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OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System

V100R007C00

Commissioning Guide
Issue

02

Date

2014-09-15

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2014. All rights reserved.


No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written
consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions


and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice
The purchased products, services and features are stipulated by the contract made between Huawei and the
customer. All or part of the products, services and features described in this document may not be within the
purchase scope or the usage scope. Unless otherwise specified in the contract, all statements, information,
and recommendations in this document are provided "AS IS" without warranties, guarantees or representations
of any kind, either express or implied.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the
preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and
recommendations in this document do not constitute a warranty of any kind, express or implied.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.


Address:

Huawei Industrial Base


Bantian, Longgang
Shenzhen 518129
People's Republic of China

Website:

http://www.huawei.com

Email:

support@huawei.com

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About This Document

About This Document


Related Versions
The following table lists the product versions related to this document.
Product Name

Version

OptiX RTN 950

V100R007C00

iManager U2000

V200R014C50

Intended Audience
This document describes how to commission the OptiX RTN 950, including preparations before
commissioning, site commissioning, and system commissioning.
The intended audience of this document are:
Installation and commissioning engineers

Symbol Conventions
The symbols that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Symbol

Description
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, may result in minor or
moderate injury.

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Commissioning Guide

About This Document

Symbol

Description
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, could result in
equipment damage, data loss, performance
deterioration, or unanticipated results.
NOTICE is used to address practices not
related to personal injury.
Calls attention to important information, best
practices and tips.
NOTE is used to address information not
related to personal injury, equipment damage,
and environment deterioration.

General Conventions
The general conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Times New Roman

Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman.

Boldface

Names of files, directories, folders, and users are in


boldface. For example, log in as user root.

Italic

Book titles are in italics.

Courier New

Examples of information displayed on the screen are in


Courier New.

Command Conventions
The command conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.

Issue 02 (2014-09-15)

Convention

Description

Boldface

The keywords of a command line are in boldface.

Italic

Command arguments are in italics.

[]

Items (keywords or arguments) in brackets [ ] are optional.

{ x | y | ... }

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected.

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About This Document

Convention

Description

[ x | y | ... ]

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. One item is selected or no item is selected.

{ x | y | ... }*

Optional items are grouped in braces and separated by


vertical bars. A minimum of one item or a maximum of all
items can be selected.

[ x | y | ... ]*

Optional items are grouped in brackets and separated by


vertical bars. Several items or no item can be selected.

GUI Conventions
The GUI conventions that may be found in this document are defined as follows.
Convention

Description

Boldface

Buttons, menus, parameters, tabs, window, and dialog titles


are in boldface. For example, click OK.

>

Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">"


signs. For example, choose File > Create > Folder.

Change History
Updates between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document issue contains
all updates made in previous issues.

Updates in Issue 02 (2014-09-15) Based on Product Version V100R007C00


This document is the second release of the V100R007C00 version.
Change

Description

Fixed the known bugs.

Updates in Issue 01 (2014-05-30) Based on Product Version V100R007C00


This document is the first release of the V100R007C00 version.

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Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................ii
1 Safety Precautions.........................................................................................................................1
1.1 General Safety Precautions.............................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols.........................................................................................................................................3
1.3 Electrical Safety..............................................................................................................................................................4
1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas.....................................................................................................................................7
1.5 Storage Batteries.............................................................................................................................................................7
1.6 Radiation.........................................................................................................................................................................9
1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers.......................................................................................................................................9
1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure.........................................................................................................................................11
1.6.3 Forbidden Areas........................................................................................................................................................11
1.6.4 Laser..........................................................................................................................................................................11
1.6.5 Microwave.................................................................................................................................................................12
1.7 Working at Heights.......................................................................................................................................................13
1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects.............................................................................................................................................13
1.7.2 Using Ladders............................................................................................................................................................14
1.8 Mechanical Safety........................................................................................................................................................16
1.9 Other Precautions.........................................................................................................................................................17

2 Notices for High-Risk Operations...........................................................................................19


2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch.............................................................................................................20
2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper...............................................................................................................................22
2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables...............................................................................................................................23
2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board.................................................................................................................................24

3 Commissioning Preparations....................................................................................................26
3.1 Preparing Documents and Tools...................................................................................................................................27
3.2 Preparing the Certificate File for NE Access from a USB Flash Drive.......................................................................29
3.3 Obtaining a USB Flash Drive.......................................................................................................................................31
3.4 Determining the Commissioning Method....................................................................................................................32
3.5 Checking Commissioning Conditions..........................................................................................................................33
3.5.1 Site Commissioning...................................................................................................................................................33
3.5.2 System Commissioning.............................................................................................................................................33
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4 Commissioning Process.............................................................................................................35
4.1 Site Commissioning Process........................................................................................................................................36
4.2 System Commissioning Process...................................................................................................................................40

5 Site Commissioning (Using the Web LCT)............................................................................42


5.1 Powering On the Equipment.........................................................................................................................................43
5.2 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through a Mini USB Interface)....................................................................................46
5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface)...............................................................................................50
5.4 Downloading a Commissioning Data Script to an NE Using the Web LCT...............................................................52
5.5 Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using the Web LCT..................................................................................53
5.5.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method...............................................................................................................58
5.5.2 Logging In to an NE (Web LCT)..............................................................................................................................59
5.5.3 Changing the NE ID..................................................................................................................................................60
5.5.4 Changing the NE Name.............................................................................................................................................61
5.5.5 Changing the NE IP Address.....................................................................................................................................62
5.5.6 Enabling NE Automatic Reporting............................................................................................................................63
5.5.7 Configuring Logical Boards......................................................................................................................................64
5.5.8 Synchronizing NE Time............................................................................................................................................65
5.5.9 Changing the Modem Chip Mode.............................................................................................................................66
5.5.10 Changing the IF Service Type.................................................................................................................................66
5.5.11 Configuring a Hop of Radio Link............................................................................................................................67
5.5.12 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group......................................................................................................................71
5.5.13 Configuring the VLAN ID and Bandwidth Used by an Inband DCN.....................................................................73
5.5.14 Configuring Orderwire............................................................................................................................................74
5.6 Checking Alarms..........................................................................................................................................................75
5.7 Testing Connectivity of Cables....................................................................................................................................76
5.7.1 Testing Connectivity of E1 Cables............................................................................................................................76
5.7.2 Testing Connectivity of Network Cables..................................................................................................................78
5.7.3 Checking Fiber Jumper Connection..........................................................................................................................79
5.8 Aligning the Antennas..................................................................................................................................................81
5.8.1 Main Lobe and Side Lobes........................................................................................................................................81
5.8.2 Aligning Single-Polarized Antennas.........................................................................................................................84
5.8.3 Aligning Dual-Polarized Antennas............................................................................................................................87
5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive Power.............................................................................................90

6 Site Commissioning (Using a USB Flash Drive)...................................................................92


6.1 Powering On the Equipment.........................................................................................................................................93
6.2 Loading Commissioning Data from a USB Flash Drive..............................................................................................96
6.3 Using the Web LCT to Complete Subsequent Commissioning Items.........................................................................98

7 System Commissioning............................................................................................................100
7.1 Configuring Networkwide Service Data....................................................................................................................102
7.2 Testing Connectivity of E1 Services..........................................................................................................................102
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7.2.1 Testing E1 Services by Using a BER Tester...........................................................................................................102


7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS............................................................................................................................104
7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services.................................................................................................................106
7.3.1 Testing Ethernet Services Configured on a Per-NE Basis.......................................................................................106
7.3.2 Testing Ethernet Services Configured in an End-to-End Manner...........................................................................111
7.4 Testing ATM Services................................................................................................................................................114
7.5 Testing AM Shifts......................................................................................................................................................117
7.5.1 Testing AM Shifts on IFU2/IFX2 Boards...............................................................................................................117
7.5.2 Testing AM Shifts on the ISU2/ISX2/ISV3............................................................................................................119
7.6 Testing Protection Switching......................................................................................................................................120
7.6.1 Testing IF 1+1 Protection Switching.......................................................................................................................120
7.6.2 Testing N+1 Protection Switching..........................................................................................................................122
7.6.3 Testing SNCP Switching.........................................................................................................................................125
7.6.4 Testing ERPS Switching.........................................................................................................................................129
7.6.5 Testing MPLS APS Protection Switching...............................................................................................................132
7.6.6 Testing Linear MSP Switching................................................................................................................................134
7.6.7 Testing Switching of the Integrated System Control and Communication, Switching, and Timing Board............138
7.7 Checking the Clock Status..........................................................................................................................................141
7.8 Testing the FM over a Radio Link..............................................................................................................................142
7.9 Testing E1 Service Performance................................................................................................................................147
7.10 Testing Ethernet Service Performance.....................................................................................................................149
7.10.1 Testing Latency, Throughput, and Packet Loss Ratio...........................................................................................149
7.10.2 Testing the Long-term Packet Loss Ratio.............................................................................................................153

8 Site Commissioning Data Script Generation Using the Offline Configuration Function
..........................................................................................................................................................156
8.1 Process of Generating a Commissioning Data Script.................................................................................................157
8.1.1 Creating a Pre-configured NE.................................................................................................................................157
8.1.2 Configuring Site Commissioning Data....................................................................................................................162
8.1.3 Generating a Commissioning Data Script...............................................................................................................166

9 ETH-OAM Operations on the EoS/EoPDH Plane...............................................................168


9.1 Creating MDs.............................................................................................................................................................169
9.2 Creating MAs.............................................................................................................................................................170
9.3 Creating MPs..............................................................................................................................................................171
9.4 Performing an LB Test...............................................................................................................................................172
9.5 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MDs............................................................................173
9.6 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MAs............................................................................174
9.7 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MPs.............................................................................175
9.8 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Enabling LB...................................................................................177

A Glossary......................................................................................................................................179

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1 Safety Precautions

Safety Precautions

About This Chapter


This topic describes the safety precautions that you must follow when installing, operating, and
maintaining Huawei devices.
1.1 General Safety Precautions
This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring
and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.
1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols
Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment.
1.3 Electrical Safety
This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current,
power cables, fuses, and ESD.
1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas
This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.
1.5 Storage Batteries
This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.
1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers.
1.7 Working at Heights
This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.
1.8 Mechanical Safety
This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans,
and carrying heavy objects.
1.9 Other Precautions
This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables,
and routing cables.

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1 Safety Precautions

1.1 General Safety Precautions


This topic describes essential safety precautions that instruct you in the selection of measuring
and testing instruments when you install, operate, and maintain Huawei devices.

All Safety Precautions


To ensure the safety of humans and a device, follow the marks on the device and all the safety
precautions in this document when installing, operating, and maintaining a device.
The "CAUTION", "WARNING", and "DANGER" marks in this document do not cover all the
safety precautions that must be followed. They are supplements to the safety precautions.

Local Laws and Regulations


When operating a device, always comply with the local laws and regulations. The safety
precautions provided in the documents are in addition/supplementary to the local laws and
regulations.

Basic Installation Requirements


The installation and maintenance personnel of Huawei devices must receive strict training and
be familiar with the proper operation methods and safety precautions before any operation.
l

Only trained and qualified personnel are permitted to install, operate, and maintain a device.

Only certified professionals are permitted to remove the safety facilities, and to troubleshoot
and maintain the device.

Only the personnel authenticated or authorized by Huawei are permitted to replace or


change the device or parts of the device (including software).

The operating personnel must immediately report the faults or errors that may cause safety
problems to the person in charge.

Grounding Requirements
The grounding requirements are applicable to the device that needs to be grounded.
l

When installing the device, always connect the grounding facilities first. When removing
the device, always disconnect the grounding facilities last.

Ensure that the grounding conductor is intact.

Do not operate the device in the absence of a suitably installed grounding conductor.

The device must be connected to the PGND permanently. Before operating the device,
check the electrical connections of the device, and ensure that the device is properly
grounded.

Human Safety
l

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When there is a risk of a lightning strike, do not operate the fixed terminal or touch the
cables.
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1 Safety Precautions

When there is risk of a lightning strike, unplug the AC power connector. Do not use the
fixed terminal or touch the terminal or antenna connector.
NOTE

The preceding requirements apply to wireless fixed station terminals.

To avoid electric shocks, do not connect safety extra-low voltage (SELV) circuits to
telephone-network voltage (TNV) circuits.

Do not look into optical ports without eye protection. Otherwise, human eyes may be hurt
by laser beams.

Before operating the device, wear an ESD protective coat, ESD gloves, and an ESD wrist
strap. In addition, you need to get off the conductive objects, such as jewelry and watches,
to prevent electric shock and burn.

In case of fire, escape from the building or site where the device is located and press the
fire alarm bell or dial the telephone number for fire alarms. Do not enter the burning building
again in any situation.

Before any operation, install the device firmly on the ground or other rigid objects, such as
on a wall or in a rack.

When the system is working, ensure that the ventilation hole is not blocked.

When installing the front panel, use a tool to tighten the screws firmly, if required.

After installing the device, clean up the packing materials.

Device Safety

1.2 Warning and Safety Symbols


Before using the equipment, note the following warning and safety symbols on the equipment.
Table 1-1 lists the warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950 and their meanings.
Table 1-1 Warning and safety symbols of the OptiX RTN 950
Symbol

Indication
This symbol is for ESD protection.
A notice with this symbol indicates that you should wear
an ES wrist strap or glove when you touch a board.
Otherwise, you may cause damage to the board.
This symbol is for the laser class.

CLASS 1
LASER
PRODUCT

A notice with this symbol indicates the class of the laser.


Avoid direct exposure to the laser beams. Otherwise, it may
damage you eyes or skin.

LASER
RADIATION
DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY
WITH OPTICAL
INSTRUMENTS
CLASS 1M LASER
PRODUCT

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Symbol

1 Safety Precautions

Indication
A notice with this symbol indicates where the subrack is
grounded.

ATTENTION

A notice with this symbol indicates that the air filter should
be cleaned periodically.

CLEAN PERIODICALLY

DON'T TOUCH THE


FAN LEAVES BEFORE
THEY SLOW DOWN !

This symbol is for fan safety.


A notice with this symbol indicates that the fan leaves
should not be touched when the fan is rotating.

1.3 Electrical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for high voltage, lightning strikes, high leakage current,
power cables, fuses, and ESD.

High Voltage

DANGER
l A high-voltage power supply provides power for device operations. Direct human contact
with the high voltage power supply or human contact through damp objects can be fatal.
l Unspecified or unauthorized high voltage operations could result in fire or electric shock, or
both.

Thunderstorm
The requirements apply only to wireless base stations or devices with antennas and feeders.

DANGER
Do not perform operations on high voltage, AC power, towers, or backstays in stormy weather
conditions.

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High Leakage Current

CAUTION
Before powering on a device, ground the device. Otherwise, the safety of humans and the device
cannot be ensured.
If a high leakage current mark is labeled near the power connector of the device, you must
connect the PGND terminal on the shell to the ground before connecting the device to an A/C
input power supply. This is to prevent the electric shock caused by leakage current of the device.

Power Cables

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cable with a live line. Transient contact between the core of
the power cable and the conductor may generate electric arc or spark, which may cause fire or
eye injury.
l

Before installing or removing power cables, you must power off the device.

Before connecting a power cable, you must ensure that the label on the power cable is
correct.

Device with Power On

DANGER
Installing or removing a device is prohibited if the device is on.

DANGER
Do not install or remove the power cables of the equipment when it is powered on.

Short Circuits
When installing and maintaining devices, place and use the associated tools and instruments in
accordance with regulations to avoid short-circuits caused by metal objects.
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NOTICE
To avoid short-circuits when using a tool (such as a screwdriver), do not place the tool on the
ventilation plate of the subrack.

NOTICE
Prevent any screws from dropping into the subrack or chassis to avoid short-circuits.

Fuse

CAUTION
If the fuse on a device blows, replace the fuse with a fuse of the same type and specifications to
ensure safe operation of the device.

Electrostatic Discharge

NOTICE
The static electricity generated by the human body may damage the electrostatic sensitive
components on the board, such as the large-scale integrated circuit (LSI).
l

The human body can generate static electromagnetic fields in the following situations:
physical movement, clothing friction, friction between shoes and the ground, plastics in
the hand. Such static electromagnetic effects can remain for an appreciable time.

Before operating a device, circuit boards, or ASICs, wear an ESD wrist strap that is properly
grounded. The ESD wrist strap can prevent the electrostatic-sensitive components from
being damaged by the static electricity in the human body.

Figure 1-1 shows the method of wearing an ESD wrist strap.

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1 Safety Precautions

Figure 1-1 Wearing an ESD wrist strap

1.4 Environment of Flammable Gas


This topic describes safety precautions for the operating environment of a device.

DANGER
Do not place or operate devices in an environment of flammable or explosive air or gas.
Operating an electronic device in an environment of flammable gas causes a severe hazard.

1.5 Storage Batteries


This topic describes safety precautions for operations of storage batteries.

DANGER
Before operating a storage battery, you must read the safety precautions carefully and be familiar
with the method of connecting a storage battery.
l

Incorrect operations of storage batteries cause hazards. During operation, prevent any shortcircuit, and prevent the electrolyte from overflowing or leakage.

If the electrolyte overflows, it causes potential hazards to the device. The electrolyte may
corrode metal parts and the circuit boards, and ultimately damage the circuit boards.

A storage battery contains a great deal of energy. Misoperations may cause a short-circuit,
which leads to human injuries.

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Basic Precautions
To ensure safety, note the following points before installing or maintaining the storage battery:
l

Use special insulation tools.

Wear an eye protector and take effective protection measures.

Wear rubber gloves and a protection coat to prevent the hazard caused by the overflowing
electrolyte.

When handling the storage battery, ensure that its electrodes are upward. Leaning or
reversing the storage battery is prohibited.

Before installing or maintaining the storage battery, ensure that the storage battery is
disconnected from the power supply that charges the storage battery.

Short-Circuit

DANGER
A battery short-circuit may cause human injuries. Although the voltage of an ordinary battery
is low, the instantaneous high current caused by a short-circuit emits a great deal of energy.
Avoid any short-circuit of batteries caused by metal objects. If possible, disconnect the working
battery before performing other operations.

Hazardous Gas

NOTICE
Do not use any unsealed lead-acid storage battery. Lay a storage battery horizontally and fix it
properly to prevent the battery from emitting flammable gas, which may cause fire or device
erosion.
Working lead-acid storage batteries emit flammable gas. Therefore, ventilation and fireproofing
measures must be taken at the sites where lead-acid storage batteries are placed.

Battery Temperature

NOTICE
If a battery overheats, the battery may be deformed or damaged, and the electrolyte may
overflow.
When the temperature of the battery is higher than 60C, you need to check whether the
electrolyte overflows. If the electrolyte overflows, take appropriate measures immediately.
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Battery Leakage

NOTICE
In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up appropriately.
When handling a leaky battery, protect against the possible damage caused by the acid. When
you find the electrolyte leaks, you can use the following substances to counteract and absorb the
leaking electrolyte:
l

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)

In the event of acid overflow or spillage, neutralize the acid and clean it up as recommended by
the battery manufacturer and any local regulations for acid disposal.
If a person contacts battery electrolyte, clean the skin that contacts the battery electrolyte
immediately by using water. In case of a severe situation, the person must be sent to a hospital
immediately.

1.6 Radiation
This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure and lasers.

1.6.1 Safe Usage of Optical Fibers


The laser beam can cause damage to your eyes. Hence, you must exercise caution when using
optical fibers.

DANGER
When installing or maintaining an optical interface board or optical fibers, avoid direct eye
exposure to the laser beams launched from the optical interface board or fiber connectors. The
laser beam can cause damage to your eyes.

Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Optical Interfaces

NOTICE
If fiber connectors or flanges are contaminated, optical power commissioning is seriously
affected. Therefore, the two endfaces and flange of every external fiber must be cleaned before
the fiber is led into the equipment through the ODF for being inserted into an optical interface
on the equipment.

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The fiber connectors and optical interfaces of the lasers must be cleaned with the following
special cleaning tools and materials:
l

Special cleaning solvent: It is preferred to use isoamylol. Propyl alcohol, however, can also
be used. It is prohibited that you use alcohol and formalin.

Non-woven lens tissue

Special compressed gas

Cotton stick (medical cotton or long fiber cotton)

Special cleaning roll, used with the recommended cleaning solvent

Special magnifier for fiber connectors

For cleaning steps, see Task Collection "Cleaning Fiber Connectors and Adapters" in the OptiX
RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Maintenance and Troubleshooting.

Replacing Optical Fibers


When replacing an optical fiber, cover the fiber connector of the unused optical fiber with a
protective cap.

Connecting Optical Fibers


l

Use an attenuator if the optical power is excessively high. A high received optical power
damages the optical interface.

Directly connect an attenuator to a slanting optical interface. Install the attenuator on the
IN port instead of the OUT port.

Do not directly connect an attenuator to the level optical interface. Use the optical
distribution frame (ODF) to connect an attenuator to a level optical interface.

Figure 1-2 shows a slanting optical interface, and Figure 1-3 shows a level optical interface.
Figure 1-2 Slanting optical interface

Slanting optical
interface

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Figure 1-3 Level optical interface

Level optical
interface

1.6.2 Electromagnetic Exposure


This topic describes safety precautions for electromagnetic exposure.
If multiple transmit antennas are installed on a tower or backstay, keep away from the transmit
directions of the antennas when you install or maintain an antenna locally.

NOTICE
Ensure that all personnel are beyond the transmit direction of a working antenna.

1.6.3 Forbidden Areas


The topic describes requirements for a forbidden area.
l

Before entering an area where the electromagnetic radiation is beyond the specified range,
the associated personnel must shut down the electromagnetic radiator or stay at least 10
meters away from the electromagnetic radiator, if in the transmit direction.

A physical barrier and an eye-catching warning flag should be available in each forbidden
area.

1.6.4 Laser
This topic describes safety precautions for lasers.

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CAUTION
When handling optical fibers, do not stand close to, or look into the optical fiber outlet directly
without eye protection.
Laser transceivers are used in the optical transmission system and associated test tools. The laser
transmitted through the bare optical fiber produces a small beam of light, and therefore it has
very high power density and is invisible to human eyes. When a beam of light enters eyes, the
eyes may be damaged.
In normal cases, viewing an un-terminated optical fiber or a damaged optical fiber without eye
protection at a distance greater than 150 mm does not cause eye injury. Eye injury may occur,
however, if an optical tool such as a microscope, magnifying glass, or eye loupe is used to view
an un-terminated optical fiber.

Safety Instructions Regarding Lasers


To avoid laser radiation, obey the following instructions:
l

All operations should be performed by authorized personnel who have completed the
required training courses.

Wear a pair of eye-protective glasses when you are handling lasers or fibers.

Ensure that the optical source is switched off before disconnecting optical fiber connectors.

Do not look into the end of an exposed fiber or an open connector when you are not sure
whether the optical source is switched off.

Use an optical power meter to measure the optical power and ensure that the optical source
is switched off.

Before opening the front door of an optical transmission device, ensure that you are not
exposed to laser radiation.

Do not use an optical tool such as a microscope, a magnifying glass, or an eye loupe to
view the optical connector or fiber that is transmitting optical signals.

Instructions Regarding Fiber Handling


Read and abide by the following instructions before handling fibers:
l

Only trained personnel are permitted to cut and splice fibers.

Before cutting or splicing a fiber, ensure that the fiber is disconnected from the optical
source. After disconnecting the fiber, cap to the fiber connectors.

1.6.5 Microwave
When installing and maintaining the equipment of Huawei, follow the safety precautions of
microwave to ensure the safety of the human body and the equipment.

CAUTION
Strong radio frequency can harm the human body.

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When installing or maintaining an aerial on the tower or mast that is installed with multiple
aerials, switch off the transmitter in advance.

1.7 Working at Heights


This topic describes safety precautions for working at heights.

CAUTION
When working at heights, be cautious to prevent objects from falling down.
The requirements for working at heights are as follows:
l

The personnel who work at heights must be trained.

Carry and handle the operating machines and tools with caution to prevent them from falling
down.

Safety measures, such as wearing a helmet and a safety belt, must be taken.

Wear cold-proof clothes when working at heights in cold areas.

Check all lifting appliances thoroughly before starting the work, and ensure that they are
intact.

1.7.1 Hoisting Heavy Objects


This topic describes the safety precautions for hoisting heavy objects that you must follow when
installing, operating, and maintaining Huawei devices.

CAUTION
When heavy objects are being hoisted, do not walk below the cantilever or hoisted objects.
l

Only trained and qualified personnel can perform hoisting operations.

Before hoisting heavy objects, check that the hoisting tools are complete and in good
condition.

Before hoisting heavy objects, ensure that the hoisting tools are fixed to a secure object or
wall with good weight-bearing capacity.

Issue orders with short and explicit words to ensure correct operations.

Ensure that the angle between the two cables is less than or equal to 90 degrees during the
lifting, as shown in Figure 1-4.

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Figure 1-4 Hoisting heavy objects

1.7.2 Using Ladders


This topic describes safety precautions for using ladders.

Checking Ladders
l

Before using a ladder, check whether the ladder is damaged. After checking that the ladder
is in good condition, you can use the ladder.

Before using a ladder, you should know the maximum weight capacity of the ladder. Avoid
overweighing the ladder.

Placing Ladders
The proper slant angle of the ladder is 75 degrees. You can measure the slant angle of the ladder
with an angle square or your arms, as shown in Figure 1-5. When using a ladder, to prevent the
ladder from sliding, ensure that the wider feet of the ladder are downward, or take protection
measures for the ladder feet. Ensure that the ladder is placed securely.

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Figure 1-5 Slanting a ladder

Climbing Up a Ladder
When climbing up a ladder, pay attention to the following points:
l

Ensure that the center of gravity of your body does not deviate from the edges of the two
long sides.

Before operations, ensure that your body is stable to reduce risks.

Do not climb higher than the fourth rung of the ladder (counted from up to down).

If you want to climb up a roof, ensure that the ladder top is at least one meter higher than the
roof, as shown in Figure 1-6.
Figure 1-6 Ladder top being one meter higher than the roof

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1.8 Mechanical Safety


This topic describes safety precautions for drilling holes, handling sharp objects, operating fans,
and carrying heavy objects.

Drilling Holes

CAUTION
Do not drill holes on the cabinet without prior permission. Drilling holes without complying
with the requirements affects the electromagnetic shielding performance of the cabinet and
damages the cables inside the cabinet. In addition, if the scraps caused by drilling enter the
cabinet, the printed circuit boards (PCBs) may be short-circuited.
l

Before drilling a hole on the cabinet, remove the cables inside the cabinet.

Wear an eye protector when drilling holes. This is to prevent eyes from being injured by
the splashing metal scraps.

Wear protection gloves when drilling holes.

Take measures to prevent the metallic scraps from falling into the cabinet. After the drilling,
clean up the metallic scraps.

Sharp Objects

CAUTION
Wear protection gloves when carrying the device. This is to prevent hands from being injured
by the sharp edges of the device.

Fans
l

When replacing parts, place the objects such as the parts, screws, and tools properly. This
is to prevent them from falling into the operating fans, which damages the fans or device.

When replacing the parts near fans, keep your fingers or boards from touching operating
fans before the fans are powered off and stop running. Otherwise, the hands or the boards
are damaged.

Carrying Heavy Objects


Wear protection gloves when carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent hands from being hurt.

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CAUTION
l The carrier must be prepared for load bearing before carrying heavy objects. This is to prevent
the carrier from being strained or pressed by the heavy objects.
l When you pull a chassis out of the cabinet, pay attention to the unstable or heavy objects on
the cabinet. This is to prevent the heavy objects on the cabinet top from falling down, which
may hurt you.
l

Generally, two persons are needed to carry a chassis. It is prohibited that only one person
carries a heavy chassis. When carrying a chassis, the carriers should stretch their backs and
move stably to avoid being strained.

When moving or lifting a chassis, hold the handles or bottom of the chassis. Do not hold
the handles of the modules installed in the chassis, such as the power modules, fan modules,
and boards.

1.9 Other Precautions


This topic describes safety precautions for removing and inserting boards, binding signal cables,
and routing cables.

Removing and Inserting a Board

NOTICE
When inserting a board, wear an ESD wrist strap or ESD gloves, and handle the board gently to
avoid distorting pins on the backplane.
l

Slide the board along the guide rails.

Do not contact one board with another to avoid short-circuits or damage.

When holding a board in hand, do not touch the board circuits, components, connectors,
or connection slots of the board to prevent damage caused by ESD of the human body to
the electrostatic-sensitive components.

Binding Signal Cables

NOTICE
Bind the signal cables separately from the high-current or high-voltage cables.

Routing Cables
In the case of extremely low temperature, heavy shock or vibration may damage the plastic skin
of the cables. To ensure the construction safety, comply with the following requirements:
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When installing cables, ensure that the environment temperature is above 0C.

If the cables are stored in a place where the ambient temperature is below 0C, transfer
them to a place at room temperature and store the cables for more than 24 hours before
installation.

Handle the cables gently, especially in a low-temperature environment. Do not perform


any improper operations, for example, pushing the cables down directly from a truck.

High Temperature

CAUTION
If the ambient temperature exceeds 55C, the temperature of the front panel surface marked the
flag may exceed 70C. When touching the front panel of the board in such an environment,
you must wear the protection gloves.

IF Cables

CAUTION
Before installing or removing an IF cable, you must turn off the power switch of the IF board.

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Notices for High-Risk Operations

About This Chapter


This topic provides notices for the operations that may cause bodily injury or equipment damage
if they are not performed properly during the commissioning and maintenance of microwave
equipment.
2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch
The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch which must be turned on and off
as per the following instructions to avoid damaging the IF board.
2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper
Before installing or removing IF jumpers, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent personal
injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.
2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables
Before installing or removing IF cables, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent personal
injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.
2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board
Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR switch to avoid bodily injury
or damage to the IF board and ODU.

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2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch


The ODU-PWR switch on the IF board is a toggle lever switch which must be turned on and off
as per the following instructions to avoid damaging the IF board.

Position and Description of the Toggle Lever Switch


The toggle lever switch is located on the IF board and controls the power that is fed to the ODU,
as shown in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Toggle lever switch

Turning On the Toggle Lever Switch


1.

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Gently pull on the toggle lever switch out.

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2.

Turn it to the left.

3.

Release the toggle lever switch.

2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

Turning Off the Toggle Lever Switch


1.

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2.

Turn it to the right.

3.

Release the toggle lever switch.

2 Notices for High-Risk Operations

2.2 Operation Guide for the IF Jumper


Before installing or removing IF jumpers, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent personal
injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 Follow instructions in 2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch to power off the
ODU.

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DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF jumper.
Step 2 Remove or install the IF jumper.
----End

2.3 Operation Guide for the IF Cables


Before installing or removing IF cables, shut down the ODU power supply to prevent personal
injuries and damaged to the IF boards or ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 Follow instructions in 2.1 Operation Guide for the Toggle Lever Switch to power off the
ODU.

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DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF cable.
Step 2 Install or remove the IF cables.
----End

2.4 Operation Guide for the IF Board


Before removing or installing an IF board, turn off the ODU-PWR switch to avoid bodily injury
or damage to the IF board and ODU.

Procedure
Step 1 Turn off the ODU-PWR switch on the IF board. For details, see 2.1 Operation Guide for the
Toggle Lever Switch.

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DANGER
Ensure that the ODU is completely powered off before removing or installing the IF board.
Step 2 Disconnect the IF jumper or IF cable.
Step 3 Remove or install the IF board.
----End

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Commissioning Preparations

About This Chapter


This chapter describes the preparations that need to be made prior to commissioning equipment.
3.1 Preparing Documents and Tools
This section lists the document and tools that should be prepared prior to commissioning the
equipment.
3.2 Preparing the Certificate File for NE Access from a USB Flash Drive
This section describes how to prepare an RTN.CER file used for certification of NE access from
a USB flash drive. The file allows you to perform site commissioning, database backup/
restoration, and software upgrades using a USB flash drive.
3.3 Obtaining a USB Flash Drive
Obtain a proper USB flash drive before you commission a site by using a USB flash drive.
3.4 Determining the Commissioning Method
By using the U2000 for commissioning, engineers can adopt the single-hop commissioning
method or network commissioning method based on the network size.
3.5 Checking Commissioning Conditions
Ensure that the equipment meets the commissioning requirements for the site or system prior to
performing such tasks. The following sections provide a non-exhaustive checklist for both
scenarios.

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3.1 Preparing Documents and Tools


This section lists the document and tools that should be prepared prior to commissioning the
equipment.

Documents
The following document should be available before commissioning the equipment:
l

Engineering design documents, including:


Network plan
Engineering design

Commissioning guides, including:


OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Commissioning Guide
OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System Configuration Guide

Tools
Table 3-1 lists the tools required for the commissioning task.
Table 3-1 Tools and meters
Tool and Meter

Application Scenario

l Adjustable wrench

Aligning antennas

l Screwdriver
l Telescope
l Interphone
l Hex key
l Multimeter that has a test cable with a
BNC connector at one end
l North-stabilized indicator
l Laptop on which the Web LCT is installed
l Mini USB cable

l Connecting the Web LCT to the Mini


USB port of the CSHU/CSHUA board
l Configuring site commissioning data by
using the Web LCT, or download a
commissioning data script to an NE using
the Web LCT
l Testing connectivity of E1 cables
l Checking the radio link status and the
receive power
l Checking alarms

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Tool and Meter

Application Scenario

l Laptop on which the Web LCT is installed

l Connecting the Web LCT to the NMS port

l Network cable

l Configuring site commissioning data by


using the Web LCT, or download a
commissioning data script to an NE using
the Web LCT
l Testing connectivity of E1 cables
l Checking the radio link status and the
receive power
l Checking alarms

USB flash drive where desired site


commissioning data has been stored

Loading commissioning data from a USB


flash drive

NOTE
l The recommended USB flash drive type for
the OptiX RTN 950 is Netac U208 (4 Gbytes).
Not all USB flash drives are supported by the
OptiX RTN 950. If a USB flash drive of
another model or capacity is required, confirm
with the local Huawei representative office
that the USB flash drive is supported by the
OptiX RTN 950.
l If you want to upgrade the NE software when
performing the per-NE commissioning, put the
latest NE software package in the pkg folder
of the USB flash drive.

l Testing connectivity of E1 cables

BER tester

l Testing E1 services
l Testing IF 1+1 switching
l Testing N+1 protection switching
l Testing SNCP switching
l Testing linear MSP switching
l Testing E1 service performance
Network cable tester

Testing connectivity of network cables

l Optical power meter

Checking connectivity of optical fibers

l Short fiber jumper


PC on which the U2000 is installed

Centralized U2000 commissioning

E1 jumper

Testing E1 service performance

NOTE

For details about the requirements and methods for installing the Web LCT, see the iManager U2000 Web
LCT User Guide.

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3.2 Preparing the Certificate File for NE Access from a USB


Flash Drive
This section describes how to prepare an RTN.CER file used for certification of NE access from
a USB flash drive. The file allows you to perform site commissioning, database backup/
restoration, and software upgrades using a USB flash drive.

Prerequisites
The NMS is available.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Query the encryption algorithm used for the NE password and set related parameters
accordingly.

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NOTE

The supported encryption types are MD5, SHA256, and PBKDF2. The default encryption type is PBKDF2.

Step 2 Access the directory for saving the USB file generation tool.
NOTE

l On the U2000, the tool is stored under D:\oss\client\client\tools\usbtool (an example).


l On the Web LCT, the tool is stored under D:\WebLCT\weblct\tools\usbtool (an example).

Step 3 Run startup_usbTool.bat.

The USB File Generation Tool dialog box is displayed.


Step 4 Generate a certification file for NE access from a USB flash drive.
1.

Enter the user name and password for logging in to the NE to be commissioned.
NOTE

l Default user name: szhw


l Default password: nesoft

2.

Select an encryption type according to the encryption algorithm used by the NE.
NOTE

l The supported encryption types are MD5, SHA256, and PBKDF2. The default encryption type is
PBKDF2.
l If you do not know the encryption algorithm used by the NE, select All. In this case, the certification
file generated by the USB file generation tool includes three segments of ciphertexts for the password.
Each segment corresponds to one algorithm from MD5, SHA256, and PBKDF2. The NE decrypts the
ciphertexts according to the used encryption algorithm.
l If PBKDF2 or All is selected, set SSL Certificate and Certificate File Path. SSL Certificate includes
two types: Default and Custom.
l If you want to use the default certificate file of the U2000, select Default. The default certificate
file server.p12 is saved in the U2000 server path (such as D:\oss\server\etc\ssl\nemanager\default
\keyStore\PFX\), and the default key is Changeme_123, so this file can be used only when the
USB file generation tool is run on the U2000 server. If you want to use another certificate file,
select Custom.
l Customized certificates include two types: *.crt and *.p12. A *.p12 certificate is encrypted, so a
key is required.
l Both *.crt and *.p12 certificates need to be synchronized with the NE. For details, see the U2000
Administrator Guide.

3.

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Click Generate File.

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Step 5 Click OK in the displayed confirmation dialog box.

Step 6 Go to the directory where the RTN.CER file is stored, and copy it to the root directory of the
USB flash drive.
NOTE

l On the U2000, the RTN.CER file is stored under D:\oss\client\client\tools\usbtool\output (an example).
l On the Web LCT, the RTN.CER file is stored under D:\WebLCT\weblct\tools\usbtool\output (an
example).
l Save the RTN.CER file before closing the USB file generation tool. Otherwise, the file will be automatically
deleted when you close the tool.

Step 7 Click Close.


----End

3.3 Obtaining a USB Flash Drive


Obtain a proper USB flash drive before you commission a site by using a USB flash drive.

Supported Model
The recommended USB flash drive for the OptiX RTN 950 is Netac U208 with a 4 GB capacity.
A USB flash drive of another model or capacity may cause incompatibility issues. If a USB flash
drive of another model or capacity is required, contact the local Huawei office for confirmation.

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Data and Storage Locations on a USB Flash Drive


Data

Storage Location

RTN.CER

Root directory
NOTE
The RTN.CER file contains the administratorlevel accounts and the mapping passwords that are
encrypted. This file can be generated by using a
dedicated tool.

NE software

\pkg
NOTE
Data is saved in the \pkg folder only when the NE
software is upgraded. Otherwise, keep the folder
empty.

License

\license

Scripts

\script

3.4 Determining the Commissioning Method


By using the U2000 for commissioning, engineers can adopt the single-hop commissioning
method or network commissioning method based on the network size.

Context
NOTE

In the following instructions for both types of commissioning methods, site commissioning and system
commissioning are defined as follows:
l Site commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on a hop and sites at both ends of the
radio link by connecting the commissioning tool to the NE at a single site.
l System commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on all the NEs in the network by
connecting the commissioning tool to a gateway NE where it configures the commissioning data for
each site.

Single-hop Commissioning
The single-hop commissioning method is preferred for small-scale microwave transmission
networks (for example, a network with only one or two radio link hops). By performing singlehop commissioning, you can complete all site and system commissioning items at a time. The
major commissioning steps are as follows:
1.

On both ends of a radio link, power on the NEs.

2.

Use the Web LCT to configure site commissioning data or copying site commissioning
data from the USB flash drive.
NOTE

The commissioning data is all NE data including service data and clock data.

3.
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Use the Web LCT to complete the site commissioning items.


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3 Commissioning Preparations

Use the Web LCT to complete the system commissioning items.


NOTE

The Web LCT is used for single-hop commissioning, and therefore this document does not detail how to use
the Web LCT. For details about how to use the Web LCT, see the Commissioning Guide in the documentation
package of the Web LCT version.

Network Commissioning
The network commissioning method is usually used for large-scale microwave transmission
networks. The major commissioning steps are as follows:
1.

On both ends of a radio link, power on the NEs.

2.

Use the Web LCT to configure site commissioning data, or copying site commissioning
data from the USB flash drive.
NOTE

The commissioning data may contain only data that is required for DCN and link availability.

3.

Use the Web LCT to complete the site commissioning items.

4.

Use the U2000 to complete the system commissioning items at sites where services
converge.

3.5 Checking Commissioning Conditions


Ensure that the equipment meets the commissioning requirements for the site or system prior to
performing such tasks. The following sections provide a non-exhaustive checklist for both
scenarios.

3.5.1 Site Commissioning


Ensure that the equipment and weather meet the requirements for site commissioning.

Context
Details about these requirements are as follows:
l

Hardware installation has been completed and has passed the installation check.

Power is available to the equipment.

The service signal cables that are connected to other equipment have been properly routed.

The appropriate risk control measures to arrest falling objects and ensure personnel safety
are in place.

There is no adverse weather (such as wind, rain, snow, or fog) that could hinder or impact
the commissioning.

3.5.2 System Commissioning


Ensure that the equipment and weather meet the requirements for system commissioning.
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Context
Details about these requirements are as follows:
l

Site commissioning at both ends of a radio link has been completed.

DCN communication on the radio network is normal.

There is no adverse weather (such as wind, rain, snow, or fog) that could hinder or impact
the commissioning.

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Commissioning Process

About This Chapter


Based on the objects to be commissioned, the process can be divided into two stages: site
commissioning and system commissioning.
4.1 Site Commissioning Process
Site commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on a hop and sites at both ends
of a radio link. Site commissioning ensures that the sites and the radio link between the sites
work properly, and is also performed in preparation of system commissioning.
4.2 System Commissioning Process
System commissioning refers to commissioning for the entire microwave transmission network.
System commissioning ensures that various services are transmitted properly and protection
functions are implemented over the microwave transmission network.

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4.1 Site Commissioning Process


Site commissioning refers to commissioning that is performed on a hop and sites at both ends
of a radio link. Site commissioning ensures that the sites and the radio link between the sites
work properly, and is also performed in preparation of system commissioning.

Context
You can use the following methods to configure site commissioning data for the OptiX RTN
950 on site:
l

Web LCT

USB flash drive

Site Commissioning Flowchart (Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using


the Web LCT)
Commissioning engineers can configure site commissioning data by using the Web LCT on site
when they are:
l

Familiar with how to configure radio link data on the OptiX RTN 950 or ready with the
commissioning data scripts.

Aware of the radio link data plan for the site.

Equipped with a laptop on which the Web LCT is installed.

Equipped with a network cable when the Web LCT needs to be connected to the NE through
the NMS port.

Equipment with a Mini USB cable when the Web LCT needs to be connected to the NE
through the Mini USB port.

Figure 4-1 shows the site commissioning flowchart.

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Figure 4-1 Commissioning flowchart


Running commissioning data scripts on the Web LCT

Manually configuring commissioning data

Start

Through Mini USB


Interface
Through NMS
Interface

Test connectivity of
E1 cables

Test connectivity of
Ethernet cables

Test connectivity of
fibers

Start

Power on the equipment

Connect the Web LCT


to the IDU

Run commissioning
data scripts on the Web
LCT

Check alarms

Through Mini USB


Interface

Power on the equipment

Connect the Web LCT


to the IDU

Through NMS
Interface

Test connectivity of
E1 cables

Manually configure
commissioning data

Check alarms

Test connectivity of
Ethernet cables

Test connectivity of
cables

Test connectivity of
fibers

Test connectivity of
cables

Align single-polarized
antennas

Align antennas

Align single-polarized
antennas

Align antennas

Align dual-polarized
antennas

Query the status and


receive power of a
radio link

Align dual-polarized
antennas

Query the status and


receive power of a radio
link

Required (parent item)


End

End

Required (subitem)

Table 4-1 Configuring site commissioning data by running commissioning data scripts on the
Web LCT
Commissioning Item

Remarks

5.1 Powering On the Equipment

Required

5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface)

Required

5.4 Downloading a Commissioning Data Script to an NE


Using the Web LCT

Required

5.6 Checking Alarms

Required

5.7 Testing Connectivity of


Cables

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5.7.1 Testing Connectivity


of E1 Cables

Required when E1 cables are


used on the site

5.7.2 Testing Connectivity


of Network Cables

Required when Ethernet


cables are used on the site

5.7.3 Checking Fiber


Jumper Connection

Required when optical fibers


are used on the site

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Commissioning Item
5.8 Aligning the Antennasa

Remarks
5.8.2 Aligning SinglePolarized Antennas

Required when microwave


services are transmitted by
single-polarized antennas

5.8.3 Aligning DualPolarized Antennas

Required when microwave


services are transmitted by
dual-polarized antennas

5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive


Power

Required

Table 4-2 Manually configuring site commissioning data on the Web LCT
Commissioning Item

Remarks

5.1 Powering On the Equipment

Required

5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface)

Required

5.5 Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using the


Web LCT

Required

5.6 Checking Alarms

Required

5.7 Testing Connectivity of


Cables

5.8 Aligning the Antennasa

5.7.1 Testing Connectivity


of E1 Cables

Required when E1 cables are


used on the site

5.7.2 Testing Connectivity


of Network Cables

Required when Ethernet


cables are used on the site

5.7.3 Checking Fiber


Jumper Connection

Required when optical fibers


are used on the site

5.8.2 Aligning SinglePolarized Antennas

Required when microwave


services are transmitted by
single-polarized antennas

5.8.3 Aligning DualPolarized Antennas

Required when microwave


services are transmitted by
dual-polarized antennas

5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive


Power

Required

NOTE

a: Before aligning antennas, power on the equipment and configure site commissioning data on both ends of the
radio link.

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4 Commissioning Process

Site Commissioning Flowchart (Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using


a USB Flash Drive)
Commissioning engineers can configure site commissioning data by using a USB flash drive on
site when they are:
l

Familiar with the radio link data plan for the target sites.

Equipped with a USB flash drive that stores the NE commissioning data scripts.

Equipped with a laptop on which the Web LCT is installed.

Figure 4-2 shows the site commissioning flowchart.


Figure 4-2 Commissioning flowchart

Start

Powering on the equipment

Loading commissioning data


from a USB flash drive

Completing subsequent
commissioning items

Using the Web LCT to complete


subsequent commissioning Items

End
Required (parent item)
Required (subitem)

Table 4-3 Configuring site commissioning data by using a USB flash drive

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Commissioning Item

Remarks

5.1 Powering On the Equipment

Required

6.2 Loading Commissioning Data from a USB Flash Drive

Required

Completing Subsequent
Commissioning Items

Required when subsequent


actions need to be performed
on the Web LCT

6.3 Using the Web LCT to


Complete Subsequent
Commissioning Items

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4 Commissioning Process

4.2 System Commissioning Process


System commissioning refers to commissioning for the entire microwave transmission network.
System commissioning ensures that various services are transmitted properly and protection
functions are implemented over the microwave transmission network.

Context
Table 4-4 System commissioning process
Commissioning Item

Remarks

7.1 Configuring Networkwide Service Data

Required

7.2 Testing
Connectivity of E1
Services

7.2.1 Testing E1
Services by Using a
BER Tester

Required when E1 service are available and


a BER tester is available on site

7.2.2 Testing E1
Services Using
PRBS

Required when E1 services are available and


no BER tester is available on site

7.3.1 Testing
Ethernet Services
Configured on a
Per-NE Basis

Required when Ethernet services are


available

7.3.2 Testing
Ethernet Services
Configured in an
End-to-End
Manner

Required when Ethernet services are


available

7.3 Testing
Connectivity of
Ethernet Services

7.4 Testing ATM Services

Required when ATM services are available

7.5 Testing AM
Shifts

7.5.1 Testing AM
Shifts on IFU2/
IFX2 Boards

Required when the AM function is enabled


and a BER tester is available on site

7.5.2 Testing AM
Shifts on the ISU2/
ISX2/ISV3

Required when the AM function is enabled


and no BER tester is available on site

7.6.1 Testing IF 1+1


Protection
Switching

Required when the radio links are configured


with the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD

7.6.2 Testing N+1


Protection
Switching

Required when the N+1 protection is


configured

7.6 Testing
Protection
Switching

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Commissioning Item

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Remarks

7.6.3 Testing SNCP


Switching

Required when the SNCP is configured

7.6.4 Testing ERPS


Switching

Required when ERPS is configured

7.6.5 Testing MPLS


APS Protection
Switching

Required when MPLS APS protection is


configured

7.6.6 Testing Linear


MSP Switching

Required when 1+1/1:N linear MSP is


configured

7.7 Checking the Clock Status

Required

7.8 Testing the FM over a Radio Link

Optional

7.9 Testing E1 Service Performance

Required when E1 services are available

7.10 Testing
Ethernet Service
Performance

7.10.1 Testing
Latency,
Throughput, and
Packet Loss Ratio

Required when Ethernet services are


available

7.10.2 Testing the


Long-term Packet
Loss Ratio

Required when Ethernet services are


available

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5 Site Commissioning (Using the Web LCT)

Site Commissioning (Using the Web LCT)

About This Chapter


In most cases, site commissioning are performed using the Web LCT.
5.1 Powering On the Equipment
By checking the power-on process of equipment, you can verify whether the hardware system
of the equipment and the power system are functioning properly.
5.2 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through a Mini USB Interface)
When the Mini USB interface is used, users do not need to set the IP address of the computer
on which the Web LCT is installed, which facilitates site commissioning.
5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface)
When the NMS interface is used, users need to set the IP address of a computer on which the
Web LCT is installed and the IP address of an NE to be in one network segment.
5.4 Downloading a Commissioning Data Script to an NE Using the Web LCT
This section describes how to download a commissioning data script to an NE using the Web
LCT. The function applies to the scenario in which a site commissioning data script has been
prepared. With this function available, on-site configuration is not required.
5.5 Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using the Web LCT
This section describes how to configure site commissioning data when using the Web LCT to
perform site commissioning.
5.7 Testing Connectivity of Cables
During the installation of the OptiX RTN 950, the cables may be connected to service interfaces
incorrectly, or the hardware may malfunction. To ensure that the services run properly, test
connectivity of the cables.
5.8 Aligning the Antennas
Aligning the antennas is the most important activity in HOP commissioning. The alignment has
a direct effect on the performance of the radio links.
5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive Power
After antenna alignment, check whether the status of a radio link is normal and the receive power
meets requirements.
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5.1 Powering On the Equipment


By checking the power-on process of equipment, you can verify whether the hardware system
of the equipment and the power system are functioning properly.

Prerequisites
l

Hardware installation has been completed and has passed the installation check.

The power system is available. The voltage, pole connection, and fuse current of the power
system have been checked in the process of connecting power cables.

The power supply (for example, the power distribution box of the cabinet) has been turned
off.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Context
l

For the OptiX RTN 950, the recommended fuse currents are listed in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1 Fuse currents
Chassis

Recommended Fuse Capacity

OptiX RTN 950

20 A

NOTE

The recommended fuse capacity of 20 A can meet requirements under the maximum power
consumption. Customers can compute the fuse capacity according to the actual power consumption.
The fuse capacity should be larger than or equal to (total power consumption x 1.5)/(rated voltage x
87.5%). For example, when the rated power supply is -48 V and the total power consumption of the
IDU is less than or equal to 420 W, the fuse capacity can be set to 15 A (= [420 x 1.5]/[48 x 87.5%]).

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The OptiX RTN 950 supports the following system control, switching, and timing board:
Chassis

Board Type

OptiX RTN 950

CSH/CST

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Precautions

NOTICE
l If the equipment is configured with two PIU boards, the nominal voltage for the input power
of each PIU board must be the same.
l The ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board is designed with a locking device.
Hence, you must pull out the switches lightly before you turn it. If the switch points to "O",
the switch is turned off. If the switch points to "I", the switch is turned on.
l If the output voltage of the power supply does not meet test requirements, do not power on
the cabinet. First, reconstruct the power supply and then test the output voltage again.

Procedure
Step 1 Verify that the power cables of the chassis are correctly connected. Then, power on the equipment
and check the status of the indicators. In normal conditions, the PIU/FAN indicators are steady
green, as shown in Figure 5-1. Table 5-2 provides the descriptions for the different states of the
indicators.
Table 5-2 Status of indicators
Indicator

State

Description

PWR

Steady green

Indicates that the power supply is in


the normal state.

Off

Indicates a power failure.

Steady green

Indicates that the fan is running


properly.

Steady red

Indicates that the fan is faulty.

Off

Indicates that the fan is powered off.

FAN

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Figure 5-1 Normal state


PIU indicator

FAN indicator

Step 2 Check the status of the indicators on the system control, switching, and timing board and ensure
that the equipment is powered on. The board indicators should conform to the following states
and sequences.
1.

The PROG indicator should blink green, turn off, and then become steady green.

2.

The STAT indicators should be green.

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STAT
PROG
SYNC
ACTX
ACTC

Figure 5-2 Normal state

NOTE

l For detailed meanings of the indicators, see the IDU hardware description.
l For a board other than the system control, switching, and timing board on the IDU, the STAT indicator is
on only after the corresponding logical board is added.

Step 3 Turn the ODU-PWR switch on an IF board to the "I" position.


NOTE

l The ODU indicator on an IF board is green only after the logical board of the IF board connected to
the ODU and the logical board of the ODU are created.
l In the event of indicator abnormalities, contact Huawei technical support.

----End

5.2 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through a Mini USB


Interface)
When the Mini USB interface is used, users do not need to set the IP address of the computer
on which the Web LCT is installed, which facilitates site commissioning.

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Prerequisites
The NE has been powered on.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT
NOTE

The U2000 does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Start a laptop and log in to the operating system.
Step 2 Use a Mini USB cable to connect a USB interface of the laptop and the OAM interface of CSHU/
CSHUA board.

NOTE

If the NE is configured with the active and standby CSHU/CSHUA boards, connect a USB interface of the laptop
and the OAM interface of the active CSHU/CSHUA board.

Step 3 On the desktop, double-click the Start Web LCT icon.


The system displays the USER LOGIN window of the Web LCT.

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NOTE

If the USER LOGIN window is not displayed, see Troubleshooting (1).

Step 4 Enter the values of User Name, Password, and Verification Code, and then click Login.
l Default user name: admin
l Default password: Changeme_123
NOTE

At the first login to the Web LCT, change the password as prompted.

If the entered User Name, Password, and Verification Code are correct, the NE List page is
displayed in the Internet Explorer.

Step 5 Install the USB driver and create the NE that is directly connected to the Web LCT.

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NOTE

If the NE that is directly connected to the Web LCT fails to be created, see Troubleshooting (2).

Step 6 View the information about the created NE displayed in the NE list.

----End

Troubleshooting
1. The Login Window Fails to Be Displayed After the Web LCT Is Started
If the USER LOGIN window is not displayed, perform the following:
1.

Set the Internet Explorer to be the default browser.

2.

Set the security level of the Internet Explorer to medium or lower.

3.

Disable the pop-up blocker.


NOTE

If plug-ins that can block pop-up windows are also installed, disable their blocking function.

4.

Set the options of the Internet Explorer.


a.

Run the Internet Explorer.

b.

Choose Tool > Internet Options from the main menu of the Internet Explorer.

c.

On the General tab page, click Settings in the Temporary Internet files area.

d.

In Check for newer versions of stored pages, select Every visit to the page, and
then click OK.

e.

Click OK.

2. The NE That Is Directly Connected to the Web LCT Fails to Be Created


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Enable OAM access control for the NE.

5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface)


When the NMS interface is used, users need to set the IP address of a computer on which the
Web LCT is installed and the IP address of an NE to be in one network segment.

Prerequisites
The NE has been powered on.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT
NOTE

The U2000 does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Start a laptop and log in to the operating system.
Step 2 Set the IP address of the laptop.
The IP address must meet the following requirements:
l The IP address is in the same network segment (the default network segment is 129.9.0.0)
as the NE IP address, but is different from the NE IP address.
l Its subnet mask is the same as that of the NE IP address (the default subnet mask is
255.255.0.0).
l The default gateway IP address is blank.
Step 3 Use a network cable to connect the network interface of the laptop and the NMS/COM interface
of the system control, cross-connect, and timing board.
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NMS/COM

NOTE

The NMS/COM interface on the system control, cross-connect, and timing board is an interface that is selfadaptive to a crossover or straight-through network cable. The wire sequence of a crossover cable and that of a
straight-through cable are provided in Network Cable in the OptiX RTN 950 Radio Transmission System IDU
Hardware Description.

At this time, the green indicators on the NMS/COM interface and the network interface of the
laptop should be on. A message will be displayed indicating that the network has established a
local connection if the operating system has been configured to do so. If the operating system
displays a message indicating an IP address conflict, change the IP address of the laptop.
Step 4 On the desktop, double-click the Start Web LCT icon.
The system displays the USER LOGIN window of the Web LCT.

NOTE

If the USER LOGIN window is not displayed, see The Login Window Fails to Be Displayed After the Web
LCT Is Started.

Step 5 Enter the values of User Name, Password, and Verification Code, and then click Login.
l Default user name: admin
l Default password: Changeme_123
NOTE

At the first login to the Web LCT, change the password as prompted.

If the entered User Name, Password, and Verification Code are correct, the NE List page is
displayed in the Internet Explorer.
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----End

The Login Window Fails to Be Displayed After the Web LCT Is Started
If the USER LOGIN window is not displayed, perform the following:
1.

Set the Internet Explorer to be the default browser.

2.

Set the security level of the Internet Explorer to medium or lower.

3.

Disable the pop-up blocker.


NOTE

If plug-ins that can block pop-up windows are also installed, disable their blocking function.

4.

Set the options of the Internet Explorer.


a.

Run the Internet Explorer.

b.

Choose Tool > Internet Options from the main menu of the Internet Explorer.

c.

On the General tab page, click Settings in the Temporary Internet files area.

d.

In Check for newer versions of stored pages, select Every visit to the page, and
then click OK.

e.

Click OK.

5.4 Downloading a Commissioning Data Script to an NE


Using the Web LCT
This section describes how to download a commissioning data script to an NE using the Web
LCT. The function applies to the scenario in which a site commissioning data script has been
prepared. With this function available, on-site configuration is not required.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

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Procedure
Step 1 Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Diagnosis&Maintenance >
Restore Data with NE Configuration File from the Function Tree.

Step 2 Download a commissioning data script.


1.

Click Browse.

2.

Select the target commissioning data script.

3.

Click Download to NE.

4.

Click Activate NE.

----End

5.5 Configuring Site Commissioning Data by Using the


Web LCT
This section describes how to configure site commissioning data when using the Web LCT to
perform site commissioning.

Configuration Flowchart
Figure 5-3 shows the procedure for configuring site commissioning data.
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Figure 5-3 Configuration flowchart


Start

Create NEs by using the searching


method

Log in to an NE

Change the NE ID

Change the NE name

Change the NE IP address

Configure logical boards

Synchronize NE time

Configure the IF chip mode

Changing the IF service type

Configure a radio hop

Create an IF 1+1 protection group

Configure the VLAN ID and bandwidth


used by the inband DCN

Required
Optional

Configure the orderwire

End

NOTE

In TDM microwave mode, the AM attributes do not need to be configured for the links where the XPIC function
is enabled.

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Procedure for Configuring NE Data


Table 5-3 Procedure for configuring NE data
Step

Action

Description

5.5.1 Creating NEs by Using


the Search Method

Required.

5.5.2 Logging In to an NE
(Web LCT)

Required when the Web LCT fails to log in


to the NE.
Enter correct values in User Name and
Password. The default User Name is lct,
and the default Password is password.

5.5.3 Changing the NE ID

Required. Set parameters as follows:


l Set ID according to the guideline
specified in the DCN plan.
l If a specific extended NE ID is required,
change Extended ID.

5.5.4 Changing the NE Name

Optional.

5.5.5 Changing the NE IP


Address

Required if special requirements are


imposed on the IP address of the NE. Set
IP and Subnet Mask as required.
NOTE
If the IP address of an NE is not changed
manually, the IP address changes to
0x81000000 + NE ID.

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5.5.7 Configuring Logical


Boards

Required.

5.5.8 Synchronizing NE Time

Required. This operation synchronizes NE


time with the time on the computer that
runs the Web LCT.

For the OptiX RTN 950, configure the SFP


module type based on the type of the
module that is actually inserted on the
physical SL4D board.

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Procedure for Configuring an Radio Link


Table 5-4 Procedure for Configuring an Radio Link

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Step

Action

Description

5.5.9
Changing
the Modem
Chip Mode

Required.

5.5.10
Changing
the IF
Service
Type

Optional.

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Step

Action

Description

5.5.11
Configuring
a Hop of
Radio Link

Required. Set the parameters as follows:


l In Basic Parameters:
Set Link ID according to the service plan.
To configure 1+1 protection, select 1+1 and set 1+1
protection attributes according to the service plan.
l In IF:
Set IF Service Type and IF Channel Bandwidth
according to service plan.
During site commissioning deselect AM, set
Manually Specified Modulation Mode to the
planned Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM
Capacity, ans set Guaranteed E1 Capacity
according to the service plan.
l In RF:
Set TX Frequency(MHz), T/R Spacing(MHz), and
TX Power(dBm) according to the service plan.
During site commissioning, deselect ATPC.
Set TX Status to unmute.
Set Power to Be Received(dBm) to the RSL specified
in service plan. The antenna non-alignment indication
function is enabled only after this parameter is set.
When the antenna non-alignment indicating function
is enabled, if the actual receive power of the ODU is 3
dB lower than the power expected to be received, the
ODU indicator on the IF board connected to the ODU
blinks yellow (at 300 ms intervals), indicating that the
antenna is not aligned. After the antennas are aligned
for consecutive 30 minutes, the NE automatically
disables the antenna non-alignment indication
function.
NOTE
l After site commissioning, re-set AM and ATPC based site
requirements.
l For a 1+1 protection group of radio links, configure the IF
information for the main radio link only.

5.5.12
Creating an
IF 1+1
Protection
Group

Required when XPIC and IF 1+1 protection work together.


Set related parameters according to the service plan.
NOTE
l When XPIC and IF 1+1 protection work together, IF 1+1
protection cannot be configured in 5.5.11 Configuring a Hop of
Radio Link.
l For a 1+1 protection group of radio links, configure the IF
information for the main radio link only.

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Step

Action

Description

5.5.13
Configuring
the VLAN
ID and
Bandwidth
Used by an
Inband
DCN

Required. Set the parameters as follows:

5.5.14
Configuring
Orderwire

Optional.

l If the default VLAN ID of the inband DCN conflicts with


the VLAN ID in the service, the Ethernet Board VLAN
ID of the inband DCN can be changed manually.
l Bandwidth(kbit/s) specifies the bandwidth for inband
DCN messaging on the Ethernet link.
l IF Port Bandwidth(kbit/s) specifies the bandwidth for
inband DCN messaging on the radio link.

5.5.1 Creating NEs by Using the Search Method


The search method is generally used to create an NE during site commissioning.

Prerequisites
l

The communication between the NMS and the NE is in the normal state.

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 If NEs are cascaded through Ethernet NMS ports or Ethernet NE cascading ports, disconnect
the network cables from the ports.
Step 2 Click NE Search in NE List and select a desired search type.

Step 3 Select NE Search.


The Search NE dialog box is displayed.

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Step 4 Select NMS port.


Step 5 Enter User Name and Password.
NOTE

l The default User Name is lct.


l The default Password for user lct is password.

Step 6 When a laptop has multiple network adaptors, set Local IP Address to the IP address used for
access to the Web LCT.
Step 7 Select the NE IP Address.
Step 8 Click OK.

Step 9 Restore the cable connection that is disconnected in Step 1. Repeat Step 2 to Step 8 to create
the NEs that are cascaded to the local NE. In NE Search, set NE IP Address to one different
from the IP address of the local NE.
----End

5.5.2 Logging In to an NE (Web LCT)


After an NE is created, you need to log in to the NE before managing the NE.

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The NE to be managed is already created in NE List.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE List, select the target NE and click NE Login.
NOTE

You can select multiple NEs at one time.

The NE Login dialog box is displayed.


Step 2 Enter User Name and Password. Then, click OK.

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NOTE

l The default User Name is lct.


l The default Password for user lct is password.

Login Status of the NE in the NE List changes to Logged In. Alarm Status of the NE is changed
from Unknown to the current alarm status of the NE.
Step 3 Click NE Explorer.
The NE Explorer is displayed.
NOTE

l To quickly start the NE Explorer, double-click the NE to be managed in the NE list.


l Check the legend to learn the specific meanings of different colors and symbols in the slot layout
diagram.
l Click

to collapse/expand the legend.

----End

5.5.3 Changing the NE ID


During site commissioning, you need to modify the NE ID according to the engineering plan
and ensure that each NE ID is unique.

Prerequisites
The NE user has the authority of Operation Level or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

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Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > NE
Attribute from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click Modify NE ID.
The Modify NE ID dialog box is displayed.
Step 3 Specify New ID and New Extended ID.

NOTE

l Set New ID and New Extended ID to ensure that each combination of New ID and New Extended ID is
unique on the entire network.
l When the number of NEs on a network is within the basic NE ID range, it is not advisable to change the
extended NE ID for ID uniqueness.

Step 4 Click OK.


Click OK in the displayed confirmation dialog box.
----End

5.5.4 Changing the NE Name


For ease of identification in the Main Topology, name the NE according to the NE's geographical
location or the device connected to the NE.

Prerequisites
The NE user has the authority of Operation Level or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and choose Configuration > NE
Attribute from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Enter the name of the NE in the Name field.
NOTE

The name of an NE cannot contain any spaces or Chinese characters.

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Step 3 Click Apply.


----End

5.5.5 Changing the NE IP Address


During site commissioning, the IP address of the gateway NE needs to be configured in
compliance with the external DCN requirements but other non-gateway NEs use IP addresses
that are automatically generated based on NE IDs.

Prerequisites
The NE user must have the authority of Operation Level or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Communication >
Communication Parameters from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Configure the communication parameters of the NE.

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NOTE

l Change IP, Subnet Mask, Gateway IP based on external DCN requirements.


l During site commissioning, set IP addresses in compliance with the following principles (unless otherwise
specified):
l The IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway of the gateway NE must meet the external DCN
requirements.
l Set the IP addresses of non-gateway NEs based on their NE IDs. More specifically, set the IP address
of such an NE to 0x81000000+ID. That is, if the ID is 0x090001, set the IP address to 129.9.0.1.

Step 3 Click Apply.


NOTE

If the new IP address in the IP field is not in the original network segment, reset the IP address of the Web LCT
and ensure that it is in the same segment as the new IP address of the NE. Otherwise, the NE is unreachable to
the Web LCT.

----End

5.5.6 Enabling NE Automatic Reporting


After NE automatic reporting is enabled, the U2000 automatically adds an NE to the topology
once the NE communicates with the U2000 normally.

Prerequisites
l

The communication between the U2000 and the NE is normal.

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
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Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Communication > NMS Server from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Double-click NE Automatic Reporting and select Enable from the drop-down list.
Step 3 Set the U2000 server IP address according to the network plan.
NOTE

l Only Server IP1 needs to be set if a single server is used. The single-server configuration is widely applied.
l Server IP1 and Server IP2 need to be set if active and standby servers are used. The two-server configuration
provides high reliability.

Step 4 Click Apply.


----End

5.5.7 Configuring Logical Boards


Add the logical board in the slot layout if it has not already been added. If the physical board is
inconsistent with the logical board in the slot layout, delete the inconsistent logical board and
add the correct logical board.

Prerequisites
l

The NE user has the authority of Operation Level or higher.

All the boards are installed correctly.

The ODU power switch on the IF board has been turned on. Communication between the
ODU and IDU is normal.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Click the Slot Layout tab and click Add Physical Boards.
Based on the slot layout, the NE automatically configures the logical boards that are required
but are not yet configured for certain physical boards.
NOTE

If a logical board is not displayed, verify that the corresponding physical board is correctly installed.

Step 2 Optional: On the slot to which the board is to be added, right-click and select Add XXX. "XXX"
is the name of the board to be added.
Step 3 Optional: On the slot to which the board is to be deleted, right-click and select Delete.
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NOTE

Before deleting the board, delete the data, such as the service, clock, orderwire, and protection, on the
board.

----End

5.5.8 Synchronizing NE Time


Adjust the NE time so that the NE time is synchronized with the time on the Web LCT. In this
manner, the NE can accurately record the time when an alarm, a performance event, or an
abnormal event occurred.

Prerequisites
l

The basic data of NEs on the entire network has been configured.

Time settings on the Web LCT are correct.

You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > NE Time
Synchronization from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Select the NE to be synchronized with the NMS and set Synchronous Mode to NM.
Step 3 Click Apply.
Step 4 Right-click the NE whose time needs to be synchronized and choose NM from the shortcut
menu.
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----End

5.5.9 Changing the Modem Chip Mode


The default modem chip mode of the ISV3 board is IS3. When the ISV3 board needs to construct
a radio link together with the ISU2/ISX2 board, its modem chip mode needs to be changed to
IS2.

Prerequisites
The NE user has the right of Operation Level or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Context
l

The default mode IS3 is used when both interconnected IF ports support the IS3 mode.

The compatible mode IS2 is used when an IF port is interconnected with an IF port on an
ISU2 or ISX2 board.
NOTE

To change the modem chip mode of a board from IS2 to IS3, delete services on the board first.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose
Configuration > IF Interface from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click the IF Attributes tab.
Step 3 Change the modem chip mode based on the network plan.

Step 4 Click Apply.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.
Step 5 Click OK.
----End

5.5.10 Changing the IF Service Type


This topic describes how to change the IF service type.
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Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The corresponding IF boards have been added in the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Context
NOTE

After the IF service type is changed, the IF board will be reset. Wait until the IF board resets and set other
IF information.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the corresponding board from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose
Configuration > IF Interface from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click the IF Attributes tab.
Step 3 Change IF Service Type based on the network plan.

Step 4 Click Apply.


----End

5.5.11 Configuring a Hop of Radio Link


During site commissioning, you can configure data for radio links except for XPIC-enabled radio
links with 1+1 protection in the hop management window.

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The mapping IF boards and the ODUs connected to the IF boards have been added on the
NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Background Information
This task allows you to configure 1+0 unprotected, XPIC-enabled, or 1+1 protected radio links.
To configure N+0 radio links, configure N 1+0 unprotected radio links.
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Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE from the Object Tree and choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration.
Step 2 Select an IF board from the drop-down list.
The basic information about the radio link connected to the IF board is displayed.

Step 3 Set the basic attributes for the local NE based on site requirements.
l To configure a 1+0 unprotected radio link:
1.

Select 1+0 and deselect XPIC.

2.

Set the basic attributes for the hop of radio link.

NOTE

After 1+0 is selected and the configuration takes effect, the IF 1+1 protection group or XPIC
group is deleted if the radio link is configured with 1+1 protection or XPIC.

l To configure 1+1 protected radio links:

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Select 1+1.

2.

Set the basic attributes for the hop of radio link.

3.

Optional: Click Advanced and set the advanced 1+1 protection attributes.

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NOTE

For 1+1 HSB, it is recommended that you set Enable Reverse Switching to Disabled. For 1+1 SD,
it is recommended that you set Enable Reverse Switching to Enabled.

l To configure an XPIC-enabled link:


1.

Select 1+0 and XPIC.

2.

Set the basic XPIC attributes for the hop of radio link.

NOTE

To configure XPIC-enable radio links with 1+1 protection, first configure two XPIC-enabled
radio links and then configure an IF 1+1 protection group by following instructions in 5.5.12
Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group.

Step 4 Set the IF attributes for the local NE.

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NOTE

During site commissioning, disable the AM function regardless of the service plane. Set Modulation Mode to
the planned modulation scheme of guaranteed AM capacity.

Step 5 Set the RF attributes for the local NE.


NOTE

Before aligning antennas, disable the ATPC function regardless of the service plan.

l To configure a 1+0 unprotected radio link:

l To configure 1+1 protected radio links:

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l To configure an XPIC-enabled radio link:

Step 6 Click Apply.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.
Step 7 Click OK.
----End

5.5.12 Creating an IF 1+1 Protection Group


To create XPIC-enabled radio links in an IF 1+1 protection group, you need to configure the
XPIC-enabled radio link in the hop management window and then create an IF 1+1 protection
group.

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Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The IF boards and the ODUs to which the IF boards are connected must be added on the
NE Panel.

The XPIC-enabled radio links have been configured in the hop management window.

The IF boards of an IF 1+1 FD/SD protection group must be configured in the paired slots.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Background Information
When a 1+0 service is converted into 1+1 HSB protection group by configuring an IF 1+1
protection group, the original E1 service is not interrupted. The board where the original service
exists, however, needs to be set to the working board.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Link
Configuration from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click the IF 1+1 Protection tab.
Step 3 Click New.
The Create IF 1+1 Protection dialog box is displayed.
Step 4 Configure the parameters of the IF 1+1 protection group.

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NOTE

It is recommended to set the parameters for the 1+1 HSB/FD/SD protection as follows:
l Set Working Mode according to the network plan.
l Set Revertive Mode according to the service plan. It is recommended that you set Revertive Mode to
Revertive.
l WTR Time(s) is available only when Revertive Mode is Revertive. It is recommended that WTR Time
(s) take its default value (600s).
l Set Enable Reverse Switching as planned. Generally, set this parameter to Enable if Working Mode is
HSB or if Working Mode is SD. This parameter is unavailable if Working Mode is FD.
l It is recommended that you set Alarm Report Mode to Only protection group alarm. Anti-Jitter Time
takes the default value.
l Each of the parameters Working Mode, Revertive Mode, WTR Time(s),Anti-jitter Time(s), and Enable
Reverse Switching must be set to the same value at both ends of a radio hop.

Step 5 Click OK.


----End

5.5.13 Configuring the VLAN ID and Bandwidth Used by an Inband


DCN
The VLAN ID used by an inband DCN must be different from the VLAN ID used by services
and the bandwidth by an inband DCN must meet the requirements of the transmission network
for managing messages.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE administrator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Communication > DCN
Management from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click the Bandwidth Management tab.
Step 3 Set the VLAN ID and bandwidth used by an inband DCN.

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NOTE

l Ensure that all NEs on a DCN subnet use the same inband DCN VLAN ID. If an original NE on the DCN
subnet does not use the default value 4094 of Ethernet Board VLAN ID, change the inband DCN VLAN
ID of other NEs to the same value as that of this NE.
l It is recommended that Bandwidth take its default value. When the inband DCN is provided by DCN
channels in a GE link and the GE link is an aggregation link, set Bandwidth to 1000.
l IF Port Bandwidth(Kbit/s) specifies the bandwidth for inband DCN transmission on a radio link. It is
recommended that IF Port Bandwidth(Kbit/s) take its default value.

Step 4 Click Apply.


----End

5.5.14 Configuring Orderwire


The orderwire for an NE provides a dedicated communication channel that the network
maintenance personnel can use.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Orderwire
from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click the General tab.
Step 3 Configure the orderwire information.

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Step 4 Click Apply.


Step 5 Optional: Change the overhead bytes occupied by the orderwire.
1.

Click the Advanced tab.

2.

Configure Orderwire Occupied Bytes.

3.

Click Apply.

----End

5.6 Checking Alarms


By checking the alarms generated by the equipment, you can determine whether the equipment
is working properly.

Prerequisites
l

The equipment is connected to the Web LCT.

Data configuration is complete.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT
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Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select an NE from the Object Tree, and then click

on the toolbar.

Step 2 Click the Browse Current Alarms tab.


Step 3 Check the displayed alarm information.
Check whether there are any equipment alarms, the following alarms in particular:
l POWER_ALM
l FAN_FAIL
l HARD_BAD
l BD_STATUS
l SYNC_C_LOS
l CONFIG_NOSUPPORT
l NESF_LOST
l TEMP_ALARM
l IF_CABLE_OPEN
l XPIC_LOS
NOTE

For the CONFIG_NOSUPPORT, follow instructions in 5.5.11 Configuring a Hop of Radio Link to check
whether RF parameters meet ODU requirements.

For details about the preceding alarms and about how to handle them, refer to the OptiX RTN
950 Radio Transmission System Maintenance Guide.
----End

5.7 Testing Connectivity of Cables


During the installation of the OptiX RTN 950, the cables may be connected to service interfaces
incorrectly, or the hardware may malfunction. To ensure that the services run properly, test
connectivity of the cables.

5.7.1 Testing Connectivity of E1 Cables


By testing connectivity of E1 cables, you can check whether the E1 cables are properly connected
between the equipment and the DDF, and whether the E1 cables are in the normal state.

Prerequisites
The equipment must be equipped with an E1 interface board, and the E1 port must travel through
the DDF before being connected to another device.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

Web LCT

BER tester

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Procedure
Step 1 At the DDF, connect the BER tester to the first E1 port of the IDU.
The BER tester displays the AIS alarm.
Figure 5-4 Connecting the BER tester
DDF
RX TX

RX

TX

.
..
.

1
2
3
4

BER tester

Step 2 Set the corresponding E1 port to Outloop using the Web LCT.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Outloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.

Step 3 Observe the BER tester.


The BER tester should not display the AIS alarm any more.
Step 4 Release the outloop set in Step 2.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.

Step 5 Observe the BER tester.


The BER tester should report the AIS alarm.
Step 6 Repeat Step 1 to Step 5 to test all the other E1 ports.
----End
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5.7.2 Testing Connectivity of Network Cables


By testing connectivity of network cables, you can determine whether the network cables are in
the normal state.

Prerequisites
The network cables are already made.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Network cable tester

Background Information
You can also test the connectivity of a network cable by performing a loopback on the data ports
(this method is applicable when the equipment is powered on). Specifically, use the network
cable to be tested to connect any two data ports. If the LINK indicators of the two data ports turn
on, it indicates that the network cable is in the normal state.

Procedure
Step 1 Connect the network cable to the port of the network cable tester.
Figure 5-5 Testing the Ethernet service cable

Step 2 Check the indicator of the network cable tester.


Network Cable

End A

End B

Straight-through cable The 1-8-G indicators turn on


one after another.

The 1-8-G indicators turn on one after


another.

Crossover cable

The 3-6-1-4-5-2-7-8-G indicators


turn on one after another.

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The 1-8-G indicators turn on


one after another.

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Step 3 Connect the network cable that passes the test to the Ethernet port of the device.
----End

5.7.3 Checking Fiber Jumper Connection


During installation, the fiber jumpers may be incorrectly connected or the attenuation may be
excessively high. As a result, services will fail to run properly. To prevent this situation, check
the connection after the fiber jumper is routed from the optical interface to the optical distribution
frame (ODF). This topic mainly describes how to test the fiber jumper connection by using an
optical interface board.

Prerequisites
l

The fiber jumper is installed and routed from the optical interface to the ODF.

The equipment is powered on.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

Optical power meter

Short fiber jumper

Precautions

DANGER
When you are checking the connection of fiber jumpers, avoid direct eye exposure to the laser
beams.

Connection Diagram
When you use an optical interface board to test the fiber jumper connection, connect the fiber
jumper to the optical power meter on the ODF side and connect the fiber jumper to the TX port
of the optical interface board on the chassis side. Figure 5-6 shows the connection.

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Figure 5-6 Connection diagram for checking the fiber jumper connection by using an optical
interface board

SL1DA

TX

External
Cable

RX

ODF

Fiber jumper connected


to the TX port

Procedure
Step 1 On the chassis side, disconnect the fiber jumper from the TX port on an optical interface
board.
Step 2 Connect the optical power meter to the TX port on an optical interface board with a short fiber
jumper.
Step 3 Switch on the optical power meter and set the operating wavelength according to the type of
optical interface. The measured launched optical power of the optical interface board is A.
Step 4 Insert the fiber jumper back into the TX port.
Step 5 On the ODF side, disconnect the fiber jumper from the TX port. Connect the fiber jumper to the
optical power meter. The measured optical power is B.
Step 6 Disconnect the fiber jumper from the TX port on the optical interface board. The optical power
meter reads "LO" and does not receive any optical signals.
Step 7 Compare the values of A and B.
l If the difference between A and B is less than 1 dB, it indicates that the fiber jumper is
correctly connected and the attenuation of the fiber jumper is within the normal range.
l If the difference between A and B is more than 1 dB, verify that the fiber jumper is in good
condition and is correctly routed. Then, verify that the fiber jumper terminal is clean.

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NOTICE
If the fiber jumper is connected through a flange, the difference between A and B should be less
than 2 dB. Otherwise, it indicates that the fiber jumper is incorrectly connected or the attenuation
of the fiber jumper is not within the normal range. Verify that the fiber jumper is in good condition
and is correctly routed. Then, verify that the fiber jumper terminal is clean.
Step 8 Repeat Steps Step 1 through Step 7 to check the fiber jumper that is connected to the RX port.
Step 9 Restore the fiber jumper connections on the chassis side and the ODF side.
Step 10 Repeat Steps Step 1 through Step 9 to check fiber jumper connections of other optical interfaces
and then restore the connections when completed.
----End

5.8 Aligning the Antennas


Aligning the antennas is the most important activity in HOP commissioning. The alignment has
a direct effect on the performance of the radio links.

5.8.1 Main Lobe and Side Lobes


Engineers performing an alignment on an antenna should be familiar with the related knowledge
of the main lobe and side lobes

Definitions of the Main Lobe and Side Lobes


The electric field strength of the radiated power of an antenna varies in space. The differences
of the power distribution can be shown in an azimuth diagram. Generally, there are the horizontal
azimuth diagram for the horizontal section and the vertical azimuth diagram for the vertical
section. Figure 5-7 is a vertical azimuth diagram. There are many lobes in this figure. The lobe
with the strongest radiated power is the main lobe. The other lobes are side lobes wherein the
first side lobe can be used for aligning the antenna.
Figure 5-7 Main lobe and side lobes

Main lobe
First side lobe
Second side lobe

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Locating the Main Lobe


Antenna alignment involves making the main lobe of the local antenna align with the main lobe
of the opposite antenna. The purpose is to make the received signal strength of the opposite
antenna reach the maximum value.
The main lobe width of the microwave antenna is narrow, between 0.6 and 3.7. For instance,
in the case of a 1.2 m antenna at a working frequency of 23 GHz, the azimuth is only 0.9 when
the signal level drops from the signal peak to zero. Once a signal is detected, very small alignment
adjustments are required to locate the main lobe.
Antenna movement across the main lobe results in a rapid rise and fall in the signal level. Whether
the main lobe is aligned properly can be verified by comparing the received signal peaks.
Typically, the main lobe signal peak is 20-25 dB higher than the first side lobe signal peak.
Figure 5-8 shows the head-on view of a free-space model for radio propagation with concentric
rings of side lobe peaks and troughs radiating outward from the main lobe.
Figure 5-8 Horizontal section and front view of the antenna
180o

90o

0o

Center of the main lobe


Outer edge of the main lobe, 310 dB lower than the main lobe

180o

Trough between the main lobe


and the first side lobe, 30 dB
lower than the main lobe
First side lobe, 20-25 dB
lower than the main lobe

90o

Trough between the first side lobe


and the second side lobe, 30 dB
or more lower than the main lobe

0o
a Horizontal section of
the antenna

b Head-on view

Second side lobe, where


signals are very weak

Tracking Path
Side lobe signal readings are sometimes mistaken for main lobe readings when signals are
tracked on different elevation (or azimuth). Figure 5-9 shows a horizontal radio propagation
model of the antenna, and signal levels at three different elevation positions (1-7 represent the
measured signal level values of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) port of the ODU).
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Figure 5-9 Three tracking paths


Head-on view of tracking paths for
different elevations

Signal levels for each path


6 7

B
A

C'

4
1

B'
3

C'

B'

A'

2
1
A

3
A'

Line AA' indicates that the main lobe of the antenna is almost aligned properly. The main
lobe is at point 2, and the first side lobes are at points 1 and 3. Slightly adjust the azimuth
of the antenna at point 2 until the peak signal appears.

Line BB' indicates that the elevation of the antenna slightly deviates from the main lobe.
The signal peaks appear at points 4 and 5. The signal peak at point 4 is higher than the
signal peak at point 5 because of the antenna characteristics. As a result, point 4 may be
mistaken for the peak point of the main lobe signal. The correct method is to set the azimuth
of the antenna to the middle position between the two signal peaks. Then, adjust the
elevation of the antenna until the three signal peaks of line AA' appear. Slightly adjust the
elevation and azimuth of the antenna at point 2 until the peak signal appears.

Line CC' indicates that the elevation of the antenna completely deviates from the main lobe
and is almost aligned with the first side lobe. The signal peak of the first side lobe at point
6 and the signal peak of the first side lobe at point 7 appear as one signal peak. As a result,
points 6 and 7 may be mistaken for the peak point of the main lobe signal. The correct
method is to set the azimuth of the antenna to the middle of points 6 and 7. Then, adjust
the elevation of the antenna until the three signal peaks of line AA' appear. Slightly adjust
the elevation and azimuth of the antenna at point 2 until the peak signal appears.

When the side lobe peak at one side is higher than the side lobe peak at the other side, as shown
in Figure 5-10, a common error is moving the antenna left to right along line DD', or top to
bottom along line EE'. As a result, point 1 may be mistaken for the peak point of the main lobe
signal. The correct method is to adjust the elevation in the middle of points 1 and 2 or the azimuth
in the middle of points 1 and 3. Several adjustments are required so that the three signal peaks
of line AA' can appear. Slightly adjust the elevation and azimuth of the antenna at point 2 as
shown in Figure 5-9 until the peak signal appears.

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Figure 5-10 Aligning the antenna with the first side lobe
E
1

D'

D
D'
1

E'

E'

5.8.2 Aligning Single-Polarized Antennas


When aligning single-polarized antennas, engineers need to align the main lobe by adjusting the
azimuth and elevation of the antennas at both ends.

Prerequisites
l

The site commissioning of the radio equipment at both ends of the radio link is complete.

The weather at both stations is suitable for outdoor operations and there is no threat of rain,
snow, or fog.

On-site conditions meet the requirements for the antennas to operate at a high altitude and
the personnel commissioning the antennas are trained to work at high altitudes.

The Multimeter is calibrated.

The ATPC function is disabled (its default status on the NE is Disabled).

The AM function is disabled (its default status on the NE is Disabled).

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

Adjustable wrench

Telescope

Interphone

Hex key

Multimeter

North-stabilized indicator

NOTICE
You can adjust the azimuth and elevation of the antennas by adjusting the appropriate nuts or
screws. For details, see the installation guide for the antennas. Steps provided in this section are
for reference only.

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Precautions
l

If the radio link is configured in 1+1 protection mode and one antenna is used at each end,
power off the standby ODUs at both ends before aligning the antennas. After the antennas
are aligned, power on the standby ODUs at both ends.

If the radio link is configured in 1+1 SD mode, align the antennas in the following sequence:

1.

Power on the main ODUs at both ends. Ensure that they are powered on during the
alignment.

2.

Power off the standby ODUs at both ends. Then, align the main antennas at both ends.

3.

Power on the standby ODU at the local end. Retain the position of the main antenna
at the remote end, and adjust the diversity antenna at the local end.

4.

Power on the standby ODU at the remote end. Retain the position of the main antenna
at the local end, and adjust the diversity antenna at the remote end.

If the radio link is configured in 1+1 FD mode and two antennas are used at each end, align
the antenna in the following sequence:
1.

Power on the main ODUs, power off the standby ODUs, and align the main antennas
at both ends.

2.

Power off the main ODUs, power on the standby ODUs, and align the diversity
antennas at both ends.

Procedure
Step 1 Calculate the voltage value VBNC for the RSSI port corresponding to the designed receive power
based on the RSSI and received signal level (RSL) curves.
NOTE

The curve diagram for VBNC and RSL is delivered along with the ODU.

Step 2 Determine the azimuth of the antenna according to the installation position and height of the
antenna. Then, adjust the elevation of the antenna to the horizontal position.
NOTE

For a special radio link (for example, with one end on the mountain top and the other end at the mountain foot),
inclination between the link and the horizontal line is larger than the half-power angle of the antenna. You need
to first slightly adjust the elevation of the antenna, so that the main lobes are aligned in the vertical direction.

Step 3 Connect a multimeter to the RSSI port on the ODU at the local end and test the voltage value
VBNC. Turn the multimeter to the DC power level with the voltage value 20 V.
NOTE

It is recommended that you fix the multimeter to the tower with adhesive tapes at a point suitable for
observation, so that you can observe the RSSI voltage value while aligning antennas.

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Figure 5-11 Testing the RSSI voltage by using a multimeter

SP/HP/SPA/HPA/LP ODU
XMC-1/XMC-2 ODU

XMC-2H ODU
Test pin

Step 4 Adjust the azimuth and elevation of the antenna as follows:


1.

Keep the remote antenna fixed.

2.

Adjust the azimuth adjustment nut, rotate the antenna widely in the horizontal direction,
and observe the value of VBNC on the multimeter. When the value is not 0, tighten the
azimuth adjustment nut.

3.

Adjust the azimuth adjustment nut, rotate the antenna slightly in the horizontal direction,
and observe the peak values of VBNC on the multimeter.
Normally, three signal peaks are tracked, as shown in Figure 5-12.
Figure 5-12 Signal peaks

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NOTICE
When the rotation range is wide enough and the observation of the multimeter is careful,
see5.8.1 Main Lobe and Side Lobes if less or more than two signal peaks appear.
4.

Adjust the azimuth adjustment nut until the azimuth of the antenna is at position 2 in Figure
5-12. When the antenna is at position 2, the value of VBNC is the peak value.

5.

Slightly adjust the elevation and azimuth at point 2 until VBNC reaches the peak within the
tracked range.

6.

Tighten the antenna at the local end.


NOTE

When you tighten the antenna, ensure that the VBNC voltage remains at the peak value.

Step 5 Repeat Step 2 to Step 4 to adjust the antenna at the remote end. When the VBNC reaches the
peak value, tighten the antenna at the remote end.
Step 6 Repeat Step 2 to Step 4 for two to four times. When the VBNC at the local end and the VBNC at
the remote end reach the peak value, tighten the antennas at both ends.
NOTE

l The adjustments are slight.


l After the adjustments, the VBNC must reach or exceed the VBNC value obtained in Step 1 after antennas at
both ends are tightened.

----End

5.8.3 Aligning Dual-Polarized Antennas


When aligning dual-polarized antennas, engineers need to align the main lobe by adjusting the
azimuth and elevation of the antennas at both ends. Engineers also need to adjust the feed booms
of the antennas so that the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) meets the specified
requirements.

Prerequisites
l

The site commissioning of the radio equipment at both ends of the radio link is complete.

The weather at both stations is suitable for outdoor operations and there is no threat of rain,
snow, or fog

On-site conditions meet the requirements for the antennas to operate at a high altitude and
the personnel commissioning the antennas are trained to work at high altitudes.

The Multimeter is calibrated.

The ATPC function is disabled (its default status on the NE is Disabled).

The AM function is disabled (its default status on the NE is Disabled).

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

Adjustable wrench

Telescope

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Interphone

Hex key

Multimeter

North-stabilized indicator

Spanner delivered with the OMT

5 Site Commissioning (Using the Web LCT)

Context
NOTE

In this topic, ODUs at both ends are installed separately from antennas. If ODUs at both ends need to be installed
directly on antennas, the action of adjusting the feed boom needs to be changed to the action of adjusting the
OMT.
The XPD measured on an NE is actually the XPI. Do not use the XPD measured on the NE to replace the XPD
of the antenna port measured using a multimeter.

Procedure
Step 1 Power off the vertically polarized ODUs at both ends of the radio link, and power on the
horizontally polarized ODUs at both ends of the radio link. Ensure that the antennas transmit
horizontally polarized signals.
Step 2 Adjust the azimuth angle and elevation angle of the antennas at both ends by referring to 5.8.2
Aligning Single-Polarized Antennas, and ensure that the main lobe of the horizontally
polarized signals is aligned with the antenna.
Step 3 Measure the RSL (P1) of the horizontally polarized signals at the local end.
1.

Use a multimeter to measure the signal level on the RSSI port of the horizontally polarized
ODUs.

2.

Calculate the RSL (P1) of the horizontally polarized received signals by referring to the
curve diagram delivered along with the ODUs.

Step 4 Adjust the feed boom at the local end, and ensure that the RSL of the vertically polarized signals
reaches the lower threshold (P2).
1.

Power on the vertically polarized ODUs at the local end.

2.

Use a multimeter to measure the signal level on the RSSI port of the vertically polarized
ODUs.

3.

Calculate the RSL (P2) of the vertically polarized signals by referring to the curve diagram
in the ODUs box.

4.

Calculate the XPD1 (XPD1 = P1 - P2).


NOTE

l 24 dB is obtained through a rollback from the antenna XPD specification 30 dB by 6 dB.


l In actual commissioning, the XPD value is usually greater than 24 dB. Try to adjust the XPD value
to the maximum value to ensure that links work in the optimal state.

If...

Then...

The calculated XPD1 (XPD1 = P1 - P2) is less than 24 dB

Proceed to the next step.

The calculated XPD1 (XPD1 = P1 - P2) is not less than 24 dB Perform Step 5.
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Release the holder of the feed boom to some extent, and turn the feed boom slightly until
the signal level reaches the lower threshold. The calculated XPD1 (XPD1 = P1 - P2) should
not be less than 24 dB.

Step 5 Record the angle (D1) of the current feed boom.


Step 6 Power off the horizontally polarized ODUsat both ends of the radio link, and power on the
vertically polarized ODUs at both ends of the radio link. Ensure that the antennas transmit
vertically polarized signals.
Step 7 Measure the RSL (P3) of the vertically polarized signals at the local end by referring to Step
3.
Step 8 Adjust the feed boom at the local end, and ensure that the RSL of the horizontally polarized
signals reaches the lower threshold (P4).
1.

Power on the horizontally polarized ODUs at the local end.

2.

Use a multimeter to measure the signal level on the RSSI port of the horizontally polarized
ODUs.

3.

Calculate the RSL (P4) of the horizontally polarized signals by referring to the curve
diagram delivered along with the ODUs.

4.

Calculate the XPD2 (XPD2 = P3 - P4).


NOTE

l 24 dB is obtained through a rollback from the antenna XPD specification 30 dB by 6 dB.


l In actual commissioning, the XPD value is usually greater than 24 dB. Try to adjust the XPD value
to the maximum value to ensure that links work in the optimal state.

If...

Then...

The calculated XPD2 (XPD2 = P3 - P4) is less than 24 dB

Proceed to the next step.

The calculated XPD2 (XPD2 = P3 - P4) is not less than 24 dB Perform Step 9.
5.

Release the holder of the feed boom to some extent, and turn the feed boom slightly until
the signal level reaches the lower threshold. The calculated XPD2 (XPD2 = P3 - P4) should
not be less than 24 dB.

Step 9 Record the angle (D2) of the current feed boom.


Step 10 Adjust the feed boom slightly (ranging from D1 to D2), and ensure that XPD1 and XPD2 are
not less than 24 dB.
NOTE

l If D1 and D2 are the same, you do not need to adjust the feed boom.
l 24 dB is obtained through a rollback from the antenna XPD specification 30 dB by 6 dB.
l In actual commissioning, the XPD value is usually greater than 24 dB. Try to adjust the XPD value to the
maximum value to ensure that links work in the optimal state.

Step 11 Tighten all the screws on the antennas.


NOTE

Use the multimeter to measure the received value of RSSI again to ensure that no fault occurred in the process
of tightening the screws.

----End
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Related Information
In practice, you can align dual-polarized antennas by measuring only the vertically polarized
signals.

5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive Power
After antenna alignment, check whether the status of a radio link is normal and the receive power
meets requirements.

Prerequisites
l

Antennas have been aligned.

The basic data of NEs on the entire network has been configured.

You must be an NM user with NE maintainer authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Radio Link
Configuration.
Step 2 Select the IF board carrying the radio link.
Step 3 Click Get Links.
Basic information about the radio link is displayed in the window.

1.

If basic information about the radio link is displayed, the link is normal.

2.

If basic information about the radio link is not displayed, check whether data configurations
in the radio direction are correct and whether antennas have been properly aligned.

Step 4 Click Query to query whether RX Power(dBm) at both ends meet requirements. It is
recommended that the receive power deviate from the planned value only within the specified
range.

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----End

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6 Site Commissioning (Using a USB Flash Drive)

Site Commissioning (Using a USB Flash


Drive)

About This Chapter


Using the USB flash drive to configure commissioning data is the fastest way unless the
configuration data in the USB flash drive is correct.

Context
The operation procedure is as follows:
6.1 Powering On the Equipment
By checking the power-on process of equipment, you can verify whether the hardware system
of the equipment and the power system are functioning properly.
6.2 Loading Commissioning Data from a USB Flash Drive
When you load commissioning data from a USB flash drive to an NE, you can upgrade the NE
software simultaneously.
6.3 Using the Web LCT to Complete Subsequent Commissioning Items
The specific commissioning steps are the same as those in the scenario wherein the entire
commissioning process is performed using the Web LCT.

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6.1 Powering On the Equipment


By checking the power-on process of equipment, you can verify whether the hardware system
of the equipment and the power system are functioning properly.

Prerequisites
l

Hardware installation has been completed and has passed the installation check.

The power system is available. The voltage, pole connection, and fuse current of the power
system have been checked in the process of connecting power cables.

The power supply (for example, the power distribution box of the cabinet) has been turned
off.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


None.

Context
l

For the OptiX RTN 950, the recommended fuse currents are listed in Table 6-1.
Table 6-1 Fuse currents
Chassis

Recommended Fuse Capacity

OptiX RTN 950

20 A

NOTE

The recommended fuse capacity of 20 A can meet requirements under the maximum power
consumption. Customers can compute the fuse capacity according to the actual power consumption.
The fuse capacity should be larger than or equal to (total power consumption x 1.5)/(rated voltage x
87.5%). For example, when the rated power supply is -48 V and the total power consumption of the
IDU is less than or equal to 420 W, the fuse capacity can be set to 15 A (= [420 x 1.5]/[48 x 87.5%]).

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The OptiX RTN 950 supports the following system control, switching, and timing board:
Chassis

Board Type

OptiX RTN 950

CSH/CST

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Precautions

NOTICE
l If the equipment is configured with two PIU boards, the nominal voltage for the input power
of each PIU board must be the same.
l The ODU-PWR switch on the front panel of the IF board is designed with a locking device.
Hence, you must pull out the switches lightly before you turn it. If the switch points to "O",
the switch is turned off. If the switch points to "I", the switch is turned on.
l If the output voltage of the power supply does not meet test requirements, do not power on
the cabinet. First, reconstruct the power supply and then test the output voltage again.

Procedure
Step 1 Verify that the power cables of the chassis are correctly connected. Then, power on the equipment
and check the status of the indicators. In normal conditions, the PIU/FAN indicators are steady
green, as shown in Figure 6-1. Table 6-2 provides the descriptions for the different states of the
indicators.
Table 6-2 Status of indicators
Indicator

State

Description

PWR

Steady green

Indicates that the power supply is in


the normal state.

Off

Indicates a power failure.

Steady green

Indicates that the fan is running


properly.

Steady red

Indicates that the fan is faulty.

Off

Indicates that the fan is powered off.

FAN

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Figure 6-1 Normal state


PIU indicator

FAN indicator

Step 2 Check the status of the indicators on the system control, switching, and timing board and ensure
that the equipment is powered on. The board indicators should conform to the following states
and sequences.
1.

The PROG indicator should blink green, turn off, and then become steady green.

2.

The STAT indicators should be green.

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STAT
PROG
SYNC
ACTX
ACTC

Figure 6-2 Normal state

NOTE

l For detailed meanings of the indicators, see the IDU hardware description.
l For a board other than the system control, switching, and timing board on the IDU, the STAT indicator is
on only after the corresponding logical board is added.

Step 3 Turn the ODU-PWR switch on an IF board to the "I" position.


NOTE

l The ODU indicator on an IF board is green only after the logical board of the IF board connected to
the ODU and the logical board of the ODU are created.
l In the event of indicator abnormalities, contact Huawei technical support.

----End

6.2 Loading Commissioning Data from a USB Flash Drive


When you load commissioning data from a USB flash drive to an NE, you can upgrade the NE
software simultaneously.

Prerequisites
l
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The NE has been powered on and is running normally.


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The commissioning data has been loaded to a USB flash drive.


NOTE

1. Copy the RTN.CER file to the root directory of the USB flash drive. The RTN.CER file is generated
by the network management center system administrator using a special-purpose tool and it stores the
administrator-level user names and MD5/SHA256/PBKDF2-encrypted passwords of these users.
2. The data for deployment commissioning is stored in the following directories in the USB flash drive:
l \pkg: NE software
l \license: license files
l \script: commissioning scripts

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


USB flash drive

Procedure
Step 1 Insert the USB flash drive in the USB port on the OptiX RTN 950. If the NE houses the active
and standby system control boards, remove the standby system control board before inserting
the USB flash drive. After loading data from the USB flash drive to the active system control
board is complete, insert the standby system control board.
Step 2 Check the data loading status based on the indicator on the USB flash drive.
Status of the USB
Indicator

Data Loading Status

Operation

The indicator blinks yellow


and then turns steady green.

The loading of
commissioning data is
complete.

Remove the USB flash drive.

NOTE
l When the indicator is
blinking yellow, do not
remove the USB flash
drive. Otherwise, the data
loading may be interrupted.
l After the data loading is
complete, the NE will
automatically reset, which
takes 2 minutes to 3
minutes. After the reset is
complete, the USB
indicator and the system
indicator (SRV) on the NE
are both steady green,
indicating that the data
loading is successful.

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Status of the USB


Indicator

Data Loading Status

Operation

The indicator is off.

The USB flash drive is faulty


and fails to get online.

l Copy the commissioning


data to another USB flash
drive.

NOTE
Another possible cause is that
the USB flash drive is not
properly inserted.

The indicator blinks red.

The type of the USB flash


drive is incorrect or an error
occurs when the NE attempts
to read/write the USB flash
drive.
NOTE
3.1 Preparing Documents and
Tools provides the USB flash
drive types that the OptiX RTN
950 supports.

The indicator is steady red.

The loaded commissioning


data is abnormal.

l Repeat Step 1 to load the


commissioning data to
the NE.
l Copy the commissioning
data to another USB flash
drive.
l Repeat Step 1 to load the
commissioning data to
the NE.

Reload the data:


l Save the correct NE
software and
commissioning data
scripts in the correct
directories of the USB
flash drive.
l Repeat Step 1 to load the
commissioning data to
the NE.

Step 3 Remove the USB flash drive.


NOTE

Remove the USB flash drive from the USB interface immediately after data loading from the USB flash drive
is complete. Otherwise, data loading may be performed again due to operations such as data configuration, NE
reset, software loading.

----End

6.3 Using the Web LCT to Complete Subsequent


Commissioning Items
The specific commissioning steps are the same as those in the scenario wherein the entire
commissioning process is performed using the Web LCT.

Prerequisites
l
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The OptiX RTN 950 has been powered on.


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Commissioning data has been downloaded from the USB flash drive to the NE.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT

Procedure
Step 1 At one end of the radio link, 5.3 Logging In to the Web LCT (Through NMS Interface).
Step 2 5.6 Checking Alarms.
Step 3 5.7 Testing Connectivity of Cables.
Step 4 5.8 Aligning the Antennas.
Step 5 5.9 Checking the Radio Link Status and the Receive Power.
----End

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7 System Commissioning

System Commissioning

About This Chapter


System commissioning includes the specific commissioning processes for all system
commissioning items.
7.1 Configuring Networkwide Service Data
After site commissioning is performed for each hop of the radio links, the ECC communication
between NEs is normal. In this case, an NE can be accessed by using the U2000, and the
networkwide service data can be configured.
7.2 Testing Connectivity of E1 Services
By testing E1 services, you can check whether the E1 services are available over radio links.
7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services
When a microwave network transmits Ethernet services, you need to test the connectivity of
Ethernet services. Ethernet services can be tested using the ETH OAM function. Therefore, no
tester is required.
7.4 Testing ATM Services
By testing ATM services, you can check whether ATM services are available over radio links.
The ATM services can be tested using the ATM OAM function. Therefore, no tester is required.
7.5 Testing AM Shifts
When the AM function is enabled for some radio links on a microwave network, you can test
the AM function on typical radio links to check whether AM shifts are functional.
7.6 Testing Protection Switching
By testing protection switching, you can determine whether the protection switching is normal
over radio links.
7.7 Checking the Clock Status
Check the clock status for each NE to ensure that the clocks of all the NEs on a radio network
are synchronized.
7.8 Testing the FM over a Radio Link
The fade margin (FM) over a radio link can be evaluated by measuring the mean square errors
(MSEs) at different received signal levels (RSLs).
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7.9 Testing E1 Service Performance


You can check whether the equipment can transmit E1 services stably for a long term by testing
24-hour BER.
7.10 Testing Ethernet Service Performance
The NE-inherent test functions can test Ethernet service performance.

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7.1 Configuring Networkwide Service Data


After site commissioning is performed for each hop of the radio links, the ECC communication
between NEs is normal. In this case, an NE can be accessed by using the U2000, and the
networkwide service data can be configured.
NOTE

For more configuration tasks, see the Mapping between Configuration Examples and Scenarios in Configuration
Guide

7.2 Testing Connectivity of E1 Services


By testing E1 services, you can check whether the E1 services are available over radio links.

Context
NOTE

l It is recommended that you test low-priority Ethernet services in good weather conditions, where the AM
function works in the highest-efficiency modulation mode.
l The tested E1 services can be Native E1 services or CES E1 services.

7.2.1 Testing E1 Services by Using a BER Tester


If a BER tester is available, the BER tester can be used to test whether E1 services are available.

Prerequisites
The NE must be configured with E1 services, and the E1 services must be transmitted through
the DDF.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

BER tester
NOTE

For a test of CES services in CESoPSN mode, a BER tester supporting Nx64 Kbit/s timeslot setting is
necessary.

Procedure
Step 1 On the DDF at the central site, connect the BER tester to the first E1 port of the IDU.
The BER tester indicates the AIS alarm.
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Figure 7-1 Connecting the BER tester


DDF
RX TX

RX

TX

.
..
.

1
2
3
4

BER tester

Step 2 On the NMS, perform an inloop for the corresponding E1 port at the remote site.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

Step 3 Test the bit errors for two minutes.


There should be no bit errors.
NOTE

For a test of CES services, it is necessary to configure 64 Kbit/s timeslots on a BER tester to align with the
timeslots carrying CES services.

Step 4 Release the inloop set in Step 2.


1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.
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Click OK.
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The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.


8.

Click Close.

Step 5 Repeat Step 1 through Step 4 to test all other E1 ports.


----End

7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS


If no BER tester is available, you can test connectivity of E1 services by using the PRBS test
system embedded in the equipment.

Prerequisites
l

The NE must be configured with E1 services.

The communication between the NMS and the NE must be normal.

A PRBS test can be performed for a CES service only if the CES service uses CESoPSN
encapsulation and is carried by timeslots 1 to 31.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Precautions

NOTICE
l When a PRBS test is performed, the services carried on the tested path are interrupted.
l The PRBS test can be performed only in a unidirectional manner and on one path at a time.
l The PRBS test method is inapplicable when the CESoPSN mode is used and a CES service
uses fewer than 31 TDM timeslots.
l During a PRBS test on an unframed CES service at an E1 port, the E1 port will report the
LOOP_ALM alarm.

Procedure
Step 1 On the NMS, perform an inloop for the corresponding E1 port at the remote site.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.

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The Confirm dialog box is displayed.


6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

Step 2 At the central site, on the NMS, select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.
Step 3 In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PRBS Test.
Step 4 Select the first E1 port, and then set the following PRBS-related parameters:
Parameter

TDM Service

CES Service

Direction

Cross-connection

NNI

Frame Format

Framed

Test Period

Short(1s)

Short(1s)

Test Times

120

120

Step 5 Click Start to Test.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.
Step 6 Click OK.
Step 7 Release the inloop set in Step 1.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

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7 System Commissioning

Click Close.

Step 8 Repeat Step 1 through Step 7 to test all other E1 ports.


----End

7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services


When a microwave network transmits Ethernet services, you need to test the connectivity of
Ethernet services. Ethernet services can be tested using the ETH OAM function. Therefore, no
tester is required.

7.3.1 Testing Ethernet Services Configured on a Per-NE Basis


To test Ethernet services configured on a per-NE basis, you need to manually create ETH-OAM
instances.

Prerequisites
Ethernet services must be configured.
NOTE

l It is recommended that you test low-priority Ethernet services in good weather conditions when the AM
function works in the highest-efficiency modulation mode.
l The tested Ethernet services can be Native Ethernet services, EoS/EoPDHservices, or Ethernet services
carried by PWs.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Test Connection Diagram


The following test procedure considers the Ethernet service from PORT2 on NE2 and PORT3
on NE3 to PORT1 on NE1 as an example, as shown in Figure 7-2.The three Ethernet ports are
not on the EMS6/EFP8 boards.
Figure 7-2 Networking diagram for testing Ethernet services
PORT 2
NodeB 1

VLAN ID=100

PORT 3
NodeB 2

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NE 2

VLAN ID=200

NE 1

NE 3

PORT 1

RNC
Microwave network

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The VLAN ID of the Ethernet service from NE2 to NE1 is 100, and the VLAN ID of the Ethernet
service from NE3 to NE1 is 200.
NOTE

If the Ethernet ports are on the EMS6/EFP8 boards, you can still perform the following steps to test the
Ethernet services by eliminating the need to set up the remote maintenance end point. In addition, the
operations on the NMS are different. For details, see 9.1 Creating MDs, 9.2 Creating MAs, 9.3 Creating
MPs, and 9.4 Performing an LB Test.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure the maintenance domains of NE1, NE2, and NE3.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Ethernet
OAM Management > Ethernet Service OAM Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Choose New > New Maintenance Domain.


The New Maintenance Domain dialog box is displayed.

3.

Configure the parameters of the new maintenance domains.


Parameter

Value
NE1

NE2

NE3

Maintenance
Domain Name

MD1

MD1

MD1

Maintenance
Domain Level

NOTE

The maintenance Maintenance Domain Name and the Maintenance Domain Level of the NEs
must be the same.

4.

Click OKto close the displayed dialog box.

Step 2 Configure the maintenance associations of NE1, NE2, and NE3.


1.

Select the maintenance domain in which a maintenance association needs to be created.


Choose New > New Maintenance Association.
The New Maintenance Association dialog box is displayed.

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Configure the parameters of the new maintenance associations.


Parameter

Value
NE1

NE2

NE3

From NE1 to
NE2

From NE1 to
NE3

From NE2 to
NE1

From NE3 to
NE1

Maintenance
Association
Name

MA1

MA2

MA1

MA2

Relevant
Service

1-E-line1

1-E-line2

1-E-line1

1-E-line2

NOTE

Click
in Relevant Service, and select associated services in the New Maintenance
Association dialog box.

3.

Click OKto close the displayed dialog box.

Step 3 Configure the MEPs of NE1, NE2, and NE3.


1.

Click the Maintenance Association tab.

2.

Select the maintenance association in which an MEP needs to be created. Choose New >
New MEP Point.
The system displays the New MEP Point dialog box.

3.
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Configure the parameters of the new MEPs.


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Parameter

4.

7 System Commissioning

Value
NE1(MA1)

NE1(MA2)

NE2(MA1)

NE3(MA2)

MP ID

101

101

102

103

Direction

Ingress

Ingress

Ingress

Ingress

CC Status

Active

Active

Active

Active

Click OKto close the displayed dialog box.

Step 4 Configure the remote MEPs for the maintenance associations of NE1, NE2, and NE3.
1.

Click the Maintenance Association tab.

2.

Choose OAM > Manage Remote MEP Point. The Manage Remote MEP Point dialog
box is displayed.

3.

Click New.
Then, the Add Maintenance Association Remote Maintenance Point dialog box is
displayed.

4.

Set the parameters of the new remote MEPs.


Parameter

Remote
Maintenance
Point ID

Value
NE1 (MA1)

NE1 (MA2)

NE2 (MA1)

NE3 (MA2)

102

103

101

101

NOTE

Set the Remote Maintenance Point ID of NE1 to the MP ID of NE2 and NE3, and set the Remote
Maintenance Point ID of NE2 and NE3 to the MP ID of NE1.

5.

Click OKto close the displayed dialog box.

Step 5 Test the availability of the Ethernet services from NE1 to NE2 and NE3.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of the NE1, and then choose
Configuration > Ethernet OAM Management > Ethernet Service OAM.

2.

Select the MD, MA, and MEP that correspond to Port 1, click OAM.

3.

Select Start LB.


The LB Test window is displayed.

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Select Destination Maintenance Point ID, and set the parameters in Test Node.
Parameter

Value

Maintenance Association Name

MA1

Source Maintenance Point ID

101 (maintenance point ID of NE1)

Destination Maintenance Point ID

102 (maintenance point ID of NE2)

Transmitted Packet Count

20 (recommended)

Transmitted Packet Length

64 (64 is a recommended value, and the


parameter can also be set to 128, 256, 512,
1024, and 1280 for testing the Ethernet
services of different packet lengths.)
NOTE
The maximum Packet Length is 1400.

Transmitted Packet Priority

5.

Click Start Test.

6.

Check Detection Result.

7 (recommended)

The LossRate in the Detection Result should be 0.

7.

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Repeat Step 5.4 to Step 5.6 to test the Ethernet services from NE1 to NE3.
Parameter

Value

Maintenance Association Name

MA2

Source Maintenance Point ID

101 (maintenance point ID of NE1)

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Parameter

Value

Destination Maintenance Point ID

103 (maintenance point ID of NE3)

Transmitted Packet Count

20 (recommended)

Transmitted Packet Length

64 (64 is a recommended value, and the


parameter can also be set to 128, 256, 512,
1024, and 1280 for testing the Ethernet
services of different packet lengths.)
NOTE
The maximum Packet Length is 1400.

Transmitted Packet Priority

7 (recommended)

The LossRate in the Detection Result should be 0.


----End

7.3.2 Testing Ethernet Services Configured in an End-to-End


Manner
This section describes how to use Ethernet OAM to test the Ethernet services configured in an
end-to-end manner.

Prerequisites
Ethernet services have been configured in an end-to-end manner.
NOTE

l For low-priority Ethernet services, it is recommended that you perform the test when weather condition is
favorable and the radio link works in the highest-order modulation scheme.
l The Ethernet services to be tested must be Native Ethernet services or Ethernet services carried by PWs.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

The Web LCT does not support this operation.

Connection Diagram for the Test


Ethernet services shown in Figure 7-3 are used as an example in the following test procedure.
An end-to-end E-LAN service can be configured to converge services from port 2 of NE2 and
port 3 of NE3 to port 1 of NE1. The Ethernet service between NE1 and NE2 has the VLAN ID
100. The Ethernet service between NE1 and NE3 has the VLAN ID 200. PORT1, PORT2, and
PORT3 are not on EMS6/EFP8 boards.

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Figure 7-3 Test connection diagram


PORT 2
NodeB 1

VLAN ID=100

PORT 3
NodeB 2

NE 2
NE 1

PORT 1

NE 3

VLAN ID=200

RNC
Microwave network

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Service > Native Ethernet Service > Manage Native Ethernet Service from the Main
Menu.
Step 2 In the Set Filter Criteria dialog box, set filter criteria and click Filter.
The Native Ethernet services that meet the criteria are listed in the query result.

NOTE

If no filter criteria is required, click Filter.

Step 3 Right-click the Ethernet service to be tested. Choose Ethernet OAM > LB Test from the
shortcut menu.

NOTE

l An LB test is used to check bidirectional connectivity. For a bidirectional service, it is recommended


that you start the test on either end of the service link.
l If a link to be tested carries Ethernet services with different VLANs, the U2000 tests only one service.
l Do not perform multiple LB tests on one NE simultaneously.

Step 4 Optional: If Ethernet OAM is not configured on the Ethernet services, the Prompt dialog box
is displayed.
1.

Click Add.

2.

Configure the source port and sink port. For the service between NE1 and NE2, set the
Ethernet OAM parameters for as follows:

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3.

Repeat Step 4.1 to Step 4.2 to configure Ethernet OAM for the service between NE1 and
NE3.

4.

Click OK.
NOTE

If the Ethernet services to be tested are E-Line services and Ethernet OAM is not configured, the following
dialog box is displayed. Click Yes. The system will automatically configure Ethernet OAM.

Step 5 On the LB Test dialog box, select the link between NE1 and NE2.

Step 6 Optional: Right-click the link between and choose Config LB Parameter from the shortcut
menu. Set Sent Packets, Sent Packets Length, and Sent Packets Priority. Then, click OK.

l Sent Packets: 20 (recommended)


l Sent Packets Length: 64 (recommended, and the parameter can be set to 64, 128, 256, 512,
1024, or 1280 for testing the availability of Ethernet services of different packet lengths.)
NOTE

The maximum packet length is 1400.

l Sent Packets Priority: 7 (recommended)


Step 7 Click Run.
Step 8 Click the LB Testing Information and LB Statistics Information tabs, and determine whether
the service is available based on the displayed information.
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Normally, Test Results indicates Test Succeeded.

Step 9 Repeat Step 5 to Step 8 to test the Ethernet services between NE1 and NE3.
----End

7.4 Testing ATM Services


By testing ATM services, you can check whether ATM services are available over radio links.
The ATM services can be tested using the ATM OAM function. Therefore, no tester is required.

Prerequisites
l

End-to-end ATM services must be configured.

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information
When an LB test is performed on the ATM service, the segment and end attribute is set to specify
the types of transmitted ATM OAM cells.
l

When Segment End Attribute is set to Segment point, segment LB cells are transmitted.

When Segment End Attribute is set to Endpoint, end-to-end LB cells are transmitted.

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Test Connection Diagram


This example shows how to test the ATM service over a radio link hop. The method for testing
the ATM services over multiple radio link hops is the same. Figure 7-4 shows the test connection
diagram. NE A and NE B are the OptiX RTN 950.
The services of the boards on the NE1 and NE2 are configured as follows:
Attribute
UNI

NNI

NE A

NE B

Service source

3-MD1-1 (Trunk-1)

3-MD1-1 (Trunk-1)

Bound port

3-MD1-1 (Port-1)

3-MD1-1 (Port-1)

3-MD1-2 (Port-2)

3-MD1-2 (Port-2)

VPI

101

VCI

51

501

PW ID

Service source

Bound port

VPI

101

101

VCI

501

501

Figure 7-4 Connection diagram for testing the connectivity of the ATM service
UNI
VPI
1

NodeB

VCI
51

NNI
VPI
101

NE A

NNI
VCI
501

VPI
101

VCI
501

UNI
VPI
101

NE B

VCI
501

RNC

Procedure
Step 1 Set the segment and end attributes of the ATM services on the NE A and NE B.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select an NE and then choose Configuration > ATM OAM
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Segment and End Attribute tab, and choose the ATM service to be tested.

3.

As for NE A and NE B, set Segment and End Attribute to Segment point.

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4.

As for NE A and NE B, set Connection Direction to Sink.

5.

Click Apply.

7 System Commissioning

Step 2 Set the identifier at the loopback point from NE A to NE B.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select an NE and then choose Configuration > ATM OAM
Management from the Function Tree. Click the LLID tab.

2.

Set Country Code, Network Code, and NE Code.


Set the parameters of NE A as follows:
l Set Country Code to 00 86.
l Set Network Code to 00 16.
l Set NE Code to 00 09 78 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00.
Set the parameters of NE B as follows:
l Set Country Code to 00 86.
l Set Network Code to 00 16.
l Set NE Code to 00 09 78 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00.
NOTE

If the default LLID is unique on a network, the default LLID can also be used.

3.

Click Apply.

4.

Click Close.

Step 3 Test the ATM service from NE A to NE B.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A and then choose Configuration > ATM OAM
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Remote Loopback Test tab, and choose the ATM service to be tested.

3.

Set Loopback Point NE of the ATM service to be tested to NE B.

4.

Click Test to start an LB test.

5.

In normal situations, Test Result should be Test succeeded.


If the test is not successful, see Maintenance Guide and rectify the fault based on the test
result.

Step 4 Test the ATM service from NE B to NE A.


1.

With reference of Step 1, set Connection Direction of NE A to Sink; set Connection


Direction of NE B to Source.

2.

Select NE B from the NE Explorer. Then, choose Configuration > ATM OAM
Management from the Function Tree.

3.

Click the Remote Loopback Test tab, and choose the ATM service to be tested.

4.

Set Loopback Point NE of the ATM service to be tested to NE B.

5.

Click Test to start an LB test.

6.

In normal situations, Test Result should be Test succeeded.


If the test is not successful, see Maintenance Guide and rectify the fault based on the test
result.

----End
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7.5 Testing AM Shifts


When the AM function is enabled for some radio links on a microwave network, you can test
the AM function on typical radio links to check whether AM shifts are functional.

7.5.1 Testing AM Shifts on IFU2/IFX2 Boards


Since the IFU2/IFX2 does not support manual AM shifts, you can trigger AM shifts on the
IFU2/IFX2 only by changing the modulation mode.

Prerequisites
l

The antennas have been aligned.

The radio links must be the Integrated IP radio links for which the AM function is enabled.

The weather is favorable.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Configure the Hybrid/AM attribute on the local NE.
1.

Select the IF board from the NE Explorer, and then choose Configuration > IF
Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the IF Attributes tab.

3.

On the local NE, set the AM attribute to Disable, and set Manually Modulation Mode to
the same value as Modulation Mode of the Guarantee AM Capacity.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 2 Query the 15-minute performance value of the IF board on the local NE.
1.

Select the desired IF board from the Object Tree in NE Explorer.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Performance > Current Performance.

3.

In Monitored Object Filter Criteria, select All.

4.

Set Monitor Period to 15-Minute.

5.

In Count, select FEC Performance. In Display Options, select Display Zero Data and
Display Continuous Severely Errored Seconds.

6.

Click Query.
In performance events, the value of FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT should be 0. If the
value is not 0, choose Reset on the performance register to clear the existing performance
values.

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Step 3 Query the AM working status on the local NE.


1.

Select the IF board from the NE Explorer, and then choose Configuration > IF
Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the IF Attributes tab.

3.

Click Query.

Transmit-End Modulation Mode should be Manually Modulation Mode of a pre-set


value.
Step 4 Reset the performance event register.
1.

Select the desired IF board from the Object Tree in NE Explorer.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Performance > Current Performance.

3.

Click Reset.
The confirmation dialog box is displayed.

4.

Click Yes.

5.

Click Close.

Step 5 Configure the Hybrid/AM attribute to the planned values on the local NE.
1.

Select the IF board from the NE Explorer, and then choose Configuration > IF
Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the IF Attributes tab.

3.

On the local NE, set the AM attribute to Enable, and set Modulation Mode of the
Guarantee AM Capacity and Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity to the planned
values.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 6 Repeat Step 2. Wait for a period, and query the 15-minute performance value of the IF board
on the local NE.
In performance events, the value of FEC_UNCOR_BLOCK_CNT should be 0.
Step 7 Query the AM working status on the local NE.
1.

Select the IF board from the NE Explorer, and then choose Configuration > IF
Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the IF Attributes tab.

3.

Click Query.

Transmit-End Modulation mode should be Modulation Mode of the Full AM


Capacity of a preset value.
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NOTE

When adverse weather prevails, the current modulation mode may be lower than the value of
Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity.

----End

7.5.2 Testing AM Shifts on the ISU2/ISX2/ISV3


For the ISU2/ISX2/ISV3, you can trigger AM shifts by simulating corresponding MSE values.

Prerequisites
l

Antenna alignment is complete.

The AM function is enabled for the tested radio link.

The weather is favorable.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT
NOTE

The U2000 does not support this operation.

Procedure
Step 1 Set the AM attributes.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link
Configuration tab.Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer.
ChooseConfiguration > Radio Link Configuration.

2.

Record Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity and Modulation Mode of


the Full AM Capacity in IF.

Step 2 Test one-click AM shifts.


1.

Select an NE in the NE Explorer, and choose Diagnosis & Maintenance > One-Touch
Test from the Function Tree.

2.

In Optional Acceptance Items, select AM switching test.

3.

Select the board to be tested and the AM guaranteed-capacity modulation mode.

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7 System Commissioning

Click Start.
In Result, the step-by-step downshifting processes of Transmit-End Modulation Mode
and Receive-End Modulation Mode are displayed.

5.

After Transmit-End Modulation Mode and Receive-End Modulation Mode have


shifted to the guaranteed-capacity modulation mode, click Stop.
The system outputs an AM shift test report. The report shows that the value of
FEC_BEF_COR_ER is 0, indicating that AM shifs are successful.

----End

7.6 Testing Protection Switching


By testing protection switching, you can determine whether the protection switching is normal
over radio links.

7.6.1 Testing IF 1+1 Protection Switching


You can verify the IF 1+1 protection switching function by checking the slot of the working
board in an IF 1+1 protection group before and after the switching.
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Prerequisites
l

The antennas have been aligned.

The equipment is configured with IF 1+1 protection.

E1 services are configured.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


Web LCT
NOTE

The U2000 does not support this operation.

Test Connection Diagram


Figure 7-5 Connection diagram for testing IF 1+1 protection switching
NE A and NE B are configured as follows:
l

Main IF board: ISV3 in slot 3

Standby IF board: ISV3 in slot 5

Main ODU: ODU in slot 23

Standby ODU: ODU in slot 25

NE A

NE B

The following procedure uses the 1+1 HSB-protected E1 services between NE A and NE B in
Figure 7-5 as an example.
NOTE

l If Working Mode of the IF 1+1 protection group is HSB, set TX Status to Mute for the main ODU
connected to NE A and set Enable Reverse Switching to Enable. A switchover occurs on NE A. If the
planned value of Enable Reverse Switching is Disable, set Enable Reverse Switching to Disable after
the test is complete.
l If Working Mode of the IF 1+1 protection group is SD, set TX Status to Mute for the ODU on the main
channel of NE A, and set Enable Reverse Switching to Enable. A switchover occurs on NE A.
l If Working Mode of the IF 1+1 protection group is FD, set TX Status to Mute for the ODU on the main
channel of NE B. A switchover occurs on NE A.

Procedure
Step 1 Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Diagnosis & Maintenance >
One-Touch Test from the Function Tree.
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Step 2 In Optional Acceptance Items, select HSB switching test.

Step 3 Select the desired protection group from Available Protection Groups.

Step 4 Click Start.


After the test is complete, an HSB switching test report is displayed.

----End

7.6.2 Testing N+1 Protection Switching


You can verify whether the IF N+1 protection function works normally by checking the working
board of the IF N+1 protection group before and after the switching.

Prerequisites
l

The antennas have been aligned.

The equipment must be configured with the N+1 protection.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

BER tester

Test Connection Diagram


Figure 7-6 Configuration for testing N+1 protection switching
NE A and NE B are configured as follows:
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Main IF boards: ISV3 in slot 3and ISV3 in slot 5

Standby IF board: ISV3 in slot 4

Main ODUs: ODU in slot 23and ODU in slot 25

Standby ODU: ODU in slot 24

NE A

NE B

As shown in Figure 7-6, the following procedures consider the E1 services between NE A and
NE B that are configured with the N+1 (N=2) configuration as an example.

Precautions
NOTE

If no BER tester is available on site, you can compare the values of Switching Status in Slot Mapping
Relation before and after the protection switching.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether a BER tester is available at the central site.
If...

Then...

A BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 2 to Step 10.

No BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 5 to Step 9.

Step 2 At the central site NE A, connect one E1 port to the BER tester.
Step 3 At the remote site NE B, perform a software inloop at the E1 port by using the NMS.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.
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Step 4 Test the BER by using the BER tester.


The BER tester should show that no bit error occurs.
Step 5 Before the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE B.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE B, and then choose
Configuration > N+1 protection from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. elect the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE B, and then choose Configuration >
Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
2. Click the N+1 Protection tab.

2.

Select the ID of the protection group to be queried, and then click Query Switch Status.

3.

In Slot Mapping Settings, Switching Status of the working units 3-ISV3-1 and 5ISV3-1 and the protection unit 4-ISV3-1 should be Normal.

NOTE

If a fault arises, you must rectify the fault and then proceed with the N+1 protection testing.

Step 6 Set TX Status to Mute for the main ODU 23-ODU of NE A.


1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to mute.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 7 Check service availability after the switching.


If...

Then...

A BER tester is available on site

Check the test result on the BER tester. It


should show that the services are restored after
a transient interruption.

No BER tester is available on site, and the


E1 services are transmitted on the radio
link.

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS


to test availability of the E1 services.

No BER tester is available on site, and the


Ethernet services are transmitted on the
radio link.

See 7.3.1 Testing Ethernet Services


Configured on a Per-NE Basis to test
availability of the Ethernet service.

Step 8 After the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE B.
1.

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Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE B, and then choose
Configuration > N+1 protection from the Function Tree.
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NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE B, and then choose Configuration >
Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
2. Click the N+1 Protection tab.

2.

Select the ID of the protection group to be queried, and then click Query Switch Status.

3.

In Slot Mapping Relation, the Switching Status of the working unit 3-ISV3-1 for the
service that is configured with the N+1 protection should be SF.

Step 9 Set TX Status to Unmute for the main ODU 23-ODU of NE A.


1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to unmute.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 10 Release the loopback set in Step 3.


1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

----End

7.6.3 Testing SNCP Switching


You can verify whether SNCP works normally by checking the working port of the SNCP
protection group before and after the switching.

Prerequisites
l
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The antennas have been aligned.


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The equipment is configured with the SNCP.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

BER tester

Test Connection Diagram


As shown in Figure 7-7, the following procedures consider the E1 services between NE A and
NE C that are configured with SNCP as an example. Figure 7-7 shows a network composed of
radio links, and the test procedures are similar in the case of a network composed of optical fiber
links.
Figure 7-7 Configuration for testing SNCP switching
NE A and NE C are configured as follows:
l

West IF board: ISV3 in slot 3

East IF board: ISV3 in slot 4

West ODU: ODU in slot 23

East ODU: ODU in slot 24


NE A

Working
SNC

West

East

Protecting SNC

East

West

NE D

NE B

West

East

East

West

NE C

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Precautions
NOTE

If no BER tester is available on site, you can compare the values of Active Channel in Working Service before
an d after the protection switching.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether a BER tester is available at the central site.
If...

Then...

A BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 2 through Step 10.

No BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 5 through Step 9.

Step 2 At the central site NE A, connect one E1 port to the BER tester.
Step 3 At the remote site NE C, perform a software inloop at the E1 port by using the NMS.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

Step 4 Test the BER by using the BER tester.


The BER tester should show that no bit errors occur.
Step 5 Before the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE C.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE C, and choose
Configuration > SNCP Service Control from the Function Tree.

2.

In Working Service, select an SNCP service that is already created, then click Function,
and finally select Query Switching Status.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


In Working Coross-Connections, select an SNCP service that is already created, then click Function,
and finally select Query Switching Status.

3.

The current SNCP status of the equipment is displayed in Working Service and Protection
Service.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


The current SNCP status of the equipment is displayed in Working Coross-Connections and Protection
Coross-Connections.

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In Current Status, Normal should be displayed. In Active Channel, Working


Channel should be displayed.

Step 6 Set TX Status to Mute for the west ODU 23-ODU of NE A.


1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to mute.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 7 Check service availability after the switching.


If...

Then...

A BER tester is available on site

Check the test result on the BER tester. It


should show that the services are restored after
a transient interruption.

No BER tester is available on site, and the


E1 services are transmitted on the radio
link.

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS


to test availability of the E1 services.

Step 8 After the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE C.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE C, and choose
Configuration > SNCP Service Control from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Function, and then select Query Switching Status.

3.

The current SNCP status of the equipment is displayed in Working Service and Protection
Service.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


The current SNCP status of the equipment is displayed in Working Coross-Connections and Protection
Coross-Connections.

In Current Status, the service switching mode is displayed. In Active Channel,


Protection Channel should be displayed.

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Step 9 Set TX Status to Unmute for the west ODU 23-ODU of NE A.


1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to unmute.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 10 Release the loopback set in Step 3.


1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

----End

7.6.4 Testing ERPS Switching


You can verify whether the ERPS function is in the normal state by checking the port status of
the ERPS protection group before and after the switching.

Prerequisites
l

The equipment is configured with ERPS.

The network cable for carrying the working and protection Ethernet services of ERPS is
properly connected.

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Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Test Connection Diagram


As shown in Figure 7-8, the following procedures use the Ethernet services that are configured
with ERPS between NE A and NE D as an example. The RPL owner node is NE D.
Figure 7-8 Configuration for testing ERPS
NE A, NE B, NE C, and NE D are configured as follows:
l

West IF board: ISV3 in slot 3

East IF board: ISV3 in slot 4

West ODU: ODU in slot 23

East ODU: ODU in slot 24

West

East

NE B
Protection channel
West

East

NE A

NE D

East
West

Working channel
West

NE C
East

NOTE

For a multi-ring network configured with ERPS V2, test ERPS on major rings and ERPS on sub-rings by referring
to this example. ERPS on a major ring affects only the status of the ports on the major ring, and ERPS on a subring affects only the status of the ports on the sub-ring.

Procedure
Step 1 Before the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE D.
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1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE D, and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Protection > ERPS Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the ERPS protection group to be queried, and click Query.

3.

The value of State Machine Status should be Idle.

Step 2 Refer to 7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services to test availability of the Ethernet
services.
The LossRate in the Detection Result should be 0.
Step 3 Set TX Status to Mute for the west ODU 23-ODU of NE A.
1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to mute.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 4 After the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE D.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE D, and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Protection > ERPS Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the ERPS protection group to be queried, and click Query.

3.

The value of State Machine Status should be Protection.

Step 5 Refer to 7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services to test availability of the Ethernet
services.
The LossRate in the Detection Result should be 0.
Step 6 Set TX Status to Unmute for the west ODU 23-ODU of NE A.
1.

Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration >
Radio Link Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select the desired NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, set TX Status of the ODU to unmute.

3.

Click Apply.

----End
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7.6.5 Testing MPLS APS Protection Switching


By checking the change in the status of MPLS tunnels before and after the MPLS APS switching,
you can verify whether the MPLS APS protection function is normal.

Prerequisites
l

The MPLS tunnel protection group must be created properly.

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information
1:1 protection
In normal situations, services are transmitted in the working tunnel. That is, services are
transmitted and received in a different tunnel respectively. When the working tunnel is faulty,
the equipment at the transmit end transmits services through the protection tunnel, and the
equipment at the receive end receive services through the protection tunnel after a negotiation
through the APS protocol. Therefore, service switching is realized.

Test Connection Diagram


Figure 7-9 shows the connection diagram for testing MPLS APS protection switching. NE A
and NE B are the OptiX RTN 950 NEs.
Figure 7-9 Connection diagram for testing the MPLS APS protection
Working Tunnel
NE A

NE B

Protection Tunnel

Procedure
Step 1 Query the switching status of the current MPLS tunnel 1:1 protection group on NE A and NE
B.
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1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A and then choose Configuration > APS Protection
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Tunnel APS Management tab, right-click the tested protection group, and then
choose Query Switching Status from the shortcut menu, to check the MPLS protection
group configured on the NE.

3.

Choose the protection group for switching, and check its switching status. In normal
situations, the switching status should be Normal, and Tunnel Status for both the working
and protection tunnels should be Available.

NOTE

If Tunnel Status for the working or protection tunnel is not Available, rectify tunnel-related faults.

Step 2 Switch the services to the protection tunnel manually and forcedly.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A and then choose Configuration > APS Protection
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Tunnel APS Management tab and choose the protection group for switching.

3.

Right-click the tested protection group, and then choose Forced Switching from the
shortcut menu.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

4.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

5.
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Step 3 Query the switching status of the MPLS 1:1 protection groups on NE A and NE B after the
switching.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A and then choose Configuration > APS Protection
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Tunnel APS Management tab and choose the protection group for switching.

3.

Right-click the tested protection group and then choose Query Switching Status from the
shortcut menu, to check Switching Status of the tunnel protection group.
In normal situations, the switching status should be Forced Switching.

4.

Query Active Tunnel of the tunnel protection group.


In normal situation, Working should be Standby, and Protection should be Active.

NOTE

l If Forced Switching is performed at the previous step, the state of the protection group should be
Forced Switching.
l If Manual Switching to Protection is performed at the previous step, the state of the protection group
should be Manual (Working to Protection) Switching.

Step 4 Restore the services on NE A and NE B to the working tunnel.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A and then choose Configuration > APS Protection
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Tunnel APS Management tab and choose the protection group for switching.

3.

Right-click the tested protection group and then choose Clear from the shortcut menu.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

4.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

5.

Click Close.

6.

Click Query.
Services is restored to the working tunnel.

----End

7.6.6 Testing Linear MSP Switching


You can verify whether the linear MSP group works normally by checking the working port of
the linear MSP group before and after the switching.
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Prerequisites
l

The equipment must be configured with linear MSP.

The working and protection optical fibers of the linear MSP are connected properly.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

BER tester

Test Connection Diagram


Figure 7-10 shows linear MSP composed of the OptiX RTN equipment through the connection
of optical fibers. The following procedures consider the E1 services from NE A to NE B as an
example.
Figure 7-10 Configuration for testing linear MSP switching
NE A

Working channel

NE B

Protection channel

Precautions
NOTE

l If no BER tester is available on site, you can compare the values of West Switching Status in Slot Mapping
Relation before and after the protection switching.
l The methods of testing linear MSP switching for channelized STM-1s are similar, except that the navigation
path is Configuration > Packet-based linear MS.

Procedure
Step 1 Check whether a BER tester is available at the central site.
If...

Then...

A BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 2 to Step 10.

No BER tester is available on site

Perform Step 5 to Step 9.

Step 2 At the central site NE A, connect one E1 port to the BER tester.
Step 3 At the remote site NE B, perform a software inloop at the corresponding E1 port by using the
NMS.
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1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

Step 4 Test the BER by using the BER tester. The BER tester should show that no bit errors occur.
If bit errors occur, see the Maintenance Guide for handling the bit errors.
Step 5 Before the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE A.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE A, and then choose
Configuration > Linear MS from the Function Tree.

2.

In Slot Mapping Relation, select Working Unit.

3.

Click Query, and then select Query Switching Status.


In Slot Mapping Relation, the value of West Switching Status should be Idle.

NOTE

In the case of the working and protection units of the services that are configured with the linear MSP, the
values of West Switching Status should be Idle. If a fault arises, you must rectify the fault and proceed
with the linear MSP switching testing.

Step 6 Shut down the laser for the working unit on NE A.


1.

Select the required optical interface board from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE
A.

2.

Choose Configuration > SDH Interface from the Function Tree.

3.

Select By Function and then select Laser Switch from the drop-down list.

4.

Select the laser port that corresponds to the working unit, and then set Laser Switch to
Close.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.
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Step 7 Check service availability after the switching.


If...

Then...

The BER tester is available on site

Check the test result on the BER tester. It


should show that the services are restored after
a transient interruption.

No BER tester is available on site, and the


E1 services are transmitted on the optical
fiber link.

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS


to test availability of the E1 services.

Step 8 After the switching, query the status of the protection group that is configured on NE A.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE A, and then choose
Configuration > Linear MS from the Function Tree.

2.

In Slot Mapping Relation, select Working Unit.

3.

Click Query, and then select Query Switching Status.


In Slot Mapping Relation, the value of West Switching Status should be Switch upon
signal failure.

NOTE

In the case of the 1+1 linear MSP, Revertive Mode can be set to Revertive or Non-Revertive. In the case
of the 1:N linear MSP, Revertive Mode is always set to Revertive.
l After the automatic switching occurs on the equipment, the services are restored. If Revertive
Mode is set to Revertive for the linear MSP, the change in values of West Switching Status and
Protected Unit can be queried after the WTR time expires.
l After the automatic switching occurs on the equipment, the services are restored. If Revertive
Mode is set to Non-Revertive for the linear MSP, stop and then start the MSP protocol to restore the
value of West Switching Status to Idle.

Step 9 Turn on the laser for the working unit on NE A.


1.

Select the required optical interface board from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer of NE
A.

2.

Choose Configuration > SDH Interface from the Function Tree.

3.

Select By Function and then select Laser Switch from the drop-down list.

4.

Select the laser port that corresponds to the working unit, and then set Laser Switch to
Open.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.
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Step 10 Release the loopback set in Step 3.


1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

----End

7.6.7 Testing Switching of the Integrated System Control and


Communication, Switching, and Timing Board
By checking the change in the current working board before and after the switching of the
integrated system control and communication, switching, and timing board, you can verify
whether the 1+1 hot backup for the integrated system control and communication, switching,
and timing board is normal.

Prerequisites
l

The equipment must be powered on.

The services must be configured.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

BER tester

Procedure
Step 1 Check the alarm status of the main and standby integrated system control and communication,
switching, and timing boards before switching.
1.

Select the NE On the Main Topology and right-click. In the shortcut menu, choose the
Browse Current Alarms.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree, and then click the

icon on the toolbar.

2. Click the Browse Current Alarms tab.

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Record current alarms.

Both the main and standby system control, switching, and timing boards should have no
equipment alarms.
NOTE

If the integrated system control and communication, switching, and timing board has an abnormal alarm,
see the Maintenance Guide to rectify the alarm.

Step 2 Test availability of various services before switching.


If...

Then...

The E1 service is configured

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS to test


availability of the E1 service.

The Ethernet service is configured See 7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services to
test ethernet service availability.
The ATM service is configured

See 7.4 Testing ATM Services to test availability of


the ATM service.

Step 3 Check the working status of the main and standby integrated system control and communication,
switching, and timing boards before switching.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and then choose Configuration >
Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Query.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Click the Board 1+1 Protection tab, and then click Query.

In normal situations, displayed Active Board is the working board 7CSH.

Step 4 Switch the active/standby status of the integrated system control and communication, switching,
and timing board.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and then choose Configuration >
Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Working/Protection Switching.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.

3.

Click OK.
NOTE

After switching, the NE get online after a few minutes.

Step 5 Check the working status of the main and standby integrated system control and communication,
switching, and timing boards after switching.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and then choose Configuration >
Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Query.

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NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Click the Board 1+1 Protection tab, and then click Query.

In normal situations, displayed Active Board is the protection board 8CSH.

Step 6 After the switching, check the alarm status of the main and standby system control, switching,
and timing boards.
1.

In Main Topology, right-click the desired and choose Browse Current Alarms from the
short-cut menu.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE from the Object Tree and click

on the toolbar.

2. Click the Browse Current Alarms tab.

2.

Record current alarms.

Both the main and standby system control, switching, and timing boards should have no new
alarms.
NOTE

If the main or standby system control, switching, and timing board has abnormal alarms. Follow instruction
in the Maintenance Guide to handle the alarms.

Step 7 Test the availabilities of various services after switching.


If...

Then...

The E1 service is configured

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS to test the


availability of the E1 service.

The Ethernet service is configured See 7.3 Testing Connectivity of Ethernet Services to
test ethernet service availability.
The ATM service is configured

See 7.4 Testing ATM Services to test the availability


of the ATM service.

Step 8 Restore the active/standby switching performed in Step 4.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and then choose Configuration >
Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Restore Working/Protection.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed.

3.

Click Yes.

Step 9 Check the working status of the main and standby integrated system control and communication,
switching, and timing boards after switching restoration.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the NE from the Object Tree and then choose Configuration >
Board 1+1 Protection from the Function Tree.

2.

Click Query.

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NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Click the Board 1+1 Protection tab, and then click Query.

In normal situations, displayed Active Board is the working board 7CSH.

Step 10 Test the availabilities of various services after switching restoration.


If...

Then...

The E1 service is configured

See 7.2.2 Testing E1 Services Using PRBS to test the


availability of the E1 service.

The Ethernet service is configured See 7.3.1 Testing Ethernet Services Configured on a
Per-NE Basis to test the availability of the Ethernet
service.
The ATM service is configured

See 7.4 Testing ATM Services to test the availability


of the ATM service.

----End

7.7 Checking the Clock Status


Check the clock status for each NE to ensure that the clocks of all the NEs on a radio network
are synchronized.

Prerequisites
The clock configuration is complete. The link that transmits clocks is in the normal state.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Procedure
Step 1 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Clock >
Physical Clock > Clock Synchronization Status from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click Query.

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NOTE

l If the clock of an NE is selected as the working clock of the radio network, this clock should be in
Free-Run Mode and the clocks of the other NEs should be in Tracing Mode.
l If a service clock or an external clock is selected as the working clock of the radio network, the clocks
of all the NEs should be in Tracing Mode.

Step 3 Repeat Step 1 through Step 2 to check the working modes of the other NEs on the radio network.
----End

7.8 Testing the FM over a Radio Link


The fade margin (FM) over a radio link can be evaluated by measuring the mean square errors
(MSEs) at different received signal levels (RSLs).

Prerequisites
l

The weather is favorable.

The antennas must be aligned, and the RSLs at both ends of the radio link and the crosspolarization discrimination (XPD) must meet the requirements.

Background Information
The principle of the FM test is as follows:
l

Test the corresponding relations between RSLs and MSEs at multiple sites.

Calculate the RSL corresponding to the demodulation threshold of the MSE, that is, the
receiver sensitivity of the site.

The current RSL minus the receiver sensitivity is the FM.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

Precautions
1.

When the FM is tested, all the services carried on the radio link maybe interrupted.

2.

For a radio link with 1+1 protection, it is recommended that you lock the protection path
before testing the main radio link and that you switch the signal to the standby path forcedly
before you test the standby radio link. The main and standby radio paths are tested
synchronously. Therefore, the FMs of the working and protection boards are reported at
the same time.

3.

For an XPIC radio link, the paths in polarization direction V and polarization direction H
are tested synchronously. Therefore, the FMs of the working and protection boards are
reported at the same time.

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Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Lock the protection channel if the radio link between two sites is under 1+1 protection.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > IF 1
+1 Protection from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Link
Configuration from the Function Tree.
2. Click the IF 1+1 Protection tab.

2.

In Slot Mapping Relation, select the working unit or protection unit. Then, right-click the
selected unit.

3.

Choose Protection Lockout from the shortcut menu.

4.

In the displayed dialog box, click OK.

5.

Click OK again to close the dialog box.

Step 2 Disable the ATPC function on the radio link between two sites.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Radio
Link Configuration.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In RF, deselect ATPC.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 3 Optional: If E1 Priority is enabled for the E1 services between two sites, delete low-priority
E1 services.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > SDH
Service Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Cross-Connection
Configuration from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the services, and right-click Delete.


A confirmation dialog box is displayed to prompt you whether to delete the selected
services.

3.
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Click OK.
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Step 4 Disable the AM function and E1 priority function on the radio link between two sites.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Configuration > Radio
Link Configuration.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In IF, deselect AM, and set Modulation Mode to the Modulation Mode of the Full AM
Capacity.

NOTE

Deselect AM to disable the AM function for the radio link. After the AM function is disabled, the system
automatically disables the E1 priority function.

3.

Click Apply.

Step 5 Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Fade
Margin.
Step 6 Click the Fade Margin tab.
Step 7 Select the IF board corresponding to the radio link that needs to be tested.

The Result dialog box displays the query result.

Step 8 In Direction, select Remote To Local.

Step 9 Click Start.


The Result dialog box displays that the test is successful.

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Step 10 Repeat Step 8 and Step 9. In Direction, select Local To Remote.


The Result dialog box displays that the test is successful.
Step 11 Restore the ATPC function on the radio link between two sites.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. ChooseConfiguration > Radio
Link Configuration.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

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In RF, select ATPC.

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3.

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Click Apply.

Step 12 Restore the AM function and E1 priority on the radio link between two sites.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. ChooseConfiguration > Radio
Link Configuration.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Click the Radio Link Configuration tab.

2.

In IF, select AM, and set Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM Capacity and
Modulation Mode of the Full AM Capacity to their original values.

3.

In IF, set Enable E1 Priority to Enable and set Full E1 Capacity to its original value.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 13 Optional: Reconfigure the E1 services that were deleted in Step 3.


1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > SDH
Service Configuration from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Cross-Connection
Configuration from the Function Tree.

2.

Click New.
The Create SDH Service dialog box is displayed.

3.
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Reconfigure all deleted E1 services, and click OK.


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Step 14 Optional: Cancel the protection lockout for the 1+1 protection on the radio link.
1.

Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > IF 1
+1 Protection from the Function Tree.
NOTE

On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:


1. Select an NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer, and choose Configuration > Link
Configuration from the Function Tree.
2. Click the IF 1+1 Protection tab.

2.

In Slot Mapping Relation, select the working unit or protection unit. Then, right-click the
selected unit.

3.

Choose Clear from the shortcut menu.

4.

Click OK to close the displayed dialog box.

----End

7.9 Testing E1 Service Performance


You can check whether the equipment can transmit E1 services stably for a long term by testing
24-hour BER.

Prerequisites
l

The antennas must be aligned.

The E1 service must be configured.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


l

U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the similar to those on the U2000.

BER tester

E1 jumper

If 24-hour BER cannot be tested for each hop of link because of restrictions of the actual
situation, perform the test for the E1 services at the first node and the last node. Through
this method, you can ensure that the test path cover all the radio links.

The following test procedure uses the E1 services between NEs as an example.

Precautions

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NOTE

l It is recommended that you test low-priority Ethernet services in good weather conditions, where the AM
function works in the highest-efficiency modulation mode.
l The tested E1 services can be Native E1 services or CES E1 services.
l To test CES services in CESoPSN mode, a BER tester supporting Nx64 kbit/s timeslot setting is necessary.
l To test CES services in CESoPSN mode, test the E1 services one by one if the number of timeslots of the
services is different from each other. Do not test the services in a serial manner.
l Before a test, disable the automatic loopback release function on the optical/electrical ports at the remote
site by performing the following steps on the U2000:
1. Choose Configuration > NE Batch Configuration > Automatic Disabling of NE Function from the
Main Menu. The Automatic Disabling of NE Function window is displayed.
2. Select the required NEs in the Object Tree on the left side of the Automatic Disabling of NE
Function window. Then, click
selected NEs.

. The Automatic Disabling of NE Function window lists the

3. For SDH Optical/Electrical Interface Loopback, set Auto Disabling to Disabled.


4. Click Apply.
On the Web LCT, the steps for this operation are:
1. Select NEs in the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Then, choose Configuration > Automatic Disabling
of NE Function in the Function Tree.
2. Click the Automatic Disabling of NE Function tab.
3. For SDH Optical/Electrical Interface Loopback, set Auto Disabling to Disabled.
4. Click Apply.

Procedure
Step 1 At the central site, extract several typical E1 services on the equipment and then connect them
to the DDF in a serial manner. After that, input these services into the BER tester.
DDF
RX TX

RX

TX

.
..
.

1
2
3
4

BER tester

Step 2 On the equipment at the remote site, perform a software inloop at the E1 port by using the NMS.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Inloop.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

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Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

Step 3 Perform the 24-hour BER test by using the BER tester.
Step 4 Record the test result, which should meet the design requirements.
Step 5 Release the loopback and serial connection.
1.

Select the PDH interface board in the Object Tree.

2.

In the Function Tree, choose Configuration > PDH Interface.

3.

Select By Function and select Tributary Loopback from the drop-down menu.

4.

In Tributary Loopback, select Non-Loopback.

5.

Click Apply.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

6.

Click OK.
The Confirm dialog box is displayed.

7.

Click OK.
The Operation Result dialog box is displayed.

8.

Click Close.

----End

Follow-up Procedure
l

If the first 24-hour BER test does not meet the specified requirement, find out the cause
and rectify the fault. Perform another 24-hour BER test until the test is passed.

If the BER exceeds the nominal value in the test for a serial connection, locate the fault by
using the dichotomizing search or other methods until each channel passes the 24-hour
BER test independently.

7.10 Testing Ethernet Service Performance


The NE-inherent test functions can test Ethernet service performance.

7.10.1 Testing Latency, Throughput, and Packet Loss Ratio


This section describes how to test the latency, throughput, and packet loss ratio of VLAN-based
E-Line services with different frame lengths.

Prerequisites
l

Antenna alignment is complete.

The NEs at both ends of Ethernet services have been configured with VLAN-based E-Line
services, that is, PORT+CVLAN<->PORT+CVLAN E-Line services or PORT

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+CVLAN<->PW E-Line services. In addition, the types of the E-Line services at both ends
are the same.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information

NOTICE
l During the test, do not modify any configuration.
l The ports at the ends of the Ethernet service to be tested must be Ethernet ports. During the
test, the other Ethernet services on the related ports are interrupted.
l If the tested service is configured with QoS, OAM, LAG or any data transmission protocol,
the precision of test results may be affected. To ensure the precision of test results, it is
recommended you delete the above configurations.
l A test cannot be performed on a service port enabled with inband DCN. You need to manually
disable inband DCN.
l If the enabled source port of the tested service also transmits other services, the precision of
test results may be affected. To ensure the precision of test results, it is recommended you
disconnect the port from the other services.
l A maximum of seven microwave link hops can be tested at the same time.
l If the LM/DM test of Ethernet service OAM or MPLS-TP PW OAM cannot be performed
for a service, this latency, throughput, and packet loss ratio test cannot be performed for this
service, either. You need to rectify the OAM resource conflict.

Connection Diagram for the Test


The test procedure takes the Ethernet service between NE A (PORT1) and NE B (PORT2), as
shown in Figure 7-11, as an example. Ethernet services on NE A and NE B are VLAN-based
E-Line.
Figure 7-11 Test connection diagram

PORT 1
NodeB

NE A

NE B

VLAN ID=100

VLAN ID=100
Microwave network

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The Ethernet service between NE A and NE B has the VLAN ID of 100.

Procedure
Step 1 Optional: Disable inband DCN on the service ports to be tested.
1.

Select the NE from the Object Tree in the NE Explorer. Choose Communication > DCN
Management from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Port Settings tab.

3.

Select FE/GE, configure the port parameters for the inband DCN function.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 2 Modify the Tag attribute of the Ethernet service between NE A and NE B.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Layer 2 Attributes tab.

3.

Set Tag to Access. Set Default VLAN ID to the VLAN ID of the tested E-Line service.
In this example, set Default VLAN ID to 100.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 3 Set NE B as the sink node for the test.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE B from the Object Tree and choose


Diagnosis&Maintenance > Data Service Performance Test from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the Ethernet service to be tested, enter Test Name, and set Test As to Sink.

3.

In this example, port 2 is on the sink node and therefore Sink Status should be set to
Enabled.

NOTE

If port 2 is on the source node, Source Status should be set to Enabled.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 4 Set NE A as the source node for the test. Then start the test.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A from the Object Tree and choose


Diagnosis&Maintenance > Data Service Performance Test from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the Ethernet service to be tested, enter Test Name as that on NE B, set Test As to
Source.

3.

In this example, port 1 is on the source node and therefore Source Status should be set to
Enabled.

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NOTE

l If port 1 is on the sink node, Sink Status should be set to Enabled.


l A maximum of five Ethernet services can be tested one time. Therefore, Source Status and Sink
Status should be set to Disabled for the other Ethernet services.

4.

Click Apply.

5.

Click Start.
NOTE

The test can be started on only the source node (NE A).

A confirmation dialog box is displayed.


6.

Click OK.
The system starts the test and displays the test progress and test result.

NOTE

The system tests the following parameters:


l Throughput, Latency, Packet Loss Radio when Frame Length(Bytes) is 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024,
1280, and 1518
l Latency and Packet Loss Radio when Throughput Percentage(%) is 80, 90, and 100

7.

Optional: After the progress bar indicates that the test is 100% complete, click Export
Report.
Data Service Performance Test Report is displayed.
NOTE

l Compared with a tool-based test, this test may have an error rate in its results. When the service
bandwidth is lower than 70 Mbit/s, the packet loss rate has an error rate lower than 1%. When the
service bandwidth is 70 Mbit/s or higher, the packet loss rate has an error rate lower than 0.2%. If the
packet loss rate is higher than 0 and the error rate is lower than the threshold for the specific bandwidth,
perform more tests. If all tests encounter light packet loss and the packet loss rate of long-frame services
is higher than that of short-frame services, you can conclude that no service packets are lost.
l Compared with the throughput in practice, the throughput in test results of long-frame services has an
error rate lower than 5%.

Step 5 After the progress bar indicates that the test is 100% complete, set Source Status and Sink
Status to Disabled for the related ports (port 1 of NE A and port 2 of NE B in this example).
----End

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7.10.2 Testing the Long-term Packet Loss Ratio


This section describes how to test the long-term packet loss ratio when a VLAN-based E-Line
service uses different frame lengths.

Prerequisites
l

Antenna alignment is complete.

The Ethernet service to be tested must be an E-Line service between two NEs that adopt
traffic classification based on VLAN tags, or a PORT+VLAN<->PORT+VLAN E-Line
service.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000
NOTE

Web LCT also supports this operation and the steps are the same as those on the U2000.

Background Information

NOTICE
l During the test, do not modify any configuration.
l The ports at the ends of the Ethernet service to be tested must be Ethernet ports. During the
test, the other Ethernet services on the related ports are interrupted.
l If the tested service is configured with QoS, OAM, LAG, inband DCN or any data
transmission protocol, the precision of test results may be affected. To ensure the precision
of test results, it is recommended you delete the above configurations.
l If the enabled source port of the tested service also transmits other services, the precision of
test results may be affected. To ensure the precision of test results, it is recommended you
disconnect the port from the other services.

Connection Diagram for the Test


The test procedure takes the Ethernet service between NE A (PORT1) and NE B (PORT2), as
shown in Figure 7-12, as an example.
Figure 7-12 Test connection diagram

PORT 1
NodeB

NE A

NE B

VLAN ID=100

VLAN ID=100
Microwave network

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The Ethernet service between NE A and NE B has the VLAN ID of 100.

Procedure
Step 1 Modify the Tag attribute of the Ethernet service between NE A and NE B.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the desired NE from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Interface Management > Ethernet Interface from the Function Tree.

2.

Click the Layer 2 Attributes tab.

3.

Set Tag to Access. Set Default VLAN ID to the VLAN ID of the tested E-Line service.
In this example, set Default VLAN ID to 100.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 2 Set NE B as the sink node for the test.


1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE B from the Object Tree and choose


Diagnosis&Maintenance > Data Service Performance Test from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the Ethernet service to be tested, enter Test Name, and set Test As to Sink.

3.

In this example, port 2 is on the sink node and therefore Sink Status should be set to
Enabled.

NOTE

If port 2 is on the source node, Source Status should be set to Enabled.

4.

Click Apply.

Step 3 Set NE A as the source node for the test. Then start the test.
1.

In the NE Explorer, select NE A from the Object Tree and choose


Diagnosis&Maintenance > Data Service Performance Test from the Function Tree.

2.

Select the Ethernet service to be tested, enter Test Name as that on NE B, set Test As to
Source.

3.

In this example, port 1 is on the source node and therefore Source Status should be set to
Enabled.

NOTE

l If port 1 is on the sink node, Sink Status should be set to Enabled.


l A maximum of five Ethernet services can be tested one time. Therefore, Source Status and Sink
Status should be set to Disabled for the other Ethernet services.

4.

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Enabled.

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NOTE

l If port 1 is on the sink node, Sink Status should be set to Enabled.


l A maximum of five Ethernet services can be tested one time. Therefore, Source Status and Sink
Status should be set to Disabled for the other Ethernet services.

5.

Click the Long-term Packet Loss Radio tab.

6.

Set test parameters.

l Set Frame Length(Bytes) to 64.


l Set Throughput Percentage(%) to 80.
NOTE

To test the long-term packet loss ratio when the throughput percentage is 90%, set Throughput
Percentage(%) to 90. To test the long-term packet loss ratio at a specific traffic volume, configure a flow
whose C-VLAN ID is 100 in the port policy for PORT1, configure the specific CAR for the flow, and set
Throughput Percentage(%) to 100.

7.

Click Start Long-term Test.


The system starts the test and displays the test progress and test result.

NOTE

After the test time lasts for 24 hours (commonly used test time), click Stop Long-term Test and check
the test result.

8.

After the progress bar indicates that the test is 100% complete, click Export Report.
Data Service Performance Test Report is displayed.
NOTE

Tests may have an error rate in the results. When the number of received packets is different from the
number of transmitted packets and the error rate is within one millionth, you can conclude that no service
packets are lost.

Step 4 Repeat Step 3.6 to Step 3.8 to test the long-term packet loss ratio when Frame Length
(Bytes) is 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280, and 1518.
Step 5 After the progress bar indicates that the test is 100% complete, set Source Status and Sink
Status to Disabled for the related ports (port 1 of NE A and port 2 of NE B in this example).
----End

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8 Site Commissioning Data Script Generation Using the


Offline Configuration Function

Site Commissioning Data Script Generation


Using the Offline Configuration Function

About This Chapter


The offline configuration function provided by the U2000 generates site commissioning data
scripts when no real NE is available.
8.1 Process of Generating a Commissioning Data Script
This section describes how to generate a commissioning data script using the offline
configuration function provided by the U2000.

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Offline Configuration Function

8.1 Process of Generating a Commissioning Data Script


This section describes how to generate a commissioning data script using the offline
configuration function provided by the U2000.

8.1.1 Creating a Pre-configured NE


This section describes how to create a pre-configured NE, which is required for the offline
configuration of site commissioning data.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Right-click in a blank area of the Main Topology, and choose New > NE from the shortcut menu.

NOTE

If a pre-configured NE to be created has been planned in a subnet, create the NE in the subnet view.

Step 2 In the displayed Create NE dialog box, select the desired NE type and set basic NE attributes
according to the network plan.

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NOTE

l The default NE user name is root, and the default password is password.
l Select Yes for Configured Offline.
l Set NE Software Version according to the SCC board software version of the target NE. The offline
configuration function is available only when the NE software version is V100R005C01 or later.

Step 3 Click OK.


Confirm the operation in each displayed confirmation dialog box.
Step 4 Specify the position of the NE in the Main Topology.

Step 5 Double-click the created NE. Click Next in the displayed NE Configuration Wizard dialog
box.

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NOTE

Confirm the operation in each displayed confirmation dialog box.

Step 6 Set NE attributes and click Next.

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NOTE

Shelf Type must be Subrack Type II.

Step 7 Right-click a logical slot of the NE, add the logical board, and click Next.

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Offline Configuration Function

Step 8 Select Verify and Run, and click Finish.

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Offline Configuration Function

----End

8.1.2 Configuring Site Commissioning Data


This section describes how to configure site commissioning data in offline mode for a preconfigured NE. The configuration is the same as that for a real NE.

Flowchart
Figure 8-1 shows the flowchart for configuring site commissioning data.

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Offline Configuration Function

Figure 8-1 Flowchart for configuring site commissioning data

Start

Configure logical boards.

Configure SFP ports.

Change the IF service type.

Configure one hop of radio link.

Create IF 1+1 protection


groups.

Configure DCCs.

Plan the VLAN ID and


bandwidth for an inband DCN.

Enable/Disable the RSTP


protocol when the Layer 2 DCN
solution is used.

Required
Optional

End

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Offline Configuration Function

NOTE

When configuring a hop of XPIC-enabled TDM radio link, you do not need to configure AM attributes for the
link (XPIC stands for cross polarization interference cancellation).

Process of Configuring Basic NE Data


Table 8-1 Process of configuring basic NE data
Step

Operation

Remarks

5.5.7 Configuring Logical


Boards

Required.

Configuring an SFP Port

Optional.
It is recommended that you delete the SFP
port for which no SFP module is installed.
If the type of the installed SFP module
differs from the default module type
supported by the port, delete the port and
add a new port whose SFP module type is
the same as the type of the installed SFP
module. The default SFP module type for
an Ethernet port is a GE optical module,
and the default SFP module type for an
SDH port is an STM-1 optical module.

Process of Configuring a Radio Link


Table 8-2 Process of configuring a radio link

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Step

Operation

Remarks

5.5.10
Changing
the IF
Service
Type

Optional.

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Offline Configuration Function

Step

Operation

Remarks

5.5.11
Configuring
a Hop of
Radio Link

Required. Set the parameters as follows:


l In Basic Parameters:
Set Link ID according to the service plan.
To configure 1+1 protection, select 1+1 and set 1+1
protection attributes according to the service plan.
l In IF:
Set IF Service Type and IF Channel Bandwidth
according to service plan.
During site commissioning deselect AM, set
Manually Specified Modulation Mode to the
planned Modulation Mode of the Guaranteed AM
Capacity, and set Guaranteed E1 Capacity
according to the service plan.
l In RF:
Set TX Frequency(MHz), T/R Spacing(MHz), and
TX Power(dBm) according to the service plan.
During site commissioning, deselect ATPC.
Set TX Status to unmute.
Set Power to Be Received(dBm) to the RSL specified
in service plan. The antenna non-alignment indication
function is enabled only after this parameter is set.
When the antenna non-alignment indicating function
is enabled, if the actual receive power of the ODU is 3
dB lower than the power expected to be received, the
ODU indicator on the IF board connected to the ODU
blinks yellow (at 300 ms intervals), indicating that the
antenna is not aligned. After the antennas are aligned
for consecutive 30 minutes, the NE automatically
disables the antenna non-alignment indication
function.
NOTE
l After site commissioning, re-set AM and ATPC based on site
requirements.
l For a 1+1 protection group of radio links, configure the IF
information for the main radio link only.

5.5.12
Creating an
IF 1+1
Protection
Group

Required when XPIC and IF 1+1 protection work together.


Set related parameters according to the service plan.
NOTE
l When XPIC and IF 1+1 protection work together, IF 1+1
protection cannot be configured in 5.5.11 Configuring a Hop of
Radio Link.
l For a 1+1 protection group of radio links, configure the IF
information for the main radio link only.

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Step

Operation

Remarks

Configuring
DCCs

If an NE interconnects with third-party equipment or uses


inband DCN channels provided by the Integrated IP radio,
disable related DCCs.

5.5.13
Configuring
the VLAN
ID and
Bandwidth
Used by an
Inband
DCN

Required. Set the parameters as follows:

Enabling/
Disabling
the RSTP
Protocol
When the L2
DCN
Solution Is
Used

Optional.

l If the default VLAN ID of the inband DCN conflicts with


the VLAN ID in the service, the Ethernet Board VLAN
ID of the inband DCN can be changed manually.
l Bandwidth(kbit/s) specifies the bandwidth for inband
DCN messaging on the Ethernet link.
l IF Port Bandwidth(kbit/s) specifies the bandwidth for
inband DCN messaging on the radio link.

8.1.3 Generating a Commissioning Data Script


This section describes how to generate a commissioning data script using configured site
commissioning data.

Prerequisites
You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 Choose Administration > Back Up/Restore NMS Data > Import/Export Script File from
the Main Menu.

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Step 2 Generate a commissioning data script on the Import/Export Script File tab page.
1.

Click TXT.

2.

Set Script File Type to NE Configuration File.

3.

Click Export.

4.

Select NEs for which the commissioning data script is generated under Export NE List.

5.

Click Apply.
NOTE

In this example, the script is exported to


folder, click Create File Directory to create a new folder.

(default). To save the script to another

----End

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9 ETH-OAM Operations on the EoS/EoPDH Plane

ETH-OAM Operations on the EoS/EoPDH


Plane

About This Chapter


This section describes the ETH-OAM operations that are commonly performed on the EoS/
EoPDH plane.
9.1 Creating MDs
A maintenance domain (MD) defines the scope and level of the Ethernet service OAM. The
MDs of different levels and scopes can provide differentiated OAM services to users.
9.2 Creating MAs
A maintenance domain (MD) can be divided into several independent maintenance associations
(MA). By creating MAs, operators can associate specific Ethernet services with the MAs for
easy Ethernet OAM operation.
9.3 Creating MPs
MPs refer to function entities of Ethernet service OAM, including MEPs and MIPs. The
functions of the Ethernet service OAM can be used only after MPs are created.
9.4 Performing an LB Test
During a loopback (LB) test, you can check the bidirectional connectivity between the source
MEP and any MP in the same maintenance association (MA).
9.5 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MDs
This topic describes the parameters for creating maintenance domains (MDs).
9.6 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MAs
This section describes the parameters for creating maintenance associations (MAs).
9.7 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation of MPs
This section describes the parameters for creating a maintenance point (MP).
9.8 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Enabling LB
This section describes the parameters for enabling the LB.

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9.1 Creating MDs


A maintenance domain (MD) defines the scope and level of the Ethernet service OAM. The
MDs of different levels and scopes can provide differentiated OAM services to users.

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The EFP8/EMS6 board must be added in the NE Panel.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function Tree.
Step 2 In the right pane, click OAM Configuration.
The OAM Configuration dialog box is displayed.

NOTE

In this GUI, you can maintain or delete OAM MDs.

Step 3 Click New and choose Create MD from the drop-down list.
The Create MD dialog box is displayed.
Step 4 Set the parameters of the new MD.

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Step 5 Click OK.


----End

9.2 Creating MAs


A maintenance domain (MD) can be divided into several independent maintenance associations
(MA). By creating MAs, operators can associate specific Ethernet services with the MAs for
easy Ethernet OAM operation.

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The EFP8/EMS6 board must be added in the NE Panel.

The MD must be created.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function Tree.
Step 2 In the right pane, click OAM Configuration.
The OAM Configuration dialog box is displayed.
NOTE

In this GUI, you can maintain or delete OAM MAs.

Step 3 Click New and choose Create MA from the drop-down list.

The Create MA dialog box is displayed.


Step 4 Set the parameters of the new MA.

Step 5 Click OK.


----End

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9.3 Creating MPs


MPs refer to function entities of Ethernet service OAM, including MEPs and MIPs. The
functions of the Ethernet service OAM can be used only after MPs are created.

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The EFP8/EMS6 board must be added in the NE Panel.

The Ethernet services must be created and activated.

The MD and MA must be created.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Precautions
In an OAM test, all MPs that are involved in the operation of the same service flow must be in
the same MD. In an existing MD involved in the same service flow, creating an MP of the same
level or a higher level may damage the existing MD. As a result, the OAM test fails.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Click New.
The Create MP dialog box is displayed.
Step 3 Set the parameters of the new MP.

Step 4 Optional: Click Advanced. In the displayed dialog box, set the corresponding parameters and
click OK.

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NOTE

If an MEP is created, you can choose whether to perform the following configurations:
l Activate the CC and set the sending period of the CC test.
l Set the timeout time for the LB or LT test.

Step 5 Click OK.


----End

9.4 Performing an LB Test


During a loopback (LB) test, you can check the bidirectional connectivity between the source
MEP and any MP in the same maintenance association (MA).

Prerequisites
l

You must be an NM user with NE operator authority or higher.

The EFP8/EMS6 board must be added in the NE Panel.

The source and sink MEPs in the same MD must be created.

In the case of a standard MP, you must activate CC before an LB test.

Tools, Equipment, and Materials


U2000

Background Information
l

Only an MEP can initiate an LB test.

During the LB test, the source MEP constructs and transmits the LBM frames and starts
the timer. If the sink MP receives the LBM frames, it sends the LBR frames back to the
source MEP. This indicates that the loopback is successful. If the source MEP timer times
out, it indicates that the loopback fails.

Performing an LB test does not affect the services.

Procedure
Step 1 In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function Tree.
Step 2 Select the node that requires an LB test, click OAM Operation, and select Start LB.
The LB Test dialog box is displayed.
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Step 3 Set the parameters involved in the LB test.


NOTE

l In the case of standard MPs, when an MIP functions as the receive end in the LB test, you need to select
Test based on the MAC Address and set LB Sink MP MAC Address.
l Before the LB test, you can set LB Timeout(ms) according to the actual requirements.

Step 4 Click Start LB. Then, the test result is displayed.


NOTE

To enable an LB test, you can also right-click an MEP and then choose Start LB from the shortcut menu.

----End

9.5 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation


of MDs
This topic describes the parameters for creating maintenance domains (MDs).

Navigation Path
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function
Tree.

2.

In the right pane, click OAM Configuration.

3.

Click New and choose Create MD from the drop-down list.

Parameters on the Main Interface


Table 9-1 Parameters on the main interface
Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Maintenance Domain
Name

For example: MD1

Specifies the name of the


MD.

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Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Maintenance Domain
Level

Consumer High(7)

Operator Low(0)

Specifies the level of the


MD. The greater the value,
the higher the level.

Consumer Middle(6)
Consumer Low(5)
Provider High(4)
Provider Low(3)
Operator High(2)
Operator Middle(1)
Operator Low(0)

9.6 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation


of MAs
This section describes the parameters for creating maintenance associations (MAs).

Navigation Path
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function
Tree.

2.

In the right pane, click OAM Configuration.

3.

Click New and choose Create MA from the drop-down list.

Parameters on the Main Interface


Table 9-2 Parameters on the main interface
Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Maintenance Domain
Name

For example: MD1

Displays the MD in which


an MA is to be created.

Maintenance
Association Name

For example: MA1

This parameter specifies


the name of the MA,
which is a service-related
domain. By creating MAs,
the connectivity check
(CC) can be performed on
the network that transmits
a particular service
instance.

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9.7 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Creation


of MPs
This section describes the parameters for creating a maintenance point (MP).

Navigation Path
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function
Tree.

2.

Click New.

Parameters on the Main Interface


Table 9-3 Parameters on the main interface
Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Maintenance
Domain Name

NULL

Specifies the maintenance domain (MD) of


the MP.
NOTE
An MD is not required for a common MP. For
the creation of a common MP, select NULL.

Maintenance
Association Name

NULL

Specifies the maintenance association (MA)


of the MP.
NOTE
An MA is not required for a common MP. For
the creation of a common MP, select NULL.

Node

Specifies the port where you want to create


an MP.

VLAN ID

l Configures the ID of the VLAN to which


the service of the MP belongs. The
information is contained in the OAM
data packet. The MPs with the same
VLAN ID in an MD can communicate
with each other.
l This parameter can be null in the case of
PORT services, but need to be set in the
case of PORT+VLAN services.

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Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

MEP ID

Standard MP:
00-00-0000 to FFFF-1FFF

00-00-0000

Uniquely identifies an MP. From the highest


to the lowest, the first byte indicates the
network number, the second byte indicates
the number of the node in the local network,
and the third and forth bytes indicate the ID
of the MP on the network node. The MP ID
must be unique in the entire network.

MEP

Specifies the MP type defined in IEEE


802.1ag. An MP can be a maintenance
association end point (MEP) or a
maintenance association intermediate point
(MIP).

SDH

l Specifies the MEP direction.

Common MP:
00-00-0000 to FFFF-FF00
Type

MEP
MIP

Service Direction

SDH
IP

l Set this parameter to SDH if the OAM


data initiated by the MEP travels through
the Ethernet switching unit on the local
NE. Otherwise, set this parameter to IP.

Parameters for Advanced Attributes


Table 9-4 Parameters for advanced attributes
Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Level

Consumer High(7)

Provider High(4)

Specifies the level of a common MP. The


greater the value, the higher the level.

Consumer Middle
(6)

NOTE
This parameter is valid only for a common MP
(NULL).

Consumer Low(5)
Provider High(4)
Provider Low(3)
Operator High(2)
Operator Middle(1)
Operator Low(0)
CC Status

Active

Inactive

Specifies whether to enable the connectivity


check (CC) function at an MP.

5000

l Specifies the timeout duration of an LB


test.

Inactive
LB Timeout(ms)

3000 to 60000, in
step of 100

l This parameter can be set only for an


MEP.

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Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

LT Timeout(ms)

3000 to 60000, in
step of 100

5000

l Specifies the timeout duration of an LT


test.
l This parameter can be set only for an
MEP.

CCM Sending
Period(ms)

Standard MP:

Standard MP

1000

1000

10000

Common MP:

6000

5000

600000
Common MP:

Specifies the interval for sending the CCM


packet at the MP where the CC test is
performed.
l If this parameter takes a very small
value, service bandwidth decreases
significantly.
l If this parameter takes a very large value,
the CC test will become less capable in
detecting service interruptions. The
default value is recommended.

1000 to 60000, in
step of 100

l This parameter can be set only for an


MEP.

9.8 Parameter Description: Ethernet Service OAM_Enabling


LB
This section describes the parameters for enabling the LB.

Navigation Path
1.

In the NE Explorer, select the EFP8/EMS6 board from the Object Tree and choose
Configuration > Ethernet Maintenance > Ethernet Service OAM from the Function
Tree.

2.

Select the node that requires an LB test, click OAM Operation, and select Start LB.

Parameters on the Main Interface


Table 9-5 Parameters on the main interface
Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

LB Source MEP ID

Specifies the ID of the


source maintenance point
in the LB test.

LB Sink MEP ID

Specifies the ID of the sink


maintenance point in the
LB test.

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Parameter

Value Range

Default Value

Description

Test Result

Indicates the result of one


LB test.

Test based on the MAC


Address

Selected

Not selected

Select this parameter for


an LB test based on MAC
addresses.

Not selected

NOTE
This parameter is valid only
for a standard MP.

LB Sink MP MAC
Address

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Specifies the MAC


address of the sink
maintenance point in the
LB test. This parameter is
valid only in the case of
Test based on the MAC
Address.

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A Glossary

Glossary

Numerics
3G

See 3rd Generation.

3GPP

3rd Generation Partnership Project

3rd Generation (3G)

The third generation of digital wireless technology, as defined by the International


Telecommunications Union (ITU). Third generation technology is expected to deliver
data transmission speeds between 144 kbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, compared to the 9.6 kbit/s to
19.2 kbit/s offered by second generation technology.

802.1Q in 802.1Q
(QinQ)

A VLAN feature that allows the equipment to add a VLAN tag to a tagged frame. The
implementation of QinQ is to add a public VLAN tag to a frame with a private VLAN
tag to allow the frame with double VLAN tags to be transmitted over the service
provider's backbone network based on the public VLAN tag. This provides a layer 2
VPN tunnel for customers and enables transparent transmission of packets over private
VLANs.

A
A/D

analog/digit

ABR

See available bit rate.

ACAP

See adjacent channel alternate polarization.

ACL

See access control list.

ADC

analog to digital converter

ADM

add/drop multiplexer

AF

See assured forwarding.

AIS

alarm indication signal

ALS

See automatic laser shutdown.

AM

See adaptive modulation.

APS

automatic protection switching

ARP

See Address Resolution Protocol.

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A Glossary

ASBR

See autonomous system boundary router.

ASIC

See application-specific integrated circuit.

ATM

asynchronous transfer mode

ATPC

See automatic transmit power control.

AU

See administrative unit.

Address Resolution
Protocol (ARP)

An Internet Protocol used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. The ARP protocol
enables hosts and routers to determine link layer addresses through ARP requests and
responses. The address resolution is a process by which the host converts the target IP
address into a target MAC address before transmitting a frame. The basic function of
ARP is to use the target equipment's IP address to query its MAC address.

access control list


(ACL)

A list of entities, together with their access rights, which are authorized to access a
resource.

adaptive modulation
(AM)

A technology that is used to automatically adjust the modulation mode according to the
channel quality. When the channel quality is favorable, the equipment uses a highefficiency modulation mode to improve the transmission efficiency and the spectrum
utilization of the system. When the channel quality is degraded, the equipment uses the
low-efficiency modulation mode to improve the anti-interference capability of the link
that carries high-priority services.

adjacent channel
alternate polarization
(ACAP)

A channel configuration method, which uses two adjacent channels (a horizontal


polarization wave and a vertical polarization wave) to transmit two signals.

administrative unit
(AU)

The information structure that enables adaptation between the higher order path layer
and the multiplex section layer. The administrative unit consists of an information
payload (the higher order VC) and an AU pointer, which indicates the offset of the
payload frame start relative to the multiplex section frame start.

alarm suppression

A method to suppress alarms for the alarm management purpose. Alarms that are
suppressed are no longer reported from NEs.

analog signal

A signal in which information is represented with a continuously variable physical


quantity, such as voltage. Because of this constant changing of the wave shape with
regard to its passing a given point in time or space, an analog signal might have a virtually
indefinite number of states or values. This contrasts with a digital signal that is expressed
as a square wave and therefore has a very limited number of discrete states. Analog
signals, with complicated structures and narrow bandwidth, are vulnerable to external
interference.

application-specific
integrated circuit
(ASIC)

A special type of chip that starts out as a nonspecific collection of logic gates. Late in
the manufacturing process, a layer is added to connect the gates for a specific function.
By changing the pattern of connections, the manufacturer can make the chip suitable for
many needs.

assured forwarding
(AF)

One of the four per-hop behaviors (PHB) defined by the Diff-Serv workgroup of IETF.
It is suitable for certain key data services that require assured bandwidth and short delay.
For traffic within the bandwidth limit, AF assures quality in forwarding. For traffic that
exceeds the bandwidth limit, AF degrades the service class and continues to forward the
traffic instead of discarding the packets.

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attenuator

A device used to increase the attenuation of an Optical Fiber Link. Generally used to
ensure that the signal at the receive end is not too strong.

automatic laser
shutdown (ALS)

A technique (procedure) to automatically shutdown the output power of laser transmitters


and optical amplifiers to avoid exposure to hazardous levels.

automatic transmit
A method of adjusting the transmit power based on fading of the transmit signal detected
power control (ATPC) at the receiver
autonomous system
boundary router
(ASBR)

A router that exchanges routing information with other ASs.

available bit rate (ABR) A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. ABR only provides possible
forwarding service and applies to the connections that does not require the real-time
quality. It does not provide any guarantee in terms of cell loss or delay.
B
B-ISDN

See broadband integrated services digital network.

BDI

See backward defect indication.

BE

See best effort.

BER

bit error rate

BFD

See Bidirectional Forwarding Detection.

BGP

Border Gateway Protocol

BIOS

See basic input/output system.

BIP

See bit interleaved parity.

BPDU

See bridge protocol data unit.

BSC

See base station controller.

BTS

base transceiver station

Bidirectional
Forwarding Detection
(BFD)

A fast and independent hello protocol that delivers millisecond-level link failure
detection and provides carrier-class availability. After sessions are established between
neighboring systems, the systems can periodically send BFD packets to each other. If
one system fails to receive a BFD packet within the negotiated period, the system regards
that the bidirectional link fails and instructs the upper layer protocol to take actions to
recover the faulty link.

backbone network

A network that forms the central interconnection for a connected network. The
communication backbone for a country is WAN. The backbone network is an important
architectural element for building enterprise networks. It provides a path for the exchange
of information between different LANs or subnetworks. A backbone can tie together
diverse networks in the same building, in different buildings in a campus environment,
or over wide areas. Generally, the backbone network's capacity is greater than the
networks connected to it.

backward defect
indication (BDI)

A function that the sink node of a LSP, when detecting a defect, uses to inform the
upstream end of the LSP of a downstream defect along the return path.

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base station controller


(BSC)

A logical entity that connects the BTS with the MSC in a GSM/CDMA network. It
interworks with the BTS through the Abis interface, the MSC through the A interface.
It provides the following functions: radio resource management, base station
management, power control, handover control, and traffic measurement. One BSC
controls and manages one or more BTSs in an actual network.

basic input/output
system (BIOS)

Firmware stored on the computer motherboard that contains basic input/output control
programs, power-on self test (POST) programs, bootstraps, and system setting
information. The BIOS provides hardware setting and control functions for the computer.

baud rate

The number of times per second the signal can change on a transmission line. Commonly,
the transmission line uses only two signal states, making the baud rate equal to the
number of bits per second that can be transferred. The underlying transmission technique
may use some of the bandwidth, so it may not be the case that user data transfers at the
line's specified bit rate.

best effort (BE)

A traditional IP packet transport service. In this service, the diagrams are forwarded
following the sequence of the time they reach. All diagrams share the bandwidth of the
network and routers. The amount of resource that a diagram can use depends of the time
it reaches. BE service does not ensure any improvement in delay time, jitter, packet loss
ratio, and high reliability.

bit interleaved parity


(BIP)

A method of error monitoring. With even parity, the transmitting equipment generates
an X-bit code over a specified portion of the signal in such a manner that the first bit of
the code provides even parity over the first bit of all X-bit sequences in the covered
portion of the signal, the second bit provides even parity over the second bit of all X-bit
sequences within the specified portion, and so forth. Even parity is generated by setting
the BIP-X bits so that an even number of 1s exist in each monitored partition of the
signal. A monitored partition comprises all bits in the same bit position within the X-bit
sequences in the covered portion of the signal. The covered portion includes the BIP-X.

bridge

A device that connects two or more networks and forwards packets among them. Bridges
operate at the physical network level. Bridges differ from repeaters because bridges store
and forward complete packets, while repeaters forward all electrical signals. Bridges
differ from routers because bridges use physical addresses, while routers use IP
addresses.

bridge protocol data


unit (BPDU)

Data messages exchanged across switches within an extended LAN that uses a spanning
tree protocol (STP) topology. BPDU packets contain information on ports, addresses,
priorities, and costs, and they ensure that the data reaches its intended destination. BPDU
messages are exchanged across bridges to detect loops in a network topology. These
loops are then removed by shutting down selected bridge interfaces and placing
redundant switch ports in a backup, or blocked, state.

broadband integrated A standard defined by the ITU-T to handle high-bandwidth applications, such as voice.
services digital network It currently uses the ATM technology to transmit data over SONNET-based circuits at
(B-ISDN)
155 to 622 Mbit/s or higher speed.
broadcast

A means of delivering information to all members in a network. The broadcast range is


determined by the broadcast address.

broadcast domain

A group of network stations that receives broadcast packets originating from any device
within the group. The broadcast domain also refers to the set of ports between which a
device forwards a multicast, broadcast, or unknown destination frame.

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C
CAR

committed access rate

CBR

See constant bit rate.

CBS

See committed burst size.

CC

See continuity check.

CCDP

See co-channel dual polarization.

CDMA

See Code Division Multiple Access.

CE

See customer edge.

CES

See circuit emulation service.

CGMP

Cisco Group Management Protocol

CIST

See Common and Internal Spanning Tree.

CLNP

connectionless network protocol

CM

connection management

CORBA

See Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

CPU

See central processing unit.

CRC

See cyclic redundancy check.

CSES

consecutive severely errored second

CSMA/CD

See carrier sense multiple access with collision detection.

CTC

common transmit clock

CW

control word

Code Division Multiple A communication scheme that uses frequency expansion technology to form different
Access (CDMA)
code sequences. When the CDMA scheme is used, subscribers with different addresses
can use different code sequences for multi-address connection.
Common Object
A specification developed by the Object Management Group in 1992 in which pieces of
Request Broker
programs (objects) communicate with other objects in other programs, even if the two
Architecture (CORBA) programs are written in different programming languages and are running on different
platforms. A program makes its request for objects through an object request broker, or
ORB, and therefore does not need to know the structure of the program from which the
object comes. CORBA is designed to work in object-oriented environments.
Common and Internal The single spanning tree jointly calculated by STP and RSTP, the logical connectivity
Spanning Tree (CIST) using MST bridges and regions, and MSTP. The CIST ensures that all LANs in the
bridged local area network are simply and fully connected.
cable tie

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carrier sense multiple


access with collision
detection (CSMA/CD)

A Glossary

Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a computer


networking access method in which:
l

A carrier sensing scheme is used.

A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame,
stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random
time interval before trying to send that frame again.

central processing unit The computational and control unit of a computer. The CPU is the device that interprets
(CPU)
and executes instructions. The CPU has the ability to fetch, decode, and execute
instructions and to transfer information to and from other resources over the computer's
main data-transfer path, the bus.
channel

A telecommunication path of a specific capacity and/or speed between two or more


locations in a network. The channel can be established through wire, radio (microwave),
fiber, or any combination of the three. The amount of information transmitted per second
in a channel is the information transmission speed, expressed in bits per second. For
example, b/s (100 bit/s), kb/s (103 bit/s), Mb/s (106 bit/s), Gb/s (109 bit/s), and Tb/s
(1012 bit/s).

circuit emulation
service (CES)

A function with which the E1/T1 data can be transmitted through ATM networks. At the
transmission end, the interface module packs timeslot data into ATM cells. These ATM
cells are sent to the reception end through the ATM network. At the reception end, the
interface module re-assigns the data in these ATM cells to E1/T1 timeslots. The CES
technology guarantees that the data in E1/T1 timeslots can be recovered to the original
sequence at the reception end.

clock tracing

The method of keeping the time on each node synchronized with a clock source in the
network.

co-channel dual
polarization (CCDP)

A channel configuration method, which uses a horizontal polarization wave and a vertical
polarization wave to transmit two signals. The Co-Channel Dual Polarization has twice
the transmission capacity of the single polarization.

committed burst size


(CBS)

A parameter used to define the capacity of token bucket C, that is, the maximum burst
IP packet size when information is transferred at the committed information rate. This
parameter must be greater than 0 but should be not less than the maximum length of an
IP packet to be forwarded.

constant bit rate (CBR) A kind of service categories defined by the ATM forum. CBR transfers cells based on
the constant bandwidth. It is applicable to service connections that depend on precise
clocking to ensure undistorted transmission.
continuity check (CC)

An Ethernet connectivity fault management (CFM) method used to detect the


connectivity between MEPs by having each MEP periodically transmit a Continuity
Check Message (CCM).

cross polarization
interference
cancellation (XPIC)

A technology used in the case of the Co-Channel Dual Polarization (CCDP) to eliminate
the cross-connect interference between two polarization waves in the CCDP.

customer edge (CE)

A part of the BGP/MPLS IP VPN model that provides interfaces for directly connecting
to the Service Provider (SP) network. A CE can be a router, switch, or host.

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cyclic redundancy
check (CRC)

A Glossary

A procedure used to check for errors in data transmission. CRC error checking uses a
complex calculation to generate a number based on the data transmitted. The sending
device performs the calculation before performing the transmission and includes the
generated number in the packet it sends to the receiving device. The receiving device
then repeats the same calculation. If both devices obtain the same result, the transmission
is considered to be error free. This procedure is known as a redundancy check because
each transmission includes not only data but extra (redundant) error-checking values.

D
DC

direct current

DC-C

See DC-return common (with ground).

DC-I

See DC-return isolate (with ground).

DC-return common
(with ground) (DC-C)

A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with
the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and also on the line between
the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment.

DC-return isolate (with A power system, in which the BGND of the DC return conductor is short-circuited with
ground) (DC-I)
the PGND on the output side of the power supply cabinet and is isolated from the PGND
on the line between the output of the power supply cabinet and the electric equipment.
DCC

See data communications channel.

DCN

See data communication network.

DDF

digital distribution frame

DDN

See digital data network.

DE

discard eligible

DM

See delay measurement.

DS boundary node

A DS node that connects one DS domain to a node either in another DS domain or in a


domain that is not DS-capable.

DS interior node

A DS node located at the center of a DS domain. It is a non-DS boundary node.

DS node

A DS-compliant node, which is subdivided into DS boundary node and ID interior node.

DSCP

See differentiated services code point.

DVMRP

See Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol.

DiffServ

See Differentiated Services.

Differentiated Services An IETF standard that defines a mechanism for controlling and forwarding traffic in a
(DiffServ)
differentiated manner based on CoS settings to handle network congestion.
Distance Vector
Multicast Routing
Protocol (DVMRP)

An Internet gateway protocol based primarily on the RIP. The DVMRP protocol
implements a typical dense mode IP multicast solution and uses IGMP to exchange
routing datagrams with its neighbors.

data communication
network (DCN)

A communication network used in a TMN or between TMNs to support the data


communication function.

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data communications
channel (DCC)

The data channel that uses the D1-D12 bytes in the overhead of an STM-N signal to
transmit information on the operation, management, maintenance, and provisioning
(OAM&P) between NEs. The DCC channel composed of bytes D1-D3 is referred to as
the 192 kbit/s DCC-R channel. The other DCC channel composed of bytes D4-D12 is
referred to as the 576 kbit/s DCC-M channel.

delay measurement
(DM)

The time elapsed since the start of transmission of the first bit of the frame by a source
node until the reception of the last bit of the loopbacked frame by the same source node,
when the loopback is performed at the frame's destination node.

differentiated services
code point (DSCP)

According to the QoS classification standard of the Differentiated Service (Diff-Serv),


the type of services (ToS) field in the IP header consists of six most significant bits and
two currently unused bits, which are used to form codes for priority marking.
Differentiated services code point (DSCP) is the six most important bits in the ToS. It is
the combination of IP precedence and types of service. The DSCP value is used to ensure
that routers supporting only IP precedence can be used because the DSCP value is
compatible with IP precedence. Each DSCP maps a per-hop behavior (PHB). Therefore,
terminal devices can identify traffic using the DSCP value.

digital data network


(DDN)

A data transmission network that is designed to transmit data on digital channels (such
as the fiber channel, digital microwave channel, or satellite channel).

digital modulation

A method that controls the changes in amplitude, phase, and frequency of the carrier
based on the changes in the baseband digital signal. In this manner, the information can
be transmitted by the carrier.

dual-polarized antenna An antenna intended to simultaneously radiate or receive two independent radio waves
orthogonally polarized.
E
E-Aggr

See Ethernet aggregation.

E-LAN

See Ethernet local area network.

E-Line

See Ethernet line.

ECC

See embedded control channel.

EMC

See electromagnetic compatibility.

EMI

See electromagnetic interference.

EPL

See Ethernet private line.

EPLAN

See Ethernet private LAN service.

EPLD

See erasable programmable logical device.

ERPS

Ethernet ring protection switching

ESD

electrostatic discharge

ETS

European Telecommunication Standards

ETSI

See European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

EVPL

See Ethernet virtual private line.

EVPLAN

See Ethernet virtual private LAN service.

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Ethernet

A LAN technology that uses the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection
(CSMA/CD) media access control method. The Ethernet network is highly reliable and
easy to maintain. The speed of an Ethernet interface can be 10 Mbit/s, 100 Mbit/s, 1000
Mbit/s, or 10,000 Mbit/s.

Ethernet aggregation
(E-Aggr)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual


connection).

Ethernet line (E-Line)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a point-to-point EVC (Ethernet virtual


connection).

Ethernet local area


network (E-LAN)

A type of Ethernet service that is based on a multipoint-to-multipoint EVC (Ethernet


virtual connection).

Ethernet private LAN


service (EPLAN)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over dedicated bandwidth between multipoint-tomultipoint connections.

Ethernet private line


(EPL)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over dedicated bandwidth between point-to-point
connections.

Ethernet virtual
private LAN service
(EVPLAN)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over shared bandwidth between multipoint-tomultipoint connections.

Ethernet virtual
private line (EVPL)

A type of Ethernet service provided by SDH, PDH, ATM, or MPLS server layer
networks. This service is carried over shared bandwidth between point-to-point
connections.

European
Telecommunications
Standards Institute
(ETSI)

A standards-setting body in Europe. Also the standards body responsible for GSM.

electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC)

A condition which prevails when telecommunications equipment is performing its


individually designed function in a common electromagnetic environment without
causing or suffering unacceptable degradation due to unintentional electromagnetic
interference to or from other equipment in the same environment.

electromagnetic
interference (EMI)

Any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or


limits the performance of electronics/electrical equipment.

embedded control
channel (ECC)

A logical channel that uses a data communications channel (DCC) as its physical layer
to enable the transmission of operation, administration, and maintenance (OAM)
information between NEs.

engineering label

A mark on a cable, a subrack, or a cabinet for identification.

erasable
programmable logical
device (EPLD)

A logical array device which can be used to implement the required functions by
programming the array. In addition, a user can modify and program the array repeatedly
until the program meets the requirement.

F
FD

See frequency diversity.

FDDI

See fiber distributed data interface.

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FDI

See forward defect indication.

FEC

See forward error correction.

FFD

fast failure detection

FFD packet

A path failure detection method independent from CV. Different from a CV packet, the
frequency for generating FFD packets is configurable to satisfy different service
requirements. By default, the frequency is 20/s. An FFD packet contains information the
same as that in a CV packet. The destination end LSR processes FFD packets in the same
way for processing CV packets.

FIFO

See first in first out.

FPGA

See field programmable gate array.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol

fiber distributed data


interface (FDDI)

A standard developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for highspeed fiber-optic LANs. FDDI provides specifications for transmission rates of 100
megabits per second on token ring networks.

field programmable
gate array (FPGA)

A semi-customized circuit that is used in the Application Specific Integrated Circuit


(ASIC) field and developed based on programmable components. FPGA remedies many
of the deficiencies of customized circuits, and allows the use of many more gate arrays.

first in first out (FIFO) A stack management method in which data that is stored first in a queue is also read and
invoked first.
forward defect
indication (FDI)

A packet generated and traced forward to the sink node of the LSP by the node that first
detects defects. It includes fields to indicate the nature of the defect and its location. Its
primary purpose is to suppress alarms being raised at affected higher level client LSPs
and (in turn) their client layers.

forward error
correction (FEC)

A bit error correction technology that adds correction information to the payload at the
transmit end. Based on the correction information, the bit errors generated during
transmission can be corrected at the receive end.

fragmentation

A process of breaking a packet into smaller units when transmitting over a network node
that does not support the original size of the packet.

frequency diversity
(FD)

A diversity scheme in which two or more microwave frequencies with a certain


frequency interval are used to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then
performed between the two signals to ease the impact of fading.

G
GCRA

generic cell rate algorithm

GFC

generic flow control

GFP

See Generic Framing Procedure.

GNE

See gateway network element.

GPS

See Global Positioning System.

GTS

See generic traffic shaping.

GUI

graphical user interface

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Generic Framing
Procedure (GFP)

A framing and encapsulated method that can be applied to any data type. GFP is defined
by ITU-T G.7041.

Global Positioning
System (GPS)

A global navigation satellite system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and
timing services to users worldwide.

gateway

A device that connects two network segments using different protocols. It is used to
translate the data in the two network segments.

gateway network
element (GNE)

An NE that serves as a gateway for other NEs to communicate with a network


management system.

generic traffic shaping A traffic control measure that proactively adjusts the output speed of the traffic. This is
(GTS)
to adapt the traffic to network resources that can be provided by the downstream router
to avoid packet discarding and congestion.
H
HDLC

High-Level Data Link Control

HQoS

See hierarchical quality of service.

HSDPA

See High Speed Downlink Packet Access.

HSM

hitless switch mode

High Speed Downlink


Packet Access
(HSDPA)

A modulating-demodulating algorithm put forward in 3GPP R5 to meet the requirement


for asymmetric uplink and downlink transmission of data services. It enables the
maximum downlink data service rate to reach 14.4 Mbit/s without changing the
WCDMA network topology.

hierarchical quality of
service (HQoS)

A type of QoS that controls the traffic of users and performs the scheduling according
to the priority of user services. HQoS has an advanced traffic statistics function, and the
administrator can monitor the usage of bandwidth of each service. Hence, the bandwidth
can be allocated reasonably through traffic analysis.

hybrid radio

The hybrid transmission of Native E1 and Native Ethernet signals. Hybrid radio supports
the AM function.

I
I/O

input/output

ICMP

See Internet Control Message Protocol.

IDU

See indoor unit.

IEEE

See Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

IF

See intermediate frequency.

IGMP

See Internet Group Management Protocol.

IGMP snooping

A multicast constraint mechanism running on a layer 2 device. This protocol manages


and controls the multicast group by listening to and analyzing Internet Group
Management Protocol (IGMP) packets between hosts and Layer 3 devices. In this
manner, the spread of the multicast data on layer 2 network can be prevented efficiently.

IGP

See Interior Gateway Protocol.

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IMA

See inverse multiplexing over ATM.

IP

Internet Protocol

IPv4

See Internet Protocol version 4.

IPv6

See Internet Protocol version 6.

IS-IS

See Intermediate System to Intermediate System.

ISDN

integrated services digital network

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

IST

internal spanning tree

ITU

See International Telecommunication Union.

IWF

Interworking Function

Institute of Electrical
and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE)

A professional association of electrical and electronics engineers based in the United


States, but with membership from numerous other countries. The IEEE focuses on
electrical, electronics, and computer engineering, and produces many important
technology standards.

Interior Gateway
Protocol (IGP)

A routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system. The IGP runs in smallsized and medium-sized networks. The commonly used IGPs are the routing information
protocol (RIP), the interior gateway routing protocol (IGRP), the enhanced IGRP
(EIGRP), and the open shortest path first (OSPF).

Intermediate System to A protocol used by network devices (routers) to determine the best way to forward
Intermediate System
datagram or packets through a packet-based network.
(IS-IS)
International
Telecommunication
Union (ITU)

A United Nations agency, one of the most important and influential recommendation
bodies, responsible for recommending standards for telecommunication (ITU-T) and
radio networks (ITU-R).

Internet Control
Message Protocol
(ICMP)

A network layer protocol that provides message control and error reporting between a
host server and an Internet gateway.

Internet Group
Management Protocol
(IGMP)

One of the TCP/IP protocols for managing the membership of Internet Protocol multicast
groups. It is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish and maintain
multicast group memberships.

Internet Protocol
version 4 (IPv4)

The current version of the Internet Protocol (IP). IPv4 utilizes a 32bit address which is
assigned to hosts. An address belongs to one of five classes (A, B, C, D, or E) and is
written as 4 octets separated by periods and may range from 0.0.0.0 through to
255.255.255.255. Each IPv4 address consists of a network number, an optional
subnetwork number, and a host number. The network and subnetwork numbers together
are used for routing, and the host number is used to address an individual host within the
network or subnetwork.

Internet Protocol
version 6 (IPv6)

An update version of IPv4, which is designed by the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF) and is also called IP Next Generation (IPng). It is a new version of the Internet
Protocol. The difference between IPv6 and IPv4 is that an IPv4 address has 32 bits while
an IPv6 address has 128 bits.

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indoor unit (IDU)

A Glossary

The indoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements accessing,


multiplexing/demultiplexing, and intermediate frequency (IF) processing for services.

intermediate frequency The transitional frequency between the frequencies of a modulated signal and an RF
(IF)
signal.
inverse multiplexing
over ATM (IMA)

A technique that involves inverse multiplexing and de-multiplexing of ATM cells in a


cyclical fashion among links grouped to form a higher bandwidth logical link whose rate
is approximately the sum of the link rates.

L
L2VPN

Layer 2 virtual private network

LACP

See Link Aggregation Control Protocol.

LAG

See link aggregation group.

LAN

See local area network.

LAPS

Link Access Protocol-SDH

LB

See loopback.

LCAS

See link capacity adjustment scheme.

LM

See loss measurement.

LOS

See loss of signal.

LPT

link-state pass through

LSDB

link state database

LSP

See label switched path.

LSP tunnel

An LSP over which traffic is transmitted based on labels that are assigned to FECs on
the ingress. The traffic is transparent to the intermediate nodes

LSR

See label switching router.

LTE

Long Term Evolution

Layer 2 switching

A data forwarding method. In a LAN, a network bridge or 802.3 Ethernet switch


transmits and distributes packet data based on the MAC address. Since the MAC address
is at the second layer of the OSI model, this data forwarding method is called Layer 2
switching.

Link Aggregation
Control Protocol
(LACP)

A dynamic link aggregation protocol that improves the transmission speed and
reliability. The two ends of the link send LACP packets to inform each other of their
parameters and form a logical aggregation link. After the aggregation link is formed,
LACP maintains the link status in real time and dynamically adjusts the ports on the
aggregation link upon detecting the failure of a physical port.

label switched path


(LSP)

A sequence of hops (R0...Rn) in which a packet travels from R0 to Rn through label


switching mechanisms. A label-switched path can be chosen dynamically, based on
common routing mechanisms or through configuration.

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label switching router


(LSR)

Basic element of an MPLS network. All LSRs support the MPLS protocol. The LSR is
composed of two parts: control unit and forwarding unit. The former is responsible for
allocating the label, selecting the route, creating the label forwarding table, creating and
removing the label switch path; the latter forwards the labels according to groups
received in the label forwarding table.

laser

A component that generates directional optical waves of narrow wavelengths. The laser
light has better coherence than ordinary light. Semi-conductor lasers provide the light
used in a fiber system.

line rate

The maximum packet forwarding capacity on a cable. The value of line rate equals the
maximum transmission rate capable on a given type of media.

linear MSP

linear multiplex section protection

link aggregation group An aggregation that allows one or more links to be aggregated together to form a link
(LAG)
aggregation group so that a MAC client can treat the link aggregation group as if it were
a single link.
link capacity
adjustment scheme
(LCAS)

LCAS in the virtual concatenation source and sink adaptation functions provides a
control mechanism to hitless increase or decrease the capacity of a link to meet the
bandwidth needs of the application. It also provides a means of removing member links
that have experienced failure. The LCAS assumes that in cases of capacity initiation,
increases or decreases, the construction or destruction of the end-to-end path is the
responsibility of the network and element management systems.

local area network


(LAN)

A network formed by the computers and workstations within the coverage of a few square
kilometers or within a single building, featuring high speed and low error rate. Current
LANs are generally based on switched Ethernet or Wi-Fi technology and run at 1,000
Mbit/s (that is, 1 Gbit/s).

loopback (LB)

A troubleshooting technique that returns a transmitted signal to its source so that the
signal or message can be analyzed for errors. The loopback can be a inloop or outloop.

loss measurement (LM) A method used to collect counter values applicable for ingress and egress service frames
where the counters maintain a count of transmitted and received data frames between a
pair of MEPs.
loss of signal (LOS)

No transitions occurring in the received signal.

M
MA

maintenance association

MAC

See Media Access Control.

MADM

multiple add/drop multiplexer

MBS

maximum burst size

MD

See maintenance domain.

MD5

See message digest algorithm 5.

MDI

medium dependent interface

MEP

maintenance association end point

MIB

See management information base.

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MIP

maintenance intermediate point

MLPPP

Multi-Link Point-to-Point Protocol

MP

maintenance point

MPLS

See Multiprotocol Label Switching.

MPLS L2VPN

A network that provides the Layer 2 VPN service based on an MPLS network. In this
case, on a uniform MPLS network, the carrier is able to provide Layer 2 VPNs of different
media types, such as ATM, FR, VLAN, Ethernet, and PPP.

MPLS TE

multiprotocol label switching traffic engineering

MPLS VPN

See multiprotocol label switching virtual private network.

MPLS-TP

See MultiProtocol Label Switching Transport Profile.

MS

multiplex section

MSP

See multiplex section protection.

MST region

See Multiple Spanning Tree region.

MSTI

See multiple spanning tree instance.

MSTP

See Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol.

MTBF

See mean time between failures.

MTTR

See mean time to repair.

MTU

See maximum transmission unit.

Media Access Control


(MAC)

A protocol at the media access control sublayer. The protocol is at the lower part of the
data link layer in the OSI model and is mainly responsible for controlling and connecting
the physical media at the physical layer. When transmitting data, the MAC protocol
checks whether to be able to transmit data. If the data can be transmitted, certain control
information is added to the data, and then the data and the control information are
transmitted in a specified format to the physical layer. When receiving data, the MAC
protocol checks whether the information is correct and whether the data is transmitted
correctly. If the information is correct and the data is transmitted correctly, the control
information is removed from the data and then the data is transmitted to the LLC layer.

MultiProtocol Label
Switching Transport
Profile (MPLS-TP)

A packet transport technology proposed by IETF that combines the packet experience
of MPLS with the operational experience of transport networks.

Multiple Spanning
Tree Protocol (MSTP)

A protocol that can be used in a loop network. Using an algorithm, the MSTP blocks
redundant paths so that the loop network can be trimmed as a tree network. In this case,
the proliferation and endless cycling of packets is avoided in the loop network. The
protocol that introduces the mapping between VLANs and multiple spanning trees. This
solves the problem that data cannot be normally forwarded in a VLAN because in STP/
RSTP, only one spanning tree corresponds to all the VLANs.

Multiple Spanning
Tree region (MST
region)

A region that consists of switches that support the MSTP in the LAN and links among
them. Switches physically and directly connected and configured with the same MST
region attributes belong to the same MST region.

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Multiprotocol Label
Switching (MPLS)

A technology that uses short tags of fixed length to encapsulate packets in different link
layers, and provides connection-oriented switching for the network layer on the basis of
IP routing and control protocols.

maintenance domain
(MD)

The network or the part of the network for which connectivity is managed by connectivity
fault management (CFM). The devices in a maintenance domain are managed by a single
Internet service provider (ISP).

management
A type of database used for managing the devices in a communications network. It
information base (MIB) comprises a collection of objects in a (virtual) database used to manage entities (such as
routers and switches) in a network.
maximum transmission The largest packet of data that can be transmitted on a network. MTU size varies,
unit (MTU)
depending on the network576 bytes on X.25 networks, for example, 1500 bytes on
Ethernet, and 17,914 bytes on 16 Mbit/s token ring. Responsibility for determining the
size of the MTU lies with the link layer of the network. When packets are transmitted
across networks, the path MTU, or PMTU, represents the smallest packet size (the one
that all networks can transmit without breaking up the packet) among the networks
involved.
mean time between
failures (MTBF)

The average time between consecutive failures of a piece of equipment. It is a measure


of the reliability of the system.

mean time to repair


(MTTR)

The average time that a device will take to recover from a failure.

message digest
algorithm 5 (MD5)

A hash function that is used in a variety of security applications to check message


integrity. MD5 processes a variable-length message into a fixed-length output of 128
bits. It breaks up an input message into 512-bit blocks (sixteen 32-bit little-endian
integers). After a series of processing, the output consists of four 32-bit words, which
are then cascaded into a 128-bit hash number.

multicast

A process of transmitting data packets from one source to many destinations. The
destination address of the multicast packet uses Class D address, that is, the IP address
ranges from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Each multicast address represents a multicast
group rather than a host.

multiple spanning tree A type of spanning trees calculated by MSTP within an MST Region, to provide a simply
instance (MSTI)
and fully connected active topology for frames classified as belonging to a VLAN that
is mapped to the MSTI by the MST Configuration. A VLAN cannot be assigned to
multiple MSTIs.
multiplex section
protection (MSP)

A function, which is performed to provide capability for switching a signal between and
including two multiplex section termination (MST) functions, from a "working" to a
"protection" channel.

multiprotocol label
switching virtual
private network
(MPLS VPN)

An Internet Protocol (IP) virtual private network (VPN) based on the multiprotocol label
switching (MPLS) technology. It applies the MPLS technology for network routers and
switches, simplifies the routing mode of core routers, and combines traditional routing
technology and label switching technology. It can be used to construct the broadband
Intranet and Extranet to meet various service requirements.

N
N+1 protection

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A radio link protection system composed of N working channels and one protection
channel.

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NE

network element

NE Explorer

The main operation interface of the NMS, which is used to manage the
telecommunication equipment. In the NE Explorer, a user can query, manage, and
maintain NEs, boards, and ports.

NNI

network-to-network interface

NPE

network provider edge

NSAP

See network service access point.

NSF

non-stop forwarding

network service access A network address defined by ISO, at which the OSI Network Service is made available
point (NSAP)
to a Network service user by the Network service provider.
network storm

A phenomenon that occurs during data communication. To be specific, mass broadcast


packets are transmitted in a short time; the network is congested; transmission quality
and availability of the network decrease rapidly. The network storm is caused by network
connection or configuration problems.

node

A managed device in the network. For a device with a single frame, one node stands for
one device. For a device with multiple frames, one node stands for one frame of the
device.

non-GNE

See non-gateway network element.

non-gateway network
element (non-GNE)

A network element that communicates with the NM application layer through the
gateway NE application layer.

O
O&M

operation and maintenance

OAM

See operation, administration and maintenance.

OAMPDU

operation, administration and maintenance protocol data unit

ODF

optical distribution frame

ODU

See outdoor unit.

OSPF

See Open Shortest Path First.

Open Shortest Path


First (OSPF)

A link-state, hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for network routing that uses
cost as its routing metric. A link state database is constructed of the network topology,
which is identical on all routers in the area.

operation,
administration and
maintenance (OAM)

A set of network management functions that cover fault detection, notification, location,
and repair.

orderwire

A channel that provides voice communication between operation engineers or


maintenance engineers of different stations.

outdoor unit (ODU)

The outdoor unit of the split-structured radio equipment. It implements frequency


conversion and amplification for radio frequency (RF) signals.

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P2P

See point-to-point service.

PBS

See peak burst size.

PCB

See printed circuit board.

PDH

See plesiochronous digital hierarchy.

PDU

protocol data unit

PE

See provider edge.

PHB

See per-hop behavior.

PIR

peak information rate

PLA

See physical link aggregation.

PLL

See phase-locked loop.

PPP

Point-to-Point Protocol

PRBS

See pseudo random binary sequence.

PRI

primary rate interface

PSN

See packet switched network.

PSTN

See public switched telephone network.

PTN

packet transport network

PTP

Precision Time Protocol

PTP clock

See Precision Time Protocol clock.

PVP

See permanent virtual path.

PW

See pseudo wire.

PWE3

See pseudo wire emulation edge-to-edge.

Precision Time
Protocol clock (PTP
clock)

A type of high-decision clock defined by the IEEE 1588 V2 standard. The IEEE 1588
V2 standard specifies the precision time protocol (PTP) in a measurement and control
system. The PTP protocol ensures clock synchronization precise to sub-microseconds.

packet switched
network (PSN)

A telecommunications network that works in packet switching mode.

paired slots

Two slots of which the overheads can be passed through by using the bus on the
backplane.

peak burst size (PBS)

A parameter that defines the capacity of token bucket P, that is, the maximum burst IP
packet size when the information is transferred at the peak information rate.

per-hop behavior
(PHB)

IETF Diff-Serv workgroup defines forwarding behaviors of network nodes as per-hop


behaviors (PHB), such as, traffic scheduling and policing. A device in the network should
select the proper PHB behaviors, based on the value of DSCP. At present, the IETF
defines four types of PHB. They are class selector (CS), expedited forwarding (EF),
assured forwarding (AF), and best-effort (BE).

permanent virtual path Virtual path that consists of PVCs.


(PVP)

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phase-locked loop
(PLL)

A circuit that consists essentially of a phase detector that compares the frequency of a
voltage-controlled oscillator with that of an incoming carrier signal or referencefrequency generator. The output of the phase detector, after passing through a loop filter,
is fed back to the voltage-controlled oscillator to keep it exactly in phase with the
incoming or reference frequency.

physical link
aggregation (PLA)

Being a technology providing load balancing based on physical layer bandwidths,


physical link aggregation (PLA) combines Ethernet transmission paths in several
Integrated IP radio links into a logical Ethernet link for higher Ethernet bandwidth and
Ethernet transmission reliability.

plesiochronous digital
hierarchy (PDH)

A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the minimum
rate 64 kit/s into rates of 2 Mbit/s, 34 Mbit/s, 140 Mbit/s, and 565 Mbit/s.

point-to-point service
(P2P)

A service between two terminal users. In P2P services, senders and recipients are
terminal users.

polarization

A kind of electromagnetic wave, the direction of whose electric field vector is fixed or
rotates regularly. Specifically, if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is
perpendicular to the plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called vertically
polarized wave; if the electric field vector of the electromagnetic wave is parallel to the
plane of horizon, this electromagnetic wave is called horizontal polarized wave; if the
tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle, this
electromagnetic wave is called circularly polarized wave.

printed circuit board


(PCB)

A board used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components


using conductive pathways, tracks, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto
a non-conductive substrate.

provider edge (PE)

A device that is located in the backbone network of the MPLS VPN structure. A PE is
responsible for managing VPN users, establishing LSPs between PEs, and exchanging
routing information between sites of the same VPN. A PE performs the mapping and
forwarding of packets between the private network and the public channel. A PE can be
a UPE, an SPE, or an NPE.

pseudo random binary A sequence that is random in the sense that the value of each element is independent of
sequence (PRBS)
the values of any of the other elements, similar to a real random sequence.
pseudo wire (PW)

An emulated connection between two PEs for transmitting frames. The PW is established
and maintained by PEs through signaling protocols. The status information of a PW is
maintained by the two end PEs of a PW.

pseudo wire emulation An end-to-end Layer 2 transmission technology. It emulates the essential attributes of a
edge-to-edge (PWE3) telecommunication service such as ATM, FR or Ethernet in a packet switched network
(PSN). PWE3 also emulates the essential attributes of low speed time division
multiplexing (TDM) circuit and SONET/SDH. The simulation approximates to the real
situation.
public switched
telephone network
(PSTN)

A telecommunications network established to perform telephone services for the public


subscribers. Sometimes it is called POTS.

Q
QAM

See quadrature amplitude modulation.

QPSK

See quadrature phase shift keying.

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QinQ

See 802.1Q in 802.1Q.

QoS

See quality of service.

quadrature amplitude
modulation (QAM)

Both an analog and a digital modulation scheme. It conveys two analog message signals,
or two digital bit streams, by changing (modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier waves,
using the amplitude-shift keying (ASK) digital modulation scheme or amplitude
modulation (AM) analog modulation scheme. These two waves, usually sinusoids, are
out of phase with each other by 90 and are thus called quadrature carriers or quadrature
components hence the name of the scheme.

quadrature phase shift A modulation method of data transmission through the conversion or modulation and
keying (QPSK)
the phase determination of the reference signals (carrier). It is also called the fourth period
or 4-phase PSK or 4-PSK. QPSK uses four dots in the star diagram. The four dots are
evenly distributed on a circle. On these phases, each QPSK character can perform twobit coding and display the codes in Gray code on graph with the minimum BER.
quality of service (QoS) A commonly-used performance indicator of a telecommunication system or channel.
Depending on the specific system and service, it may relate to jitter, delay, packet loss
ratio, bit error ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio. It functions to measure the quality of the
transmission system and the effectiveness of the services, as well as the capability of a
service provider to meet the demands of users.
R
RADIUS

See Remote Authentication Dial In User Service.

RADIUS accounting

An accounting mode in which the BRAS sends the accounting packets to the RADIUS
server. Then the RADIUS server performs accounting.

RDI

remote defect indication

RED

See random early detection.

REI

remote error indication

RF

See radio frequency.

RFC

See Request For Comments.

RMEP

remote maintenance association end point

RMON

remote network monitoring

RNC

See radio network controller.

RSL

See received signal level.

RSSI

See received signal strength indicator.

RSTP

See Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol.

RSVP

See Resource Reservation Protocol.

RTN

radio transmission node

RTSP

Real-Time Streaming Protocol

Rapid Spanning Tree


Protocol (RSTP)

An evolution of the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) that provides faster spanning tree
convergence after a topology change. The RSTP protocol is backward compatible with
the STP protocol.

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Remote Authentication A security service that authenticates and authorizes dial-up users and is a centralized
Dial In User Service
access control mechanism. RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its
(RADIUS)
transmission protocol to ensure real-time quality. RADIUS also supports the
retransmission and multi-server mechanisms to ensure good reliability.
Request For Comments A document in which a standard, a protocol, or other information pertaining to the
(RFC)
operation of the Internet is published. The RFC is actually issued, under the control of
the IAB, after discussion and serves as the standard. RFCs can be obtained from sources
such as InterNIC.
Resource Reservation
Protocol (RSVP)

A protocol that reserves resources on every node along a path. RSVP is designed for an
integrated services Internet.

RoHS

restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances

radio frequency (RF)

A type of electric current in the wireless network using AC antennas to create an


electromagnetic field. It is the abbreviation of high-frequency AC electromagnetic wave.
The AC with the frequency lower than 1 kHz is called low-frequency current. The AC
with frequency higher than 10 kHz is called high-frequency current. RF can be classified
into such high-frequency current.

radio network
controller (RNC)

A device in a radio network subsystem that is in charge of controlling the usage and
integrity of radio resources.

random early detection A packet loss algorithm used in congestion avoidance. It discards the packet according
(RED)
to the specified higher limit and lower limit of a queue so that global TCP synchronization
resulting from traditional tail drop can be prevented.
real-time variable bit
rate (rt-VBR)

A parameter intended for real-time applications, such as compressed voice over IP


(VoIP) and video conferencing. The rt-VBR is characterized by a peak cell rate (PCR),
sustained cell rate (SCR), and maximum burst size (MBS). You can expect the source
device to transmit in bursts and at a rate that varies with time.

received signal level


(RSL)

The signal level at a receiver input terminal.

received signal strength The received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the
indicator (RSSI)
receiver, within the bandwidth defined by the receiver pulse shaping filter, for TDD
within a specified timeslot. The reference point for the measurement shall be the antenna
receiver sensitivity

The minimum acceptable value of mean received power at point Rn (a reference point
at an input to a receiver optical connector) to achieve a 1x10-12 BER when the FEC is
enabled.

regeneration

The process of receiving and reconstructing a digital signal so that the amplitudes,
waveforms and timing of its signal elements are constrained within specified limits.

route

The path that network traffic takes from its source to its destination. Routes can change
dynamically.

router

A device on the network layer that selects routes in the network. The router selects the
optimal route according to the destination address of the received packet through a
network and forwards the packet to the next router. The last router is responsible for
sending the packet to the destination host. Can be used to connect a LAN to a LAN, a
WAN to a WAN, or a LAN to the Internet.

rt-VBR

See real-time variable bit rate.

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S
SAI

service area identifier

SAToP

Structure-Agnostic Time Division Multiplexing over Packet

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface

SD

See space diversity.

SDH

See synchronous digital hierarchy.

SEC

security screening

SES

severely errored second

SETS

SDH equipment timing source

SF

See signal fail.

SFP

small form-factor pluggable

SLA

See service level agreement.

SNCP

subnetwork connection protection

SNMP

See Simple Network Management Protocol.

SNR

See signal-to-noise ratio.

SSL

See Secure Sockets Layer.

SSM

See Synchronization Status Message.

STM

See synchronous transport module.

STM-1

See Synchronous Transport Module level 1.

STM-4

Synchronous Transport Module level 4

STM-N

Synchronous Transport Module level N

STP

Spanning Tree Protocol

Secure Sockets Layer


(SSL)

A security protocol that works at a socket level. This layer exists between the TCP layer
and the application layer to encrypt/decode data and authenticate concerned entities.

Simple Network
Management Protocol
(SNMP)

A network management protocol of TCP/IP. It enables remote users to view and modify
the management information of a network element. This protocol ensures the
transmission of management information between any two points. The polling
mechanism is adopted to provide basic function sets. According to SNMP, agents, which
can be hardware as well as software, can monitor the activities of various devices on the
network and report these activities to the network console workstation. Control
information about each device is maintained by a management information block.

Synchronization Status A message that carries the quality levels of timing signals on a synchronous timing link.
Message (SSM)
SSM messages provide upstream clock information to nodes on an SDH network or
synchronization network.
Synchronous
Synchronous transfer mode at 155 Mbit/s.
Transport Module level
1 (STM-1)

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service level agreement A service agreement between a customer and a service provider. SLA specifies the
(SLA)
service level for a customer. The customer can be a user organization (source domain)
or another differentiated services domain (upstream domain). An SLA may include
traffic conditioning rules which constitute a traffic conditioning agreement as a whole
or partially.
signal fail (SF)

A signal indicating that associated data has failed in the sense that a near-end defect
condition (non-degrade defect) is active.

signal-to-noise ratio
(SNR)

The ratio of the amplitude of the desired signal to the amplitude of noise signals at a
given point in time. SNR is expressed as 10 times the logarithm of the power ratio and
is usually expressed in dB.

single-ended switching A protection mechanism that takes switching action only at the affected end of the
protected entity in the case of a unidirectional failure.
single-polarized
antenna

An antenna intended to radiate or receive radio waves with only one specified
polarization.

space diversity (SD)

A diversity scheme that enables two or more antennas separated by a specific distance
to transmit/receive the same signal and selection is then performed between the two
signals to ease the impact of fading. Currently, only receive SD is used.

subnet mask

The technique used by the IP protocol to determine which network segment packets are
destined for. The subnet mask is a binary pattern that is stored in the device and is matched
with the IP address.

synchronous digital
hierarchy (SDH)

A transmission scheme that follows ITU-T G.707, G.708, and G.709. SDH defines the
transmission features of digital signals, such as frame structure, multiplexing mode,
transmission rate level, and interface code. SDH is an important part of ISDN and BISDN.

synchronous transport An information structure used to support section layer connections in the SDH. It consists
module (STM)
of information payload and Section Overhead (SOH) information fields organized in a
block frame structure which repeats every 125. The information is suitably conditioned
for serial transmission on the selected media at a rate which is synchronized to the
network. A basic STM is defined at 155 520 kbit/s. This is termed STM-1. Higher
capacity STMs are formed at rates equivalent to N times this basic rate. STM capacities
for N = 4, N = 16 and N = 64 are defined; higher values are under consideration.
T
T1

A North American standard for high-speed data transmission at 1.544Mbps. It provides


24 x 64 kbit/s channels.

TCI

tag control information

TCP

See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

TD-SCDMA

See Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access.

TDD

time division duplex

TDM

See time division multiplexing.

TDMA

See Time Division Multiple Access.

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TE

See traffic engineering.

TEDB

See traffic engineering database.

TIM

trace identifier mismatch

TMN

See telecommunications management network.

TOS

test operation system

TTL

See time to live.

TUG

tributary unit group

Telnet

A standard terminal emulation protocol in the TCP/IP protocol stack. Telnet allows users
to log in to remote systems and use resources as if they were connected to a local system.
Telnet is defined in RFC 854.

Time Division Multiple An approach used for allocating a single channel among many users, by dividing the
Access (TDMA)
channel into different timeslots during which each user has access to the medium.
Time DivisionSynchronous Code
Division Multiple
Access (TD-SCDMA)

A 3G mobile communications standard found in UMTS mobile telecommunications


networks in China as an alternative to W-CDMA. TD-SCDMA integrates technologies
of CDMA, TDMA, and FDMA, and makes use of technologies including intelligent
antenna, joint detection, low chip rate (LCR), and adaptive power control. With the
flexibility of service processing, a TD-SCDMA network can connect to other networks
through the RNC.

Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)

The protocol within TCP/IP that governs the breakup of data messages into packets to
be sent using Internet Protocol (IP), and the reassembly and verification of the complete
messages from packets received by IP. A connection-oriented, reliable protocol (reliable
in the sense of ensuring error-free delivery), TCP corresponds to the transport layer in
the ISO/OSI reference model.

tail drop

A congestion management mechanism, in which packets arrive later are discarded when
the queue is full. This policy of discarding packets may result in network-wide
synchronization due to the TCP slow startup mechanism.

tangent ring

A concept borrowed from geometry. Two tangent rings have a common node between
them. The common node often leads to single-point failures.

telecommunications
management network
(TMN)

A protocol model defined by ITU-T for managing open systems in a communications


network. TMN manages the planning, provisioning, installation, and OAM of
equipment, networks, and services.

time division
multiplexing (TDM)

A multiplexing technology. TDM divides the sampling cycle of a channel into time slots
(TSn, n=0, 1, 2, 3), and the sampling value codes of multiple signals engross time slots
in a certain order, forming multiple multiplexing digital signals to be transmitted over
one channel.

time to live (TTL)

A specified period of time for best-effort delivery systems to prevent packets from
looping endlessly.

trTCM

See two rate three color marker.

traffic engineering (TE) A technology that is used to dynamically monitor the traffic of the network and the load
of the network elements, to adjust in real time the parameters such as traffic management
parameters, route parameters and resource restriction parameters, and to optimize the
utilization of network resources. The purpose is to prevent the congestion caused by
unbalanced loads.
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traffic engineering
database (TEDB)

A type of database that every router generates after collecting the information about TE
of every links in its area. TEDB is the base of forming the dynamic TE path in the MPLS
TE network.

tributary loopback

A fault can be located for each service path by performing loopback to each path of the
tributary board. There are three kinds of loopback modes: no loopback, outloop, and
inloop.

tunnel

A channel on the packet switching network that transmits service traffic between PEs.
In VPN, a tunnel is an information transmission channel between two entities. The tunnel
ensures secure and transparent transmission of VPN information. In most cases, a tunnel
is an MPLS tunnel.

two rate three color


marker (trTCM)

An algorithm that meters an IP packet stream and marks its packets based on two rates,
Peak Information Rate (PIR) and Committed Information Rate (CIR), and their
associated burst sizes to be either green, yellow, or red. A packet is marked red if it
exceeds the PIR. Otherwise it is marked either yellow or green depending on whether it
exceeds or does not exceed the CIR.

U
UART

universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter

UAS

unavailable second

UBR

unspecified bit rate

UBR+

Unspecified Bit Rate Plus

UDP

See User Datagram Protocol.

UI

user interface

UNI

See user-to-network interface.

UPC

See usage parameter control.

User Datagram
Protocol (UDP)

A TCP/IP standard protocol that allows an application program on one device to send a
datagram to an application program on another. UDP uses IP to deliver datagrams. UDP
provides application programs with the unreliable connectionless packet delivery
service. That is, UDP messages may be lost, duplicated, delayed, or delivered out of
order. The destination device does not actively confirm whether the correct data packet
is received.

unicast

The process of sending data from a source to a single recipient.

usage parameter
control (UPC)

During communications, UPC is implemented to monitor the actual traffic on each virtual
circuit that is input to the network. Once the specified parameter is exceeded, measures
will be taken to control. NPC is similar to UPC in function. The difference is that the
incoming traffic monitoring function is divided into UPC and NPC according to their
positions. UPC locates at the user/network interface, while NPC at the network interface.

user-to-network
interface (UNI)

The interface between user equipment and private or public network equipment (for
example, ATM switches).

V
V-NNI

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virtual network-network interface

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V-UNI

See virtual user-network interface.

VB

virtual bridge

VBR

See variable bit rate.

VC

See virtual container.

VCC

See virtual channel connection.

VCCV

virtual circuit connectivity verification

VCG

See virtual concatenation group.

VCI

virtual channel identifier

VCTRUNK

A virtual concatenation group applied in data service mapping, also called the internal
port of a data service processing board.

VLAN

virtual local area network

VPI

See virtual path identifier.

VPLS

virtual private LAN segment

VPN

virtual private network

VSWR

voltage standing wave ratio

variable bit rate (VBR) One of the traffic classes used by ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Unlike a
permanent CBR (Constant Bit Rate) channel, a VBR data stream varies in bandwidth
and is better suited to non real time transfers than to real-time streams such as voice calls.
virtual channel
connection (VCC)

A VC logical trail that carries data between two end points in an ATM network. A pointto-multipoint VCC is a set of ATM virtual connections between two or multiple end
points.

virtual circuit

A channel or circuit established between two points on a data communications network


with packet switching. Virtual circuits can be permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or
switched virtual circuits (SVCs) .

virtual concatenation
group (VCG)

A group of co-located member trail termination functions that are connected to the same
virtual concatenation link.

virtual container (VC)

An information structure used to support path layer connections in the SDH. A VC


consists of a payload and path overhead (POH), which are organized in a block frame
structure that repeats every 125 s or 500 s.

virtual path identifier


(VPI)

The field in the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cell header that identifies to which
virtual path the cell belongs.

virtual user-network
interface (V-UNI)

A virtual user-network interface, works as an action point to perform service


classification and traffic control in HQoS.

W
WCDMA

See Wideband Code Division Multiple Access.

WDM

wavelength division multiplexing

WEEE

waste electrical and electronic equipment

WFQ

See weighted fair queuing.

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WRED

See weighted random early detection.

WRR

weighted round robin

WTR

See wait to restore.

Web LCT

The local maintenance terminal of a transport network, which is located at the NE


management layer of the transport network.

Wi-Fi

See Wireless Fidelity.

Wideband Code
Division Multiple
Access (WCDMA)

A standard defined by the ITU-T for the third-generation wireless technology derived
from the Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology.

Wireless Fidelity (WiFi)

A short-distant wireless transmission technology. It enables wireless access to the


Internet within a range of hundreds of feet wide.

wait to restore (WTR)

The number of minutes to wait before services are switched back to the working line.

weighted fair queuing


(WFQ)

A fair queue scheduling algorithm based on bandwidth allocation weights. This


scheduling algorithm allocates the total bandwidth of an interface to queues, according
to their weights and schedules the queues cyclically. In this manner, packets of all priority
queues can be scheduled.

weighted random early A packet loss algorithm used for congestion avoidance. It can prevent the global TCP
detection (WRED)
synchronization caused by traditional tail-drop. WRED is favorable for the high-priority
packet when calculating the packet loss ratio.
winding pipe

A tool for fiber routing, which acts as the corrugated pipe.

X
XPIC

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See cross polarization interference cancellation.

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