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UNIT 4 BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

Contents
4.0

Objectives

4.1

Introduction

4.2

Crimes and their Categories

4.3

First Information Report (FIR), Investigation and Charge Sheet

4.4

Arrest and Warrant

4.5

Meaning of Bail

4.6

Right of the Arrested Persons

4.7

Let Us Sum Up

4.8

Key Words

4.9

Suggested Readings

4.10 Answers to Check Your Progress

4.0 OBJECTIVES
The main aim of this unit is to apprise with procedure of dealing with criminal cases.
This unit will give you the necessary understanding on the basic legal procedures and
legal terminology. After reading the unit, you will be able to:
!

know the different types of offences;

understand the legal procedures involved in FIR, investigation, charge sheet,


warrant and bail; and

know the rights of arrested individuals especially women and children.

4.1 INTRODUCTION
The law, besides imposing duties and conferring rights on persons, also lays down
procedure for their enforcement. This branch of law is called law of procedure.
Procedural law insists that certain things have to be done in a specific manner. If they
are not done in the prescribed manner, the procedure becomes illegal. This is all the
more true in case of criminal procedures. The most important criminal law that deals
with legal procedure in India is the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973. This Code applies
to offences under the Indian Penal Code, as well as to offences under other Central
Acts, and under State Acts except where those special or local laws provide differently
on a particular matter. The main objective of this procedural law is to protect the
procedural rights of the accused during the preliminary stage, trial period and to provide
him a fair trial in accordance with the accepted principles of natural justice, human
rights and human dignity.
A great majority of Indian citizens are ignorant of the provisions of criminal laws.
Ignorance of law, legal rights and duties often results in violation of these laws or

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ignorance towards exercising legitimate rights by the individuals. Sometimes, the


authorities concerned with prevention of crime and punishment of criminals seem to
exceed their legal powers or use illegal means in dealing with accused persons. It is the
duty of every citizen to know his legal rights and obligations so that he can behave in a
responsible manner and render assistance to the authorities whenever and wherever it
is necessary. It would also help him in preventing his exploitation by law enforcing
personnel and fellow citizens.
This unit explains certain basic provisions relating to First Information Report (FIR),
arrest, bail, investigation, charge-sheet, police-custody and rights of the arrested persons.
Understanding of these provisions is necessary to protect ones rights when he is arrested
by police or is confronted by law enforcing personnel.

4.2 CRIMES AND THEIR CATEGORIES


Before we study legal procedure related to crime let us try to understand the nature of
crime. Crime is an act of commission or omission contrary to law. It is presumed to be
an act against the community or society at large. State has power to punish a person
who has committed a crime and if he is found guilty. In criminal law, it is generally
presumed that an accused person is innocent until the contrary is proved through a
judicial process.
There are mainly three kinds of offences: (i) Cognizable and non-cognizable, (ii) Bailable
and non-bailable, and (iii) Compoundable and non-compoundable.
i) Cognizable and Non-Cognizable Offences
Cognizable offences are offences for which a police officer can arrest a person without
a warrant. They are more serious than non-cognizable offences. In non-cognizable
offences the police cannot arrest the offender without a warrant from the Court.
ii) Bailable and Non-Bailable Offences
There is a column in the Schedule to the Code which lays down a list of offences which
are bailable and those which are not bailable. Bailable offences are less serious than
non-bailable ones. In bailable offences, the accused has a right to get bail whereas in
non-bailable offences granting of bail is left to the discretion of the Court.
iii) Compoundable and Non-Compoundable Offences
The Code lays down a complete list of compoundable offences under Section 320.
Compoundable offences, less serious in nature, are those offences which can be
compromised with or without the permission of court by persons mentioned in the
specified sections. A compromise petition, after it is filed, cannot be withdrawn. A case
can be compounded, before judgement is pronounced, even in revision.
The Indian Penal Code defines crimes and prescribes specific punishment. The types
of cases each court can deal with are specified in the Schedule of the Code.

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There is a hierarchy of Police Officers beginning from a constable to a Superintendent


of Police in a district. Usually the officer-in-charge of a police station is called the
Station House Officer (S.H.O.). He and his superior officers can exercise power within
the local area to which they are appointed. The commission of a criminal offence is to
be reported to the police station within whose jurisdiction the offence has taken place.
This is called the First Information Report (F.I.R.)

Check Your Progress I

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

Note : a) Use the space provided for your answers.


b) Check your answers with tthose provided at the end of this unit.
1)

Which is the most important procedural law related to crime in Indian and
what is its main objective?
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2)

What are the legal duties of a citizen?


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3)

Why is it necessary to know the legal provisions related to procedural laws?


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4)

What are the different categories of crimes?


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4.3
a)

FIRST INFORMATION REPORT (FIR),


INVESTIGATION AND CHARGE SHEET
First Information Report (FIR)

FIR is the first information given to a police officer regarding the commission or occurrence
of an offence. The offence committed may be cognizable or non-cognizable. In
cognizable cases, the police can investigate upon information received without a
Magistrates order. In non-cognizable cases the police cannot investigate without a
Courts order.

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FIR must contain the following points:


i)

the name and address of the accused,

ii)

the date, place and time of the occurrence of the offence,

iii)

particulars regarding the offence viz. identifying details of property where it is a


property crime, or motive if it is a crime against person, etc., and

iv) identity of the witnesses, if any.


It is not necessary to mention all the details of the offence. The FIR must be lodged as
early as possible. Undue or unreasonable delay in lodging the FIR inevitably gives rise
to suspicion, which puts the court on guard to look for possible motives and the
explanations for the delay. Any person aware of the commission of an offence can give
information to the police officer. It must be given to the officer in-charge of the nearest
police station. It can be given orally or in writing. If given orally, it must be written down
by the police officer. It has to be signed by the informant. The substance of the information
must be entered in the Station House Register. A copy of the information as recorded
must be given to the informant free of cost.
The FIR is an important document as it is the starting point in an investigation. Hence,
the obligation is to speak truly and to avoid exaggeration or falsehood. By itself, it is not
substantive evidence in a trial to prove the guilt of a person. Yet the first information is
a document of considerable importance in criminal trials. It can be used to corroborate
(support) or to contradict the testimony of the informant witness, by the accused. FIR
has been discussed under Chapter XII information to the Police and their powers to
investigate are given in section 154 to 176 of the code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.
Check Your Progress II
Note : a) Use the space provided for your answers.
b) Check your answers with those provided at the end of this unit.
1)

What is FIR?
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2)

What should an FIR contain?


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3)

To whom should an FIR be given?

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

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4)

What is the importance of FIR?


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b) Investigation
An officer in-charge of a police station can investigate into any cognizable offence
committed within the local limits of that police station without the order of a magistrate.
Police Officers power and procedures to investigate are given in Chapter XII (section
154 to section 176) of Criminal Procedure Code. From the information received, if the
Police Officer suspects the commission of an offence, he, either in person or through his
subordinate officer, investigates the facts and circumstances of the case. If necessary,
the Police Officer may arrest the offender.
A Police Officer who is investigating a cognizable offence has the power to send an
order in writing to any person, who is acquainted with the facts and circumstances of
the case, to appear before him. Such a person has a duty to appear before the Police
Officer and answer all the questions relating to the case that are put to him.
Every police officer making an investigation must enter its proceedings in a diary (Case
Diary) every day. He must record:
i)

the time at which the information reached him;

ii)

the time at which he began and closed his investigation;

iii)

the place or places visited by him; and

iv) a statement of the circumstances ascertained through his investigation.


The object of keeping case diaries is to enable the Court to be informed of investigation
by the police to aid it during trial. It can be used by the Court and the Police Officer
and the accused under certain circumstances.
Every investigation is expected to be completed without unnecessary delay. As soon as
the investigation is completed the Police Officer must forward the report to the competent
Magistrate in a prescribed form.
c) Charge Sheet
The police report made at the end of investigation is known as charge sheet. It must
contain---

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the name of the offence committed by the accused;

the law and the section of the law against which the offence is said to have been
committed;

the particulars as to the time and place of the alleged offence, the name of the
person against whom (if any), or the thing in respect of which, the offence was
committed;

the manner of committing the alleged offence (in some cases).

Any court may alter or add to any charge at any time before judgement is pronounced.
Every such alteration or addition should be read before and explained to the accused.
There should be separate charge for every distinct offence of which any person is
accused. Every separate charge must be tried separately. Court has power to alter
charges. Under chapter XVII of CPC, details are given.
Check Your Progress III
Note : a) Use the space provided for your answers.
b) Check your answers with those provided at the end of this unit.
1)

Who is authorized to investigate a cognizable offence?


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2)

Is a police officer investigating a cognizable offence entitled to arrest the accused


person?
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3)

Whom can an investigating officer call to give statements on the offence alleged
to have been committed by an accused person?
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4)

What is a charge sheet?


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4.4 ARREST AND WARRANT


A person is arrested when a police officer or a citizen takes him into custody or otherwise
substantially deprives him of his freedom of action so that he may be held to answer for
a crime or an offence.
a) Warrant of Arrest

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It is a written order issued by a Court to a police officer to arrest and produce an


offender or to search his premises for a particular thing. A police officer who executes
the warrant shall notify the substance thereof to the person to be arrested and if he
demands, shall show him the warrant. He is expected to bring the required person
before the Court without unnecessary delay.

b) Valid Warrant

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

A warrant of arrest should be (i) in writing, (ii) signed by the presiding officer of Court,
and (iii) should bear the seal of such Court. It should also contain the name of the
accused, his address and indicate the offence with which he is charged. If any of these
factors is absent, the warrant is not in order and an arrest made in execution of such a
warrant is illegal. Warrants are of two kinds: Bailable and Non-bailable.
A bailable warrant is a Courts order which contains a direction that if the person
arrested executes a bail with sufficient sureties for his attendance before the Court, he
may be released from custody. In that case it shall further state the number of sureties,
the amount of the bond, and the time for attending the Court.
In case of a non-bailable warrant the direction for bail will not be endorsed on the
warrant.
c) Arrest Without Warrant
A police officer has power to arrest a person without warrant, if he is suspected of
having committed a cognizable offence. Normally in non-cognizable offences a police
officer cannot arrest a person without a warrant from a Magistrate.
A person can be arrested without a warrant:
!

if he is concerned in a cognizable offence or if there is a reasonable suspicion,


complaint or information that he has committed a cognizable offence;

if he possesses implements of house breaking;

if he possesses stolen property;

if he is a proclaimed offender;

if he obstructs a police officer on duty;

if he escapes from a legal custody;

if he is a deserter from the army, navy or air force;

when he is out of India and commits an offence punishable under any extradition
law or under the Fugitive Offenders Act;

if he is a released convict who breaks the restrictions imposed by the Court on his
movements;

if he is suspected of preparing to commit a cognizable offence;

if he is a habitual criminal;

if he, after committing a non-cognizable offence in presence of a police officer,


refuses to give the police his name and address, gives a false name and address:

if he is required by a police officer of another police station who suspects that he


has committed a cognizable offence;

Arrest is complete when there is submission to custody by word or action, and in such
a case touching or confining of the body of the person arrested is not necessary, but
mere surrounding of a person by the police does not amount to arrest.
d) Fundamental Rights When Arrested
Once any person is arrested by the police officer he/she has following rights:
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To be informed of the reasons for his/her arrest.

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To consult a lawyer of his/her your choice.

To be produced before the nearest Magistrate within 24 hours.

According to the Supreme Courts, ruling normally an arrested person should not be
handcuffed unless he is violent or he is a desperate character or he is likely to attempt
to escape or to commit suicide. Arrest is not a punishment.
Hence unnecessary restraints are not permissible, if there is no necessity for doing so.
A police officer has the right to search a person only after he is arrested. After the
search the police officer must keep in safe custody all the articles taken from him and
give him a receipt for the same.
A search of an arrested female should be done with strict regard to decency. A woman
can be searched only by another women.
e) Detention of An Arrested Person
Article 22 (2) of the Constitution lays down that every person who is arrested and
detained in custody should be produced before the nearest Magistrate within a period
of 24 hours of such arrest exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place
of arrest to the Magistrates Court. However, Section 167 of the Cr. P.C. vests the
power in the Magistrate to authorize the detention of the arrested person for more than
24 hours if the investigation cannot be completed within that period. In no circumstances
can the accused be detained in custody for a moment more than twenty four hours
without a special order of a Magistrate who can order his detention for a term not
exceeding 15 days on the whole. At the end of the 15 days he must be produced
before the Magistrate. If there are adequate grounds for further detention in judicial
custody (jail), he can pass an order to that effect, for a period not exceeding 15 days.
But the total period of detention cannot exceed 60 days. The order of a Magistrate
sanctioning the detention for an indefinite period is illegal. If the accused is not able to
furnish bail during the stage of investigation for a bailable offence he may be detained in
judicial custody. In case of non-bailable offence the arrested person may be kept in jail
until the trial is over.
Check Your Progress IV
Note : a) Use the space provided for your answers.
b) Check your answers with those provided at the end of this unit.
1)

Who is entitled to arrest an accused person who is suspected to have committed


a cognizable offence?
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2)

What are the different types of warrants?


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3)

When can a police officer arrest a person accused of committing a noncognizable offence?
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4)

Can an arrested person be handcuffed?

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

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5)

Who is allowed to search a female person after arrest?


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4.5 MEANING OF BAIL


Bail means releasing an arrested person from legal custody until his trial. Bail gives the
freedom to seek advice from friends and to consult a lawyer, to trace witnesses and to
collect evidence for ones defence and to continue his job.
Provisions regarding bail can be classified into two categories: i.e. (i) bailable cases;
and (ii) non-bailable cases.
In the case of bailable offences, granting of bail is a matter of legal right. This means that
bail cannot be refused and shall be granted by a police officer in charge of a police
station having the accused in his custody. The release may be ordered on the accused
executing a bond, even without sureties.
In non-bailable cases, only the Court can order release of the accused person on bail.
However, if the police officer or the Magistrate is of the opinion that there is no sufficient
material against the accused and that the complaint needs further investigation he may
also release the accused on bail. Normally, bail is not granted when the accused person
appears, on reasonable grounds, to be guilty of an offence punishable with death or
imprisonment for life. But women, children under 15 years of age and sick people can
be released on bail by a Magistrate even if charged with offences punishable with
death or life-imprisonment.
The discretionary power of the Court to grant bail is a judicial power and is given by
established principles. Before granting bail the Court must consider the seriousness of
the charge, the nature of the evidence, the severity of the punishment prescribed for the
offences and in some cases the character, means and the status of the accused.
Following are common objections raised by the Police Officer whenever a bail application
is moved.
!

The accused will not appear at his trial.

The accused will interfere with witnesses or material evidence.

The accused will commit further offences while on bail.

Police enquiries are not complete.

Further charges might follow.

Stolen properties have not been recovered.

The co-accused are absconding.

The weapons with which crime was committed have not been recovered.

If bail is refused, the Magistrate must record the reasons for the same. Such a record is
necessary to make a proper appeal for bail in higher Courts.

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Appeal: If application for bail is rejected by the Magistrate, the accused person can
appeal to a Sessions Court or High Court. Disagreement with the objections raised
by the police in granting bail or the fact of no objection raised in the Court must be
incorporated in the application for bail. If ones application is rejected, one may try
again in ones next Court appearance.
Conditions for Bail: The Magistrate may grant a bail:
!

without any condition;

subject to special conditions;

subject to bond with or without sureties;

Special conditions usually state that the accused person must report to the police station
at specified time or surrender his passport. One can challenge in a Court any
unreasonable condition imposed by the Magistrate. If the Court refuses to change the
conditions, the accused person can reject them. But in that case he will not be released
until his appeal is heard and disposed of in his favour. Before any person is released on
bail, a bond or such sum of money as the police officer or court thinks sufficient and on
surety that such person will attend of the time and place mentioned in the bond, will
have to be furnished.
Anticipatory Bail: When a person has reason to believe that he may be arrested for a
non-bailable offence, he may apply to the High Court or to the Court of Session for a
direction that in the event of such an arrest he may be released on bail.
If such a person is arrested without a warrant by a police officer and if he is prepared to
give bail, he must be released on bail. In case a warrant is issued against the accused by
a Magistrate, it must be a bailable warrant in conformity with the direction of the High
Court or the Court of Session. The purpose of the provision is to relieve a person from
disgrace by being detained in jail for some days before he can apply for bail when he is
implicated in a false case by a rival.
Check Your Progress V
Note : a) Use the space provided for your answers.
b) Check your answers with tthose provided at the end of this unit.
1)

What is bail?
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2)

From where can you get bail in a bailable case?


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3)

Do you have legal right to get bail in a case of bailable offence?


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4)

Who is entitled to get bail even in non-bailable cases?


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5)

From where can a person get anticipatory bail?

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

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4.6 RIGHT OF THE ARRESTED PERSONS


A person arrested by police has following rights:
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The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation of the
arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name tags with
their designations. The particulars of all such police personnel who handle
interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in a register.

A person who has been arrested or detained and is being held in custody in police
station or interrogation centre or other lock-up, shall be entitled to have one friend
or relative or other person known to him or having interest in his welfare being
informed, as soon as practicable, that he has been arrested and is being detained
at the particular place, unless the attesting witness of the memo of arrest is himself
such a friend or a relative of the arrestee.

The time, place of arrest and venue of custody of an arrestee must be notified by
the police, where the next friend or relative of the arrestee lives outside the district
or town, through the Legal Aid Organisation in the District and the police station
of the area concerned, telegraphically within a period of 8 to 12 hours after the
arrest.

The person arrested must be made aware of this right to have someone informed
of his arrest or detention as soon as he is put under arrest or is detained.

An entry must be made in the diary at the place of detention regarding the arrest of
the person which shall also disclose the name of the next friend of the person who
has been informed of the arrest and the names and particulars of the police officials
in whose custody the arrestee is.

The arrestee should, where he so requests, be also examined at the time of his
arrest and major and minor injuries, if any, present on his/her body, must be recorded
at that time. The Inspection Memo must be signed both by the arrestee and the
police officer effecting the arrest and its copy provided to the arrestee.

The arrestee should be subjected to medical examination every 48 hours during


his detention in custody by a doctor on the panel of approved doctors appointed
by Director, Health Services of the concerned State or Union Territory.

The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not
throughout the interrogation.

The above rights of the arrested person are based on the Supreme Courts directions in
D.K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal, AIR 1997 SC 610. These rules have to be
followed in all cases of arrest or detention till a specific law is enacted by Parliament.
a) Specific Rights if Arrested
General provisions regarding arrest are also applicable to a woman. However law
provides following special rights to a woman to protect her human dignity and modesty.
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While arresting a woman, a male police officer has no power to touch her body.

A search of an arrested female should be done with strict regard to decency and
modesty. A woman can be searched only by another woman.

An arrested female person can demand that she be examined by a female doctor.

Normally the arresting authority should make all efforts to keep a lady
constable present while arresting a female person. If a male police officer arrests
a woman for lawful reasons at any time of the day or night in the absence of a lady
constable, due to her unavailability, the arresting officer must record the reasons
for doing so.

If after arrest a woman is detained in police custody or judicial custody she must
be guarded by female police officer.

An arrested woman is entitled to get bail even in a non-bailable offence.

A woman has a right to free legal aid from the State.

b)

Specific Rights of Children when arrested


The childhood and vulnerability of children is protected by law. Children have
specific rights consequent upon the arrest. These are :

When a juvenile in conflict with law is apprehended he should be placed under the
charge of the special juvenile unit or the designated police officer.

Then the special juvenile police unit or the designated police officer should
immediately report the matter to a member of the Juvenile Justice Board.

When a juvenile accused of a bailable or non-bailable offence is arrested, he must


be released on bail with or without surety. If he is not released on bail for specific
reasons the police officer should send him to an observation home in the prescribed
manner until he can be brought before a Board.

The Board instead of committing him in prison must make an order to send him to
an observation home or place of safety during the pendency of the enquiry regarding
him.

When a juvenile is arrested and brought before an officer in-charge of a police


station or the special juvenile police unit, he should immediately inform the parents
or guardians of the juvenile about such arrest and direct him to be present at the
Board before which the juvenile will appear.

He must also inform the Probation Officer of such arrest and request him to make
enquiry about his antecedents and family background.

A juvenile accused of a crime cannot be tried together with adults involved in the
same crime. The juvenile must be tried separately under the Juvenile Justice Act.

An arrested child cannot be kept in jail together with adult prisoners.

4.7 LET US SUM UP


Laws confer rights and impose duties. Some laws are known as procedural laws. They
prescribe rules for getting certain things done in specified manner. The Criminal
Procedure Code, 1973 contains various rules related with crime and its trial. These
rules must be observed by all especially law enforcing personnel. Non-observance of
the rules makes the procedure illegal.
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The objective of Cr. P.C. is to punish the guilty and to give justice to the victim of crime.
Police officials are given power to investigate crime and report to the court. Court tries
an accused on the basis of evidence and declares him guilty or not guilty. Punishments
are given to the guilty on the basis of degree of guilt.

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

The criminal procedure begins when FIR is filed in the nearest police station. If the FIR
gives first information about a cognizable offence the police-in-charge of a police station
starts the investigation to find evidence against the accused. At the end of the investigation
the investigating officer will submit a report to the court to try an accused.
A police officer cannot start the investigation if the offence is non-cognizable for which
the Magistrate has to issue a warrant of arrest. Warrant can be bailable or non-bailable.
A person accused of a cognizable offence can be arrested by the investigating officer.
After arrest he may be kept in police custody or judicial custody. In a case of bailable
offence the accused has a right to get bail from the police station. In non-bailable cases
court has discretionary power to grant bail. To obtain anticipatory bail the accused has
to apply to Sessions Court or High Court.
An arrested person has certain rights guaranteed by the Constitution of India and
Cr. P.C. The Supreme Court of India in D.K. Basu vs. State of West Bengal case has
also specified certain rights of the accused. Arrested women and children have special
rights.

4.8 KEY WORDS


Arrest

: to rake in custody by authority of law/police.

Crime

: an act of commission or omission contrary to law.

Cognizable

: offences for which a police officer can arrest a person without

Offence

a warrant.

Bail

: security taken by the court that a person charged for offence


will attend at a future date to answer to the charge.

Charge-sheet

: report made at the end of investigation.

4.9

SUGGESTED READINGS

Basu Durga Das (2001), Introduction to the constitution of India.


Gangrade, K D. (1978), Social Legislation in India, Concept Publishing Company,
New Delhi.
Subhash Kashyap (1997), Citizens and Constitution, Publication Division.

4.9 ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS


Check Your Progress I
1)

The important procedural law related to crimes is Criminal Procedure Code. Its
main objective is to prescribe various procedures related to FIR, investigation,
charge sheet, arrest, bail and trial.

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2)

It is the legal duty of every person to know the laws of our country, and follow
their obligations, prevent crimes against society and to render assistance to legal
authorities in taking action against those who violate the laws.

3)

It is necessary to know the legal procedures to protect ones right and to assist
others in dealing with legal problems.

4)

Crimes are divided into 3 categories:


i)

Cognizable and non-cognizable;

ii)

Bailable and non-bailable;

iii)

Compoundable and non-compoundable.

Check Your Progress II


1)

FIR is the first information given to a police officer regarding the commission or
occurrence of an offence.

2)

It should contain the name and address of the accused, the date, place and time of
the occurrence of the offence, particulars regarding the offence and identity of the
witnesses, if any.

3)

FIR must be given to the officer in-charge of the nearest police station.

4)

FIR is an important document. It helps to start the investigation. It can be used to


corroborate (support) or to contradict the testimony of the informant witness or
by the accused.

Check Your Progress III


1)

An officer in - charge of a police station.

2)

Yes.

3)

He can call any person who is acquainted with the facts and circumstances of the
offence.

4)

The police report of the offence, made at the end of investigation is known as
charge sheet.

Check Your Progress IV

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1)

Any police officer or any person.

2)

Bailable and non-bailable warrants.

3)

He can arrest him only when he receives a warrant of arrest from a competent
Magistrate.

4)

Normally an arrested person should not be handcuffed unless he is violent or he is


an habitual offender or a desperate character.

5)

Only a female person is allowed to search her.

Check Your Progress V


1)

Bail means release of an arrested person from legal custody until his trial.

2)

From the police officer-in-charge of a police station.

3)

Yes.

4)

Women, children below 15, very old persons and very sick people.

5)

From the Sessions Court or High Court.

Basic Understanding of
Criminal Procedure

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