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http://nrich.maths.org/public/viewer.php?obj_id=6089

NRICH

Integrating Rich Tasks

http://nrich.maths.org

On the top right-hand side click on Courses.

Then click on the link to the Introduction to Integrating Rich Tasks.

NRICH 2008

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Introduction

This series of professional development resources is designed to support

teachers working together, thinking about, and integrating rich tasks into

classroom practice.

The resources are divided into four phases of development giving time for

reflection and practice. They have been designed to be tackled in order but

we are aware that colleagues will be starting from different places and may

wish to step into and out of the activities according to their particular need.

Many of the resources involve using various materials. These documents are

found in the appendices.

thinking skills

Activity 1.1

Activity 1.2

Activity 1.3

Activity 1.4

Activity 1.5

What makes a task rich? In this activity you will try out some

problems and then identify what makes them "rich".

How can we encourage higher-order thinking skills?

What is meant by higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)?

How do higher-order thinking skills relate to rich tasks and

problem solving?

How do pupils progress in their problem solving?

Activity 2.1

Activity 2.2

tasks?

'HOTting up' your existing classroom materials.

Activity 3

Activity 4.1

Activity 4.2

Activity 4.3

NRICH 2008

Peer observation

Evaluating a theme

Thinking about what to do next

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To help to answer this question we suggest that you try some unfamiliar

problems yourself. In this activity you are first asked to spend some time

working on a problem, ideally with a colleague, before trying to identify what

we mean by a 'rich' task and what would make doing the particular problem

you have studied a 'rich' activity for your pupils.

You will need the following resources:

Blank 'rich task' template [Appendix 2]

Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS1

Eggs in Baskets [Appendix 3]

Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets [Appendix 4]

Suggested NRICH problem aimed at KS2 Got It [Appendix 5]

Exemplar template for Got It [Appendix 6]

What to do:

colleague. [Appendix 3 or Appendix 5]

Look at the short list of attributes of a rich task described in Appendix 1.

Discuss how they link to your own experiences when solving the

problem.

Use the blank template (Appendix 2), which lists the attributes of a rich

task, to make your own notes about why the problem you have worked

on could be described as a rich task. Remember that a rich task does

not have to have all the attributes and much will depend on how it is

used in the classroom.

Join with other colleagues and compare your template with theirs.

You might like to finish by looking at the completed template for the

problem you tried (Appendix 4 or Appendix 6). These represent our

own experiences of using the tasks in classrooms so they may look

different to your own. There are of course many answers. It would

also be worth looking at the notes section of the problem on the

website.

NRICH 2008

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thinking skills?

To help to answer this question here are two tasks for you to do which we

hope will help you to:

skills and problems which don't

develop problems of your own that support higher-order thinking skills

In this activity we shall focus on what we are looking for in our pupils when

they are engaged in using higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).

You will need the following resources:

Document of strategies for modifying tasks [Appendix 8]

focusing on the same mathematical topic, some more challenging

questions - ones that require higher-order thinking skills. Pair them up.

Now, with colleagues, answer the following questions:

o What do you think higher-order thinking skills are?

o What do tasks that encourage higher-order thinking skills look

like?

Look at these notes on higher-order thinking skills and compare them

with your ideas. Are there any major differences? What is your

response to those differences?

can often modify it. How can we adapt lower-order maths problems so

they promote HOTS? Appendix 8 outlines four key strategies that will

help to increase the challenge of standard questions in the classroom:

o Here's the answer, what could the question be?

o Make up your own ...

o What if ...?

o All answers

Look at a problem you have recently set one of your classes and

discuss how it could be transformed into one requiring higher-order

thinking skills. Jot down your ideas and keep them for Activity 2.2

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skills (HOTS)?

This task, and the one following it, builds on Activity 1.2

You will need the following resource:

Task

complexity and ability to use higher-order thinking skills. The

descriptions of the skills are listed in Appendix 9]. Try to put them in

order of complexity. When you have done this, and discussed what you

think are the most challenging activities, you might wish to look at the

pyramid of skills known as Bloom's taxonomy at the foot of this page.

Think of a lesson you have recently given - what level of thinking were

you expecting of your pupils?

'Bloom's Taxonomy'

Bloom's Taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing complexity and ability to use

higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).

Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The

classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto:

Longmans, Green.

NRICH 2008

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(HOTS) relate to rich tasks and problem solving?

This task aims to identify how rich tasks and problem solving fit together.

You will need the following resources:

Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]

Problem-solving cycle [Appendix 11]

Rich task cards [Appendix 12]

Just like it is possible to engage in very hard questions that involve a high

level of content knowledge but few problem-solving skills, it is also possible to

identify very difficult problems that only need very low levels of mathematical

content knowledge. In the former case, you are going to need well-tuned

knowledge skills and in the latter, your HOTS.

What is a problem?

A problem is something you do not immediately know how to solve. There is a

gap between where you are and even getting started on a path to a solution.

This means that something that is a problem to your students is something

that they cannot get to grips with immediately and requires thinking and

playing time. By playing with the mathematics, patterns and connections often

reveal themselves. We need to arm our pupils with a repertoire of skills to

help them step into problems independently rather than immediately turning to

us as teachers to ask what to do! We can begin by selecting problems with

engaging starting points which invite pupils to step in (such as a game). Once

they get started, the richness comes from what happens next. Ideas begin to

emerge from playing with the initial situation and sometimes from posing

problems of their own.

What is problem solving?

The need to apply problem-solving techniques to a problem is an indicator

that it has the potential to be a rich task. Problem solving requires you to have

a problem to solve, which may be one you have been given or one you have

posed for yourself. The activity that we call 'problem solving' is a complex one

and can be considered as a cycle of activity (though the cycle often requires

us to move backward and forward whilst maintaining a general sense of

direction). There are many models of the problem solving cycle. Possibly the

most well known is the one described by Polya in his book How to Solve It

(1957), which is a must-read for those of us interested in improving our pupils'

problem-solving skills. Here is one we use at NRICH:

NRICH 2008

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The application of the problem-solving cycle is a high-order skill. Evidence

suggests that few pupils utilise the problem-solving cycle effectively. One

important thing to note is the emphasis the cycle places on the high-order

thinking skills described by Bloom. It is therefore not surprising that most

pupils do not naturally have a sense of where they are and what they might do

next. One of our aims when teaching mathematics is to help pupils become

familiar with this process and have confidence to use it.

See Polya, G. (1957). How to Solve it, Princeton University Press.

How do rich tasks, the problem-solving cycle and higher-order thinking

skills fit together?

Here is a task to help answer this question.

Task

Cut out the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and lay them

out.

Link them with the rich task description cards (Appendix 12) and with

the different aspects of Bloom's taxonomy (Appendix 9).

We feel that any problem has the potential to be a rich task but this depends

on us as teachers offering those opportunities to our pupils. We will talk about

this in Activity 2.1 .

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solving?

In the previous activity you were asked to think about the connections

between higher-order thinking skills, problem solving and rich tasks. In the

next set of activities we want to think about how we can support our pupils in

problem solving.

You will need the following resources:

Problem-solving cycle cards [Appendix 10]

For reference you may want to refer to the progression list

[Appendix 14]

Task

We have based this activity on the National Strategy's Primary Framework

Assessment Guidelines. We are not asking you to think about assessment but

about process skills and progression. The guidelines are based on three

areas: problem solving, reasoning and communicating.

There are two parts to this task. There is no 'right answer' to either part but

the activities are designed to make you think about:

learners to develop

the sorts of things your pupils will be doing

the development of thinking and problem-solving skills over time

(progression)

It is the discussion you have as you undertake the task which is key. By

making sense of phrases and describing what you mean by them in your own

words you will come to your own view about how they inform what you are

trying to help your pupils to learn.

First you will need a set of the problem-solving cycle cards (Appendix 10) and

of the progression cards (Appendix 13).

[The Progression Cards are based on lists for Levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 so you

might like to think about what would come before L2 and after L5.]

Lay the cycle cards out and then distribute the progression cards amongst

them. There will be quite a lot of discussion about what some of these mean.

Remember that there is no right answer and a lot depends on your

interpretation of a card's meaning. In the end you should put each card under

the heading that feels like the 'best fit'. Do not agonise for too long on each

card - you can change your mind at any time. When we did this task at NRICH

we moved things around quite a lot during the second part of the task!

NRICH 2008

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The second part of the task is about ordering the cards under each of the five

process headings. The aim of this part of the task is for you to think about

progression. What would you expect learners at different stages to be able to

do? When we did this task we found it useful to group cards that seemed to

be about similar things together before trying to order them. So, for example,

under Analysis-Reasoning we found a few cards that seemed to be about

'organising' so we pulled these out and put them in order .

The lists are not meant to be exhaustive so you might want to add some cards

of your own.

When you have finished the tasks you might find it useful to refer to the

progression list (Appendix 14) as this will enable you to map what you have

done to the Strategy document.

NRICH 2008

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engaging with rich tasks?

This pair of tasks build particularly on Activities 1.1, 1.3 & 1.4. The aim is to

look at a problem and think about what we can do to help make it rich. This is

because, regardless of a problem's potential, the way it is used affects its

richness.

You will need the following resources:

Rich task sheet - what teachers can do [Appendix 15]

What teachers do - master template sheet [Appendix 16]

Suggested NRICH problem [Appendix 18]

What teachers do - Magic Vs sheet [Appendix 17]

Task 1

Stick each of the rich task cards (Appendix 12) on a separate A3 sheet. As a

group, move around the sheets and add ideas for what you could do as

teachers to help support each aspect of a rich task. This will be very general

at this stage. If you need help some ideas are given on the what teachers can

do sheet (Appendix 15). These ideas will become more specific when applied

to a particular problem.

Task 2

Work on the NRICH problem Magic Vs (Appendix 18) so you feel confident

that you know it well.

Fill in the column of the master sheet (Appendix 16) labelled 'What

pupils could do'.

Now fill in the column 'What teachers might do'. As you do this, think

about the sorts of things you might do in the lesson to encourage pupils

to tackle the problem and behave in the ways you have suggested in

the middle column.

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materials

So far we have given you activities to work with that are on the NRICH

website. However, you probably have many activities you use in your own

lessons that have the potential to be rich, or richer. The aim of this activity is

to draw your attention to those problems and think about how you can use

them to develop higher-order thinking skills and problem-solving skills, and

what you might do to support this in the classroom.

You will need the following resources:

Notes you made during the second task in Activity 1.2

What to do:

This links to the work on higher-order thinking skills and Activity 2.1 on rich

tasks. Here the aim is for us to think about what we can do as teachers with

problems we already use. The emphasis is on what we do in the classroom

rather than adjusting the problem itself as we did in Activity 1.2.

Retrieve your jottings from the second task in Activity 1.2 and then, working in

a pair, consider what you would do to as a teacher to support this problem.

Use the blank template (Appendix 16) and the ideas of Activity 2.1 (where we

did a similar task for Magic V's) to help.

Why not share any good ideas with us at NRICH by emailing us?

nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

NRICH 2008

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curriculum

The aim of this activity is to integrate some rich tasks into curriculum planning.

Although there are other possibilities, at this stage we will look at two sources

for these tasks:

NRICH

exisiting schemes of work

All the work we have done so far should feed into this activity, which is

designed to be the starting point for a longer period of planning and

development. The long-term aim is for you to think about your teaching and

how it can be enhanced, but to start with you will need to select something

that is realistic and achievable. You can always extend what you do at a later

date.

You will need the following resources:

The NRICH curriculum mapping documents [Appendix 19 for KS1 and

Appendix 20 for KS2 but the versions online will be more recent]

The NRICH site - particularly the Maths finder, which you can find at

http://nrich.maths.org/public/leg.php

Task 1

First a reminder that we are not assuming that you are going to change

everything now, you are just making a start. For this reason, we suggest you

could begin by planning for a mathematical topic that you will teach this term.

There are many different approaches to planning for the integration of rich

tasks, for example you could:

Look at your current scheme of work and use the content mapping

documents to find problems that are a good fit with the particular topic

you are covering.

Consider what using and applying skills you want your pupils to

develop and use the process mapping documents to identify

appropriate problems. You might use these as one-off problems but

they will also address subject content knowledge so why not use them

when you are covering that topic in your scheme of work?

Identify a theme to work on for a longer period of time. Examples of

themes are:

o problems that employ several aspects of content knowledge (e.g.

factors and multiples)

o the development of problem-solving skills (the whole process)

o the development of particular mathematical thinking skills (e.g.

'working systematically' or 'visualising')

o an application of mathematics (e.g. time and its measurement)

NRICH 2008

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The mapping documents will help with the first two approaches suggested

above (content and process blocks). There are no specific documents

designed to support the third approach but the Maths finder and Packages on

NRICH can help. There is also a 'search NRICH' option found at the top of

every NRICH page.

You may want to access the Curriculum mapping documents on the website,

or use the versions provided in Appendices 19 & 20 (note the versions online

will be the most up-to-date).

Alternatively (or in addition) you could identify potentially rich tasks you are

already using and extend them in the ways you did in Activities 1.1 and 1.2.

What next? - Task 2

Whichever approach you take, for each problem you will need to spend time

thinking about why it is rich (for the problems from the NRICH mapping

documents this has already been done) and what you will need to do in the

classroom to support pupils in making the most of them (as in Activity 2.1). As

you try things out, you will refine ideas and will feed back to your colleagues

what worked well and why.

This is no small task and that it is why it is worth starting with something small

and achievable rather than trying to do everything all at once.

We will look at evaluation in the next Activity.

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into the curriculum: Peer observation

Having started to embed rich tasks into your scheme of work you will need to:

make decisions on how to extend your mapping

consider what further support you might need

This Activity, along with Activities 4.2 and 4.3 are designed to help you with

the above.

The best way to go about evaluating and reviewing a particular lesson is to

work with a colleague. However, what is suggested here can be used as a

means of self-reflection. Before the lesson you will need to prepare:

The "what teachers do" sheet [Appendix 16]

using the prepared observation/reflection sheet, or during and after the lesson

use the sheet to jot down some notes of your own.

Discuss or reflect on:

what you would do differently next time

what key things pupils did that could be highlighted or drawn out more

in future

NRICH 2008

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into the curriculum: Evaluating a theme

Undertaking the same sort of observation/reflection activity as you did in

Activity 4.1 for individual lessons or a group of lessons is an important part of

evaluating the success of a theme or series of linked lessons within a gven

topic. In addition however, you need to look at the group of lessons more

holistically.

To do this you will need to consider:

o what content you were hoping to cover

o what using and applying/problem-solving skills you were hoping

to address

o what connections you were hoping to make

o which aims were met/not met. Try to describe why and, where

appropriate, how things might be improved. This might involve

being more realistic about your aims or thinking of other ways in

which you might approach the theme or support pupils whilst

working on a theme.

o did they enjoy it?

o did they reach the level of working you expected?

o did the work cater for their individual needs (were the support

and extension ideas and materials appropriate)?

How you will modify the theme in future? This might involve removing it

from your scheme of work or revising the 'what teachers do' sheet and

lesson plan.

List your recommended next steps. Include key points for colleagues

who might try the same theme themselves.

NRICH 2008

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into the curriculum: Thinking about what to do next

Build on your experiences, adding in new material and trying it out. Using the

mapping documents can ensure a range of experiences for your pupils. It is

not enough to employ a concept or process once, you will need to revisit

these again and again, each time thinking about how the pupils will develop.

For example, when considering problem-solving skills, pupils will develop in

different ways, such as:

order for them to think of ideas of their own.

Applying more sophisticated content knowledge

Being more equipped to talk about their mathematics

More able to apply what they know in less familiar settings

Better able to make connections with things they have done before

Showing greater sophistication and organisation in their recording

methods.

The important thing to do is:

Reflect - evaluate - modify if necessary

At NRICH we are really interested in finding our more about your experiences.

Do email us so we can share your ideas and findings with others.

nrich@damtp.cam.ac.uk

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 1

RICH TASKS

Current research evidence indicates that students who are given opportunities to

work on their problem solving enjoy the subject more, are more confident and are

more likely to continue studying mathematics, or mathematics related subjects,

beyond 16. Most importantly, there is also evidence that they do better in standard

tests.

Rich tasks can enable pupils to:

step into them even when the route to a solution is unclear, getting started and

exploring is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging abilities

of mathematics

have opportunities to observe other people being mathematical or see the role of

mathematics within cultural settings

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 2

Step into a problem even when the route to a

solution is unclear (see definition of a

problem below), getting started and exploring

is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging

abilities.

Pose as well as solve problems, make

conjectures

contexts

problem-solving skills

knowledge

or make connections between areas of

mathematics

being mathematical or the role of mathematics

within cultural settings

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 3

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

Notes about the task, including downloadable SMARTboard notebooks and other

materials are available on the site from: tinyurl.com/6ysepn

To download the SMARTboard file, click on the link. Then select Save As. It

may be necessary to type .notebook at the end of the filename and to change the

filetype to All files. Please check that you are running a new enough version of the

SMARTboard software (version 9.5 or later).

'Eggs in Baskets'

There are three baskets, a brown one, a red one and a pink

one, holding a total of ten eggs.

The Brown basket has one more egg in it than the Red basket.

The Red basket has three eggs less than the Pink basket.

How many eggs are in each basket?

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 4

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

Exemplar template for Eggs in Baskets, showing how it can be used in the

classroom.

The version online include links to view the video-clips and images.

Aspects of a rich task

the children can get started

situation by changing the context (sweets rather than eggs) and

simplifying the problem (only 6 in total, as opposed to 10).

Rather than having three unknowns to begin with, as in the

NRICH problem, children start with one unknown (how many

sweets in the third bag?) and then two (what could be in the

second and third bags?).

to make conjectures

Clip Eggs1.wmv

When shown the bag of four sweets, the children immediately

begin to make conjectures. One suggests the other two bags

will have one sweet each because 2 and 4 make 6. Then

another pupil suggests that there could be 2 in the second bag

and zero in the other.

work at a range of levels

Clip Eggs2.wmv

Here the resources provided allow this child to work on the

problem in the way he feels comfortable, which is a good

assessment opportunity for the teacher.

Image EggsA.gif

This learner has recorded the possible combinations using

number sentences and has worked in a very systematic way.

Note the sum which has been squeezed in near the top of the

list it would be good to talk to him about the reasons for this.

(There is a repetition here so this might be worth discussing

too.)

opportunities for children to

use different methods

Clip Eggs3.wmv

Here the teacher draws attention to the childrens different ways

of representing the problem (drawing sweets, using numerals,

drawing dots, writing number sentences), emphasising why

each is helpful. Interestingly, some children chose to opt for a

different way following this discussion.

Image EggsB.gif

This pupil has chosen to represent five sweets in the quincunx

arrangement, like that on a dice. Perhaps this is to make

subsequent counting easier?

opportunities to broaden

students problem-solving

skills

Clip Eggs4.wmv

Having been shown there are two sweets in the first bag and

three in the second bag, the children talk about whether they

need to see the number of sweets in the third bag.

One says, 2 add 3 equals 5, add 1 equals 6.

So I dont need to X-ray the last one?

Another pupil responds, You do! Just to see

Youd like to check it using that?

Its still going to be 1.

This highlights the fact that it may be satisfying to check that our

conjectures are true before moving on.

See also image EggsA.gif

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 5

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

Notes about the task, including a projectable, online, interactive presentation of the

task are available from: tinyurl.com/5fmlao

GOT IT

GOT IT is an adding game for two. You can play against the computer or with

a friend.

Start with the GOT IT target 23.

The first player chooses a whole number from 1 to 4.

Players take turns to add a whole number from 1 to 4 to the running total.

The player who hits the target of 23 wins the game.

To change the game, choose a new GOT IT! target or a new range of

numbers to add on.

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 6

appendices 3&4, or of appendices 5&6

Step into a problem even when the route to a

solution is unclear (see definition of a

problem below), getting started and exploring

is made accessible to pupils of wide ranging

abilities.

motivated to find strategies in order to beat the

computer or, if you do not have access to the

interactivity, to beat the teacher.

conjectures

numbers and a different range of numbers quite

naturally. Other extensions include choosing a

range of numbers that do not start at 1.

reaching 18 first will win. You can simplify the

starting point further with a lower target number and

smaller range of numbers. At the highest level the

generalisation to any target, any range requires

high-level thinking and analytical skills

contexts

engage with mathematics

pupils come to an understanding of why their

strategy works.

problem-solving skills

case.

Generalising results to any target and range and

identifying the exceptions.

knowledge

explain patterns and relationships, conjecture,

generalise and predict.

At the highest levels they should justify their

generalisations using convincing arguments and

proofs.

or make connections between areas of

mathematics

factors and multiples

will guarantee that you can always win.

being mathematical or the role of mathematics

within cultural settings

explaining what they will do next and why whilst

others observe and listen

NRICH 2008

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Appendix 7

HOTS1

These cards contain some lower-order questions and, focusing on the same

mathematical topic, some more challenging questions - ones that require higher-order

thinking skills. Cut them out and pair them up.

1. Fractions

2. Triangles

What is half of 6?

What is half of 2?

3. Fair Feast

4. Grab it!

to share equally:

turns to choose a number. If your number can be

divided exactly by 2, score 2 points. If it can be

divided exactly by 3, score 3 points and so on.

(You can decide whether or not to count 1 and

the number itself.)

What are good numbers to pick? Why?

What's the best number to pick?

What are poor numbers to pick? Why?

5. Take Away

6. Hard or Easy?

sums:

hardest, and three which are not hard or easy. Do

them and write down (or say) why you've chosen

these five sums.

NRICH 2008

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7. Making Sticks

8. Domino Sorting

interlocking cubes. Kimie made blue sticks 2

cubes long. Sebastian made red sticks 3 cubes

long. They both made a lot of sticks.

number of spots and one with an even number of

spots.

Do you have any dominoes left over? Why, or

why not?

Now put the dominoes into pairs. The number of

spots on each pair of dominoes must make a total

of 5.

line. Sebastian put his red sticks end to end in a

line underneath Kimie's.

Can they make their lines the same length? How

many sticks could Kimie use? How many would

Sebastian put down? How long is the line

altogether?

Can you pair them up in any different ways so

that each pair adds up to 5?

Which dominoes are left over now?

Are there any dominoes which are always left

over?

Can you explain why?

9. Seven Sticks

seven sticks of the same length.

20 + 2155 + 5648 + 50 ...etc

NRICH 2008

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12. Squares

with the digits 0 to 9 on them. It might also be

useful to have a two pieces of paper or card with

two boxes drawn on them to represent a twodigit number.

the co-ordinates of the fourth point that is needed

to complete a square:

Turn the cards face down and mix them up. The

aim of the game is to make the closest number to

100. Each player takes one card to start with and

decides whether that is the units or tens digit of

their number and places it on their paper in front

of them. Each player then takes a second card

which becomes the missing digit of their twodigit number. The winner is the player whose

number is closer to 100. You could have a points

system so that the player with the closer number

scores 1 point and then play first to 10.

(d) (5,5) (4,8) (7,9)

(e) etc.

14. Symmetry

of string.

quadrilaterals.

Make a quadrilateral with two lines of

symmetry.

Make a quadrilateral with three lines of

symmetry.

Make a quadrilateral with four lines of

symmetry.

etc

What quadrilateral haven't you made?

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15. Addition

What is:

5+4?

3+9?

2+5?

16. U Two

You need a 1-50 number grid and a partner. Take

turns to draw a 5 square U shape on the grid.

Add up the two biggest numbers in your U. Keep

going until you can't fit any more Us on the grid,

adding on your score each time. The winner has

the bigger score. Your U could be upside down,

or on its side.

3+3?

17. Sharing

78 or 87?

92 or 91?

99 or 101?

19. Square It

20. Multiples

on a square dotty grid (you should use different

colours).

can be joined by straight lines to form a square.

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Appendix 8

HOTS2

Encouraging Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

Instead of asking different questions, we can change the ones we usually ask. How

can you adapt ordinary maths questions so that they promote HOTS? Here are four

key strategies that will help you to increase the challenge of standard questions in the

classroom.

.

Instead of: 3+3, 4+3, 5+3, 6+3......

Ask: The answer is 8; what could the adding up sum be?

Instead of: What is the area of a rectangle which measures 4cm by 6cm?

Ask: If the area of a rectangle is 24cm2 what could its measurements be?

Lists of practice questions and closed questions can immediately be made more

challenging in this way, and this change allows children to show what they know and

can do. You may well be surprised by the quality of their work! Some children will

work systematically to produce their responses; this indicates that they have analysed

the numerical structure.

Make up some examples of your own.

Instead of: 456 - 354, 1008 - 783, 6666 - 3333, 7065 - 4999, ......

Ask: Choose the easiest and hardest subtraction sums, work them out, then make up

an easy and hard example for someone else, saying why you think there are easy and

hard.

Choosing requires analysis, making up new questions requires synthesis, and sharing

and discussing with another requires evaluation.

Can you make up some similar examples involving other operations? How about

other mathematical topics such as space and shape?

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C. What if?

Instead of: Find the different ways you can dress the teddy.

Ask: What if there were two teddies?

What if there were two hats as well?

What if there were three T-shirts?

What if... ?

Instead of: Put the L on the grid so that the sum of the squares it covers is 225.

Ask: What if the sum is different?

What if the shape is not an L?

What if the grid is the two times table?

What if...?

Offering choice often increases children's motivation and hence engagement in a task.

They have to understand the structure of the question in order to make sensible 'what

if' suggestions. They will need to identify what aspects of the problem can be varied analysis and synthesis.

Look at questions you have recently given your pupils to do. Can you think of

some what if questions.

How would you encourage pupils to come up with what if questions of their

own?

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D. All answers

Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know

you've got them all?

Ask: Make another... make another... how many can you make? How do you know

you've got them all?

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Appendix 9

BLOOMS DESCRIPTORS

Cut the cards out and put them in a line to reflect the order of development,

complexity and demand (which represent the higher order thinking skills).

Analysis

Evaluation

seeing pattern

organization of parts

recognition of hidden meanings

identification of components

ideas

assess value of theories,

presentations

make choices based on reasoned

argument

verify value of evidence

recognize subjectivity

order, explain, connect, classify,

arrange, divide, compare, select,

explain, infer

grade, test, measure, recommend,

convince, select, judge, explain,

discriminate, support, conclude,

compare, summarize

Application

Knowledge

use information

use methods, concepts, theories in new

situations

solve problems using required skills or

knowledge

knowledge of dates, events, places

knowledge of major ideas

mastery of subject matter

calculate, complete, illustrate, show,

solve, examine, modify, relate, change,

classify, experiment, discover

describe, identify, show, label, collect,

examine, tabulate, quote, name, who,

when, where, etc.

Comprehension

Synthesis

understanding information

grasp meaning

translate knowledge into new context

interpret facts, compare, contrast

order, group, infer causes

predict consequences

generalize from given facts

relate knowledge from several areas

predict, draw conclusions

Question Cues: combine, integrate,

modify, rearrange, substitute, plan,

create, design, invent, what if?,

compose, formulate, prepare,

generalise, rewrite

interpret, contrast, predict, associate,

distinguish, estimate, differentiate,

discuss, extend

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Appendix 10

Represent

Identify the mathematical aspects of a

situation or problem

choose between representations

simplify the situation or problem,

using appropriate variables, symbols,

diagrams and models

select mathematical information,

methods and tools to use.

Analyse

Use appropriate mathematical procedures

make mathematical diagrams that

represent a situation or the

information given

Analyse

Use mathematical reasoning

make connections within mathematics

and use knowledge of related

problems

visualize, be systematic, and identify

and classify patterns

calculate accurately

record methods, solutions and

conclusions

and make and begin to justify

conjectures and generalisations

working

form convincing arguments

work logically

communicate findings effectively and

discuss results

accuracy of results and conclusions

mathematics

exceptions

of other approaches to the problem

identifying whether they support or

refute conjectures

current situation and outcomes, and

situations and outcomes they have

met before

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Appendix 11

Represent

Identify the mathematical aspects of a situation

or problem

choose between representations

simplify the situation or problem, using

appropriate variables, symbols, diagrams and

models

select mathematical information, methods and

tools to use

Analyse

Use appropriate mathematical procedures

Communicate and reflect

communicate findings effectively and discuss results

engage with someone elses mathematics

consider the elegance and efficiency of other

approaches to the problem

make connections between the current situation and

outcomes, and situations and outcomes they have met

before

or the information given

calculate accurately

record methods, solutions and conclusions

estimate, approximate and check working

make connections within mathematics and use

knowledge of related problems

visualise, be systematic and identify and classify

patterns

explore the effects of varying values and make and

begin to justify conjectures and generalisations

work logically

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consider the appropriateness and accuracy of

results and conclusions

look at data to find patterns and exceptions

relate findings to the original context, identifying

whether they support

or refute conjectures

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Appendix 12

step into a problem even when the

route to a solution is unclear, getting

started and exploring is made

accessible to pupils of wide ranging

abilities

make conjectures

knowledge in new contexts

problem-solving skills

content knowledge

principles or make connections

between areas of mathematics

mathematical or see the role of

mathematics within cultural settings

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Appendix 13

PROGRESSION CARDS

begin to develop own ways of recording

work and use them to find other possible

outcomes

solving the problem, determine what is missing

and develop lines of enquiry

symbols to represent problems

start

into simpler steps

own

sense in the context of the problem

range of classroom activities, e.g.

errors and reviewing methods

them mathematically using symbols, words

and diagrams

written work

corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less

than 100 cannot give a total more than 200

and correct the addition

overcoming difficulties that arise when they are

solving problems

task, including calculators

particular examples that match it

diagrams

to previous experiences

using appropriate recording

problem, recognising similarities to previous

work

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into recording their work on a problem

conclusions

explain their thinking, e.g.

an explanation of their reasoning

and in applying mathematics to practical

context

similar problem for a partner

carry through a task and solve mathematical

problems

systematic approach

generalisations in words and begin to express

generalisations using symbolic notation

record and develop their own methods of

recording

own generalisations/rules in words

methods they use in their work

probing questions and prompts

key facts/relevant information

to make sense of them, compare.

evaluate

a range of problems

knowledge to similar situations

ways to record systematically

representations of a problem e.g. a situation

described in words, a diagram etc.

order

number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be

shared equally by 3 children

problem

play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem

shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give

reasons for their opinions

symbols to communicate their thinking, or

demonstrate a solution or process

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Appendix 14

Based on the National Strategy's Primary Framework Assessment Guidelines for mathematics L2, L3,

L4, L5 2008

L2

L2

L2

L2

1.0x

1.1

1.2

1.3

L2

L2

L2

L2

L2

1.4

1.5

2.0x

2.1

2.2

L2

L2

3.0x

3.1

L2

3.2

L2

L2

4.0x

4.1

L2

5.0

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

2.0

L3

2.1

L3

2.2

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L3

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

L4

3.0

3.1

3.2

4.0

4.1

4.2

5.0

6.0

6.1

7.0

7.1

7.2

1.0x

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

2.0

3.0x

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

4.0

4.1

4.2

select the mathematics they use in some classroom activities e.g. with support

With support find a starting point, identifying key facts/relevant information

With support use apparatus, diagrams, role play, etc. to represent and clarify a problem

With support move between different representations of a problem e.g. a situation described

in words, a diagram etc.

With support adopt a suggested model or systematic approach

With support make connections and apply their knowledge to similar situations

discuss their work using mathematical language, e.g. with support

With support describe the strategies and methods they use in their work

With support listen to others explanations, try to make sense of them, compare.

evaluate

begin to represent their work using symbols and simple diagrams, e.g. with support

With support use pictures, diagrams and symbols to communicate their thinking, or

demonstrate a solution or process

With support begin to appreciate the need to record and develop their own methods of

recording

explain why an answer is correct, e.g. with support

With support test a statement such as The number 12 ends with a 2 so 12 sweets cant be

shared equally by 3 children

predict what comes next in a simple number, shape or spatial pattern or sequence and give reasons for

their opinions

select the mathematics they use in a wider range of classroom activities, e.g.

use classroom discussions to break into a problem, recognising similarities to previous work

put the problem into their own words

choose their own equipment appropriate to the task, including calculators

try different approaches and find ways of overcoming difficulties that arise when they are solving

problems

check their work and make appropriate corrections, e.g. decide that two numbers less than

100 cannot give a total more than 200 and correct the addition

begin to look for patterns in results as they work and use them to find other possible

outcomes

begin to organise their work and check results

begin to develop own ways of recording

develop an organised approach as they get into recording their work on a problem

discuss their mathematical work and begin to explain their thinking, e.g.

use appropriate mathematical vocabulary

talk about their findings by referring to their written work

use and interpret mathematical symbols and diagrams

understand a general statement by finding particular examples that match it

make a generalisation with the assistance of probing questions and prompts

review their work and reasoning,

respond to What if? questions

when they have solved a problem, pose a similar problem for a partner

develop own strategies for solving problems, e.g.

make their own suggestions of ways to tackle a range of problems

make connections to previous work

pose and answer questions related to a problem

check answers and ensure solutions make sense in the context of the problem

review their work and approaches

Use their own strategies within mathematics and in applying mathematics to practical context

present information and results in a clear and organised way, e.g.

organise written work, e.g. record results in order

begin to work in an organised way from the start

consider appropriate units

use related vocabulary accurately

search for a solution by trying out ideas of their own

check their methods and justify answers

identify patterns as they work and form their own generalisations/rules in words

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PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

C

C

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

R

R

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

C

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

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L5

L5

1.0

1.1

L5

L5

L5

L5

L5

L5

1.2

1.3

2.0x

2.1

3.0

3.0

L5

L5

L5

L5

L5

L5

3.1

3.2

3.3

4.0

4.1

4.2

L5

4.3

Identify and obtain necessary information to carry through a task and solve mathematical problems

recognise information that is important to solving the problem, determine what is missing and

develop lines of enquiry

break a several-step problem or investigation into simpler steps

consider efficient methods, relating problems to previous experiences

check results, considering whether these are reasonable, e.g.

check as they work, spotting and correcting errors and reviewing methods

solve word problems and investigations from a range of contexts

show understanding of situations by describing them mathematically using symbols, words and

diagrams

organise their work from the outset, looking for ways to record systematically

decide how best to represent conclusions, using appropriate recording

begin to understand and use formulae and symbols to represent problems

draw simple conclusions of their own and give an explanation of their reasoning

explain and justify their methods and solution

identify more complex patterns, making generalisations in words and begin to express

generalisations using symbolic notation

use examples and counter-examples to justify conclusions

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PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PS

C

C

C

C

R

R

R

R

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Appendix 15

Aspects of a rich task

Step into a problem even

when the route to a solution

is unclear, getting started

and exploring is made

accessible to pupils of wide

ranging abilities.

Selecting appropriate tasks and problems for example those

with a low threshold and a high ceiling.

Asking pupils to spend a little time on their own then working in

pairs and then sharing ideas about what the problem is about

and how to get started

Think Pair Share

Encouraging some general exploration of the situation before

pinning things down

Considering and sharing different ways of representing the

information

Thinking about things like this you have seen before.

problems, make conjectures

step is to model asking what if questions yourself.

Encourage learners to think about the things they can vary in a

problem and to conjecture about the effect of any variation.

At the end of a problem ask what next? or If we had time

what might we do next?

Highlight occasions where pupils do pose their own problems

and share them with the group. Put unanswered questions and

conjectures on a board.

Use a conjecture board. When pupils come up with a

conjecture they write it up and get others to consider it and

either prove it or find a counter example

Encouraging and discussing different ways of tackling a

problem.

Interpreting and evaluating findings can offer opportunities to

work at a range of levels.

Think about problems with open starting points, open middles

and open ends these all contribute to allowing pupils to work

at different levels.

Generalisation enables extension and the use of algebra can

extend problems. Reflect on the algebra, when it is used, and

how it represents underpinning structure of a problem. For

example:

Why does .. generate a Fibonacci sequence?

Set problems that offer scope to extend knowledge or which are

set in new contexts.

Ask questions of learners that encourage them to make

connections:

Have you done something before that was similar?

What mathematics is in this problem?

knowledge in new contexts

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Discuss ideas for different approaches.

Discuss different approaches, their effectiveness and efficiency

at the end of the work.

Value different approaches as representing learners different

understandings and levels of confidence.

Realise that methods used often reflect learners progress,

areas of strength and weaknesses.

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Offer opportunities to

broaden students problemsolving skills

mathematical content

knowledge

Talk about what a pupil is doing. For example:

How will you collect the data?

Was that a good method, are there other ways that might have

been more efficient?.

Can you be more systematic?

Can you generalise?

Use problems that offer challenging contexts in which can help

develop content knowledge

Highlight the mixture of skills pupils are bringing to bear of

problems:

In this problem you needed to be able to in order to .

Ask pupils what mathematics they used to tackle the problem,

new things they have learnt and what they feel more confident

about.

underlying principles or

make connections between

areas of mathematics

fascination comes from the patterns or ideas they reveal as you

work on them. For example:

The relationship between square and triangular numbers might

come out of work on triangular numbers.

Games or problems that have the same underpinning

mathematics (e.g. nim or variations on noughts and crosses)

Use problems that reveal interesting patterns.

Identify mathematics in unfamiliar settings. When you notice

some mathematics why not draw attention to it and use it. For

example the sun shining through the window, arrangements of

the desks, work on sports day such as laying out the track and

recording results.

When you see something intriguing in some mathematics draw

pupils attention to it. For example, an unexpected pattern in

geometry or arithmetic that needs to be explained. That two

shapes with the same volume look completely different. Make a

note on the board and ask pupils to think about it and return to it

at odd moments over a period of time.

Offer opportunities to

observe other people being

mathematical or the role of

mathematics within cultural

settings

Allow pupils to ask and work on problems you do not know the

answer to and say so. We will find out about this together

Use video and films related to mathematics being used or which

put mathematics in historical and cultural contests. For

example, when tackling a problem involving a Fibonacci

sequence show some examples of its occurrence in the world

around us. When talking about being stuck discuss what

mathematicians do. When doing work on time look at how this

has been measured in the past.

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Appendix 16

Aspect of a Rich Task

step into a problem even when

the route to a solution is unclear,

getting started and exploring is

made accessible to pupils of wide

ranging abilities.

make conjectures

knowledge in new contexts

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students problem-solving skills

mathematical content knowledge

underlying principles or make

connections between areas of

mathematics

other people being mathematical

or the role of mathematics within

cultural settings

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Appendix 17

Text in italics shows examples from a single lesson, with associated video-clips and images. This is not intended to be a model lesson.

Aspect of a Rich Task

What pupils might do

What teachers could do

step into a problem even when

By starting with the challenge of making a Magic V

Allow pupils to engage with the attributes of a Magic V by

the route to a solution is unclear

pupils wide ranging abilities can get into this problem.

identifying similarities and differences between a Magic V

(see definition of a problem

and a non-magic V.

Sharing early findings can move the challenge on to

Pupils are given a very open task to work on initially

below), getting started and

finding all the solutions.

exploring is made accessible to

(what questions could we ask about this?) and the

pupils of wide ranging abilities.

teacher funnels the suggestions to focus on particular

ideas

Clips MagicV1.wmv, MagicV2.wmv, MagicV3.wmv

and image MagicVA.jpg

Give pupils time to work on the problem on their own

Use Think pair share

Ideas about what you notice and then conjectures pupils

might make

Share different ways of recording

pose as well as solve problems,

The task lends itself readily to pupils posing their own

Ask questions such as:

make conjectures

problems and making conjectures, for example:

What do you notice?

Why is the number at the bottom always odd?

Can we justify that

A pupil conjectures that this is the case if you have 3 odd

numbers and 2 even numbers, but that if you have 3 even Write conjectures on the board.

numbers and two odd ones then the bottom number will

Encourage the whole group to work on an idea posed by

be even. Clip MagicV4.wmv

one of their class.

Will it always be odd?

I think the number at the bottom is odd because there are

more odds in the numbers 1-5 than evens.

If I can find two pairs of numbers that add to the same

total to go on the two arms of the V then it doesnt matter

which number goes at the bottom.

A pupil tries to find an example that satisfies this

conjecture:

Clip MagicV5.wmv

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knowledge in new contexts

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have the same difference. See the clip MagicV6.wmv

for further explanation of this. The pupils in this clip

decide, wrongly, that this conjecture is incorrect.

Pupils who do not readily work in a systematic way can

gain insights into the value of being systematic and

organised in their thinking. Some pupils are able to see

why odd numbers must go at the bottom and the most

able are able to develop convincing arguments for what

will happen for any V.

A pupils explains that he tried putting an even number at

the bottom but then found he was left with three odds and

an even which dont make an even total and therefore

cant be split equally between the two arms. This proof

by contradiction is a higher-order skill that children rarely

use. The clip MagicV7.wmv exemplifies this. [This clip

also exemplifies the value of giving pupils thinking time.]

New knowledge can then be applied to different scenarios

such as crosses or, more challenging Hs.

The clip MagicV8.wmv shows a pupil trying a Magic

Cross.

knowledge but this means that proof and convincing

arguments associated with the setting can be shared and

understood. I have often seen generalisations produced

(for example if there are more odds an odd goes at the

bottom) that can be refuted. Refutation is a higher order

thinking skill that pupils rarely employ rigorously.

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demonstrate good recording methods to the class, or

could share ideas that the pupils have developed.

Provide materials (such as cards) for pupils to manipulate,

so they can have greater confidence to try some ideas

rather than aiming for an immediately correct solution.

See the clip MagicV6.wmv for an example of this.

[Discussion point: should we allow all children to choose

whether or not to use materials such as cards, or only

issue them to certain pupils?]

Have ideas for extending the problem ready but try to

encourage pupils to come up with ideas of their own with

you helping them to select fruitful routes

Encourage able pupils to generalise be ready with

counter examples to get them rethinking. For example

always an odd at the bottom does not work with the

numbers 2,3,4,5,6 so set them the problem with different

numbers.

Ask:

What are the variables/what can we change?

Ask pupils to prove it

Or ask

how do you know that will always be the case

When tackling problems in new contexts (such as larger

Vs, crosses or, more challenging Hs). Ask pupils not only

to solve the problems but to describe what strategies they

re-employed.

What things worked and what didnt?

What was the same and what different

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solutions and offers room for much discussion.

A pupil asks a friend to explain their idea with greater

clarity: clip MagicV9.wmv.

An alternative method is described in clip

MagicV10.wmv and image MagicVB.jpg. The five

numbers add to a total of 15, so once one number is

chosen to go at the bottom of the V (in this example, 5),

the rest (10) must be split equally between the two arms

of the V.

students problem-solving skills

This child demonstrates all the possible arrangements for

a certain magic total: clip MagicV12.wmv and image

MagicVC.jpg

Another child then explains how she uses the previous

clip to work out how many Magic Vs there are altogether:

clip MagicV13.wmv

Identifying pattern and generalisation then enables similar

problems to be tackled more efficiently (Have you seen

something like this before?)

In this task pupils are being asked to recognise and

explain patterns and relationships, conjecture, generalise

and predict.

At the highest levels they should justify their

generalisations using convincing arguments and proofs.

effectiveness. An efficient method is only useful if you can

use it.

For example: the sum of the numbers 1 5 is 15 to share

equally in the two arms an odd goes at the bottom and the

rest is shared so:

15-5 = 10, then 10/2 is 5. A total of 5 in each arm means

1+4 and 2+3.

15-3 = 12, then 12/2 is 6. A total of 6 in each arm means

1+5 and 2+4

Find all the solutions to V with 2,3,4,5,6 in your head

In the clip MagicV11.wmv the teacher draws attention to

the efficient way that one group worked. They shared out

the task so they all tried different possibilities.

Share efficient and systematic recording methods and

approaches to the problem.

Ask pupils if they would tackle a similar problem in the

same or a different way next time. Why?

Where else has it been useful to be systematic in this

way?

mathematical content knowledge

mental calculation skills. They can be encouraged to look

at different starting numbers and different sized Vs. Use

pieces of paper to layout and try things out.

Establishing rules for adding odd and even numbers

including simple proofs (picture proofs). For example

odd+odd=even might look like:

::::::.+.::::::=:::::::::::::

More able pupils can be encouraged to generalise rules

and assess peers on the rigour of their proofs.

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have potential to reveal

underlying principles or make

connections between areas of

mathematics

A powerful underlying concept here is the relationships

between even and odd numbers and sums of consecutive

numbers.

saving strategies

other people being mathematical

or the role of mathematics within

cultural settings

solution to stimulate discussion

Now this is what I call efficient followed by modelling

the process.

I have also found pupils seeing patterns in underpinning

mathematics that I had not noticed and it is good for

pupils to see you having to struggle to understand

someone elses idea.

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See above re odds and evens.

That you can add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers in

a Magic V and it will still work. Although a Magic T looks

the same, if the trunk of the T is longer than the arms it

does not work why?

Where else is it useful to be systematic? Where have we

worked before where we have listed all possible

outcomes?

Dipping games rely on odds and evens can you arrange

to make sure that a particular person is left at the end.

Discussing efficient strategies

For example the method described above works because

it is efficient and there is a clear structure. How about

other methods, do they generalise?

Why do you like this method or someone elses method

more?

When pupils suggest ideas and strategies try to take on

the role of learner asking questions such as:

Why did you do that?

What should I do if

Would it work if I?

- even if you think you know.

In clip MagicV14.wmv and image MagicVD.jpg the

teacher explicitly draws attention to the use of proof by

contradiction as a powerful way to approach this problem.

Clip MagicV15.wmv shows the teacher highlighting how

findings from Magic Vs can be applied to other letter

shapes.

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 18

Notes about the task, including more resources are available from: tinyurl.com/5vte3f

Magic Vs

Place each of the numbers 1 to 5 in the V shape below so that the

two arms of the V have the same total.

What do you notice about all the solutions you find?

Can you explain what you see?

Can you convince someone that you have all the solutions?

What happens if we use the numbers from 2 to 6? From 12 to 16?

From 37 to 41? From 103 to 107?

What can you discover about a V that has arms of length 4 using

the numbers 1-7?

NRICH 2008

Page 46

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 19

for Activity 3

the Framework for teaching mathematics in Foundation, Year 1 and Year 2

N.B. This is work in progress

Foundation

Year 1

Year 2

Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve

practical problems

doubling or halving in the context of numbers, measures

or money, for example to 'pay' and 'give change'

multiplication or division in contexts of numbers,

measures or pounds and pence

NRICH: Eggs in Baskets

NRICH: The Brown Family

of objects

materials and diagrams; use these to solve the problem

and set the solution in the original context

to solve a puzzle or problem; carry out the steps or

calculations and check the solution in the context of the

problem

NRICH: Birthday Cakes

NRICH: The Amazing Splitting Plant

equipment, and sorting information, shapes or objects;

display results using tables and pictures

and using suitable equipment and selecting, organising

and presenting information in lists, tables and simple

diagrams

numbers or shapes; decide whether examples satisfy

given conditions

shapes, make predictions and test these with examples

NRICH: Caterpillars

experience, talking about their own ideas, methods and

choices

explaining choices and decisions orally or using pictures

organised way; explain decisions, methods and results

in pictorial, spoken or written form, using mathematical

language and number sentences

rearranged the number of objects stays the same;

estimate a number of objects that can be checked by

counting

NRICH: Making Sticks

NRICH: Biscuit Decorations

figures and words; describe and extend number

sequences and recognise odd and even numbers

NRICH: Ring a Ring of Numbers

NRICH: Domino Sequences

NRICH: Domino Number Patterns

NRICH: Next Domino

Say and use number names in order in familiar contexts

NRICH 2008

Page 47

http://nrich.maths.org

Know that numbers identify how many objects are in a set

vocabulary; use the equals (equals) sign

counting in tens, fives or twos; explain what each digit in

a two-digit number represents, including numbers where

0 is a place holder; partition two-digit numbers in

different ways, including into multiples of 10 and 1

NRICH: Grouping Goodies

knowledge of place value to position these numbers on

a number track and number line

NRICH: Tug of War

number line; use the greater than (greater than) and less

than (less than) signs

NRICH: 100 Square Jigsaw

counting

number, and 10 more or less for multiples of 10

numbers to the nearest 10

NRICH: Incey Wincey Spider

shapes and sets of objects

NRICH: Halving

NRICH: Happy Halving

and use these to derive facts

and addition facts for totals to at least 5; work out the

corresponding subtraction facts

NRICH: Cuisenaire Environment

NRICH: Domino Sorting

each number to at least 10, all pairs with totals to 20 and

all pairs of multiples of 10 with totals up to 100

NRICH: Weighted Numbers

NRICH: Number Balance

this knowledge to derive the multiples of 2, 5 and 10 to

the tenth multiple NRICH: Are You Well Balanced?

NRICH: Buzzy Bee

derive and recall doubles of all numbers to 20, and the

corresponding halves

NRICH: The Tomato and the Bean

NRICH: Magic Plant

times-tables and the related division facts; Recognize

multiples of 2, 5 and 10

NRICH: Clapping Times

NRICH: Lots of Lollies

numbers

Use ordinal numbers in different contexts

Recognise numerals 1 to 9

estimate and check answers to calculations

NRICH 2008

Page 48

http://nrich.maths.org

Strand 4 Calculating

Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects

and subtraction to taking away

can be done in any order; use practical and informal

written methods to support the addition of a one-digit

number or a multiple of 10 to a one-digit or two-digit

number

NRICH: Number Lines

NRICH: Getting the Balance

NRICH: Ladybirds in the Garden

of 10 to or from any two-digit number; use practical and

informal written methods to add and subtract two-digit

numbers

NRICH: Butterfly Flowers

NRICH: Number Round Up

vocabulary involved in adding and subtracting

difference by counting up; use practical and informal

written methods to support the subtraction of a one-digit

number from a one digit or two-digit number and a

multiple of 10 from a two-digit number

and vice versa; use this to derive and record related

addition and subtraction number sentences

NRICH: Secret Number

and symbols to describe and record addition and

subtraction number sentences

NRICH: 2,4,6,8

multiplication, and sharing and repeated subtraction

(grouping) as division; use practical and informal written

methods and related vocabulary to support multiplication

and division, including calculations with remainders

NRICH: Share Bears

Share objects into equal groups and count how many in each

group

of 2, 5 or 10, or sharing into equal groups

equals to record and interpret number sentences

involving all four operations; calculate the value of an

unknown in a number sentence (e.g. square divided by 2

equals 6, 30 square equals 24)

recreate patterns and build models

NRICH: Chairs and Tables

NRICH: Repeating Patterns

and describe their features; use them to make patterns,

pictures and models

NRICH: Building with Solid Shapes

shapes from pictures of them in different positions and

orientations; sort, make and describe shapes, referring

to their properties

NRICH: Matching Triangles

NRICH: Complete the Square

NRICH: Shadow Play

NRICH: Skeleton Shapes

and size of solids and flat shapes

about a line (e.g. a door); recognise and make whole,

half and quarter turns

NRICH: Turning

and draw lines of symmetry in shapes

NRICH: Coloured Squares

position of objects and direction and distance when

moving them, for example when placing or moving

objects on a game board

NRICH: 2 Rings

and movement

NRICH 2008

Page 49

http://nrich.maths.org

Recognise and use whole, half and quarter turns, both

clockwise and anticlockwise; know that a right angle

represents a quarter turn

NRICH: Turning Man

Strand 6 - Measuring

Use language such as 'greater', 'smaller', 'heavier' or 'lighter'

to compare quantities

choosing and using suitable uniform non-standard or

standard units and measuring instruments (e.g. a lever

balance, metre stick or measuring jug)

NRICH: Sizing Them Up

NRICH: Wallpaper

capacities, choosing and using standard units (m, cm,

kg, litre) and suitable measuring instruments

NRICH: Little Man

familiar events and measure short periods of time

NRICH: Snap

and months; read the time to the hour and half hour

the divisions between them (e.g. on a scale from 0 to 25

with intervals of 1 shown but only the divisions 0, 5, 10,

15 and 20 numbered); use a ruler to draw and measure

lines to the nearest centimetre

Use units of time (seconds, minutes, hours, days) and

know the relationships between them; read the time to

the quarter hour; identify time intervals, including those

that cross the hour

NRICH: Stop the Clock

Sort familiar objects to identify their similarities and differences

tables; present outcomes using practical resources,

pictures, block graphs or pictograms

NRICH: Noah

lists and tables; represent the data as block graphs or

pictograms to show results; use ICT to organise and

present data

NRICH: Ladybird Count

presenting results using pictures, drawings or numerals

given criterion; suggest a different criterion for grouping

the same objects

NRICH: Sort the Street

choices using appropriate language, including 'not'

NRICH: Carroll Diagrams

NRICH 2008

Page 50

http://nrich.maths.org

Appendix 20

for Activity 3

the Framework for teaching mathematics in Years 3, 4, 5 and 6

(N.B. This is work in progress we would really appreciate your comments. Please email emp1001@cam.ac.uk)

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 6-7

problems involving numbers,

money or measures, including

time, choosing and carrying out

appropriate calculations

NRICH: A Square of

Numbers

problems involving numbers,

money or measures, including

time; choose and carry out

appropriate calculations, using

calculator methods where

appropriate

NRICH: The Puzzling Sweet

Shop

Represent a puzzle or problem

using number sentences,

statements or diagrams; use

these to solve the problem;

present and interpret the

solution in the context of the

problem

NRICH: Buying a Balloon

problems involving whole

numbers and decimals and all

four operations, choosing and

using appropriate calculation

strategies, including calculator

use

NRICH: Money Bags

NRICH: Amys Dominoes

Represent a puzzle or problem

by identifying and recording the

information or calculations

needed to solve it; find possible

solutions and confirm them in

the context of the problem

NRICH: Sealed Solution

NRICH: Prison Cells

down complex calculations into

simpler steps; choose and use

operations and calculation

strategies appropriate to the

numbers and context; try

alternative approaches to

overcome difficulties; present,

interpret and compare solutions

Represent information or

unknown numbers in a problem,

for example in a table, formula

or equation; explain solutions in

the context of the problem

the strategy needed to follow it;

collect, organise and interpret

selected information to find

answers

present evidence by collecting,

organising and interpreting

information; suggest extensions

to the enquiry

relationships and properties of

numbers or shapes; investigate

a statement involving numbers

and test it with examples

relationships and propose a

general statement involving

numbers or shapes; identify

examples for which the

statement is true or false

NRICH: Up and Down

Staircases

problems involving fractions,

decimals and percentages;

choose and use appropriate

calculation strategies at each

stage, including calculator use

NRICH: Two Primes Make

One Square

NRICH: Whats it Worth?

Tabulate systematically the

information in a problem or

puzzle; identify and record the

steps or calculations needed to

solve it, using symbols where

appropriate; interpret solutions

in the original context and

check their accuracy

NRICH: Counting Cards

Suggest, plan and develop lines

of enquiry; collect, organise and

represent information, interpret

results and review methods;

identify and answer related

questions

Represent and interpret

sequences, patterns and

relationships involving numbers

and shapes; suggest and test

hypotheses; construct and use

simple expressions and

formulae in words then symbols

(e.g. the cost of c pens at 15

pence each is 15c pence)

NRICH: Sticky Triangles

puzzle or problem using

numbers, images or diagrams;

use these to find a solution and

present it in context, where

appropriate using .p notation

or units of measure

deciding what information is

important; make and use lists,

tables and graphs to organise

and interpret the information

NRICH: Sweets in a Box

Describe patterns and

relationships involving numbers

or shapes, and use these to

solve problems

NRICH 2008

Page 51

enquiry; identify, collect,

organise and analyse relevant

information; decide how best to

represent conclusions and what

further questions to ask

Generate sequences and

describe the general term; use

letters and symbols to represent

unknown numbers or variables;

represent simple relationships

as graphs

http://nrich.maths.org

Describe and explain methods,

choices and solutions to

puzzles and problems, orally

and in writing, using pictures

and diagrams

problems, giving explanations

and reasoning orally and in

writing, using diagrams and

symbols

diagrams, graphs and text;

refine ways of recording using

images and symbols

conclusions, using words,

symbols or diagrams as

appropriate

NRICH: Make 37

NRICH: Got It!

and conclusions, using notation,

symbols and diagrams; find a

counter-example to disprove a

conjecture; use step-by-step

deductions to solve problems

involving shapes

numbers to at least 1000 and

position them on a number line;

count on from and back to zero

in single-digit steps or multiples

of 10

number sequences formed by

counting on or back in steps of

constant size

whole-number and decimal

steps, extending beyond zero

when counting backwards;

relate the numbers to their

position on a number line

NRICH: Swimming Pool

NRICH: Tug Harder!

NRICH: First Connect Three

positive and a negative integer,

or two negative integers, in

context

NRICH: Consecutive

Numbers

NRICH: Sea Level

and decimals in different

contexts

into multiples of 100, 10 and 1

in different ways

positive and negative numbers

in context and position them on

a number line; state inequalities

using the symbols less than and

greater than (e.g. -3 greater

than -5, -1 less than plus1)

Use decimal notation for tenths

and hundredths and partition

decimals; relate the notation to

money and measurement;

position one-place and twoplace decimals on a number

line

represents in whole numbers

and decimals with up to two

places, and partition, round and

order these numbers

hundredths and thousandths;

partition, round and order

decimals with up to three

places, and position them on

the number line

converting them to decimals

number as a fraction of a larger

one (e.g. recognise that 5 out of

8 is five eighths); find equivalent

fractions (e.g. seven tenths

equals fourteen twentieths, or

nineteen tenths equals 1nine

tenths); relate fractions to their

decimal representations

Recognise approximate

proportions of a whole and use

fractions and percentages to

describe and compare them, for

example when interpreting pie

charts

between decimal and fraction

forms of one half, quarters,

tenths and hundredths

number of parts in every 100

and express tenths and

hundredths as percentages

as a fraction of a smaller one

(e.g. recognise that 8 slices of a

5-slice pizza represents eight

fifths or 1three fifths pizzas);

simplify fractions by cancelling

common factors; order a set of

fractions by converting them to

fractions with a common

denominator

NRICH: Chocolate

Express one quantity as a

percentage of another (e.g.

express pound400 as a

percentage of pound1000); find

equivalent percentages,

decimals and fractions

numbers to the nearest 10 or

100 and give estimates for their

sums and differences

(e.g. three sevenths, nine

tenths), interpreting the

denominator as the parts of a

whole and the numerator as the

number of parts; identify and

estimate fractions of shapes;

use diagrams to compare

fractions and establish

equivalents

NRICH 2008

Page 52

ratio to its simplest form and

divide a quantity into two parts

in a given ratio; solve simple

problems involving ratio and

direct proportion (e.g. identify

the quantities needed to make a

fruit drink by mixing water and

juice in a given ratio)

http://nrich.maths.org

Use diagrams to identify

equivalent fractions (e.g. six

eighths and three quarters, or

seventy hundredths and seven

tenths); interpret mixed

numbers and position them on

a number line (e.g. 3 one half)

Use the vocabulary of ratio and

proportion to describe the

relationship between two

quantities (e.g. 'There are 2 red

beads to every 3 blue beads, or

2 beads in every 5 beads are

red'); estimate a proportion (e.g.

'About one quarter of the apples

in the box are green')

numbers up or down; solve

problems involving proportions

of quantities (e.g. decrease

quantities in a recipe designed

to feed six people)

NRICH: Blackcurrantiest

direct proportion by scaling

quantities up or down

NRICH: Orange Drink

NRICH: Pumpkin Pie

Problem

and subtraction facts for each

number to 20, sums and

differences of multiples of 10

and number pairs that total 100

subtraction facts and place

value to derive sums and

differences of pairs of multiples

of 10, 100 or 1000

facts for the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 10

times-tables and the

corresponding division facts;

recognise multiples of 2, 5 or 10

up to 1000

NRICH: Growing Garlic

Use knowledge of number

operations and corresponding

inverses, including doubling and

halving, to estimate and check

calculations

numbers; use these to calculate

doubles of multiples of 10 and

100 and derive the

corresponding halves

and addition and subtraction of

two-digit numbers to derive

sums and differences and

doubles and halves of decimals

(e.g. 6.5 plus over minus 2.7,

half of 5.6, double 0.34)

Recall quickly multiplication

facts up to 10 multiplied by 10

and use them to multiply pairs

of multiples of 10 and 100;

derive quickly corresponding

division facts

and multiplication facts to 10

multiplied by 10 to derive

related multiplication and

division facts involving decimals

(e.g. 0.8 multiplied by 7, 4.8

divided by 6)

Use knowledge of multiplication

facts to derive quickly squares

of numbers to 12multiplied by12

and the corresponding squares

of multiples of 10

NRICH: One Wasnt Square

facts up to 10 multiplied by 10,

the corresponding division facts

and multiples of numbers to 10

up to the tenth multiple

NRICH: Multiplication Square

Jigsaw

NRICH: Shape Times Shape

NRICH: What do you Need?

common multiples (e.g. for 6

and 9)

NRICH: Multiples Grid

NRICH: Music to my Ears

NRICH: Multiplication

Squares

NRICH: Flashing Lights

have only two factors and

identify prime numbers less

than 100; find the prime factors

of two-digit numbers

NRICH: Factors and

Multiples Game

factors, divisors, common

factors, highest common factors

and lowest common multiples in

simple cases

NRICH: What's in the Box?

NRICH: Factor-Multiple

Chains

NRICH: The Moons of Vuvv

number operations and

inverses to estimate and check

calculations

Identify pairs of fractions that

total 1

place value, number facts and

inverse operations to estimate

and check calculations

operations and tests of

divisibility to estimate and check

results

approximations to calculations

NRICH 2008

Page 53

number facts, including

multiplication facts to 10

multiplied by 10 and the

associated division facts

perfect squares to 12 multiplied

by 12

Strand 4 - Calculating

http://nrich.maths.org

Add or subtract mentally

combinations of one-digit and

two-digit numbers

NRICH: Super Shapes

of two-digit whole numbers (e.g.

47 plus 58, 91 - 35)

NRICH: Twenty Divided Into

Six

methods to record, support or

explain addition and subtraction

of two-digit and three-digit

numbers

methods to add and subtract

two-digit and three-digit whole

numbers and pound.p

numbers by 10 or 100, and

describe the effect

1000 by 10 and then 100

(whole-number answers),

understanding the effect; relate

to scaling up or down

NRICH: The Deca Tree

value to multiply and divide

whole numbers and decimals

by 10, 100 or 1000

written methods to multiply and

divide two-digit numbers (e.g.

13 multiplied by 3, 50 divided by

4); round remainders up or

down, depending on the context

methods to record, support and

explain multiplication and

division of two-digit numbers by

a one-digit number, including

division with remainders (e.g.

15 multiplied by 9, 98 divided by

6)

Find fractions of numbers,

quantities or shapes (e.g. one

fifth of 30 plums, three eighths

of a 6 by 4 rectangle)

NRICH: A Bowl of Fruit

NRICH: Fractional Triangles

methods to multiply and divide

HTU multiplied by U, TU

multiplied by TU, U.t multiplied

by U and HTU divided by U

inverse of multiplication and

vice versa; use this to derive

and record related multiplication

and division number sentences

NRICH: Secret Number

NRICH 2008

whole-number calculations, for

example to multiply a two-digit

by a one-digit number (e.g. 12

multiplied by 9), to multiply by

25 (e.g. 16 multiplied by 25), to

subtract one near-multiple of

1000 from another (e.g. 6070 4097)

Use efficient written methods to

add and subtract whole

numbers and decimals with up

to two places

NRICH: Reach 100

(e.g. one hundredth of 5 kg),

and percentages of numbers

and quantities (e.g. 10percent,

5percent and 15percent of

pound80)

Page 54

and decimals: U.t plus over

minus U.t, TU multiplied by U,

TU divided by U, U.t multiplied

by U, U.t divided by U

add and subtract integers and

decimals, to multiply and divide

integers and decimals by a onedigit integer, and to multiply

two-digit and three-digit integers

by a two-digit integer

Relate fractions to multiplication

and division (e.g. 6 divided by 2

equals one half of 6 equals 6

multiplied by one half ); express

a quotient as a fraction or

decimal (e.g. 67 divided by 5

equals 13.4 or 13two fifths );

find fractions and percentages

of whole-number quantities

NRICH: Andys Marbles

NRICH: Would you Rather?

NRICH: Forgot the Numbers

Use a calculator to solve

problems involving multi-step

calculations

commutative, associative and

distributive laws, and the

relationships between

operations, including inverse

operations, can be used to

calculate more efficiently; use

the order of operations,

including brackets

Consolidate and extend mental

methods of calculation to

include decimals, fractions and

percentages

NRICH: Route Product

procedures to add and subtract

integers and decimals, and to

multiply two-digit and three-digit

integers by a one-digit or twodigit integer; extend division to

dividing three-digit integers by a

two-digit integer

NRICH: Two and Two

NRICH: Trebling

NRICH: All the Digits

Calculate percentage increases

or decreases and fractions of

quantities and measurements

(integer answers)

memory of a calculator to carry

out calculations with more than

one step; use the square root

key

http://nrich.maths.org

Find unit fractions of numbers

and quantities (e.g. one half,

one third, one quarter and one

sixth of 12 litres)

NRICH: Fair Feast

one-step and two-step

calculations involving all four

operations; recognise negative

numbers in the display, correct

mistaken entries and interpret

the display correctly in the

context of money

problems, including those

involving decimals or fractions

(e.g. find three quarters of 150

g); interpret the display correctly

in the context of measurement

solids to drawings of them;

describe, visualise, classify,

draw and make the shapes

NRICH: Building Blocks

NRICH: The Third Dimension

them by identifying their

properties, including their line

symmetry

NRICH: Lets Reflect

parallel and perpendicular

edges or faces; use these

properties to classify 2-D

shapes and 3-D solids

NRICH: Where Are They?

notation and labelling

conventions for lines, angles

and shapes

reflective symmetry; draw the

reflection of a shape in a mirror

line along one side

drawings; make nets of

common solids

NRICH: A Puzzling Cube

properties of rectangles,

triangles, regular polygons and

3-D solids; use knowledge of

properties to draw 2-D shapes,

and to identify and draw nets of

3-D shapes

NRICH: Square It

NRICH: Cut Nets

Read and plot coordinates in

the first quadrant; recognise

parallel and perpendicular lines

in grids and shapes; use a setsquare and ruler to draw

shapes with perpendicular or

parallel sides

increasing accuracy and apply

knowledge of their properties

NRICH: Stringy Quads

NRICH: Making Cuboids

of triangles and quadrilaterals

and use these to visualise and

solve problems, explaining

reasoning with diagrams

NRICH: Nine-pin Triangles

NRICH: Transformations on

a Pegboard

NRICH: Cut it Out

NRICH: Quadrilaterals

of position, direction and

movement, using the four

compass directions to describe

movement about a grid

vertical lines; use the eight

compass points to describe

direction; describe and identify

the position of a square on a

grid of squares

NRICH: Square Corners

Know that angles are measured

in degrees and that one whole

turn is 360degrees; compare

and order angles less than

180degrees

two lines of symmetry; draw the

position of a shape after a

reflection or translation

different types where a shape

will be after reflection, after

translations, or after rotation

through 90degrees or

180degrees about its centre or

one of its vertices

Use coordinates in the first

quadrant to draw, locate and

complete shapes that meet

given properties

NRICH: A Cartesian Puzzle

NRICH: Eight Hidden

Squares

straight line, in a triangle and at

a point, and recognise vertically

opposite angles

angles and to identify right

angles in 2-D shapes; compare

angles with a right angle;

recognise that a straight line is

equivalent to two right angles

NRICH 2008

acute and obtuse angles using

an angle measurer or protractor

to a suitable degree of

accuracy; calculate angles in a

straight line

NRICH: Six Places to Visit

Page 55

coordinates of points

determined by geometric

information

NRICH: Coordinate Tan

NRICH: Ten Hidden Squares

http://nrich.maths.org

Strand 6 - Measuring

kilometres and metres, metres

and centimetres, kilograms and

grams, litres and millilitres;

choose and use appropriate

units to estimate, measure and

record measurements

and half-division, scales that

are numbered or partially

numbered; use the information

to measure and draw to a

suitable degree of accuracy

digital clock and to the nearest

5 minutes on an analogue

clock; calculate time intervals

and find start or end times for a

given time interval

NRICH: Two Clocks

NRICH 2008

protractor to measure and draw

them, on their own and in

shapes; calculate angles in a

triangle or around a point

NRICH: How Safe Are You?

using ICT

NRICH: Symmetry Challenge

NRICH: Coordinate

Challenge

Construct a triangle given two

sides and the included angle

metric units and their

abbreviations when estimating,

measuring and recording

length, weight and capacity;

know the meaning of 'kilo',

'centi' and 'milli' and, where

appropriate, use decimal

notation to record

measurements (e.g. 1.3 m or

0.6 kg)

Interpret intervals and divisions

on partially numbered scales

and record readings accurately,

where appropriate to the

nearest tenth of a unit

standard metric units to

estimate and measure length,

weight and capacity to a

suitable degree of accuracy

(e.g. the nearest centimetre);

convert larger to smaller units

using decimals to one place

(e.g. change 2.6 kg to 2600 g)

units of measure and convert

between units using decimals to

two places (e.g. change 2.75

litres to 2750 ml, or vice versa)

units using decimals to three

places (e.g. convert 1375 mm

to 1.375 m, or vice versa)

between two unnumbered

divisions on a scale

estimating and calculating;

measure and calculate using

imperial units still in everyday

use; know their approximate

metric values

and calculate their perimeters;

find the area of rectilinear

shapes drawn on a square grid

by counting squares

NRICH: Torn Shapes

nearest millimetre; measure

and calculate the perimeter of

regular and irregular polygons;

use the formula for the area of a

rectangle to calculate the

rectangle's area

NRICH: Fitted

range of measuring

instruments, recognising that

the measurement made is

approximate and recording

results to a required degree of

accuracy; compare readings on

different scales, for example

when using different

instruments

Calculate the perimeter and

area of rectilinear shapes;

estimate the area of an irregular

shape by counting squares

NRICH: Numerically Equal

Page 56

lengths of the two perpendicular

sides, and the volume and

surface area of cubes and

cuboids

NRICH: Brush Loads

NRICH: More

Transformations on a

Pegboard

http://nrich.maths.org

Answer a question by

collecting, organising and

interpreting data; use tally

charts, frequency tables,

pictograms and bar charts to

represent results and illustrate

observations; use ICT to create

a simple bar chart

Use Venn diagrams or Carroll

diagrams to sort data and

objects using more than one

criterion

NRICH: Venn Diagrams

NRICH: More Carroll

Diagrams

NRICH 2008

minute; use am, pm and 12hour clock notation; choose

units of time to measure time

intervals; calculate time

intervals from clocks and

timetables

NRICH: Wonky Watches

NRICH: Clocks

24-hour clock notation; use a

calendar to calculate time

intervals

NRICH: How Many Times?

NRICH: 5 on the Clock

Answer a question by

identifying what data to collect;

organise, present, analyse and

interpret the data in tables,

diagrams, tally charts,

pictograms and bar charts,

using ICT where appropriate

familiar events using the

language of chance or

likelihood

representations where scales

have intervals of differing step

size

questions by collecting,

selecting and organising

relevant data; draw

conclusions, using ICT to

present features, and identify

further questions to ask

NRICH: Real Statistics

from data using the language of

chance or likelihood

NRICH: Domino Pick

NRICH: Odds or Sixes?

NRICH: Twelve Pointed Star

Game

NRICH: Same or Different?

Solve problems by collecting,

selecting, processing,

presenting and interpreting

data, using ICT where

appropriate; draw conclusions

and identify further questions to

ask

NRICH: It's a Tie

pictograms and bar and line

graphs to represent the

frequencies of events and

changes over time

frequency tables, bar charts

with grouped discrete data, and

line graphs; interpret pie charts

NRICH: Match the Matches

set of data

and solutions to problems using

the mode, range, median and

mean

Page 57

probability scale from 0 to 1;

find and justify probabilities

based on equally likely

outcomes in simple contexts

NRICH: Roll These Dice

surveys or experiments to

collect small sets of discrete or

continuous data; select,

process, present and interpret

the data, using ICT where

appropriate; identify ways to

extend the survey or

experiment

Construct, interpret and

compare graphs and diagrams

that represent data, for example

compare proportions in two pie

charts that represent different

totals

Write a short report of a

statistical enquiry and illustrate

with appropriate diagram

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