have been given or one you have
posed for yourself. The activity that we call 'problem solving' is a complex one
and can be considered as a cycle of activity (though the cycle often requires
us to move backward and forward whilst maintaining a general sense of
direction). There are many models of the problem solving cycle. Possibly the
most well known is the one described by Polya in his book How to Solve It
(1957), which is a must-read for those of us interested in improving our pupils'
problem-solving skills. Here is one we use at NRICH:

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(Appendix 11 is a larger version of the above which might be easier to read.)


The application of the problem-solving cycle is a high-order skill. Evidence
suggests that few pupils utilise the problem-solving cycle effectively. One
important thing to note is the emphasis the cycle places on the high-order
thinking skills described by Bloom. It is therefore not surprising that most
pupils do not naturally have a sense of where they are and what they might do
next. One of our aims when teaching mathematics is to help pupils become
familiar with this process and have confidence to use it.
See Polya, G. (1957). How to Solve it, Princeton University Press.
How do rich tasks, the problem-solving cycle and higher-order thinking
skills fit together?
Here is a task to help answer this question.
Task

Cut out the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and lay them
out.
Link them with the rich task description cards (Appendix 12) and with
the different aspects of Bloom's taxonomy (Appendix 9).

We feel that any problem has the potential to be a rich task but this depends
on us as teachers offering those opportunities to our pupils. We will talk about
this in Activity 2.1 .

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Activity 1.5 How do pupils progress in their problem


solving?
In the previous activity you were asked to think about the connections
between higher-order thinking skills, problem solving and rich tasks. In the
next set of activities we want to think about how we can support our pupils in
problem solving.
You will need the following resources:

Progression cards [Appendix 13]


Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]
For reference you may want to refer to the progression list
[Appendix 14]

Task
We have based this activity on the National Strategy's Primary Framework
Assessment Guidelines. We are not asking you to think about assessment but
about process skills and progression. The guidelines are based on three
areas: problem solving, reasoning and communicating.
There are two parts to this task. There is no 'right answer' to either part but
the activities are designed to make you think about:

the mathematical thinking and problem-solving skills you want your


learners to develop
the sorts of things your pupils will be doing
the development of thinking and problem-solving skills over time
(progression)

It is the discussion you have as you undertake the task which is key. By
making sense of phrases and describing what you mean by them in your own
words you will come to your own view about how they inform what you are
trying to help your pupils to learn.
First you will need a set of the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and
of the progression cards (Appendix 13).
[The Progression Cards are based on lists for Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 so you
might like to think about what would come before L2 and after L5.]
Lay the cycle cards out and then distribute the progression cards amongst
them. There will be quite a lot of discussion about what some of these mean.
Remember that there is no right answer and a lot depends on your
interpretation of a card's meaning. In the end you should put each card under
the heading that feels like the 'best fit'. Do not agonise for too long on each
card - you can change your mind at any time. When we did this task at NRICH
we moved things around quite a lot during the second part of the task!

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The second part of the task is about ordering the cards under each of the five
process headings. The aim of this part of the task is for you to think about
progression. What would you expect learners at different stages to be able to
do? When we did this task we found it useful to group cards that seemed to
be about similar things together before trying to order them. So, for example,
under Analysis-Reasoning we found a few cards that seemed to be about
'organising' so we pulled these out and put them in order .
The lists are not meant to be exhaustive so you might want to add some cards
of your own.
When you have finished the tasks you might find it useful to refer to the
progression list (Appendix 14) as this will enable you to map what you have
done to the Strategy document.

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Activity 2.1 What do teachers do to support learners


engaging with rich tasks?
This pair of tasks build particularly on Activities 1.1, 1.3 & 1.4. The aim is to
look at a problem and think about what we can do to help make it rich. This is
because, regardless of a problem's potential, the way it is used affects its
richness.
You will need the following resources:

Rich task cards [Appendix 12]


Rich task sheet - what teachers can do [Appendix 15]
What teachers do - master template sheet [Appendix 16]
Suggested NRICH problem [Appendix 18]
What teachers do - Magic Vs sheet [Appendix 17]

Task 1
Stick each of the rich task cards (Appendix 12) on a separate A3 sheet. As a
group, move around the sheets and add ideas for what you could do as
teachers to help support each aspect of a rich task. This will be very general
at this stage. If you need help some ideas are given on the what teachers can
do sheet (Appendix 15). These ideas will become more specific when applied
to a particular problem.
Task 2
Work on the NRICH problem Magic Vs (Appendix 18) so you feel confident
that you know it well.

Fill in the column of the master sheet (Appendix 16) labelled 'What
pupils could do'.
Now fill in the column 'What teachers might do'. As you do this, think
about the sorts of things you might do in the lesson to encourage pupils
to tackle the problem and behave in the ways you have suggested in
the middle column.

Appendix 17 is what we produced when we tried this at NRICH.

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Activity 2.2 'HOTting up' your existing classroom


materials
So far we have given you activities to work with that are on the NRICH
website. However, you probably have many activities you use in your own
lessons that have the potential to be rich, or richer. The aim of this activity is
to draw your attention to those problems and think about how you can use
them to develop higher-order thinking skills and problem-solving skills, and
what you might do to support this in the classroom.
You will need the following resources:

What teachers do - master template sheet [Appendix 16]


Notes you made during the second task in Activity 1.2

What to do:
This links to the work on higher-order thinking skills and Activity 2.1 on rich
tasks. Here the aim is for us to think about what we can do as teachers with
problems we already use. The emphasis is on what we do in the classroom
rather than adjusting the problem itself as we did in Activity 1.2.
Retrieve your jottings from the second task in Activity 1.2 and then, working in
a pair, consider what you would do to as a teacher to support this problem.
Use the blank template (Appendix 16) and the ideas of Activity 2.1 (where we
did a similar task for Magic V's) to help.
Why not share any good ideas with us at NRICH by emailing us?
nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

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Activity 3 Integrating rich tasks into the whole


curriculum
The aim of this activity is to integrate some rich tasks into curriculum planning.
Although there are other possibilities, at this stage we will look at two sources
for these tasks:

NRICH
exisiting schemes of work

All the work we have done so far should feed into this activity, which is
designed to be the starting point for a longer period of planning and
development. The long-term aim is for you to think about your teaching and
how it can be enhanced, but to start with you will need to select something
that is realistic and achievable. You can always extend what you do at a later
date.
You will need the following resources:

Your existing scheme of work


The NRICH curriculum mapping documents [Appendix 19 for KS1 and
Appendix 20 for KS2 but the versions online will be more recent]
The NRICH site - particularly the Maths finder, which you can find at
http://nrich.maths.org/public/leg.php

Task 1
First a reminder that we are not assuming that you are going to change
everything now, you are just making a start. For this reason, we suggest you
could begin by planning for a mathematical topic that you will teach this term.
There are many different approaches to planning for the integration of rich
tasks, for example you could:

Look at your current scheme of work and use the content mapping
documents to find problems that are a good fit with the particular topic
you are covering.
Consider what using and applying skills you want your pupils to
develop and use the process mapping documents to identify
appropriate problems. You might use these as one-off problems but
they will also address subject content knowledge so why not use them
when you are covering that topic in your scheme of work?
Identify a theme to work on for a longer period of time. Examples of
themes are:
o problems that employ several aspects of content knowledge (e.g.
factors and multiples)
o the development of problem-solving skills (the whole process)
o the development of particular mathematical thinking skills (e.g.
'working systematically' or 'visualising')
o an application of mathematics (e.g. time and its measurement)

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The mapping documents will help with the first two approaches suggested
above (content and process blocks). There are no specific documents
designed to support the third approach but the Maths finder and Packages on
NRICH can help. There is also a 'search NRICH' option found at the top of
every NRICH page.

You may want to access the Curriculum mapping documents on the website,
or use the versions provided in Appendices 19 & 20 (note the versions online
will be the most up-to-date).
Alternatively (or in addition) you could identify potentially rich tasks you are
already using and extend them in the ways you did in Activities 1.1 and 1.2.
What next? - Task 2
Whichever approach you take, for each problem you will need to spend time
thinking about why it is rich (for the problems from the NRICH mapping
documents this has already been done) and what you will need to do in the
classroom to support pupils in making the most of them (as in Activity 2.1). As
you try things out, you will refine ideas and will feed back to your colleagues
what worked well and why.
This is no small task and that it is why it is worth starting with something small
and achievable rather than trying to do everything all at once.
We will look at evaluation in the next Activity.

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Activity 4.1 Assessing your embedding of rich tasks


into the curriculum: Peer observation
Having started to embed rich tasks into your scheme of work you will need to:

assess what works and what does not


make decisions on how to extend your mapping
consider what further support you might need

This Activity, along with Activities 4.2 and 4.3 are designed to help you with
the above.
The best way to go about evaluating and reviewing a particular lesson is to
work with a colleague. However, what is suggested here can be used as a
means of self-reflection. Before the lesson you will need to prepare:

Your lesson plan


The "what teachers do" sheet [Appendix 16]

Either use this opportunity to do some peer observation, with a colleague


using the prepared observation/reflection sheet, or during and after the lesson
use the sheet to jot down some notes of your own.
Discuss or reflect on:

what was successful


what you would do differently next time
what key things pupils did that could be highlighted or drawn out more
in future

Use this to inform planning for next time.

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Activity 4.2 Assessing your embedding of rich tasks


into the curriculum: Evaluating a theme
Undertaking the same sort of observation/reflection activity as you did in
Activity 4.1 for individual lessons or a group of lessons is an important part of
evaluating the success of a theme or series of linked lessons within a gven
topic. In addition however, you need to look at the group of lessons more
holistically.
To do this you will need to consider:

the aims or learning objectives for this group of lessons including:


o what content you were hoping to cover
o what using and applying/problem-solving skills you were hoping
to address
o what connections you were hoping to make
o which aims were met/not met. Try to describe why and, where
appropriate, how things might be improved. This might involve
being more realistic about your aims or thinking of other ways in
which you might approach the theme or support pupils whilst
working on a theme.

how the pupils responded over all:


o did they enjoy it?
o did they reach the level of working you expected?
o did the work cater for their individual needs (were the support
and extension ideas and materials appropriate)?

Then update your planning documents:

How you will modify the theme in future? This might involve removing it
from your scheme of work or revising the 'what teachers do' sheet and
lesson plan.
List your recommended next steps. Include key points for colleagues
who might try the same theme themselves.

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Activity 4.3 Assessing your embedding of rich tasks


into the curriculum: Thinking about what to do next
Build on your experiences, adding in new material and trying it out. Using the
mapping documents can ensure a range of experiences for your pupils. It is
not enough to employ a concept or process once, you will need to revisit
these again and again, each time thinking about how the pupils will develop.
For example, when considering problem-solving skills, pupils will develop in
different ways, such as:

Becoming more independent with you having to do less supporting in


order for them to think of ideas of their own.
Applying more sophisticated content knowledge
Being more equipped to talk about their mathematics
More able to apply what they know in less familiar settings
Better able to make connections with things they have done before
Showing greater sophistication and organisation in their recording
methods.

How does your scheme of work allow this to happen?


The important thing to do is:
Reflect - evaluate - modify if necessary

At NRICH we are really interested in finding our more about your experiences.
Do email us so we can share your ideas and findings with others.
nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

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Appendix 1

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each pair of teachers

RICH TASKS
Current research evidence indicates that students who are given opportunities to
work on their problem solving enjoy the subject more, are more confident and are
more likely to continue studying mathematics, or mathematics related subjects,
beyond 16. Most importantly, there is also evidence that they do better in standard
tests.
Rich tasks can enable pupils to:

step into them even when the route to a solution is unclear, getting started and
exploring is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging abilities

pose as well as solve problems, make conjectures

work at a range of levels

extend knowledge or apply knowledge in new contexts

allow for different methods

have opportunities to broaden their problem-solving skills

deepen and broaden mathematical content knowledge

have potential to reveal underlying principles or make connections between areas


of mathematics

include intriguing contexts

have opportunities to observe other people being mathematical or see the role of
mathematics within cultural settings

See also: http://nrich.maths.org/public/viewer.php?obj_id=5662

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Appendix 2

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each teacher

Rich task template: Why is . a rich task?


Step into a problem even when the route to a
solution is unclear (see definition of a
problem below), getting started and exploring
is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities.
Pose as well as solve problems, make
conjectures

Work at a range of levels

Extend knowledge or apply knowledge in new


contexts

Allow for different methods

Offer opportunities to broaden students


problem-solving skills

Deepen and broaden mathematical content


knowledge

Have potential to reveal underlying principles


or make connections between areas of
mathematics

Include intriguing contexts

Offer opportunities to observe other people


being mathematical or the role of mathematics
within cultural settings

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Appendix 3

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each teacher of either


appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.


Notes about the task, including downloadable SMARTboard notebooks and other
materials are available on the site from: tinyurl.com/6ysepn
To download the SMARTboard file, click on the link. Then select Save As. It
may be necessary to type .notebook at the end of the filename and to change the
filetype to All files. Please check that you are running a new enough version of the
SMARTboard software (version 9.5 or later).

'Eggs in Baskets'
There are three baskets, a brown one, a red one and a pink
one, holding a total of ten eggs.
The Brown basket has one more egg in it than the Red basket.
The Red basket has three eggs less than the Pink basket.
How many eggs are in each basket?

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Appendix 4

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each teacher of either


appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6
Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets, showing how it can be used in the
classroom.
The version online include links to view the video-clips and images.
Aspects of a rich task

Ideas for teacher support

Introducing the task so that


the children can get started

The teacher encourages some general exploration of the


situation by changing the context (sweets rather than eggs) and
simplifying the problem (only 6 in total, as opposed to 10).
Rather than having three unknowns to begin with, as in the
NRICH problem, children start with one unknown (how many
sweets in the third bag?) and then two (what could be in the
second and third bags?).

The problem allows children


to make conjectures

Clip Eggs1.wmv
When shown the bag of four sweets, the children immediately
begin to make conjectures. One suggests the other two bags
will have one sweet each because 2 and 4 make 6. Then
another pupil suggests that there could be 2 in the second bag
and zero in the other.

The task allows children to


work at a range of levels

Clip Eggs2.wmv
Here the resources provided allow this child to work on the
problem in the way he feels comfortable, which is a good
assessment opportunity for the teacher.
Image EggsA.gif
This learner has recorded the possible combinations using
number sentences and has worked in a very systematic way.
Note the sum which has been squeezed in near the top of the
list it would be good to talk to him about the reasons for this.
(There is a repetition here so this might be worth discussing
too.)

The problem offers


opportunities for children to
use different methods

Clip Eggs3.wmv
Here the teacher draws attention to the childrens different ways
of representing the problem (drawing sweets, using numerals,
drawing dots, writing number sentences), emphasising why
each is helpful. Interestingly, some children chose to opt for a
different way following this discussion.
Image EggsB.gif
This pupil has chosen to represent five sweets in the quincunx
arrangement, like that on a dice. Perhaps this is to make
subsequent counting easier?

Eggs in Baskets offers


opportunities to broaden
students problem-solving
skills

Clip Eggs4.wmv
Having been shown there are two sweets in the first bag and
three in the second bag, the children talk about whether they
need to see the number of sweets in the third bag.
One says, 2 add 3 equals 5, add 1 equals 6.
So I dont need to X-ray the last one?
Another pupil responds, You do! Just to see
Youd like to check it using that?
Its still going to be 1.
This highlights the fact that it may be satisfying to check that our
conjectures are true before moving on.
See also image EggsA.gif

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Appendix 5

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each teacher of either


appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.


Notes about the task, including a projectable, online, interactive presentation of the
task are available from: tinyurl.com/5fmlao

GOT IT
GOT IT is an adding game for two. You can play against the computer or with
a friend.
Start with the GOT IT target 23.
The first player chooses a whole number from 1 to 4.
Players take turns to add a whole number from 1 to 4 to the running total.
The player who hits the target of 23 wins the game.
To change the game, choose a new GOT IT! target or a new range of
numbers to add on.

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Appendix 6

for Activity 1.1

a copy for each teacher of either


appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

RICH TASK TEMPLATE GOT IT

WHY IS GOT IT A RICH TASK?


Step into a problem even when the route to a
solution is unclear (see definition of a
problem below), getting started and exploring
is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities.

The game is an engaging one and pupils are often


motivated to find strategies in order to beat the
computer or, if you do not have access to the
interactivity, to beat the teacher.

Pose as well as solve problems, make


conjectures

Pupils often extend the problem to different target


numbers and a different range of numbers quite
naturally. Other extensions include choosing a
range of numbers that do not start at 1.

Work at a range of levels

Some pupils are excited to discover that the person


reaching 18 first will win. You can simplify the
starting point further with a lower target number and
smaller range of numbers. At the highest level the
generalisation to any target, any range requires
high-level thinking and analytical skills

Extend knowledge or apply knowledge in new


contexts

This is a different and engaging context to meet and


engage with mathematics

Allow for different methods

It is interesting to see the different ways in which


pupils come to an understanding of why their
strategy works.

Offer opportunities to broaden students


problem-solving skills

Working backwards is a very useful skill in this


case.
Generalising results to any target and range and
identifying the exceptions.

Deepen and broaden mathematical content


knowledge

In this task pupils are being asked to recognise and


explain patterns and relationships, conjecture,
generalise and predict.
At the highest levels they should justify their
generalisations using convincing arguments and
proofs.

Have potential to reveal underlying principles


or make connections between areas of
mathematics

For example the unexpected connection with


factors and multiples

Include intriguing contexts

It is not obvious that employing some mathematics


will guarantee that you can always win.

Offer opportunities to observe other people


being mathematical or the role of mathematics
within cultural settings

Pupils challenging the teacher or computer and


explaining what they will do next and why whilst
others observe and listen

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 7

for Activity 1.2

a copy for each pair of teachers (4 pages)

HOTS1
These cards contain some lower-order questions and, focusing on the same
mathematical topic, some more challenging questions - ones that require higher-order
thinking skills. Cut them out and pair them up.

1. Fractions

2. Triangles

What is half of 6?

Which of these shapes are triangles?

What is half of 10?


What is half of 2?

3. Fair Feast

4. Grab it!

Here is a picnic that Chris and Michael are going


to share equally:

Play on a blank 100 grid with a partner. Take


turns to choose a number. If your number can be
divided exactly by 2, score 2 points. If it can be
divided exactly by 3, score 3 points and so on.
(You can decide whether or not to count 1 and
the number itself.)
What are good numbers to pick? Why?
What's the best number to pick?
What are poor numbers to pick? Why?

Can you tell what each of them will have?

5. Take Away

6. Hard or Easy?

Work out the following take away (subtraction)


sums:

Look at the take away sums. Find the easiest, the


hardest, and three which are not hard or easy. Do
them and write down (or say) why you've chosen
these five sums.

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7. Making Sticks

8. Domino Sorting

Kimie and Sebastian were making sticks from


interlocking cubes. Kimie made blue sticks 2
cubes long. Sebastian made red sticks 3 cubes
long. They both made a lot of sticks.

Here are some dominoes taken out of a full set:

Sort them into two groups, one with an odd


number of spots and one with an even number of
spots.
Do you have any dominoes left over? Why, or
why not?
Now put the dominoes into pairs. The number of
spots on each pair of dominoes must make a total
of 5.

Kimie put her blue sticks end to end in a long


line. Sebastian put his red sticks end to end in a
line underneath Kimie's.

How many pairs can you make?


Can they make their lines the same length? How
many sticks could Kimie use? How many would
Sebastian put down? How long is the line
altogether?

Which dominoes are left over?


Can you pair them up in any different ways so
that each pair adds up to 5?

Can they make any other lines?


Which dominoes are left over now?
Are there any dominoes which are always left
over?
Can you explain why?

9. Seven Sticks

10. Near Doubles

Explore the triangles that can be made with


seven sticks of the same length.

Add these near doubles


20 + 2155 + 5648 + 50 ...etc

NRICH 2008

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11. The Hundred Game

12. Squares

This game is for two players. You need ten cards


with the digits 0 to 9 on them. It might also be
useful to have a two pieces of paper or card with
two boxes drawn on them to represent a twodigit number.

Plot the three points listed below and then find


the co-ordinates of the fourth point that is needed
to complete a square:

Turn the cards face down and mix them up. The
aim of the game is to make the closest number to
100. Each player takes one card to start with and
decides whether that is the units or tens digit of
their number and places it on their paper in front
of them. Each player then takes a second card
which becomes the missing digit of their twodigit number. The winner is the player whose
number is closer to 100. You could have a points
system so that the player with the closer number
scores 1 point and then play first to 10.

(b) (5,10) (9,10) (9,6)

(a) (2,2) (4,2) (2,4)

(c) (4,5) (3,6) (2,5)


(d) (5,5) (4,8) (7,9)
(e) etc.

What strategies do you have for winning?

13. Stringy Quads

14. Symmetry

You need a group of four people holding a loop


of string.

Draw all the lines of symmetry on these


quadrilaterals.

Make a quadrilateral with one line of symmetry.


Make a quadrilateral with two lines of
symmetry.
Make a quadrilateral with three lines of
symmetry.
Make a quadrilateral with four lines of
symmetry.
etc
What quadrilateral haven't you made?

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15. Addition
What is:
5+4?
3+9?
2+5?

16. U Two
You need a 1-50 number grid and a partner. Take
turns to draw a 5 square U shape on the grid.
Add up the two biggest numbers in your U. Keep
going until you can't fit any more Us on the grid,
adding on your score each time. The winner has
the bigger score. Your U could be upside down,
or on its side.

3+3?

17. Sharing

18. Place Value

Do the following division (sharing) sums.

Which of these numbers is bigger:

455 486 287 ...etc

78 or 87?
92 or 91?
99 or 101?

19. Square It

20. Multiples

With a partner take it in turns to mark any spot


on a square dotty grid (you should use different
colours).

List the numbers between 1 and 30 that are:

The winner is the first to have four marks that


can be joined by straight lines to form a square.

(b) in the three times table.

(a) in the two times table

Squares can be of any size and can be tilted.

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 8

for Activity 1.2

a copy for each pair of teachers

HOTS2
Encouraging Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
Instead of asking different questions, we can change the ones we usually ask. How
can you adapt ordinary maths questions so that they promote HOTS? Here are four
key strategies that will help you to increase the challenge of standard questions in the
classroom.
.

A. Here's the answer, what could the question be?


Instead of: 3+3, 4+3, 5+3, 6+3......
Ask: The answer is 8; what could the adding up sum be?
Instead of: What is the area of a rectangle which measures 4cm by 6cm?
Ask: If the area of a rectangle is 24cm2 what could its measurements be?
Lists of practice questions and closed questions can immediately be made more
challenging in this way, and this change allows children to show what they know and
can do. You may well be surprised by the quality of their work! Some children will
work systematically to produce their responses; this indicates that they have analysed
the numerical structure.
Make up some examples of your own.

B. Make up your own


Instead of: 456 - 354, 1008 - 783, 6666 - 3333, 7065 - 4999, ......
Ask: Choose the easiest and hardest subtraction sums, work them out, then make up
an easy and hard example for someone else, saying why you think there are easy and
hard.
Choosing requires analysis, making up new questions requires synthesis, and sharing
and discussing with another requires evaluation.
Can you make up some similar examples involving other operations? How about
other mathematical topics such as space and shape?

NRICH 2008

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C. What if?

Instead of: Find the different ways you can dress the teddy.
Ask: What if there were two teddies?
What if there were two hats as well?
What if there were three T-shirts?
What if... ?

Instead of: Put the L on the grid so that the sum of the squares it covers is 225.
Ask: What if the sum is different?
What if the shape is not an L?
What if the grid is the two times table?
What if...?
Offering choice often increases children's motivation and hence engagement in a task.
They have to understand the structure of the question in order to make sensible 'what
if' suggestions. They will need to identify what aspects of the problem can be varied analysis and synthesis.
Look at questions you have recently given your pupils to do. Can you think of
some what if questions.
How would you encourage pupils to come up with what if questions of their
own?
NRICH 2008

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D. All answers

Instead of: Make a symmetrical necklace with these beads.


Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know
you've got them all?

Instead of: Make a triangle by joining three dots.


Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know
you've got them all?

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 9

for Activity 1.3 & 1.4

a copy for each pair of teachers

BLOOMS DESCRIPTORS
Cut the cards out and put them in a line to reflect the order of development,
complexity and demand (which represent the higher order thinking skills).

Analysis

Evaluation

seeing pattern
organization of parts
recognition of hidden meanings
identification of components

compare and discriminate between


ideas
assess value of theories,
presentations
make choices based on reasoned
argument
verify value of evidence
recognize subjectivity

Question Cues: analyze, separate,


order, explain, connect, classify,
arrange, divide, compare, select,
explain, infer

Question Cues: assess, decide, rank,


grade, test, measure, recommend,
convince, select, judge, explain,
discriminate, support, conclude,
compare, summarize

Application

Knowledge

use information
use methods, concepts, theories in new
situations
solve problems using required skills or
knowledge

observation and recall of information


knowledge of dates, events, places
knowledge of major ideas
mastery of subject matter

Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate,


calculate, complete, illustrate, show,
solve, examine, modify, relate, change,
classify, experiment, discover

Question Cues: list, define, tell,


describe, identify, show, label, collect,
examine, tabulate, quote, name, who,
when, where, etc.

Comprehension

Synthesis

understanding information
grasp meaning
translate knowledge into new context
interpret facts, compare, contrast
order, group, infer causes
predict consequences

use old ideas to create new ones


generalize from given facts
relate knowledge from several areas
predict, draw conclusions
Question Cues: combine, integrate,
modify, rearrange, substitute, plan,
create, design, invent, what if?,
compose, formulate, prepare,
generalise, rewrite

Question Cues: summarize, describe,


interpret, contrast, predict, associate,
distinguish, estimate, differentiate,
discuss, extend

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 10

for Activity 1.4

a copy for each pair of teachers

Represent
Identify the mathematical aspects of a
situation or problem
choose between representations
simplify the situation or problem,
using appropriate variables, symbols,
diagrams and models
select mathematical information,
methods and tools to use.

Analyse
Use appropriate mathematical procedures
make mathematical diagrams that
represent a situation or the
information given

Analyse
Use mathematical reasoning
make connections within mathematics
and use knowledge of related
problems
visualize, be systematic, and identify
and classify patterns

calculate accurately
record methods, solutions and
conclusions

explore the effects of varying values


and make and begin to justify
conjectures and generalisations

estimate, approximate and check


working

Interpret and evaluate


form convincing arguments

work logically

Communicate and reflect


communicate findings effectively and
discuss results

consider the appropriateness and


accuracy of results and conclusions

engage with someone elses


mathematics

look at data to find patterns and


exceptions

consider the elegance and efficiency


of other approaches to the problem

relate findings to the original context,


identifying whether they support or
refute conjectures

make connections between the


current situation and outcomes, and
situations and outcomes they have
met before

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 11

for Activity 1.4

a copy for each teacher

The Problem-Solving Cycle


Represent
Identify the mathematical aspects of a situation
or problem
choose between representations
simplify the situation or problem, using
appropriate variables, symbols, diagrams and
models
select mathematical information, methods and
tools to use

Analyse
Use appropriate mathematical procedures
Communicate and reflect
communicate findings effectively and discuss results
engage with someone elses mathematics
consider the elegance and efficiency of other
approaches to the problem
make connections between the current situation and
outcomes, and situations and outcomes they have met
before

make mathematical diagrams that represent a situation


or the information given
calculate accurately
record methods, solutions and conclusions
estimate, approximate and check working

Use mathematical reasoning


make connections within mathematics and use
knowledge of related problems
visualise, be systematic and identify and classify
patterns
explore the effects of varying values and make and
begin to justify conjectures and generalisations
work logically

Interpret and evaluate

NRICH 2008

form convincing arguments


consider the appropriateness and accuracy of
results and conclusions
look at data to find patterns and exceptions
relate findings to the original context, identifying
whether they support
or refute conjectures
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Appendix 12

for Activity 1.4 & 2.1

a copy for each pair of teachers

RICH TASK CARDS


step into a problem even when the
route to a solution is unclear, getting
started and exploring is made
accessible to pupils of wide ranging
abilities

pose as well as solve problems,


make conjectures

work at a range of levels

extend knowledge or apply


knowledge in new contexts

have opportunities to broaden their


problem-solving skills

deepen and broaden mathematical


content knowledge

potentially reveal underlying


principles or make connections
between areas of mathematics

observe other people being


mathematical or see the role of
mathematics within cultural settings

experience intriguing contexts

employ different methods

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 13

for Activity 1.5

a copy for each pair of teachers (2 pages)

PROGRESSION CARDS
begin to develop own ways of recording

put the problem into their own words

begin to look for patterns in results as they


work and use them to find other possible
outcomes

recognise information that is important to


solving the problem, determine what is missing
and develop lines of enquiry

begin to organise their work and check results

respond to What if? questions

begin to understand and use formulae and


symbols to represent problems

review their work and approaches

begin to work in an organised way from the


start

review their work and reasoning,

break a several-step problem or investigation


into simpler steps

search for a solution by trying out ideas of their


own

check answers and ensure solutions make


sense in the context of the problem

select the mathematics they use in a wider


range of classroom activities, e.g.

check as they work, spotting and correcting


errors and reviewing methods

show understanding of situations by describing


them mathematically using symbols, words
and diagrams

check their methods and justify answers

talk about their findings by referring to their


written work

check their work and make appropriate


corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less
than 100 cannot give a total more than 200
and correct the addition

try different approaches and find ways of


overcoming difficulties that arise when they are
solving problems

choose their own equipment appropriate to the


task, including calculators

understand a general statement by finding


particular examples that match it

consider appropriate units

use and interpret mathematical symbols and


diagrams

consider efficient methods, relating problems


to previous experiences

use appropriate mathematical vocabulary

decide how best to represent conclusions,


using appropriate recording

use classroom discussions to break into a


problem, recognising similarities to previous
work

NRICH 2008

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develop an organised approach as they get


into recording their work on a problem

use examples and counter-examples to justify


conclusions

discuss their mathematical work and begin to


explain their thinking, e.g.

use related vocabulary accurately

draw simple conclusions of their own and give


an explanation of their reasoning

Use their own strategies within mathematics


and in applying mathematics to practical
context

explain and justify their methods and solution

when they have solved a problem, pose a


similar problem for a partner

Identify and obtain necessary information to


carry through a task and solve mathematical
problems

With support adopt a suggested model or


systematic approach

identify more complex patterns, making


generalisations in words and begin to express
generalisations using symbolic notation

With support begin to appreciate the need to


record and develop their own methods of
recording

identify patterns as they work and form their


own generalisations/rules in words

With support describe the strategies and


methods they use in their work

make a generalisation with the assistance of


probing questions and prompts

With support find a starting point, identifying


key facts/relevant information

make connections to previous work

With support listen to others explanations, try


to make sense of them, compare.
evaluate

make their own suggestions of ways to tackle


a range of problems

With support make connections and apply their


knowledge to similar situations

organise their work from the outset, looking for


ways to record systematically

With support move between different


representations of a problem e.g. a situation
described in words, a diagram etc.

organise written work, e.g. record results in


order

With support test a statement such as The


number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be
shared equally by 3 children

pose and answer questions related to a


problem

With support use apparatus, diagrams, role


play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem

predict what comes next in a simple number,


shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give
reasons for their opinions

With support use pictures, diagrams and


symbols to communicate their thinking, or
demonstrate a solution or process

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 14

for Activity 1.5

a copy for each pair of teachers (2 pages)

Progression Card List


Based on the National Strategy's Primary Framework Assessment Guidelines for mathematics L2, L3,
L4, L5 2008
L2
L2
L2
L2

1.0x
1.1
1.2
1.3

L2
L2
L2
L2
L2

1.4
1.5
2.0x
2.1
2.2

L2
L2

3.0x
3.1

L2

3.2

L2
L2

4.0x
4.1

L2

5.0

L3
L3
L3
L3
L3

1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
2.0

L3

2.1

L3

2.2

L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L3
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4
L4

3.0
3.1
3.2
4.0
4.1
4.2
5.0
6.0
6.1
7.0
7.1
7.2
1.0x
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
2.0
3.0x
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.0
4.1
4.2

select the mathematics they use in some classroom activities e.g. with support
With support find a starting point, identifying key facts/relevant information
With support use apparatus, diagrams, role play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem
With support move between different representations of a problem e.g. a situation described
in words, a diagram etc.
With support adopt a suggested model or systematic approach
With support make connections and apply their knowledge to similar situations
discuss their work using mathematical language, e.g. with support
With support describe the strategies and methods they use in their work
With support listen to others explanations, try to make sense of them, compare.
evaluate
begin to represent their work using symbols and simple diagrams, e.g. with support
With support use pictures, diagrams and symbols to communicate their thinking, or
demonstrate a solution or process
With support begin to appreciate the need to record and develop their own methods of
recording
explain why an answer is correct, e.g. with support
With support test a statement such as The number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be
shared equally by 3 children
predict what comes next in a simple number, shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give reasons for
their opinions
select the mathematics they use in a wider range of classroom activities, e.g.
use classroom discussions to break into a problem, recognising similarities to previous work
put the problem into their own words
choose their own equipment appropriate to the task, including calculators
try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving
problems
check their work and make appropriate corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less than
100 cannot give a total more than 200 and correct the addition
begin to look for patterns in results as they work and use them to find other possible
outcomes
begin to organise their work and check results
begin to develop own ways of recording
develop an organised approach as they get into recording their work on a problem
discuss their mathematical work and begin to explain their thinking, e.g.
use appropriate mathematical vocabulary
talk about their findings by referring to their written work
use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams
understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it
make a generalisation with the assistance of probing questions and prompts
review their work and reasoning,
respond to What if? questions
when they have solved a problem, pose a similar problem for a partner
develop own strategies for solving problems, e.g.
make their own suggestions of ways to tackle a range of problems
make connections to previous work
pose and answer questions related to a problem
check answers and ensure solutions make sense in the context of the problem
review their work and approaches
Use their own strategies within mathematics and in applying mathematics to practical context
present information and results in a clear and organised way, e.g.
organise written work, e.g. record results in order
begin to work in an organised way from the start
consider appropriate units
use related vocabulary accurately
search for a solution by trying out ideas of their own
check their methods and justify answers
identify patterns as they work and form their own generalisations/rules in words

NRICH 2008

Page 36

PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
R
R
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
C
R
R
R

http://nrich.maths.org
L5
L5

1.0
1.1

L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5

1.2
1.3
2.0x
2.1
3.0
3.0

L5
L5
L5
L5
L5
L5

3.1
3.2
3.3
4.0
4.1
4.2

L5

4.3

Identify and obtain necessary information to carry through a task and solve mathematical problems
recognise information that is important to solving the problem, determine what is missing and
develop lines of enquiry
break a several-step problem or investigation into simpler steps
consider efficient methods, relating problems to previous experiences
check results, considering whether these are reasonable, e.g.
check as they work, spotting and correcting errors and reviewing methods
solve word problems and investigations from a range of contexts
show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and
diagrams
organise their work from the outset, looking for ways to record systematically
decide how best to represent conclusions, using appropriate recording
begin to understand and use formulae and symbols to represent problems
draw simple conclusions of their own and give an explanation of their reasoning
explain and justify their methods and solution
identify more complex patterns, making generalisations in words and begin to express
generalisations using symbolic notation
use examples and counter-examples to justify conclusions

NRICH 2008

Page 37

PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
PS
C
C
C
C
R
R
R
R

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 15

for Activity 2.1

a copy for each teacher (2 pages)

A RICH TASK WHAT TEACHERS CAN DO


Aspects of a rich task
Step into a problem even
when the route to a solution
is unclear, getting started
and exploring is made
accessible to pupils of wide
ranging abilities.

Ideas for teacher support


Selecting appropriate tasks and problems for example those
with a low threshold and a high ceiling.
Asking pupils to spend a little time on their own then working in
pairs and then sharing ideas about what the problem is about
and how to get started
Think  Pair  Share
Encouraging some general exploration of the situation before
pinning things down
Considering and sharing different ways of representing the
information
Thinking about things like this you have seen before.

Pose as well as solve


problems, make conjectures

It is a challenge for pupils to pose their own problems so a first


step is to model asking what if questions yourself.
Encourage learners to think about the things they can vary in a
problem and to conjecture about the effect of any variation.
At the end of a problem ask what next? or If we had time
what might we do next?
Highlight occasions where pupils do pose their own problems
and share them with the group. Put unanswered questions and
conjectures on a board.
Use a conjecture board. When pupils come up with a
conjecture they write it up and get others to consider it and
either prove it or find a counter example
Encouraging and discussing different ways of tackling a
problem.
Interpreting and evaluating findings can offer opportunities to
work at a range of levels.
Think about problems with open starting points, open middles
and open ends these all contribute to allowing pupils to work
at different levels.
Generalisation enables extension and the use of algebra can
extend problems. Reflect on the algebra, when it is used, and
how it represents underpinning structure of a problem. For
example:
Why does .. generate a Fibonacci sequence?
Set problems that offer scope to extend knowledge or which are
set in new contexts.
Ask questions of learners that encourage them to make
connections:
Have you done something before that was similar?
What mathematics is in this problem?

Work at a range of levels

Extend knowledge or apply


knowledge in new contexts

Allow for different methods

NRICH 2008

Encourage a range of representations at the start of the work.


Discuss ideas for different approaches.
Discuss different approaches, their effectiveness and efficiency
at the end of the work.
Value different approaches as representing learners different
understandings and levels of confidence.
Realise that methods used often reflect learners progress,
areas of strength and weaknesses.

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Aspects of a rich task


Offer opportunities to
broaden students problemsolving skills

Deepen and broaden


mathematical content
knowledge

Ideas for teacher support


Talk about what a pupil is doing. For example:
How will you collect the data?
Was that a good method, are there other ways that might have
been more efficient?.
Can you be more systematic?
Can you generalise?
Use problems that offer challenging contexts in which can help
develop content knowledge
Highlight the mixture of skills pupils are bringing to bear of
problems:
In this problem you needed to be able to in order to .
Ask pupils what mathematics they used to tackle the problem,
new things they have learnt and what they feel more confident
about.

Have potential to reveal


underlying principles or
make connections between
areas of mathematics

Problems like this might not be as engaging at first sight their


fascination comes from the patterns or ideas they reveal as you
work on them. For example:
The relationship between square and triangular numbers might
come out of work on triangular numbers.
Games or problems that have the same underpinning
mathematics (e.g. nim or variations on noughts and crosses)

Include intriguing contexts

Use games or challenges.


Use problems that reveal interesting patterns.
Identify mathematics in unfamiliar settings. When you notice
some mathematics why not draw attention to it and use it. For
example the sun shining through the window, arrangements of
the desks, work on sports day such as laying out the track and
recording results.
When you see something intriguing in some mathematics draw
pupils attention to it. For example, an unexpected pattern in
geometry or arithmetic that needs to be explained. That two
shapes with the same volume look completely different. Make a
note on the board and ask pupils to think about it and return to it
at odd moments over a period of time.

Offer opportunities to
observe other people being
mathematical or the role of
mathematics within cultural
settings

Model being stuck sometimes.


Allow pupils to ask and work on problems you do not know the
answer to and say so. We will find out about this together
Use video and films related to mathematics being used or which
put mathematics in historical and cultural contests. For
example, when tackling a problem involving a Fibonacci
sequence show some examples of its occurrence in the world
around us. When talking about being stuck discuss what
mathematicians do. When doing work on time look at how this
has been measured in the past.

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 16

for Activity 2.1 & 2.2 & 4.1

a copy for each teacher (2 pages)

WHAT TEACHERS DO MASTER SHEET


Aspect of a Rich Task
step into a problem even when
the route to a solution is unclear,
getting started and exploring is
made accessible to pupils of wide
ranging abilities.

What pupils could do

pose as well as solve problems,


make conjectures

work at a range of levels

extend knowledge or apply


knowledge in new contexts

allow for different methods

NRICH 2008

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What teachers might do

http://nrich.maths.org

offer opportunities to broaden


students problem-solving skills

deepen and broaden


mathematical content knowledge

have potential to reveal


underlying principles or make
connections between areas of
mathematics

include intriguing contexts

offer opportunities to observe


other people being mathematical
or the role of mathematics within
cultural settings

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 17

for Activity 2.1

a copy for each pair of teachers (4 pages)

MAGIC Vs WHAT TEACHERS DO


Text in italics shows examples from a single lesson, with associated video-clips and images. This is not intended to be a model lesson.
Aspect of a Rich Task
What pupils might do
What teachers could do
step into a problem even when
By starting with the challenge of making a Magic V
Allow pupils to engage with the attributes of a Magic V by
the route to a solution is unclear
pupils wide ranging abilities can get into this problem.
identifying similarities and differences between a Magic V
(see definition of a problem
and a non-magic V.
Sharing early findings can move the challenge on to
Pupils are given a very open task to work on initially
below), getting started and
finding all the solutions.
exploring is made accessible to
(what questions could we ask about this?) and the
pupils of wide ranging abilities.
teacher funnels the suggestions to focus on particular
ideas
Clips MagicV1.wmv, MagicV2.wmv, MagicV3.wmv
and image MagicVA.jpg
Give pupils time to work on the problem on their own
Use Think pair share
Ideas about what you notice and then conjectures pupils
might make
Share different ways of recording
pose as well as solve problems,
The task lends itself readily to pupils posing their own
Ask questions such as:
make conjectures
problems and making conjectures, for example:
What do you notice?
Why is the number at the bottom always odd?
Can we justify that
A pupil conjectures that this is the case if you have 3 odd
numbers and 2 even numbers, but that if you have 3 even Write conjectures on the board.
numbers and two odd ones then the bottom number will
Encourage the whole group to work on an idea posed by
be even. Clip MagicV4.wmv
one of their class.
Will it always be odd?
I think the number at the bottom is odd because there are
more odds in the numbers 1-5 than evens.
If I can find two pairs of numbers that add to the same
total to go on the two arms of the V then it doesnt matter
which number goes at the bottom.
A pupil tries to find an example that satisfies this
conjecture:
Clip MagicV5.wmv

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work at a range of levels

extend knowledge or apply


knowledge in new contexts

NRICH 2008

I think that opposite numbers in the arms of the V will


have the same difference. See the clip MagicV6.wmv
for further explanation of this. The pupils in this clip
decide, wrongly, that this conjecture is incorrect.
Pupils who do not readily work in a systematic way can
gain insights into the value of being systematic and
organised in their thinking. Some pupils are able to see
why odd numbers must go at the bottom and the most
able are able to develop convincing arguments for what
will happen for any V.
A pupils explains that he tried putting an even number at
the bottom but then found he was left with three odds and
an even which dont make an even total and therefore
cant be split equally between the two arms. This proof
by contradiction is a higher-order skill that children rarely
use. The clip MagicV7.wmv exemplifies this. [This clip
also exemplifies the value of giving pupils thinking time.]
New knowledge can then be applied to different scenarios
such as crosses or, more challenging Hs.
The clip MagicV8.wmv shows a pupil trying a Magic
Cross.

This does not require the application of high level content


knowledge but this means that proof and convincing
arguments associated with the setting can be shared and
understood. I have often seen generalisations produced
(for example if there are more odds an odd goes at the
bottom) that can be refuted. Refutation is a higher order
thinking skill that pupils rarely employ rigorously.

Page 43

Encourage pupils to write down findings; the teacher could


demonstrate good recording methods to the class, or
could share ideas that the pupils have developed.
Provide materials (such as cards) for pupils to manipulate,
so they can have greater confidence to try some ideas
rather than aiming for an immediately correct solution.
See the clip MagicV6.wmv for an example of this.
[Discussion point: should we allow all children to choose
whether or not to use materials such as cards, or only
issue them to certain pupils?]
Have ideas for extending the problem ready but try to
encourage pupils to come up with ideas of their own with
you helping them to select fruitful routes
Encourage able pupils to generalise be ready with
counter examples to get them rethinking. For example
always an odd at the bottom does not work with the
numbers 2,3,4,5,6 so set them the problem with different
numbers.
Ask:
What are the variables/what can we change?
Ask pupils to prove it
Or ask
how do you know that will always be the case
When tackling problems in new contexts (such as larger
Vs, crosses or, more challenging Hs). Ask pupils not only
to solve the problems but to describe what strategies they
re-employed.
What things worked and what didnt?
What was the same and what different

http://nrich.maths.org

Aspect of a Rich Task

What pupils might do

What teachers could do

allow for different methods

This task opens up a wide range of methods for finding


solutions and offers room for much discussion.
A pupil asks a friend to explain their idea with greater
clarity: clip MagicV9.wmv.
An alternative method is described in clip
MagicV10.wmv and image MagicVB.jpg. The five
numbers add to a total of 15, so once one number is
chosen to go at the bottom of the V (in this example, 5),
the rest (10) must be split equally between the two arms
of the V.

offer opportunities to broaden


students problem-solving skills

Being systematic is at the core of this problem.


This child demonstrates all the possible arrangements for
a certain magic total: clip MagicV12.wmv and image
MagicVC.jpg
Another child then explains how she uses the previous
clip to work out how many Magic Vs there are altogether:
clip MagicV13.wmv
Identifying pattern and generalisation then enables similar
problems to be tackled more efficiently (Have you seen
something like this before?)
In this task pupils are being asked to recognise and
explain patterns and relationships, conjecture, generalise
and predict.
At the highest levels they should justify their
generalisations using convincing arguments and proofs.

Share different methods and discuss efficiency and


effectiveness. An efficient method is only useful if you can
use it.
For example: the sum of the numbers 1 5 is 15 to share
equally in the two arms an odd goes at the bottom and the
rest is shared so:
15-5 = 10, then 10/2 is 5. A total of 5 in each arm means
1+4 and 2+3.
15-3 = 12, then 12/2 is 6. A total of 6 in each arm means
1+5 and 2+4
Find all the solutions to V with 2,3,4,5,6 in your head
In the clip MagicV11.wmv the teacher draws attention to
the efficient way that one group worked. They shared out
the task so they all tried different possibilities.
Share efficient and systematic recording methods and
approaches to the problem.
Ask pupils if they would tackle a similar problem in the
same or a different way next time. Why?
Where else has it been useful to be systematic in this
way?

deepen and broaden


mathematical content knowledge

Less able pupils will be honing their number bond and


mental calculation skills. They can be encouraged to look
at different starting numbers and different sized Vs. Use
pieces of paper to layout and try things out.
Establishing rules for adding odd and even numbers
including simple proofs (picture proofs). For example
odd+odd=even might look like:
::::::.+.::::::=:::::::::::::
More able pupils can be encouraged to generalise rules
and assess peers on the rigour of their proofs.

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org

Aspect of a Rich Task


have potential to reveal
underlying principles or make
connections between areas of
mathematics

What pupils might do


A powerful underlying concept here is the relationships
between even and odd numbers and sums of consecutive
numbers.

include intriguing contexts

Pupils are intrigued by identifying efficient and labour


saving strategies

offer opportunities to observe


other people being mathematical
or the role of mathematics within
cultural settings

As a teacher you can model efficient techniques for


solution to stimulate discussion
Now this is what I call efficient followed by modelling
the process.
I have also found pupils seeing patterns in underpinning
mathematics that I had not noticed and it is good for
pupils to see you having to struggle to understand
someone elses idea.

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Page 45

What teachers could do


See above re odds and evens.
That you can add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers in
a Magic V and it will still work. Although a Magic T looks
the same, if the trunk of the T is longer than the arms it
does not work why?
Where else is it useful to be systematic? Where have we
worked before where we have listed all possible
outcomes?
Dipping games rely on odds and evens can you arrange
to make sure that a particular person is left at the end.
Discussing efficient strategies
For example the method described above works because
it is efficient and there is a clear structure. How about
other methods, do they generalise?
Why do you like this method or someone elses method
more?
When pupils suggest ideas and strategies try to take on
the role of learner asking questions such as:
Why did you do that?
What should I do if
Would it work if I?
- even if you think you know.
In clip MagicV14.wmv and image MagicVD.jpg the
teacher explicitly draws attention to the use of proof by
contradiction as a powerful way to approach this problem.
Clip MagicV15.wmv shows the teacher highlighting how
findings from Magic Vs can be applied to other letter
shapes.

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 18

for Activity 2.1

a copy for each teacher

This is a classroom task from the NRICH website.


Notes about the task, including more resources are available from: tinyurl.com/5vte3f

Magic Vs
Place each of the numbers 1 to 5 in the V shape below so that the
two arms of the V have the same total.

How many different possibilities are there?


What do you notice about all the solutions you find?
Can you explain what you see?
Can you convince someone that you have all the solutions?
What happens if we use the numbers from 2 to 6? From 12 to 16?
From 37 to 41? From 103 to 107?
What can you discover about a V that has arms of length 4 using
the numbers 1-7?

NRICH 2008

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http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 19

for Activity 3

a copy for each teacher (or use it on the website) (4 pages)

NRICH www.nrich.maths.org problems linked to


the Framework for teaching mathematics in Foundation, Year 1 and Year 2
N.B. This is work in progress
Foundation

Year 1

Year 2

Strand 1 - Using and Applying


Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve
practical problems

Solve problems involving counting, adding, subtracting,


doubling or halving in the context of numbers, measures
or money, for example to 'pay' and 'give change'

Solve problems involving addition, subtraction,


multiplication or division in contexts of numbers,
measures or pounds and pence
NRICH: Eggs in Baskets
NRICH: The Brown Family

Match sets of objects to numerals that represent the number


of objects

Describe a puzzle or problem using numbers, practical


materials and diagrams; use these to solve the problem
and set the solution in the original context

Identify and record the information or calculation needed


to solve a puzzle or problem; carry out the steps or
calculations and check the solution in the context of the
problem
NRICH: Birthday Cakes
NRICH: The Amazing Splitting Plant

Sort objects, making choices and justifying decisions

Answer a question by selecting and using suitable


equipment, and sorting information, shapes or objects;
display results using tables and pictures

Follow a line of enquiry; answer questions by choosing


and using suitable equipment and selecting, organising
and presenting information in lists, tables and simple
diagrams

Talk about, recognise and recreate simple patterns

Describe simple patterns and relationships involving


numbers or shapes; decide whether examples satisfy
given conditions

Describe patterns and relationships involving numbers or


shapes, make predictions and test these with examples
NRICH: Caterpillars

Describe solutions to practical problems, drawing on


experience, talking about their own ideas, methods and
choices

Describe ways of solving puzzles and problems,


explaining choices and decisions orally or using pictures

Present solutions to puzzles and problems in an


organised way; explain decisions, methods and results
in pictorial, spoken or written form, using mathematical
language and number sentences

Count reliably at least 20 objects, recognising that when


rearranged the number of objects stays the same;
estimate a number of objects that can be checked by
counting
NRICH: Making Sticks
NRICH: Biscuit Decorations

Read and write two-digit and three-digit numbers in


figures and words; describe and extend number
sequences and recognise odd and even numbers
NRICH: Ring a Ring of Numbers
NRICH: Domino Sequences
NRICH: Domino Number Patterns
NRICH: Next Domino

Strand 2 - Counting and Understanding Number


Say and use number names in order in familiar contexts

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Know that numbers identify how many objects are in a set

Compare and order numbers, using the related


vocabulary; use the equals (equals) sign

Count up to 100 objects by grouping them and


counting in tens, fives or twos; explain what each digit in
a two-digit number represents, including numbers where
0 is a place holder; partition two-digit numbers in
different ways, including into multiples of 10 and 1
NRICH: Grouping Goodies

Count reliably up to 10 everyday objects

Read and write numerals from 0 to 20, then beyond; use


knowledge of place value to position these numbers on
a number track and number line
NRICH: Tug of War

Order two-digit numbers and position them on a


number line; use the greater than (greater than) and less
than (less than) signs
NRICH: 100 Square Jigsaw

Estimate how many objects they can see and check by


counting

Say the number that is 1 more or less than any given


number, and 10 more or less for multiples of 10

Estimate a number of objects; round two-digit


numbers to the nearest 10

Count aloud in ones, twos, fives or tens


NRICH: Incey Wincey Spider

Use the vocabulary of halves and quarters in context

Find one half, one quarter and three quarters of


shapes and sets of objects
NRICH: Halving
NRICH: Happy Halving

Observe number relationships and patterns in the environment


and use these to derive facts

Derive and recall all pairs of numbers with a total of 10


and addition facts for totals to at least 5; work out the
corresponding subtraction facts
NRICH: Cuisenaire Environment
NRICH: Domino Sorting

Derive and recall all addition and subtraction facts for


each number to at least 10, all pairs with totals to 20 and
all pairs of multiples of 10 with totals up to 100
NRICH: Weighted Numbers
NRICH: Number Balance

Find one more or one less than a number from 1 to 10

Count on or back in ones, twos, fives and tens and use


this knowledge to derive the multiples of 2, 5 and 10 to
the tenth multiple NRICH: Are You Well Balanced?
NRICH: Buzzy Bee

Understand that halving is the inverse of doubling and


derive and recall doubles of all numbers to 20, and the
corresponding halves
NRICH: The Tomato and the Bean

Select two groups of objects to make a given total of objects

Recall the doubles of all numbers to at least 10


NRICH: Magic Plant

Derive and recall multiplication facts for the 2, 5 and 10


times-tables and the related division facts; Recognize
multiples of 2, 5 and 10
NRICH: Clapping Times
NRICH: Lots of Lollies

Use language such as 'more' or 'less' to compare two


numbers
Use ordinal numbers in different contexts
Recognise numerals 1 to 9

Strand 3 Knowing and Using Number Facts

Use knowledge of number facts and operations to


estimate and check answers to calculations

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Strand 4 Calculating
Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects
and subtraction to taking away

Relate addition to counting on; ecognize that addition


can be done in any order; use practical and informal
written methods to support the addition of a one-digit
number or a multiple of 10 to a one-digit or two-digit
number
NRICH: Number Lines
NRICH: Getting the Balance
NRICH: Ladybirds in the Garden

Add or subtract mentally a one-digit number or a multiple


of 10 to or from any two-digit number; use practical and
informal written methods to add and subtract two-digit
numbers
NRICH: Butterfly Flowers
NRICH: Number Round Up

In practical activities and discussion begin to use the


vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting

Understand subtraction as take away and find a


difference by counting up; use practical and informal
written methods to support the subtraction of a one-digit
number from a one digit or two-digit number and a
multiple of 10 from a two-digit number

Understand that subtraction is the inverse of addition


and vice versa; use this to derive and record related
addition and subtraction number sentences
NRICH: Secret Number

Count repeated groups of the same size

Use the vocabulary related to addition and subtraction


and symbols to describe and record addition and
subtraction number sentences
NRICH: 2,4,6,8

Represent repeated addition and arrays as


multiplication, and sharing and repeated subtraction
(grouping) as division; use practical and informal written
methods and related vocabulary to support multiplication
and division, including calculations with remainders
NRICH: Share Bears

Share objects into equal groups and count how many in each
group

Solve practical problems that involve combining groups


of 2, 5 or 10, or sharing into equal groups

Use the symbols plus, -, multiplied by, divided by and


equals to record and interpret number sentences
involving all four operations; calculate the value of an
unknown in a number sentence (e.g. square divided by 2
equals 6, 30 square equals 24)

Use familiar objects and common shapes to create and


recreate patterns and build models
NRICH: Chairs and Tables
NRICH: Repeating Patterns

Visualise and name common 2-D shapes and 3-D solids


and describe their features; use them to make patterns,
pictures and models
NRICH: Building with Solid Shapes

Visualise common 2-D shapes and 3-D solids; identify


shapes from pictures of them in different positions and
orientations; sort, make and describe shapes, referring
to their properties
NRICH: Matching Triangles
NRICH: Complete the Square
NRICH: Shadow Play
NRICH: Skeleton Shapes

Use language such as circle or bigger to describe the shape


and size of solids and flat shapes

Identify objects that turn about a point (e.g. scissors) or


about a line (e.g. a door); recognise and make whole,
half and quarter turns
NRICH: Turning

Identify reflective symmetry in patterns and 2-D shapes


and draw lines of symmetry in shapes

Use everyday words to describe position


NRICH: Coloured Squares

Visualise and use everyday language to describe the


position of objects and direction and distance when
moving them, for example when placing or moving
objects on a game board
NRICH: 2 Rings

Follow and give instructions involving position, direction


and movement

Strand 5 Understanding Shape

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Recognise and use whole, half and quarter turns, both
clockwise and anticlockwise; know that a right angle
represents a quarter turn
NRICH: Turning Man

Strand 6 - Measuring
Use language such as 'greater', 'smaller', 'heavier' or 'lighter'
to compare quantities

Estimate, measure, weigh and compare objects,


choosing and using suitable uniform non-standard or
standard units and measuring instruments (e.g. a lever
balance, metre stick or measuring jug)
NRICH: Sizing Them Up
NRICH: Wallpaper

Estimate, compare and measure lengths, weights and


capacities, choosing and using standard units (m, cm,
kg, litre) and suitable measuring instruments
NRICH: Little Man

Use everyday language related to time; order and sequence


familiar events and measure short periods of time
NRICH: Snap

Use vocabulary related to time; order days of the week


and months; read the time to the hour and half hour

Read the numbered divisions on a scale, and interpret


the divisions between them (e.g. on a scale from 0 to 25
with intervals of 1 shown but only the divisions 0, 5, 10,
15 and 20 numbered); use a ruler to draw and measure
lines to the nearest centimetre
Use units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days) and
know the relationships between them; read the time to
the quarter hour; identify time intervals, including those
that cross the hour
NRICH: Stop the Clock

Strand 7 - Handling Data


Sort familiar objects to identify their similarities and differences

Answer a question by recording information in lists and


tables; present outcomes using practical resources,
pictures, block graphs or pictograms
NRICH: Noah

Answer a question by collecting and recording data in


lists and tables; represent the data as block graphs or
pictograms to show results; use ICT to organise and
present data
NRICH: Ladybird Count

Count how many objects share a particular property,


presenting results using pictures, drawings or numerals

Use diagrams to sort objects into groups according to a


given criterion; suggest a different criterion for grouping
the same objects
NRICH: Sort the Street

Use lists, tables and diagrams to sort objects; explain


choices using appropriate language, including 'not'
NRICH: Carroll Diagrams

NRICH 2008

Page 50

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 20

for Activity 3

a copy for each teacher (or use it on the website) (7 pages)

Strand 1 - Using and Applying

NRICH www.nrich.maths.org problems linked to


the Framework for teaching mathematics in Years 3, 4, 5 and 6
(N.B. This is work in progress we would really appreciate your comments. Please email emp1001@cam.ac.uk)
Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 6-7

Solve one-step and two-step


problems involving numbers,
money or measures, including
time, choosing and carrying out
appropriate calculations
NRICH: A Square of
Numbers

Solve one-step and two-step


problems involving numbers,
money or measures, including
time; choose and carry out
appropriate calculations, using
calculator methods where
appropriate
NRICH: The Puzzling Sweet
Shop
Represent a puzzle or problem
using number sentences,
statements or diagrams; use
these to solve the problem;
present and interpret the
solution in the context of the
problem
NRICH: Buying a Balloon

Solve one-step and two-step


problems involving whole
numbers and decimals and all
four operations, choosing and
using appropriate calculation
strategies, including calculator
use
NRICH: Money Bags
NRICH: Amys Dominoes
Represent a puzzle or problem
by identifying and recording the
information or calculations
needed to solve it; find possible
solutions and confirm them in
the context of the problem
NRICH: Sealed Solution
NRICH: Prison Cells

Solve problems by breaking


down complex calculations into
simpler steps; choose and use
operations and calculation
strategies appropriate to the
numbers and context; try
alternative approaches to
overcome difficulties; present,
interpret and compare solutions
Represent information or
unknown numbers in a problem,
for example in a table, formula
or equation; explain solutions in
the context of the problem

Suggest a line of enquiry and


the strategy needed to follow it;
collect, organise and interpret
selected information to find
answers

Plan and pursue an enquiry;


present evidence by collecting,
organising and interpreting
information; suggest extensions
to the enquiry

Identify and use patterns,


relationships and properties of
numbers or shapes; investigate
a statement involving numbers
and test it with examples

Explore patterns, properties and


relationships and propose a
general statement involving
numbers or shapes; identify
examples for which the
statement is true or false
NRICH: Up and Down
Staircases

Solve multi-step problems, and


problems involving fractions,
decimals and percentages;
choose and use appropriate
calculation strategies at each
stage, including calculator use
NRICH: Two Primes Make
One Square
NRICH: Whats it Worth?
Tabulate systematically the
information in a problem or
puzzle; identify and record the
steps or calculations needed to
solve it, using symbols where
appropriate; interpret solutions
in the original context and
check their accuracy
NRICH: Counting Cards
Suggest, plan and develop lines
of enquiry; collect, organise and
represent information, interpret
results and review methods;
identify and answer related
questions
Represent and interpret
sequences, patterns and
relationships involving numbers
and shapes; suggest and test
hypotheses; construct and use
simple expressions and
formulae in words then symbols
(e.g. the cost of c pens at 15
pence each is 15c pence)
NRICH: Sticky Triangles

Represent the information in a


puzzle or problem using
numbers, images or diagrams;
use these to find a solution and
present it in context, where
appropriate using .p notation
or units of measure

Follow a line of enquiry by


deciding what information is
important; make and use lists,
tables and graphs to organise
and interpret the information
NRICH: Sweets in a Box
Describe patterns and
relationships involving numbers
or shapes, and use these to
solve problems

NRICH 2008

Page 51

Develop and evaluate lines of


enquiry; identify, collect,
organise and analyse relevant
information; decide how best to
represent conclusions and what
further questions to ask
Generate sequences and
describe the general term; use
letters and symbols to represent
unknown numbers or variables;
represent simple relationships
as graphs

Strand 2 - Counting and Understanding Number

http://nrich.maths.org
Describe and explain methods,
choices and solutions to
puzzles and problems, orally
and in writing, using pictures
and diagrams

Report solutions to puzzles and


problems, giving explanations
and reasoning orally and in
writing, using diagrams and
symbols

Explain reasoning using


diagrams, graphs and text;
refine ways of recording using
images and symbols

Explain reasoning and


conclusions, using words,
symbols or diagrams as
appropriate
NRICH: Make 37
NRICH: Got It!

Explain and justify reasoning


and conclusions, using notation,
symbols and diagrams; find a
counter-example to disprove a
conjecture; use step-by-step
deductions to solve problems
involving shapes

Read, write and order whole


numbers to at least 1000 and
position them on a number line;
count on from and back to zero
in single-digit steps or multiples
of 10

Recognise and continue


number sequences formed by
counting on or back in steps of
constant size

Count from any given number in


whole-number and decimal
steps, extending beyond zero
when counting backwards;
relate the numbers to their
position on a number line
NRICH: Swimming Pool
NRICH: Tug Harder!
NRICH: First Connect Three

Find the difference between a


positive and a negative integer,
or two negative integers, in
context
NRICH: Consecutive
Numbers
NRICH: Sea Level

Compare and order integers


and decimals in different
contexts

Partition three-digit numbers


into multiples of 100, 10 and 1
in different ways

Partition, round and order fourdigit whole numbers; use


positive and negative numbers
in context and position them on
a number line; state inequalities
using the symbols less than and
greater than (e.g. -3 greater
than -5, -1 less than plus1)
Use decimal notation for tenths
and hundredths and partition
decimals; relate the notation to
money and measurement;
position one-place and twoplace decimals on a number
line

Explain what each digit


represents in whole numbers
and decimals with up to two
places, and partition, round and
order these numbers

Use decimal notation for tenths,


hundredths and thousandths;
partition, round and order
decimals with up to three
places, and position them on
the number line

Order a set of fractions by


converting them to decimals

Express a smaller whole


number as a fraction of a larger
one (e.g. recognise that 5 out of
8 is five eighths); find equivalent
fractions (e.g. seven tenths
equals fourteen twentieths, or
nineteen tenths equals 1nine
tenths); relate fractions to their
decimal representations

Recognise approximate
proportions of a whole and use
fractions and percentages to
describe and compare them, for
example when interpreting pie
charts

Recognise the equivalence


between decimal and fraction
forms of one half, quarters,
tenths and hundredths

Understand percentage as the


number of parts in every 100
and express tenths and
hundredths as percentages

Express a larger whole number


as a fraction of a smaller one
(e.g. recognise that 8 slices of a
5-slice pizza represents eight
fifths or 1three fifths pizzas);
simplify fractions by cancelling
common factors; order a set of
fractions by converting them to
fractions with a common
denominator
NRICH: Chocolate
Express one quantity as a
percentage of another (e.g.
express pound400 as a
percentage of pound1000); find
equivalent percentages,
decimals and fractions

Round two-digit or three-digit


numbers to the nearest 10 or
100 and give estimates for their
sums and differences

Read and write proper fractions


(e.g. three sevenths, nine
tenths), interpreting the
denominator as the parts of a
whole and the numerator as the
number of parts; identify and
estimate fractions of shapes;
use diagrams to compare
fractions and establish
equivalents

NRICH 2008

Page 52

Use ratio notation, reduce a


ratio to its simplest form and
divide a quantity into two parts
in a given ratio; solve simple
problems involving ratio and
direct proportion (e.g. identify
the quantities needed to make a
fruit drink by mixing water and
juice in a given ratio)

Strand 3 - Knowing and Using Number Facts

http://nrich.maths.org
Use diagrams to identify
equivalent fractions (e.g. six
eighths and three quarters, or
seventy hundredths and seven
tenths); interpret mixed
numbers and position them on
a number line (e.g. 3 one half)
Use the vocabulary of ratio and
proportion to describe the
relationship between two
quantities (e.g. 'There are 2 red
beads to every 3 blue beads, or
2 beads in every 5 beads are
red'); estimate a proportion (e.g.
'About one quarter of the apples
in the box are green')

Use sequences to scale


numbers up or down; solve
problems involving proportions
of quantities (e.g. decrease
quantities in a recipe designed
to feed six people)
NRICH: Blackcurrantiest

Solve simple problems involving


direct proportion by scaling
quantities up or down
NRICH: Orange Drink
NRICH: Pumpkin Pie
Problem

Derive and recall all addition


and subtraction facts for each
number to 20, sums and
differences of multiples of 10
and number pairs that total 100

Use knowledge of addition and


subtraction facts and place
value to derive sums and
differences of pairs of multiples
of 10, 100 or 1000

Derive and recall multiplication


facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10
times-tables and the
corresponding division facts;
recognise multiples of 2, 5 or 10
up to 1000
NRICH: Growing Garlic
Use knowledge of number
operations and corresponding
inverses, including doubling and
halving, to estimate and check
calculations

Identify the doubles of two-digit


numbers; use these to calculate
doubles of multiples of 10 and
100 and derive the
corresponding halves

Use knowledge of place value


and addition and subtraction of
two-digit numbers to derive
sums and differences and
doubles and halves of decimals
(e.g. 6.5 plus over minus 2.7,
half of 5.6, double 0.34)
Recall quickly multiplication
facts up to 10 multiplied by 10
and use them to multiply pairs
of multiples of 10 and 100;
derive quickly corresponding
division facts

Use knowledge of place value


and multiplication facts to 10
multiplied by 10 to derive
related multiplication and
division facts involving decimals
(e.g. 0.8 multiplied by 7, 4.8
divided by 6)
Use knowledge of multiplication
facts to derive quickly squares
of numbers to 12multiplied by12
and the corresponding squares
of multiples of 10
NRICH: One Wasnt Square

Derive and recall multiplication


facts up to 10 multiplied by 10,
the corresponding division facts
and multiples of numbers to 10
up to the tenth multiple
NRICH: Multiplication Square
Jigsaw
NRICH: Shape Times Shape
NRICH: What do you Need?

Identify pairs of factors of twodigit whole numbers and find


common multiples (e.g. for 6
and 9)
NRICH: Multiples Grid
NRICH: Music to my Ears
NRICH: Multiplication
Squares
NRICH: Flashing Lights

Recognise that prime numbers


have only two factors and
identify prime numbers less
than 100; find the prime factors
of two-digit numbers
NRICH: Factors and
Multiples Game

Recognise and use multiples,


factors, divisors, common
factors, highest common factors
and lowest common multiples in
simple cases
NRICH: What's in the Box?
NRICH: Factor-Multiple
Chains
NRICH: The Moons of Vuvv

Use knowledge of rounding,


number operations and
inverses to estimate and check
calculations
Identify pairs of fractions that
total 1

Use knowledge of rounding,


place value, number facts and
inverse operations to estimate
and check calculations

Use approximations, inverse


operations and tests of
divisibility to estimate and check
results

Make and justify estimates and


approximations to calculations

NRICH 2008

Page 53

Consolidate rapid recall of


number facts, including
multiplication facts to 10
multiplied by 10 and the
associated division facts

Recognise the square roots of


perfect squares to 12 multiplied
by 12

Strand 4 - Calculating

http://nrich.maths.org
Add or subtract mentally
combinations of one-digit and
two-digit numbers
NRICH: Super Shapes

Add or subtract mentally pairs


of two-digit whole numbers (e.g.
47 plus 58, 91 - 35)
NRICH: Twenty Divided Into
Six

Develop and use written


methods to record, support or
explain addition and subtraction
of two-digit and three-digit
numbers

Refine and use efficient written


methods to add and subtract
two-digit and three-digit whole
numbers and pound.p

Multiply one-digit and two-digit


numbers by 10 or 100, and
describe the effect

Multiply and divide numbers to


1000 by 10 and then 100
(whole-number answers),
understanding the effect; relate
to scaling up or down
NRICH: The Deca Tree

Use understanding of place


value to multiply and divide
whole numbers and decimals
by 10, 100 or 1000

Use practical and informal


written methods to multiply and
divide two-digit numbers (e.g.
13 multiplied by 3, 50 divided by
4); round remainders up or
down, depending on the context

Develop and use written


methods to record, support and
explain multiplication and
division of two-digit numbers by
a one-digit number, including
division with remainders (e.g.
15 multiplied by 9, 98 divided by
6)
Find fractions of numbers,
quantities or shapes (e.g. one
fifth of 30 plums, three eighths
of a 6 by 4 rectangle)
NRICH: A Bowl of Fruit
NRICH: Fractional Triangles

Refine and use efficient written


methods to multiply and divide
HTU multiplied by U, TU
multiplied by TU, U.t multiplied
by U and HTU divided by U

Understand that division is the


inverse of multiplication and
vice versa; use this to derive
and record related multiplication
and division number sentences
NRICH: Secret Number

NRICH 2008

Extend mental-methods for


whole-number calculations, for
example to multiply a two-digit
by a one-digit number (e.g. 12
multiplied by 9), to multiply by
25 (e.g. 16 multiplied by 25), to
subtract one near-multiple of
1000 from another (e.g. 6070 4097)
Use efficient written methods to
add and subtract whole
numbers and decimals with up
to two places
NRICH: Reach 100

Find fractions using division


(e.g. one hundredth of 5 kg),
and percentages of numbers
and quantities (e.g. 10percent,
5percent and 15percent of
pound80)

Page 54

Calculate mentally with integers


and decimals: U.t plus over
minus U.t, TU multiplied by U,
TU divided by U, U.t multiplied
by U, U.t divided by U

Use efficient written methods to


add and subtract integers and
decimals, to multiply and divide
integers and decimals by a onedigit integer, and to multiply
two-digit and three-digit integers
by a two-digit integer
Relate fractions to multiplication
and division (e.g. 6 divided by 2
equals one half of 6 equals 6
multiplied by one half ); express
a quotient as a fraction or
decimal (e.g. 67 divided by 5
equals 13.4 or 13two fifths );
find fractions and percentages
of whole-number quantities
NRICH: Andys Marbles
NRICH: Would you Rather?
NRICH: Forgot the Numbers
Use a calculator to solve
problems involving multi-step
calculations

Understand how the


commutative, associative and
distributive laws, and the
relationships between
operations, including inverse
operations, can be used to
calculate more efficiently; use
the order of operations,
including brackets
Consolidate and extend mental
methods of calculation to
include decimals, fractions and
percentages
NRICH: Route Product

Use standard column


procedures to add and subtract
integers and decimals, and to
multiply two-digit and three-digit
integers by a one-digit or twodigit integer; extend division to
dividing three-digit integers by a
two-digit integer
NRICH: Two and Two
NRICH: Trebling
NRICH: All the Digits
Calculate percentage increases
or decreases and fractions of
quantities and measurements
(integer answers)

Use bracket keys and the


memory of a calculator to carry
out calculations with more than
one step; use the square root
key

Strand 5 - Understanding Shape

http://nrich.maths.org
Find unit fractions of numbers
and quantities (e.g. one half,
one third, one quarter and one
sixth of 12 litres)
NRICH: Fair Feast

Use a calculator to carry out


one-step and two-step
calculations involving all four
operations; recognise negative
numbers in the display, correct
mistaken entries and interpret
the display correctly in the
context of money

Use a calculator to solve


problems, including those
involving decimals or fractions
(e.g. find three quarters of 150
g); interpret the display correctly
in the context of measurement

Relate 2-D shapes and 3-D


solids to drawings of them;
describe, visualise, classify,
draw and make the shapes
NRICH: Building Blocks
NRICH: The Third Dimension

Draw polygons and classify


them by identifying their
properties, including their line
symmetry
NRICH: Lets Reflect

Describe, identify and visualise


parallel and perpendicular
edges or faces; use these
properties to classify 2-D
shapes and 3-D solids
NRICH: Where Are They?

Use correctly the vocabulary,


notation and labelling
conventions for lines, angles
and shapes

Draw and complete shapes with


reflective symmetry; draw the
reflection of a shape in a mirror
line along one side

Visualise 3-D objects from 2-D


drawings; make nets of
common solids
NRICH: A Puzzling Cube

Identify, visualise and describe


properties of rectangles,
triangles, regular polygons and
3-D solids; use knowledge of
properties to draw 2-D shapes,
and to identify and draw nets of
3-D shapes
NRICH: Square It
NRICH: Cut Nets
Read and plot coordinates in
the first quadrant; recognise
parallel and perpendicular lines
in grids and shapes; use a setsquare and ruler to draw
shapes with perpendicular or
parallel sides

Make and draw shapes with


increasing accuracy and apply
knowledge of their properties
NRICH: Stringy Quads
NRICH: Making Cuboids

Extend knowledge of properties


of triangles and quadrilaterals
and use these to visualise and
solve problems, explaining
reasoning with diagrams
NRICH: Nine-pin Triangles
NRICH: Transformations on
a Pegboard
NRICH: Cut it Out
NRICH: Quadrilaterals

Read and record the vocabulary


of position, direction and
movement, using the four
compass directions to describe
movement about a grid

Recognise horizontal and


vertical lines; use the eight
compass points to describe
direction; describe and identify
the position of a square on a
grid of squares
NRICH: Square Corners
Know that angles are measured
in degrees and that one whole
turn is 360degrees; compare
and order angles less than
180degrees

Complete patterns with up to


two lines of symmetry; draw the
position of a shape after a
reflection or translation

Visualise and draw on grids of


different types where a shape
will be after reflection, after
translations, or after rotation
through 90degrees or
180degrees about its centre or
one of its vertices
Use coordinates in the first
quadrant to draw, locate and
complete shapes that meet
given properties
NRICH: A Cartesian Puzzle
NRICH: Eight Hidden
Squares

Know the sum of angles on a


straight line, in a triangle and at
a point, and recognise vertically
opposite angles

Use a set-square to draw right


angles and to identify right
angles in 2-D shapes; compare
angles with a right angle;
recognise that a straight line is
equivalent to two right angles

NRICH 2008

Estimate, draw and measure


acute and obtuse angles using
an angle measurer or protractor
to a suitable degree of
accuracy; calculate angles in a
straight line
NRICH: Six Places to Visit

Page 55

Use all four quadrants to find


coordinates of points
determined by geometric
information
NRICH: Coordinate Tan
NRICH: Ten Hidden Squares

http://nrich.maths.org

Strand 6 - Measuring

Know the relationships between


kilometres and metres, metres
and centimetres, kilograms and
grams, litres and millilitres;
choose and use appropriate
units to estimate, measure and
record measurements

Read, to the nearest division


and half-division, scales that
are numbered or partially
numbered; use the information
to measure and draw to a
suitable degree of accuracy

Read the time on a 12-hour


digital clock and to the nearest
5 minutes on an analogue
clock; calculate time intervals
and find start or end times for a
given time interval
NRICH: Two Clocks

NRICH 2008

Estimate angles, and use a


protractor to measure and draw
them, on their own and in
shapes; calculate angles in a
triangle or around a point
NRICH: How Safe Are You?

Identify all the symmetries of 2D shapes; transform images


using ICT
NRICH: Symmetry Challenge
NRICH: Coordinate
Challenge
Construct a triangle given two
sides and the included angle

Choose and use standard


metric units and their
abbreviations when estimating,
measuring and recording
length, weight and capacity;
know the meaning of 'kilo',
'centi' and 'milli' and, where
appropriate, use decimal
notation to record
measurements (e.g. 1.3 m or
0.6 kg)
Interpret intervals and divisions
on partially numbered scales
and record readings accurately,
where appropriate to the
nearest tenth of a unit

Read, choose, use and record


standard metric units to
estimate and measure length,
weight and capacity to a
suitable degree of accuracy
(e.g. the nearest centimetre);
convert larger to smaller units
using decimals to one place
(e.g. change 2.6 kg to 2600 g)

Select and use standard metric


units of measure and convert
between units using decimals to
two places (e.g. change 2.75
litres to 2750 ml, or vice versa)

Convert between related metric


units using decimals to three
places (e.g. convert 1375 mm
to 1.375 m, or vice versa)

Interpret a reading that lies


between two unnumbered
divisions on a scale

Solve problems by measuring,


estimating and calculating;
measure and calculate using
imperial units still in everyday
use; know their approximate
metric values

Draw rectangles and measure


and calculate their perimeters;
find the area of rectilinear
shapes drawn on a square grid
by counting squares
NRICH: Torn Shapes

Draw and measure lines to the


nearest millimetre; measure
and calculate the perimeter of
regular and irregular polygons;
use the formula for the area of a
rectangle to calculate the
rectangle's area
NRICH: Fitted

Read and interpret scales on a


range of measuring
instruments, recognising that
the measurement made is
approximate and recording
results to a required degree of
accuracy; compare readings on
different scales, for example
when using different
instruments
Calculate the perimeter and
area of rectilinear shapes;
estimate the area of an irregular
shape by counting squares
NRICH: Numerically Equal

Page 56

Calculate the area of rightangled triangles given the


lengths of the two perpendicular
sides, and the volume and
surface area of cubes and
cuboids
NRICH: Brush Loads
NRICH: More
Transformations on a
Pegboard

Strand 7 - Handling Data

http://nrich.maths.org

Answer a question by
collecting, organising and
interpreting data; use tally
charts, frequency tables,
pictograms and bar charts to
represent results and illustrate
observations; use ICT to create
a simple bar chart
Use Venn diagrams or Carroll
diagrams to sort data and
objects using more than one
criterion
NRICH: Venn Diagrams
NRICH: More Carroll
Diagrams

NRICH 2008

Read time to the nearest


minute; use am, pm and 12hour clock notation; choose
units of time to measure time
intervals; calculate time
intervals from clocks and
timetables
NRICH: Wonky Watches
NRICH: Clocks

Read timetables and time using


24-hour clock notation; use a
calendar to calculate time
intervals
NRICH: How Many Times?
NRICH: 5 on the Clock

Answer a question by
identifying what data to collect;
organise, present, analyse and
interpret the data in tables,
diagrams, tally charts,
pictograms and bar charts,
using ICT where appropriate

Describe the occurrence of


familiar events using the
language of chance or
likelihood

Compare the impact of


representations where scales
have intervals of differing step
size

Answer a set of related


questions by collecting,
selecting and organising
relevant data; draw
conclusions, using ICT to
present features, and identify
further questions to ask
NRICH: Real Statistics

Describe and predict outcomes


from data using the language of
chance or likelihood
NRICH: Domino Pick
NRICH: Odds or Sixes?
NRICH: Twelve Pointed Star
Game
NRICH: Same or Different?
Solve problems by collecting,
selecting, processing,
presenting and interpreting
data, using ICT where
appropriate; draw conclusions
and identify further questions to
ask
NRICH: It's a Tie

Construct frequency tables,


pictograms and bar and line
graphs to represent the
frequencies of events and
changes over time

Construct and interpret


frequency tables, bar charts
with grouped discrete data, and
line graphs; interpret pie charts
NRICH: Match the Matches

Find and interpret the mode of a


set of data

Describe and interpret results


and solutions to problems using
the mode, range, median and
mean

Page 57

Understand and use the


probability scale from 0 to 1;
find and justify probabilities
based on equally likely
outcomes in simple contexts
NRICH: Roll These Dice

Explore hypotheses by planning


surveys or experiments to
collect small sets of discrete or
continuous data; select,
process, present and interpret
the data, using ICT where
appropriate; identify ways to
extend the survey or
experiment
Construct, interpret and
compare graphs and diagrams
that represent data, for example
compare proportions in two pie
charts that represent different
totals
Write a short report of a
statistical enquiry and illustrate
with appropriate diagram