6 vues

Transféré par dce_40

- Requirements of Engineering Geological Investigation
- Mines 03
- GEO IRA
- An Extension of Bishop's Simplified Method of Slope Stability Analysis to Three Dimensions
- geodESIGN ZID SPRIJIN.pdf
- BUET Msc Admission Test Suggestion
- List of Books Soil
- Sachpazis_verification of the Ultimate Punching Shear Resistance to Ec2 1992-1!1!2004 With Na Cen
- 04 Bonita Fundaciones especiales
- Ar Banas Danube Ad
- 86
- Bibliografue Canada
- Soil Parameters
- Behaviour of Shallow Foundations on Jointed Rock Mass
- BHA BH - 30
- Nailing a Deep Excavation in Soft Soil With Jacked in Pipe Inclusions
- Basic Tutorial 7_2D Slope Stability Analysis SRM
- Appendix C - Geotechnical
- 01_3D Abutment Foundation Pile
- Guidelines for the Use of Advanced Numerical Analysis (in Geotechnical Engineering)

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

...

G. Lombardi, Lombardi Engineering Ltd, Switzerland

The traditional structural analysis of gravity dams, both concrete and fill, is based on an oversimplified twodimensional scheme, which is largely misleading as soon as the valley slopes start to become steep. It is

postulated that such dams should be analysed in a way that takes into account their real three-dimensional

behaviour if unpleasant mishaps are to be avoided, such as have occurred at a number of concrete faced

fill dams. A simplified way to study this problem is presented here, to get a first feeling of the various

aspects related to the real conditions of equilibrium of gravity structures, especially in narrow valleys.

Fig. 1. Traditional

assumption for the

analysis of a straight

gravity dam.

Independent 2-D

slices across the dam

body resting each

one on a

hypothetical

horizontal

foundation (W =

weight; H = water

pressure; U = uplift).

H-.

lw

uj

98

rom the physical point of view, any dam represents a three-dimensional body and should thus

be analysed taking into account this aspect of the

reality [Lombardi, 1993 1; 19942; 20043].

In fact, it can be noticed that, mainly for traditional

reasons, straight gravity structures, (conventional or

RCC gravity dams, but also fill dams with a core or a

concrete face), are generally analysed as two-dimensional structures. That means that only the stability of

thin 2-D cross-slices is investigated. The foundation

surface for each slice is implicitly assumed to be horizontal in the direction of the dam axis, that is crossvalley. In other words, possible problems in the third

dimension, that is, in the direction of the dam axis, or

of the slope of the valley flanks, are simply overlooked

or ignored (Fig. 1)

The historical reason for this way of thinking probably goes back to a period when the weak structural

element was the concrete dam itself. The main scope

of the analysis was thus to define the stresses in the

dam body. Today, however, the weakest element is

generally no longer the dam body itself, but its foundation. This change is the consequence of significant

improvements in construction techniques, but also

mainly the fact that the better dam sites have been

already developed, and those now available are much

less favourable as regards their geotechnical conditions.

The aim of the present paper is simply to show that,

when the traditional approach is followed, risks may

be assumed of which many designers are apparently

not really aware. The reasons for focusing attention on

the three-dimensional behaviour of the structure are

manifold: risks are steadily increasing from decade to

decade for various reasons. For example, the continuous technical and economical improvements of the

RCC technique create a temptation to adopt this type

of structure even where a fill dam could be the best

solution, or even the only correct one from a technical

and safety point of view.

Sometimes, even medium quality rock foundations

are considered so as not to allow for the construction

of an arch dam and thus to favour a gravity structure,

giving the wrong impression that any foundation problem can then be automatically solved. Sometimes such

could possibly be more appropriate for the geological

and geotechnical conditions.

A number of powerful computation codes for gravity structures, frequently used without sufficient caution, may lead designers to put 'blind trust' in their

results, with insufficient critical sensitivity or adequate cross-checking.

It is surprising to note that some quite fundamentally simple questions, such as the one to be discussed

next, often escape the attention of designers. This can

lead to dangerous situations [Bustamente and Tradisic,

20064 ; Lombardi, 20065].

According to Fig. 2, we may consider the simple case

of a concrete gravity dam of constant height, built on

ground of variable quality, that is, on rock zones of

different shear strengths and deformabilities. This is a

quite frequent occurrence. To compensate for possible

differential settlements, as well as to take into account

the contraction of the concrete by shrinkage and cooling, vertical joints are provided to form independent

blocks, each one resting by itself on a homogeneous

but different foundation.

The factor of safety (FoS) against sliding of each of

the three blocks, considered as independent, thus differs; the lowest value of FoS may be sufficient or not,

and the block itself may thus be sufficiently safe or

not.

Should the decision then be taken to close the joints,

to achieve an averaged overall factor of safety, thus to

compensate for the too low local ones (or for any other

reason), then the behaviour of the structure becomes

three-dimensional: for the usual load cases (when the

deformabilities are different); or just for the extreme

ones (when the strengths are different), or at least

when carrying out a limit equilibrium analysis.

To ignore these particular conditions may have costly and possibly even serious consequences.

FoS >

q><

FoS <

J,

FoS >

ground of variable quality. (FoS = factor of safety; qJ = friction

angle), 1 to 3: block numbers: J/, h: vertical joints.

Hydropower & Dams

~~'

'.I'

li"1

:i

i~

!~

:~,;

(a)

B~'::

(el

:~"

I W-cos 11

B

u

W'Slnl1

problem led to additional useless expenses.

represents a quite large concrete faced rockfill dam

resting on an exceptionally well compacted morainic

material of the best quality. In a narrow irregular

canyon below that material, a layer of fine sand was

found, which could possibly liquefy in the event of a

strong earthquake.

For anybody with sound geothecnical and structural

judgement, the situation appears clearly to be a three

dimensional one, as it is evident that a thin vertical

slice cut in the massive dam cannot move out without

pulling some part of the nearby volume of material,

which of course would resist the movement and thus

increase the factor of safety of the thin two-dimensional slice considered.

In spite of these simple considerations, a two-dimensional equilibrium analysis was specified and imposed

on the owner. This led to the construction of an expensive but totally useless additional berm at the downstream dam heel.

This case is a very clear, but not unique, example of

a 'simplification' of the problem. Unfortunately, some

codes of analysis follow this way of thinking based on

the same traditional 2-D considerations, as imposed at

the project described.

2.1 General aspects

The most important of the often overlooked factors in

the analysis of gravity structures appears to be the

reduced stability of the dam elements (or blocks) resting on the inclined valley flanks. It is therefore worthwhile to discuss this aspect and its influence on the

equilibrium and on the factor of safety of the entire

dam structure.

(W sin a), giving thus an 'inclined' action on the foundation surface.

On the other hand, the shear resistance available on

the foundation surface depends on the force acting on

it in the normal direction, while obviously taking into

account the corresponding inclined uplift force.

Because of the inclination of the foundatIon, the

'uplift force' is increased in the proportion of l/cosa,

corresponding to the actual width of the foundation in

the downhill direction, with respect to the usual case.

On the other hand, the weight component acting normally on the foundation is reduced in inverse proportion, thus being (W cosa).

As can be seen in Fig. 5, the angle of friction theoretically required on the foundation for a given factor

of safety is greatly increased as a function of the crossvalley inclination. There is no doubt that in many real

cases, and for quite a number of existing dams, the

concrete blocks on the valley flanks would not be stable by themselves, or at least would not show a sufficient factor of safety. The actual factor of safety, of

course, stays well below the value obtained by the

usual computations based on the assumption of a

cross-valley horizontal foundation.

In many cases these blocks will need some support

from the nearby ones, in fact, from the adjacent ones, on

the way down to the central part of the valley, where

presumably a horizontal foundation for the central

blocks will exist, or where the compensation of the

forces from the opposite valley flank may be found.

2.0

~(n)

n'" 1.5

~ (n)

25"

35"

30'

40

40

50

n"'1

~'" F(a.,9,n)

a",20: ,9"'0

--

Let us first consider an independent concrete block

resting on a valley flank. For the sake of simplicity, we

will analyse only the case of sliding on the foundation

surface, while possibly deeper, differently oriented

discontinuities in the rock mass could obviously be

more critical and should also be considered. To avoid

additional useless complications at this stage, the

foundation surface is simply assumed to be horizontal

in the up/downstream direction.

According to Fig. 4, the foundation surface should

resist the combined force R resulting from the vectorial composition of the downstream oriented hydrostatic pressure H (plus possibly a hydrodynamic

1/cosa

.....

..... ~

"-es:>

,~

. . . , :.:~7,:',~=35; ,9=213

t:: ~ 't(

I'~I'

~60'

. . . ,ii('~-\,..-'~-'=.!"~

1.0

1

I

1

o

o

60"

'I'

"

'

)\ \

\

\\

I \ \

\

\

70"

1\\

\

\SO'

10 20

50~

30

40

50

60

60

90'

70 80 90 ~ =

70

80

90~-t

Friction

angLe

--'

Fig. 4. Equilibrium

of a single

"independent" damblock. (a) block on

an inclined

foundation; (b)

foundation surface;

and, (c) downhill

cross section with

main forces. a =

downhill inclination;

W = weight; U =

uplift; H =

horizontal up/downstream driving force;

R = resultant.

f3= multiplier ofthe

uplift (U) (f3 = 1 for

triangular uplift at

no drains);

n = requiredfactor

of safety; qJ ~

corresponding

friction angle.

11

Fig. 5. The

equilibrium of a

blockfounded on an

inclined surface.

Only weight, water

pressure and uplift

are taken here into

account.

Example: if the cross

valley slope is 35

and uplift equals 2/3

(of the triangular

diagram), a friction

angle qJ of60 would

be required (at no

cohesion) to obtain a

factor ofsafety of

15 (qJ = 49for a

factor of safety of 1).

99

steeper the valley flanks are.

It may be recalled that in former times it was quite

usual to form the foundation of gravity dams by stairlike steps, so to place each single concrete block on a

horizontal surface. The aim of this design was sometimes related to the old theoretical wrong vision dealt

with here, but mainly the aim was to improve the stability of the single blocks at the time of construction.

However, such a design was based on a misinterpretation of the actual geotechnical situation, because

inclined discontinuities paralleling the ground surface,

which generally do exist, could easily cut off the tiers,

and thus be a determinant for the stability. It should

also be recalled that the geotechnical conditions were

often better in the past than those found today. At present, the foundation line is thus, as a rule, shaped as an

inclined smooth one, while the blocks are usually cast

from the valley bottom up (especially for RCC dams).

any case, rely of a number of possibly arbitrary

assumptions about various elements of the global

structure. In addition, the shrinkage and the long-term

cooling of the concrete may change the stress and

stiffness conditions over the years, causing a modification to the stability conditions ofthe structure.

As the main aim of this paper is to define the overall

conditions of equilibrium and of the factor of safety to

be expected for the structure, rather than to compute

the exact value of some local stresses (which might be

analysed at a second stage), some simplified procedures can be considered. The later stress analysis can

thus be confined to the points of stress concentration,

which may appear, for example at the shear keys, as a

result of the large forces to be transferred through the

joints from one block to the next.

at least a first step, the way to follow will be the socalled 'load factor method'. The actions, like water

pressure, uplift, silt load, earthquake (for example,

considered as pseudo-stl!tic), will be multiplied by the

required factor of safety, while the resisting forces

(mainly the self ~eight, the friction and the cohesion

on the foundation) will be considered with their actual values.

Another way could obviously be to keep all the loads

at their actual value, but reduce the geotechnical

strength factors, dividing them by the required factor

of safety. The reason for doing this could be the intention to obtain a clearer definition of the points of

impact of the forces.

The method of partial factors of safety could also be

used. This is in fact a combination of the two methods

mentioned above. For the sake of simplicity, the 'load

factor' method is used here.

The absolute value of the resisting shear force along

the foundation surface can quite easily be defined on the

basis of the friction angle and the cohesion assumed on

surface. On the contrary, its direction is not known in

advance, and depends on a number of factors.

often unavoidable to restore the continuity of the

structure in closing the joints and implementing special devices (like shear-keys) to increase the factor of

safety by making possible a transfer of the required

forces from the valley flanks down to the central part

of the dam, which will supposedly resist them.

In this case, from the crest abutment down to the valley bottom, a number of factors may intervene which

could increase the stability of the blocks and of the

entire structure as, for example:

the presence of downstream rock or concrete masses, which can at least partly resist the sliding forces of

single blocks, and thus stabilize the entire wing of the

dam; or,

sections of the dam with a transversally flat foundation, which can interrupt the downhill flow of forces in

resisting them directly; or,

keys and specially shaped foundation surfaces with

increased shear strength.

Such situations must obviously be taken into account

in the design, but, for the sake of simplicity, are not be

considered in the following presentation.

The analysis of the transfer of the forces, required to

achieve a given factor of safety may be complex, as

shown by Fig. 6. The three components X, Y and Z

must obviously be taken into account at each step of

the computation.

The way the forces will be transferred to the next

block is influenced by the stiffness of the structures

implemented in the joints, as well as by the rigidity of

the foundation versus that of the structure itself.

Obviously, a complete 3-D finite element analysis of

of safety

".,

a)

100

(b)

~"

H

o

n- 1

\R",

Block n

n+1

Fig. 6. Forces

normally to be

transferred by the

joints from block to

block.

(a) Downhill crosssection. Transmission

of compressive forces

from block to block;

(b) Plan view with

the forces transferred

from block to block

through the joints

b)

R".1~

H_

R\

equilibrium ofa single block.

R,_! = action from the uphill block;

H = horizontal driving force;

D = downhill component of the weight;

F = resistance by friction and cohesion on the foundation; and,

R, = reaction by the downhill block.

Obviously the vertical components are considered accordingly

(a) first limit, (b) intermediate case, (c) second limit.

Hydropower & Dams

foundation, two limits as well as intermediate values

may be considered, as shown at Fig. 7.

lal

(dl

It is assumed that, for each block, the downhill component will be directly supported by the next block by

a compressive force. The frictional resistance of the

foundations is thus entirely devoted to resisting the

downstream component, that is the driving force H. If

this resistance were insufficient, the difference is then

supposed to be transferred to the next downhill block

by a transversal shear force acting in the joint.

The second case - Fig. 7(b)

It is assumed that, for any block, the shear resistance of

the foundation is oriented in the opposite direction to

the resultant of the forces acting directly on it. Again,

if required, to restore the equilibrium, the lacking

forces will be transferred to the next block by the joint.

Other assumptions - Fig. 7(c)

These can be assumed, depending on the nature and

configuration of the joints, for example, if the joints

are 'open' in their normal direction, the shear resistance of the foundation will act, in the first place, to

support the downhill component of the forces. If necessary the shear and even the compressive resistance

of the joint must intervene to ensure the downstream

stability of the block with the required safety factor.

cases, from the crest elevation down to the valley bottom, and each block is analysed taking into account

the forces coming down from the upper ones.

For the sake of the computation, additional 'virtual'

joints may be introduced where a change in the conditions is given, as for example, if the assumed values

for the friction angle or the cohesion, as well as the

inclination of the foundation from a section to the next

one will change.

It appears that, in general, the first case considered

above will be excessively favourable, while the second

one, which may look more logical, is somewhat detrimental to the equilibrium. It is felt that the most probable solution will be in between these limits. It should

therefore be worthwhile to fulfil the computations on

the basis of various assumptions, even in the case of a

finite element analysis, so as to obtain a better and

more complete overview of the situation.

Indeed, the choice between the various assumptions

about the direction of the shear on the foundation surface depends on a number of factors, but first and foremost on the nature of the joints, their opening, as well

their relative stiffness and strength both in the radial

and the tangential directions. In an actual dam, various

additional assumptions may apply for the various

blocks.

It goes without saying that, at the end of the day, the

central part of the dam, at the valley bottom, should be

able to resist, at least with the required factor of safety, the forces coming down from both valley flanks.

according to the Mohr-Colomb law, it should also be

considered that possibly even a small sliding movement which could be caused by a seismic event, could

destroy it. Therefore, pre-"as well as post-sliding conditions must be analysed.

The question of the geotechnical parameters is particularly important because in many cases the friction

angle to be considered may be only slightly greater

than the slope of the foundation surface.

5. An example

Following the concepts presented above, a real case

was computed and the result are given in Fig. 8. This

shows the main data of the left flank of an RCC dam

96 m high, with its actual joints, with the assumption

that the joints cannot transfer normal forces but only

shear forces.

It is assumed that the shear forces are transferred

from block to block at a short distance above the foundation line. The results of the computation are repreResults of the computation for the dam shown by Fig. 8,

for normal loading; case (c) of Fig. 7

Block

FoS

number

I.B.

1.65

2

3

4

5

6

4. Geotechnical parameters

selected as a basis for the computations is obviously

of the greatest importance.

In particular, it should be considered whether a displacement by sliding takes place along the foundation

or along any somewhat deeper discontinuity in the

rock mass. In this case, the corresponding geotechnical values should possibly be used, for simplicity, at

the foundation surface itself.

Fig. 8. Example of a

dam. (a) view from

upstream; (b) plan

view; (c) cross-section

lateral blocks 1 to 6;

(d) cross-section

central blocks 5 to 9

Load case: normal

water elevation 90 m,

sediments to 60 m.

In the plan view (b)

the shear forces in the

joints are shown. They

are required to obtain

a safety factor of 15,

in the case the joints

cannot resist normal

forces. These shear

forces reach 970 MN

(97000 tonne).

Joint

number

Shear forces

Y (in MN)

-44

-81

+ll

+264

+640

+970

+640

+310

10

FoS

C.B.

1.5

1.20

1.5

1.03

1.5

1.5

0.99

1.5

1.02

1.l0

1.5

1.5

1.85

1.5

1.85

1.85

1.5

block (by shear keys); Forces in MN (I MN = 100 metric tonne).

Note: For I.B. downhill FoS = downstream FoS; for C.B. downhill.

FoS= 1

101

These results call for two main comments.

First, the overall factor of safety is only 1.5, while

the 2-D analysis showed a value of 1.85 for a horizontal foundation (Blocks 7 to 9).

Second, it should be mentioned that the forces to be

transferred through the joints are very significant, and

therefore adequate devices must be designed to resist

them. In addition, it should be noted that the factor of

safety depends greatly on the dimensions of the block

on the valley bottom. For example, if block 9 did not

exist, then the factor of safety would be about 1.4

instead of 1.5.

According to a quite old tradition, gravity dams (including fill darns) are generally computed as two-dimensional structures, with a study only of cross sections

normal to the dam axis; usually even only the highest

one, at the centreline of the valley bottom is analysed.

It must be considered that in reality a gravity dam

exhibits three-dimensional behaviour as soon as the

height of the structure is variable along its axis or as

soon the geotechnical conditions are not uniform all

along the foundation line.

It is thus postulated that instead of continuing with

traditional habits, these dams should be analysed taking into account the real conditions, that is the actual

three-dimensional behaviour of the structure.

A simplified calculation method has been presented

here as a first step in doing this, but here, as a first

step, it is mainly intended to raise awareness.

The actual state of equilibrium, of the various possible assumptions shown, depends strongly on the

nature of the vertical joints and on their stiffness in the

normal and tangential directions. More attention

should be devoted to this problem than is usually

done, at least to avoid unpleasant situations.

The forces to be transferred from one block to the

next to ensure a sufficient factor of safety can be

extremely high and adequate provisions must be taken

if significant mishaps are to be avoided.

Similar conditions may be observed also for fill

dams and some recent incidents which have occurred

at concrete faced rockfill dams also appear to be related to 3-D conditions of equilibrium.

Finally, it can be said that in fact gravity dams, both

concrete and fill ones, were originally (at least implicitly) conceived for wide valleys with gently sloping

flanks, that is, for a slowly changing height.

The development of some construction techniques is

leading to the implementation of this type of dam also

on steep flanks, that is, in narrow valleys.

Often the consequences of this evolution are overlooked and this could have serious consequences, for

example in the event of heavy earthquakes.

The question dealt with here is quite important,

because the actual factor of safety is often significantly smaller than may be believed on the base of the

usual two-dimensional analysis.

This problem is not limited to the question of structural safety, but may also have an economic impact

and may thus lead to different conclusions in the

choice of darn type, especially if the fact is taken into

account that the available dam sites are becoming

ever more challenging from the geotechnical point of

view.

Finally, it should be recalled that sliding on the foundation surface is only one of many possible failure

modes. In particular, sliding on deeper discontinuities

102

account, as well as other failure modes, such as toppling or overstressing of the shear keys in the joints. 0

References

1. Lombardi, G., "Concrete Dams and their Foundation Evaluation for static Loading", Vol. 4. Proceedings,

International Workshop on Dam Safety Evaluation,

Grindelwald, Switzerland; April 1993.

2. Lombardi, G. "Fondations de barrages en heton et leurs

traitements", International Symposium of ISRM, IV South

American Congress on Rock Mechanics, Santiago de Chile;

May 1994.

3. Lombardi, G., "La cimentaci6n de presas de fabrica",

Sinergia Congress 2004, Argentine Committee on Dams;

October 2004.

4. Bustamente and Tradisic, "Structural design and RCC

Zoning in Ralco dam" 22nd International Congress on Large

Dams, (ICOLD) Barcelona, Spain; June 2006.

5. Lombardi, G., "Algunos desarrollos en el an3lisis de presas

de fabrica", IV Congress on Dams and Hydropower,

Argentine Committee on Dams, Posadas (Misiones),

Argentina; August 2006

G.Lombardi

specializing in design, construction and research in the fields

of dams, underground works, and rock mechanics. He

obtained his first degree in Civil Engineering from the Swiss

Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, and

was awarded his PhD from the same Institute in 1955 for his

thesis 'Les barrages en vofite mince" (Thin arch dams). He .

was then awarded the title Dr Eng h.c. at the Swiss Federal

Institute of Technology of Lausanne, Switzerland, and Eng

a.H. at the Politecnico of Milano, Italy.

He began his career as a Design Engineer in the offices of

Consulting Engineer H. Gicot, where he was involved in

projects in African and Europe. He then became Chief

Engineer in the offices of A. Kaech in Berne, Switzerland

(subsequently Kaech & Lombardi). He served as President

of the International Commission on Large Dams from 1985

to 1988. and is now Honorary President. Throughout his

career he has designed or given expert advice on dams in

many parts of the world, and he has authored more than 120

papers.

Since 1989 Dr Lombardi has been President of Lombardi

Engineering Ltd, based in Minusio-Locamo, Switzerland,

and also President of Lombardi Ita1ia in Milan. Italy.

He is a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering and

Sciences, and Honorary Member of the Swiss Society of

Engineers and Architects.

Lombardi Engineering Ltd, Via R. Simen 19, PO Box 1535,

CH-6648 Minusio-Locamo. Switzerland.

- Requirements of Engineering Geological InvestigationTransféré parAditya Bagus M
- Mines 03Transféré parpulip2011
- GEO IRATransféré parMuhammad Haffiz
- An Extension of Bishop's Simplified Method of Slope Stability Analysis to Three DimensionsTransféré parsaifuddin_arief
- geodESIGN ZID SPRIJIN.pdfTransféré parDamian Florin Daniel
- BUET Msc Admission Test SuggestionTransféré parতাহমিদুর রহমান
- List of Books SoilTransféré parDaramola Ayotope
- Sachpazis_verification of the Ultimate Punching Shear Resistance to Ec2 1992-1!1!2004 With Na CenTransféré parCostas Sachpazis
- 04 Bonita Fundaciones especialesTransféré parAlfredo A Lopez
- Ar Banas Danube AdTransféré parrazvanfcs
- 86Transféré parteh
- Bibliografue CanadaTransféré parMadalina Nitu
- Soil ParametersTransféré parBejay Bermudez
- Behaviour of Shallow Foundations on Jointed Rock MassTransféré parcenap
- BHA BH - 30Transféré parMostafa Ibraheem
- Nailing a Deep Excavation in Soft Soil With Jacked in Pipe InclusionsTransféré parwilliam_cheang
- Basic Tutorial 7_2D Slope Stability Analysis SRMTransféré parDario Manrique Gamarra
- Appendix C - GeotechnicalTransféré parTown of Colonie Landfill
- 01_3D Abutment Foundation PileTransféré parJimmy Godfrey
- Guidelines for the Use of Advanced Numerical Analysis (in Geotechnical Engineering)Transféré parNguyễn Nhân
- Extended Structural Analysis Design and Drawing ChecklistsTransféré parAyingaran Thevathasan
- 220kv Tower 44-41 Type E-A Gghpp Foundation Design CalculationsTransféré parMian M Khurram
- 2_VNM-03Transféré parTuanQuach
- sonoda2009.pdfTransféré parSurya Chejerla
- Draft Liquefaction Guidelines for Building Consent ApplicationsTransféré parSajid Iqbal
- Further Research into the Rational Selection of φ for Bearing Capacity Analysis under Drained-Strength Conditions (Horvath, 2000)Transféré parpaduco
- MS Lateral Load Test Set-Up-08 10 2012Transféré parAjay Malik
- Stress in Soil MassTransféré parSasha Vukmir
- Budget and Work Program for Excavation for DamTransféré parBernie Quep
- Assessment of Rock Mass Parameters Based on the Monitoring Data From the Koralm Investigation TunnelsTransféré parJoão Dinis

- Tensile Stresses in Concrete Dams - PDFTransféré pardce_40
- DESIGN-OF-THE-HIGHEST-RCC-DAM-GIBE-3Transféré pardce_40
- Static and Dynamic Response of Concrete Gravity DamTransféré pardce_40
- Recent Advances in Cartosat-1 Data ProcessingTransféré pardce_40
- Seismic analysis of arch damTransféré pardce_40
- ACI 207.5R-11Transféré pardce_40
- LiftSolutionsPotain-Catalog-GB.pdfTransféré parEduardo Fiorentino
- PhD_Thesis_Goldgruber_Nonlinear_Concrete_Dams.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- Yeywa RCC ProjectTransféré pardce_40
- Numerical Analisys of Dams (Set 2015)Transféré parMarcosPuj
- Tefxos No 116 July 2018Transféré pardce_40
- LaxiwaTransféré pardce_40
- Challenges of High Dam Construction to ComputationTransféré pardce_40
- Goldgruber Extended V1Transféré pardce_40
- 1679-7825-lajss-14-04-00594Transféré pardce_40
- Solar GeometryTransféré parParimal Bhambare
- 42Transféré pardce_40
- -------------Transféré pardce_40
- icoldAustria2018_Final_Bulletin.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- icoldAustria2018_Final_Bulletin.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- 23 FluidTransféré parfcernap
- 10th EurCOLD Symposium-Oral Presentation TemplateTransféré pardce_40
- 1-s2.0-S2095809916311699-main.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- 251-266.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- 1.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- -----------------Transféré pardce_40
- 4 Roller compacted concrete dams.pdfTransféré pardce_40
- 02-08Transféré pardce_40
- WCEE2012_5777Transféré pardce_40
- 215.pdfTransféré pardce_40

- Configuring the GNS3 Router SimulatorTransféré parClimaco Ichigo
- Asme p NumberTransféré parSandesh Honrao
- 000000003002007375Transféré parek9925
- Netbeans Tutorial ServletTransféré parRupal Parekh Kachalia
- 70-487Transféré parZainab Alhikay
- TEL 312 HW4 SolutionsTransféré parInacia Zano
- Low Alloy25Transféré parBranko Ferenčak
- 9781783553495_Lego_Mindstorms_EV3_Essentials_Sample_ChapterTransféré parPackt Publishing
- ifm applicationreports success stories from the real world 2016 (GB)Transféré parifm electronic
- Sap System ProfilesTransféré parpreethamsap82
- Workshop equipmentTransféré parTone Ratanalert
- TempusMDTransféré parMohamed Dieng
- Anchorage DesignTransféré parbee
- ohwlTransféré parSujana Bandung
- MSA safetySCOPE | European Product Portfolio. Available from Coyle & Associates (www.Canda.ie)Transféré parCoyle & Associates
- Cables - Guidelines for the Interpretation of DGA for Paper-Insulated Underground Transmission Cable SystemsTransféré parcadtil
- Cooling System - Check - Overheating.pdfTransféré parOsvaldo Cansigno Peláez
- Primal-Dual Interior Point Method ReportTransféré parjayroldparcede
- System Development Life CycleTransféré pardayas1979
- MacroHFSSTransféré parHFdzAl
- Review on Selective Harmonic Palliation in Multilevel Inverter by Using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)Transféré parIJARMATE
- BLRBAC Emergency Shutdown Procedure (February 2012)Transféré parSubburajMech
- Geotechnical Engineering- A Practical Problem Solving ApproachTransféré parTapu mojumder
- App Note SRAM SerialTransféré parJavier Bush
- OtUM IntroTransféré parkhanaslam
- NCEDA 2016Transféré parVinoth Malaikani
- zf5hp24-BMW-AudiTransféré parPalomino Erick
- Global Smart Meter Market- Insights, Market Size, Share, Growth, Trends Analysis and Forecast to 2021Transféré partufail attar
- gt10Transféré parKarthik Mk
- ASTM E 200-97 STANDARD PRACTICE FOR PREPARATION, STANDARIZATION, AND STORAGE OF STANDARD AND REAGENT SOLUTIONS.pdfTransféré parGianinaRoncalChávez