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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬
1‫א‬‫א‬
101
  101  ‫א‬
   1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 
 W،،‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫؛‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬         ‫א‬   ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬ ?‫א‬?? 1 ‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬

1
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K4

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-1-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Survey)‫א‬1–1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W2–1
K‫א‬‫א‬ \ ‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬WE1J 1F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE1J 1F(Diopter)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Libella)‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Groma)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE2J 1FK‫א‬‫א‬(Choropates)‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬WE2J 1F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(Geomatics)‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬3–1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
-2-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4

 W‫א‬4J 1
 W‫א‬
(Geodetic ‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WSurveying)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE3J 1F،
W(Plane Surveying)‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬2196
WE3J 1F  ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬W(Topographic Surveying)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K(contour Lines)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬(Cadastral Surveying ):‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


-3-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ 


‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺠﻴﻮدﻳﺴﻴﺔ‬






‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺠﻴﻮدﻳﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺣﺔ اﻟﺠﻴﻮدﻳﺴﻴﺔ‬ 

 W ‫א‬1J 4J 1
 W‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
 KLand Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 KNavigation Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 Astronomical Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 KArchaeological Surveys‫א‬‫א‬–
 KGeological Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 KMine Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 KMilitary Surveys‫א‬‫א‬–
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
 KTriangulation Surveys ‫א‬–
 KTraverse Surveys ‫א‬–
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
 KChain Surveys ‫א‬–
 KTheodolite Surveys ‫א‬–

-4-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KCompass Surveys ‫א‬–


 KTacheometric Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 KPlane table Surveys ‫א‬‫א‬–
 KPhotogrammetry ‫א‬‫א‬–

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬


 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

 ‫א‬    ‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬

   ‫א‬  ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

   ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬ 

 
‫א‬ 

   W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
‫א‬  W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬W‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬
-5-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK‫א‬–1
 W‫א‬‫א‬–2
 –1
 –2
 –3
 –4
 W‫א‬–3
 –1
 –2
 …‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–4
 W‫א‬‫א‬–5
 –1
 J 2

-6-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

2
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬٪85‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K18
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
 K J 2

-7-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Bearing)WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬1J 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬
(Azimuth or ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬WCircular Bearing )

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬
K360O 
 EAZF
 KE1J 2F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬W(Reduced Bearing)

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 2F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE2J 2FKEBrFK90O‫א‬K‫א‬









 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 2F 

-8-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ 



‫اﻻﻧﺤﺮاف اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼﺮ‬ ‫ اﻻﻧﺤﺮاف اﻟﺪاﺋﺮي‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EBrF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EAZF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE3J 2FK‫א‬‫א‬











‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 2F

-9-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1184523ZAC‫א‬‫א‬،413218ZAB‫א‬‫א‬
 345354ZAE‫א‬‫א‬،3601448ZAD‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 N 413218 E  Br = N Az E  413218 AB

 S 611437 E  Br =S (180 – Az) E  1184523 AC

 S 801448 W  Br = S (Az –180) W  3601448 AD

 N 145606 W  Br = N (360-Az) W  3450454 AE


 W2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 S492318EZ‫א‬AC‫א‬‫א‬،S14349EZ‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬

N654202WZ‫א‬AE‫א‬‫א‬،S384453WZ‫א‬AD‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬
 140349  Az = Br  N  140349 E  AB
 1303642  Az = 180 – Br  S 492318 E  AC

 2184453  Az = 180 + Br  S 384453 W AD

 2941758  Az = 360- Br N 654202 W AE


-10-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE4J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K180OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 180O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EHF

 K180O‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ F
 KA‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬FB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬BA‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAB‫א‬













‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 2F 

-11-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W3
 45OZ‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 180OH‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬AB‫א‬

 225OZ180OH45OZ

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2
‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 2F  W(Geographical or True Meridian )
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KE5J 2F

 W(Magnetic Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬–2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE6J 2F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K

 W(Assumed Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE7J 2F
-12-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 2F


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 2F


 W(Grid Meridian )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ 



‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل اﻟﻤﻐﻨﺎﻃﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎل اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬ 




-13-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬3J 2

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬ ‫א‬{E8J 2F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 2F  W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬±‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EHF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  302‫א‬‫א‬77O 30 ‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬AB‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 230H773Z
8000Z

-14-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 427‫א‬‫א‬8242‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2

 ‫؟‬AB‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،30Z‫א‬AB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3


-15-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

3
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K24

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 KLevel ‫א‬
Total stations ‫א‬‫א‬

-16-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W(Tape)‫א‬–1J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W(Linen Tape)‫א‬‫א‬–
E1J 3FE1.5J 1F ‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
،15،10F‫א‬ -
 KE100،50،30،25،20
‫א‬ -
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬WE1J 3F
‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ J 3

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 W
 K‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K ‫א‬ J 3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬
-17-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W(Steel tape )‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬
E100،50،30،25،20،10،5،2،1F‫א‬ J
 KE10.5F
‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2J 3FKE‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 W
 K ‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K ‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 3F

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
-18-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
K‫א‬‫ א‬J 4

 WInvar Tape‫א‬–
 ‫א‬6E٪36F‫א‬E٪64F‫א‬
 KE100J 30F
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 W
 K‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬ J 3


 K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
 K J 3
 K‫א‬ J 4
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
-19-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 KE3J 3F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 3F 
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
 K J 2
 K J 3
 K‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬ J 6

-20-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
K‫א‬
‫א‬ A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬A‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬B‫א‬ J 4
F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬B‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬
A‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 KB‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬B
 KB

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
 K‫א‬‫א‬Hx‫א‬‫א‬C‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬zZAB‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬J
 W
‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬{100

-21-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬K63.7‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K563.7Z63.7Hx100C5zZ‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
163.5m‫א‬‫א‬50m‫א‬
 K‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬5cm‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬=‫א‬‫א‬

 =  5
 0.05  =‫א‬‫א‬
 100

 49.95 =0.05J 50  =‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 =
 ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 

 49.95  ‫א‬‫א‬
 =
 50  163.5
 

49.95C163.5
 163.34=  =  ‫א‬‫א‬
 50

-22-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(sag)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
  EF
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE4J 3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 3F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE5J 3F‫א‬‫א‬







‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 3F 

 K‫א‬W‫א‬W ‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬9 6 ‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 

-23-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Compass)‫א‬2J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 KE6J 3FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬
(Magnetic Needle )–
 K
360O ‫א‬–
 K90O
 ‫א‬(Sighting Marks)W–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE6J 3F  K‫א‬
 W‫א‬E‫א‬F2J 2J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE7J 3F،(Surveyors Compass)‫א‬ J 1
،‫א‬ –
‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬ –
 K‫א‬

‫א‬WE8J 3F ‫א‬WE7J 3F


-24-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 E8J 3F
 KE9J 3FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬EAF
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬EBF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 3F ‫א‬KEFW‫א‬EFS‫א‬
‫א‬65
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE56OFKS65O W‫א‬‫א‬

 W(Prismatic Compass)‫א‬‫א‬–2
K1814‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K



-25-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
E15J 6F‫א‬‫א‬W J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W J 2
 K
‫א‬‫א‬ W J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ {‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬360O‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W J 5
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W J 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬W J 7
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  J 8
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W J 9
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W J 10
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 11
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 12

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬ J 3

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J 1
 K J 2
 K J 3
 K J 4
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(A, ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1

،‫א‬‫א‬(A, B)F‫א‬‫א‬،B)

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬
‫א‬EAF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEAF
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J 3
 KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬

-27-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬EBF‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬F‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬FAB‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 KEAB‫א‬



















-28-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

Level ‫א‬‫א‬2J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ElevelF ‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F J 1
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬–J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 
 K‫א‬ J 
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬   WE‫א‬F‫א‬J 4
 K‫א‬
  WE‫א‬ F‫א‬J 5
 K4‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
5J 1‫א‬1L 1‫א‬‫א‬Epcmcia F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 2

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


J 600‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬10H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ٪13٪5 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬L900
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-30-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
  K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬90
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F
 ‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬

 W

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬

-31-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


1.645FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬

 W(Theodolite )‫א‬1–4J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬ J 1
 KE10J 3F‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ EF‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬
L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬
 EF  
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬

ً / ً0.10
0.20 2َ 50.0 70 135 240
‫ﻓﻴﻠﺪ –ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ T4 Wild
ً 0.50 َ
10 12.2 45 100 100 ‫ﻳﺴﻮﻳﺴﺮ‬-‫ﻛﲑﻥ‬ DKM3
Kern
ً
0.20 َ
10 8.0 40 76 98 ‫ ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ –ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬Microptic
3
ً
0.50 َ
10 32.0 80 140 200 ‫ ﺑﺮﻟﲔ‬-‫ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﻓﲑﻙ‬ Tpr

ً
0.20 8َ / َ4 11.0 40 90 135 ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬ T3

 E10J 3F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  J 2
 KE11J 3F
‫א‬ ‫א‬  EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  E  
ً
1 َ 20 5.5 28 70 90
‫ﻓﻴﻠﺪ – ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ T2 Wild
ً
1 َ 10 3.6 30 70 75 ‫ﻛﲑﻥ – ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ DKM2 Kern

ً
1 َ 20 5.3 31 60 84 ‫ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺑﻴﻨﺎ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ Theo 010

ً
1 َ 20 5.5 30 70 90 ‫ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ Th2

ً
1 َ 10 6.5 30 70 90 ‫ﻓﻴﻨﻴﻞ – ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ FT2

ً
1 َ 10 6.5 30 60 91 ‫ﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻡ – ﺍ‬Te- B1 MOM
ً
1 َ 20 5.2 25 65 90 ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬ T2

ً
1 َ 10 6.3 28 76 98 ‫ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ – ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬ Microptic 2

ً
1 َ 10 2.5 29 90 90 ‫ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬ TG 1B

ً
1 َ 10 6.0 30 80 94 ‫ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ TM 1A

 E11J 3F
-33-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W ‫א‬ J 3


 KE13J 3F،E12J 3F

‫א‬ ‫א‬  EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  E  
ً
10 َ
20 1.8 20 50 50
‫ﻛﲑﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ DKM-1Kern
ً
20 1ْ 4.2 28 70 89 ‫ ﻛﲑﻥ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬K1-RA Kern
ً
20 1ْ 5.0 27 65 73 ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺪ ﺳﻮﻳﺴﺮﺍ‬ T1-A Wild

ً
30 1ْ 3.5 25 70 78 ‫ﺯﺍﻳﺲ ﺃﳌﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ Th3

ً
20 1ْ 4.6 30 70 90 ‫ﺑﺮﻟﲔ‬- ‫ﺇﺳﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﻓﲑﻛﺎ‬ Tt

ً
10 َ
20 2.6 20 40 80 ‫ﺮ‬‫ ﻣﻮﻡ –ﺍ‬Te-E6 MOM
ً
10 َ
20 3.9 25 55 70 ‫ﺍﻻﲢﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻓﻴﱵ‬ TT4

ً
20 4.5 25 64 89 ‫ﺃﻭﺗﻴﺲ –ﺇﳒﻠﺘﺮﺍ‬ Microptic 1

ً
30 4.4 30 90 90 ‫ﺇﻳﻄﺎﻟﻴﺎ‬ 41994

ً
6 5.3 30 70 80 ‫ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ TM6

ً
10 َ
10 5.2 30 70 80 ‫ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ TM 10

ً
20 5.00 30 70 80 ‫ﺳﻮﻛﻴﺸﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ TM 20

ً
10 1ْ 4.5 28 70 80 ‫ﻓﻮﺟﻲ – ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ T- 205


 E12J 3F

-34-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


  EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬  
‫א‬L‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬L‫א‬ EF
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬


 1 1ْ 4.3 25 74 96
 ‫א‬ Theo
 020
 1 1ْ 3.6 27 70 95 ‫א‬‫א‬ T5

 1 1ْ 4.8 25 76 84  ‫א‬– Te – D2
 1 1ْ 4.7 28 79 79  ‫א‬– T 16

 1 1ْ 4.3 30 85 98  – Th 4

 1 1ْ 4.9 30 70 90   4150-


NE
 1 1ْ 5.2 30 90 95 ‫א‬ T 60 D

 1 3.4 16 62 62 –‫א‬ Theo


120
 E13J 3F

 WE14J 3F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(VV)‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(HH)‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬W(LL)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W(ZZ)‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬WE14J 3F

-35-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FW
 KE‫א‬F Wild T2



















T2 ‫ ﺟﻬﺎز‬:(15-3)‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
-36-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K5.5‫א‬
 X28‫א‬
 90‫א‬‫א‬
 70‫א‬‫א‬
 20‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KWild T2‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E15J 3F‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬J
K‫א‬‫א‬J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 6
K‫א‬‫א‬J 7
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 8
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 9
K‫א‬‫א‬J 10
KJ 11
K‫א‬‫א‬J 12
K‫א‬J 13
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 14
K‫א‬J 15
 K‫א‬J 16
K‫א‬J 17
K‫א‬‫א‬J 18
-37-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬J 19
K‫א‬‫א‬J 20
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 21
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 22
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 23
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 24
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 25
 K‫א‬‫א‬J 26

 WE16J 3FTribrach ‫א‬‫א‬J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  J
 KE‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 KE‫א‬F
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J
، ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬WE16J 3F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬–
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ FK ‫א‬
  J
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-38-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WAlidade E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬–
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬ ‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  J
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬400F‫א‬‫א‬360E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬EE‫א‬F‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 WTelescope E‫א‬F‫א‬–
،‫א‬ ‫א‬  
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
KE17J 3F

-39-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

WE17J 3F
 WE18J 3FTripod‫א‬‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E F J ‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬F
،‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬WE18J 3F

 WShipping case ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE19J 3FE19J 3F





‫א‬‫א‬WE19J 3F -40- WE19J 3F
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
،E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J 5
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬FK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،…‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 8
‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K…‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 10
 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J 11
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 12
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 13
 K‫א‬

-41-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 14
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 15
‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ J 16
 K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 17
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬W 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
،  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬–
 K‫א‬–
 K‫א‬–
 WCentering ‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-42-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 (Levelling)‫א‬–
 (Focusing)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬J 
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 WFace LeftW‫א‬‫א‬–1
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 WFace Right‫א‬‫א‬–2
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W(Digital Theodolite) ‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 KEF‫א‬ J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬  J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬
{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J 7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 10
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ J 11
K
 K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 12
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
FK‫א‬ 
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-44-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KDT 600‫א‬‫א‬EF

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬341C165CF165W‫א‬
 K4.2W‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬FK236W‫א‬‫א‬
 KE50
 20
 J FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE70  J FW‫א‬
 30
 KE64C120F‫א‬‫א‬8LCDW‫א‬

-45-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 K160W‫א‬
 KE26F26xW‫א‬
 K1 30W‫א‬
 0.9W
 K‫א‬‫א‬100W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 7 W‫א‬
 K0.5W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 KR14/C2W‫א‬
 K2523W‫א‬
 
DT600

 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
 KE‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 4
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 9
 K‫ א‬J 10
   K‫א‬‫א‬ J 11

 K‫א‬ J 12
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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬ J 13
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 14
 K‫א‬ J 15
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J 16
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 17
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 18
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 19
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF J 20
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 21
 ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬ J 22

 Total Station‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 3
،‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   
   ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETotal stationF‫א‬‫א‬ K1
PCM CIA card ‫א‬ K2
K‫א א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
  ‫א‬ ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬    K4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Total Station ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬     


    ‫א‬    
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬Total Station ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


Sokkia K1
Power set - Set 2 - Set 3 - Set 4 
 Sokkia Set 3110Set 3‫א‬‫א‬E20–3F‫א‬

Nikon  K2
DTM 302 – DTM 502
Nikon DTM 302E21J 3F‫א‬

 Topcon  K3
GTS 213 – GTS 313 – GTS 800
 Topcon GTS 800 E22–3F‫א‬

Leica  K4
TC 307– TC 700– TC 2000– TC 1105– TPS 1000– TPS 1100 
Leica TC 700E23–3F‫א‬

‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  Leica TPS 1000   

 K‫א‬


 Nikon DTM 302E21J 3FSokkia Set 3110E20J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬










Leica TC 700E23J 3FTopcon GTS 800E22J 3F

 ( Total Station Leica TPS 1100 )‫א‬‫א‬


    ‫א‬ Leica  Total Station    ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
K ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KLeica TPS 1100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E24J 3F‫א‬
 KLeica TPS 1100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E25J 3F‫א‬




















Leica TPS 1100‫א‬‫א‬E24J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬








 Leica TC- TPS 1000 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E25J 3F

‫א‬ J 10  ‫א‬‫ א‬J 1


 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 11  ‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
‫ א‬J 12   J 4
‫א‬ J 13   J 5
‫א‬ J 14 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬ J 15  ‫א‬‫א‬
‫ א‬J 16  ‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
‫א‬‫א‬ J 17  ‫א‬ J 8
 J 18 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 9

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬
W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬ K1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
‫א‬‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ K3
K‫א‬ K4
‫א‬ECables, plugs) ‫א‬‫א‬ K5
K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬W 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E40‫א‬F{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
   {‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫ א‬K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬ K3
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫ א‬K1
 ‫א‬W‫ א‬K2
 W‫ א‬K3
‫א‬‫א‬W‫ א‬K4
Leica TPS 1100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E26J 3F‫א‬






 

 Leica TPS 1100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E26J 3F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬6J 3
،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETotal StationF
KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬
K‫א‬ K1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K4

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
K‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3


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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 True Error‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬ 

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫ א‬K1
K‫א‬‫ א‬K2
K‫א‬‫ א‬K3

Personal Errors ‫א‬‫א‬K1
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 2
 ‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬ 4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

Instrumental Errors ‫א‬‫א‬K2


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 3
EmmF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 Natural Errors ‫א‬‫א‬K3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬ 1
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 2
‫א‬‫א‬KEp.p.mF‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫ א‬K1
K‫א‬‫ א‬K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3



-57-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 Gross Error or Mistake ‫ א‬K1


‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K‫א‬‫א‬ 2
 K360
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 3

 Systematic Errors ‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬FK
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1


 




 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E27J 3F

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬EF
 KE27J 3F

 ‫א‬ K2

 ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W–
W ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K
‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Random Errors‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ،
 
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬ ‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1
 W‫א‬W2
 ‫א‬‫ א‬J
‫א‬‫ א‬J
K‫א‬ J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬E،F‫א‬W3
4 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W4
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K50.45 m ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬W5
 W‫א‬‫א‬W6
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J J J J J J ‫א‬
J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J K1
 KJ J J J J J J J J J J J J J
J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J K2
KJ J J J J J J J J J J J J J
J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J K3
KJ J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W7
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W8
 ‫؟‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W9
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W10
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W11
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W12
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W13
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W14
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W15
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W16
 ‫؟‬‫א‬W17
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W18
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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

4
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K٪100‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
K‫א‬ o



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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EData AccuracyF‫א‬1
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 EData lntegrityF‫א‬2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K

 ELegibilityF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3

 ELegibleF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 EData ArrangementF‫א‬4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
ESketchesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ENotekeeperF‫א‬
 KEClarity F

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 EKinds of NotesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ETablesF‫א‬1
 KEDescriptionF2
 KESketchF3
‫א‬‫א‬ECombinationF‫א‬‫א‬
  4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬
 
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 6
 ESuggestions on Recording NotesF
 ETitlesF1
‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EProject NameF‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬F‫א‬W
 ELocationF‫א‬
 KE‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬WEType of WorkF‫א‬ 
 KEMeasuring Distances by pacingF
 KEColumn HeadingF‫א‬‫א‬
 KMarch 15 , 1983 EDateF‫א‬

-62-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

Starting F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ETime of DayFE ‫א‬F‫א‬


 KEFinishing TimeF‫א‬ETime
TemperatureF‫א‬‫א‬،EWind VelocityF‫א‬EWeatherF‫א‬
،EFoggy Day F،ESunny Day F،ERainy DayF،E
EClearF‫א‬
 ،EWarmFEHotFECool F‫א‬،ESnowF
 KECloudyF،EFairF،EColdF،
K‫א‬‫א‬ENames and DutiesF
‫א‬،ENotekeeper F‫א‬‫א‬N
 KKKKKKKK،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬EInstrument Type and NumberF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬K
‫א‬EDate Arrangement and RecordingF‫א‬ 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
‫א‬،‫א‬EIndexF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K

-63-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E4-H 3 – H F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–
 K
‫א‬( Scrap Papers ) –
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬EScaleF ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬_
‫א‬EStraightedgeF
 KEProtractorF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ _
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ _
‫א‬‫א‬ESystematicF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬_
 KEConventional SymbolsF‫א‬
‫א‬
  ‫א‬_

 ‫א‬‫א‬EGross Mistakes or BlundersF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

،‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_
 0.85 m85 cm ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1 cm ‫א‬‫א‬_

 ‫א‬‫א‬14.6 m 14.60 m 14.6 m ‫א‬
 K16.17 m16.170 m 16.17 m 1 mm 
‫א‬‫א‬ _
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K??void??????
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬_
 K‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬_
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_
E
 F‫א‬‫א‬ _
K ‫א‬??copy ??????
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬_
 KESumameF‫א‬ElnitialF

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W2
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W3
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬
‫א‬

5
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬٪100‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K6

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

  ‫א‬W
 Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM)W ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 5
 WElectro – Optical Instruments W‫א‬‫א‬1–1J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Geodimeter)
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬{E1J 5F ‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 Ŝ = ½ V.t
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WS
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬V
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WT









‫א‬‫א‬WE1J 5F

-68-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 5
 (Microwave Distance Measuring instruments) 
‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬{E2J 5F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE2J 5F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬2J 5
 ‫א‬‫א‬(Altarnating Current (AC))
{
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 (299792.5 + 0.4 km/sec)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 KEL10C3F300000 km/sec
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
v
f =
λ

-69-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬W λ
 K(Velocity)‫א‬WV
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Hertz) (Hz)F‫א‬K(Frequency )‫א‬WF
 K‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬1Hz
‫א‬K(S = ½ vt)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 KE3J 5F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Phase Difference)
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE4J 5F








‫א‬WE4J 5F ‫א‬WE3J 5F 


-70-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬4J 5
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
 + 5 mm  
 5 ppm  
 

 (ppm: part per million )

‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬5km‫א‬200m‫א‬‫א‬
 +10mm + 5ppm 
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E200‫א‬FW‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
10 1
= = 50ppm
1000×200 20000

 W‫א‬‫א‬

5
× 200 = + 0.001 M = +1mm
1000000

 K‫א‬10‫א‬(+5mm)‫א‬‫א‬
 WE5 KMF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
10 1
= = 1ppm
1000×1000 1000


 W‫א‬‫א‬
5
× 10000 = + 0.05 M = +50mm
1000000

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬








-72-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬F(Sighting) ‫א‬–
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W(Horizontal Circle Reading) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬
E‫א‬F‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KK‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F
‫א‬1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 K‫א‬0.01

-73-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E11J 4FE‫א‬400F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4


J 11J 4F
   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬KE5–5F
 Kgrad 00.8‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬105Grad
E
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
grad ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ K00.224
 W

105.000
000.8000
000.0224
105.8224 grad
‫א‬‫א‬WE5J 5F

105.8224 grad  W

 KE‫א‬400F‫א‬E360F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E6J 5F‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E6J 5F
-74-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

10‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1‫א‬،94Z‫א‬‫א‬
 K244Z‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 940000
 001000
 00244
 941244




‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬KE
 ‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W 0000 30Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 KE30Z‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬F0 30E‫א‬‫א‬
EZ‫א‬F 00‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
E Z‫א‬‫א‬F 0‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ 00 00 30Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 WFace LeftW‫א‬‫א‬–1
-75-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

-76-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 WFace Right‫א‬‫א‬–2
‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J



 WVertical Circle ReadingW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6J 5
K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬E13J 4F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
180 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ 7J 5F‫א‬ J 1
270‫א‬‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬180،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ 7J 5F‫א‬ J 2
‫א‬‫א‬ 90‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EJ 7J 5F‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬270‫א‬‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ 180‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-77-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬










‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE7J 5F

-78-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬7J 5
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬E{{{F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE8J 5FW
 ‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
E ،،،F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
EF‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،E
 ‫א‬F‫א‬
E  ‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE8J 5F  KEF‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬FEF‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
000030‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬000030‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬(A)‫א‬‫א‬(1)‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 KEF
EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE1J 4FF
-79-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬402310‫א‬
 KE1J 4FFKEF
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ J 7
0559(C)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E6F
 KE1J 4F0000
 33(A)،2881404(D)،135
180‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬ J 8
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬180E ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(6)‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬1800035
 KEF‫א‬EF
 ‫א‬ J 9
‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K(6)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2212EF،3150601EF،1081404EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1800030EF26
 KE1J 4FFE،،،F
‫א‬EFE،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 10
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬EF‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1J 4F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E1J 4F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
180J ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬
 =‫א‬
 2
-80-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬HE ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F
 2
 00 0030Z0030H0030H00ZE–F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 40 2211Z2210H22 12H40ZE–F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 0600Z0559H0601H135ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 135
 2
 288
 1404Z14  04H1404H388ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 2
 00  33H0035H00ZEJ F‫א‬‫א‬
 0034Z00
 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 40
 2141Z0000
 30
 J 40
 1111
 Z^1EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4349Z403311–1350600Z^2EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 94
 0804Z1350600–2881404Z^3EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 153
 71  0034H360FZ^4EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4630Z2881404–E00
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 360
 0004Z4^H3^H2^H1^ZEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K360Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-81-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬400 F360
 –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬
 00
 0004HZ3600000–3600004Z‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬J
 Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1 J Z4 J Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
E‫א‬F‫א‬H‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 40
 2140Z000001–402141Z‫א‬1^‫א‬‫א‬
 94  4349Z‫א‬2^‫א‬‫א‬
 4348Z000001–94
 0803Z000001–1530804Z‫א‬3^‫א‬‫א‬
 153
 4629Z00001–714630Z‫א‬4^‫א‬‫א‬
 71
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 360Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE9J 5F

-82-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 1L‫א‬ Wild T2L‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬  ‫א‬  L‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
   000 00 30      
  180 00 30      
  040 22 10      
  220 22 12      
   135 05 59      
  315 06 01      
   288 14 04      
  108 14 04      
   000 00 33      
  180 00 35      
       
       
       
      ‫א‬ 
Z    Z‫א‬ 
E1J 5F

-83-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬8J 5
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K J 1
 K J 2
 KE‫א‬F J 3
 (Measuring of vertical angles) W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
(Automatic index)E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E  F
 ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E90
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
‫א‬Wild T2‫א‬
‫א‬
F– ‫א‬‫א‬
–E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬WE10J 5F  K‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
-84-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 E2F
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬E2F،E1F‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ F
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–E‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE2J 5F‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬–  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬KEF‫א‬‫א‬K941449
 ‫א‬ J 4
‫א‬‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 EF،854406‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬874434EF933305
 ‫א‬‫א‬180‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬ J 5
‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬180‫א‬
2674442EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F‫א‬
 
 KEF‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬E،،F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
2663635EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E3F‫א‬‫א‬
 4401EF2741540EF
 K265

-85-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E،،F‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬
 K‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F
 KE
 KE10J 5FW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–90Z‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J ‫א‬100ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 –‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 270
 ‫א‬300–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KE?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F1L2Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
E2J 4F‫א‬E،،،F‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E2J 6F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–90Z‫א‬‫א‬EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1449J Z941449–900000Z
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 270–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ZE‫א‬‫א‬FEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-86-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 4 1509J Z2700000–2654451Z
 E‫א‬‫א‬F(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1554HZ854406–900000Z
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 E‫א‬‫א‬F(B)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 4 1540HZ2700000–2741540Z
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
E?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬H?‫א‬‫א‬?‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F½Z‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 J 041459J ZE041449H041509F½J Z
 EF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1547ZE041554H041540F½Z
 04
 KE2J 5F‫א‬‫א‬
 WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 E2J 5F
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 1L‫א‬  Wild T2L‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1 ‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬  L‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬  L‫א‬  L‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  
‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
   94 14 49 -04 14 49 -04 14 59 ‫א‬  
  265 44 51 -04 15 09  ‫א‬ 
  85 44 06 04 15 54 -03 23 15 ‫א‬  Z 
  274 15 40 04 15 40   
   93 29 05 -03 23 05 02 15 22 ‫א‬  Z 
  266 96 35 -03 23 25   
   87 44 34 02 15 26 ‫א‬  2.00‫א‬
  272 15 18 02 15 18  ‫א‬ 
      
      
      
      
      
      

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
‫א‬7km‫א‬،300m‫א‬‫א‬ ‫ א‬J 4
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫אא‬،+ 12mm + 3ppm

-89-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬

6
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ o

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K8

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


-86-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W1J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬،‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬EsnellinsF
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
FE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،E‫א‬
EBase lineF‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
KGPS‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


-87-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬2J 6
 ‫א‬1J 2J 6
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K

 ‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W،
 ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K1
 ‫א‬
‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K
 ‫א‬‫א‬W ‫א‬‫א‬ K2
‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬

 ،‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ K3
‫א‬‫א‬،
K‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-88-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 
‫א‬  8J 5 40J 10 160J 25  ‫א‬‫א‬ 1
   3J 1  5J 2  30J 5  ‫א‬ 2
 15  12  ‫א‬3  ‫א‬ E‫א‬F‫א‬ 3
   ‫א‬4  ‫א‬8  12  ‫א‬‫א‬ 4
J J J J J 12J 10  ‫א‬5  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬ 5
‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 6
J J J J J
5000L1  50000L1 60000L1 ‫א‬‫א‬
 J J
 200000L1  1000000L1  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬4–2–6
Ex F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬18‫א‬E18L2F‫א‬
 ،‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5–2J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬1J 5J 2J 6
 K‫א‬‫א‬2–5–2–6
 KE3–6F،E2–6F،E1–6F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3–5–2–6

-89-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬





 ‫א‬‫א‬E1J 6F




 ‫א‬‫א‬E2J 6F












 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 E3–6F

-90-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬6J 2–6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬EKKKKKKKK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬–1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬–2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E
‫א‬‫א‬
 ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E
25‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K40‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬–1
 K‫א‬‫א‬–2
 K‫א‬‫א‬–3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬–4

-91-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬3J 6
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 3J 6
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 {‫א‬‫א‬
 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

-92-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2–3–6
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K2
 KE5J 6F،E4J 6F‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
2 1

1 3
3 2 
3 
7 3 2
7 
3 2 4
3 2 
7 2
7 
1
2 2 1

1 1 4

2 
1
1 
5

 ‫א‬‫א‬E4J 6F

3

1
0 





 
3 3  
1 1 
2 1
 ‫א‬‫א‬E5J 6F

-93-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ K1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K3
K ‫א‬‫א‬ K4
 ،˚120،˚30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K5
K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K6
‫א‬30‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬
 ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K7
K‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
 K‫א‬


-94-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E 30J 20F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬


‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ، 5‫א‬ ‫א‬  E 4J 3F       
E 60J 50F‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 30‫א‬
 5 1 ×  3 × 3‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K1× 5×
،‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
   ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬   ‫א‬ 
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬
‫א‬ ، ‫א‬
‫א‬ ،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  ‫א‬  ،           ‫א‬ 
 K ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬4J 6
  ‫א‬  ‫א‬       ‫א‬ ‫א‬ 
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-95-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬


 ‫א‬‫א‬

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W1
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W2
 J W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W3
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K
K‫א‬ K

K‫א‬ K

K‫א‬‫א‬ K

 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W4
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W5
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W6
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬W7
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W8

-96-
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻨﻲ واﻟﺘﺪرﻳﺐ اﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

1‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

7
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K8

 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K1
 K‫א‬‫א‬ K2

-97-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W(Map)W‫א‬1–7
‫א‬{
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 7
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬{ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2

 (Cadastral Maps)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬1J 2J 7
500W1{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K2500W11000W1
 KE1J 7F
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬ J 4
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 6

 (Topographic Maps )W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2J 7
‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE2J 7F5000W1

-98-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 5

 
 
 
 WE1J 7F 
 





 
 
 
 WE2J 7F 
‫א‬ 




-99-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
K‫א‬‫א‬ -

 W‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬3J 7
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W2W1‫א‬–1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW1‫א‬–2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE
 4C6F
 W‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬ -
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-100-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 KE‫א‬‫א‬F250000W1 J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬100000W1 J 2
 K100000W1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5000W1 J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KEW1F‫א‬‫א‬–1
 W‫א‬K46
 KE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫ א‬-
 KEF‫א‬‫ א‬-
K‫א‬‫א‬90‫א‬‫א‬90180‫א‬‫א‬
 KE3J 7F‫א‬K180180K360‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE3J 7F

 250000W1‫א‬‫א‬–2

1.516 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WE4218F1C
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ E18NF‫ א‬-
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E42EF‫א‬ -
 KE4J 7F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

-101-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬









‫א‬‫א‬WE4J 7F

 WEF100000W1‫א‬–3
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ 
‫א‬K
 CK‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE5J 7F‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 KE4218F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
C J 2
K4&3&2&1‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬J
 K4218J 1
 K4218J 2
 K4218J 3
 K4218J 4

100000W1‫א‬WE5J 7F 

 KE4218J 2FE5J 7F‫א‬‫א‬
 KEF50000W1‫א‬–4

-102-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

E5J 7)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 100000W1‫א‬


 KE6J 7F
‫א‬ ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K 
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3








50000W1‫א‬WE6J 7F 

 W‫א‬‫א‬4J 7
‫א‬{
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬{‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬ -
 K‫א‬‫א‬

-103-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬ -
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬5J 7
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6J 7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬–‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Z‫א‬‫א‬







-104-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬7J 7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬W1J 7J 7
‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W2J 7J 7
 K1
 K2
 K3
 WW
E
 F 
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬
 WW
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 WW
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬W3J 7J 7
 ‫א‬J 1
 ‫א‬J 2
 ‫א‬J 3

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
 K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬٪100‫א‬
 K‫א‬ J 1
K J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
K‫א‬ J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 6
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 7

 W‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W8J 7
 ‫א‬K1
 ‫א‬K2
 ‫א‬K3
 ‫א‬‫א‬K4

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W1J 8J 7
‫א‬ ‫א‬K ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬K1
 ‫א‬‫א‬K2
 ‫א‬‫א‬K3
 W‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫ א‬K1
‫א‬‫א‬ K2
EKKKKK‫א‬–F‫א‬ K3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4
‫א‬ K5
‫א‬‫א‬ K6
E ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬ K7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K8
‫א‬‫א‬ K9
‫א‬‫ א‬K10
‫א‬‫א‬ K11
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K12
‫א‬‫ א‬K13
‫א‬‫ א‬K14
W‫א‬‫א‬ K15
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -
K‫א‬‫א‬ -

-107-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫ א‬K1
  K2
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬K3
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K4
 W‫א‬‫א‬W
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 3
 W‫א‬‫א‬–
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J
 K‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬EF

-108-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W2J 8J 7
 W‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
‫א‬J 2
‫א‬J 3
‫א‬‫א‬J 4

 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
K‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
KE‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
KEEllipseF‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
KEEUTMF‫א‬FK‫א‬‫ א‬J 5
K‫א‬‫ א‬J 6
K‫א‬ J 7
K‫א‬ J 8
K‫א‬ J 9
K‫א‬‫ א‬J 10
K‫א‬ J 11
‫א‬ J 12
K‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 13

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
K‫א‬‫א‬ J 7
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W
‫א‬
 W
 ‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ W‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 

 W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬EF
 W
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-110-
 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 1
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 3
 W‫א‬EF
 W
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 1
K‫א‬J 2
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
K‫א‬‫א‬J 4
K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5
 W‫א‬EF
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬J 1
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬ •

 K‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ 
 KEHard diskF‫א‬‫א‬ •

 KECDF‫א‬ •

 KK •

 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 W‫א‬EF
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬W3J 8J 7
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬

 W‫א‬‫א‬W4J 8J 7
‫א‬‫א‬{‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 W‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 1
W‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 K‫א‬K
 K‫א‬K
 K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 
 ‫؟‬‫א‬ J 1
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 2
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 3
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 4
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 5
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 6
 ‫؟‬‫א‬ J 7
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 8
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫ א‬J 9
 ‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 10
 K‫א‬‫ א‬J 11
‫؟‬‫א‬‫א‬ J 12

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  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬‫א‬

 K،K‫א‬KE1983F، J 1
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K، J 2
KE1991F‫א‬،K،‫א‬K،  J 3
 K‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬KE1989F، J 4
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J 5
 KK‫א‬‫א‬KE1997F، J 6
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE1989FKK، J 7
 K‫א‬،‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J 8
 K،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K، J 9
KE2000F‫א‬،K‫א‬،K، J 10
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E F‫א‬K‫א‬،K، J 11
‫א‬K
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬K،‫א‬K،‫א‬ J 12
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬
K‫א‬‫א‬KE2002F‫א‬،K‫א‬، J 13
 K‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
Davis , Raymod E., Foote, Francis S., Anderson, James M. and Mikhail , Edward M. J 14
(1981) . Surveying: Theory and practice.Mc Graw – Hill.
SOKKIA, Surveying instrument (1999). Electronic Digital Theodolite : Operator’s manual J 15
. SOKKIA Co., LTD.

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  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 ‫א‬
 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 1K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 2K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Survey)‫א‬1–1
 2K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬3–1
 3 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬4J 1
 4K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬1J 4J 1
 5K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬2J 4J 1
 5K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬
 7K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 8K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Bearing)WE‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬1J 2
 9K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 11 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 12 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 2
 14 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬3J 2
 16 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 17 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 17 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Tape)‫א‬–1J 3
 24 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Compass)‫א‬2J 3
 29 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Level‫א‬‫א‬2J 3
 32 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Theodolite )‫א‬1–4J 3
 47 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K Total Station‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 3
 51 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬J 2
 54 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬6J 3
 55 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬
 60 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K EData AccuracyF‫א‬1
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K EData lntegrityF‫א‬2
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ELegibilityF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3
 61 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K EData ArrangementF‫א‬4
 62 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K EKinds of NotesF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 5
 62 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬J 6

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  101  ‫א‬
 ‫א‬  1‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬

 67 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 68 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K  ‫א‬W
 68 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WElectro – Optical Instruments W‫א‬‫א‬1–1J 5
 69 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 1J 5
 71 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 5
 73 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5J 5
 76 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K WVertical Circle ReadingW‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬6J 5
 82 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬8J 5E1J 5F
 83 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬8J 5
 88 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬
 86 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 87 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W1J 6
 88 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬1J 2J 6
 89 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬3J 2J 6
 89 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5–2J 6
 92 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬3J 6
 95 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬4J 6
 97 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬
 98 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W(Map)W‫א‬1–7
 98 K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬2J 7
 100K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬3J 7
 103K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬4J 7
 104K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬5J 7
 105K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬7J 7
 109K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W
 110K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬W
 110K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬W
 110K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K W‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬
 113K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K 
 114K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K ‫א‬‫א‬

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 ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
 ‫א‬E‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬
GOTEVOT appreciates the financial support provided by BAE SYSTEMS