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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

INDOTBridgeDesignConference2013

BridgeRailing&DeckDesignExample
MichaelH.Wenning,P.E.&KurtHeidenreich,P.E.,S.E.

BridgeRailingDesign

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailingDesign
AASHTO17th Editionandprior
10kLoaddistributedover5
Appliedperpendicularattopofrail

BridgeRailingDesign
NCHRPReportpublished
in1993
AllRailingSystemsmust
becrashtested.

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailingDesign
RailselectiondefinedinIDM4044.01(05)Making
TestLevelDetermination
Basedon:
ConstructionyearAADT
Curvature
Grade
DeckHeight
%Trucks
DesignSpeed
BarrierOffset

BridgeRailingDesign
AASHTOManualforAssessingSafetyHardware
(MASH)
Introducedin2009
Acceptablerailingslocatedat
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/policy_
guide/road_hardware/barriers/bridgerailings/
NCHRP350Railingsdonothavetobereplaced.

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailingDesign

BridgeRailingDesign
RailingDesignperAASHTOLRFDBridgeDesign
Specifications Chapter13
Intendedfordesignofrailstobecrashtested.

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailingDesign
AASHTOCA13.3.1
Inthisanalysisitisassumedthattheyieldlinefailure
patternoccurswithintheparapetonlyanddoesnot
extendintothedeck.Thismeansthatthedeckmusthave
sufficientresistancetoforcetheyieldlinefailurepattern
toremainwithintheparapet.

BridgeRailingDesign
IDM4043.02(02)Deck
Overhang
Based on observations of impacted
bridge railings, an overhang designed
according to previous AASHTO bridge
design specifications shows the desired
behavior that the overhang does not
fail if a railing failure occurs due to a
collision. Accordingly, the overhang
shall be designed for a collision force of
25% greater than the required capacity,
which results in a design approximating
present satisfactory practice.

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailingDesign
IDM4044.01(05)
For a minor bridge rehabilitation project which does
not include bridgedeck replacement or deck
widening and the bridge currently has a crashworthy
TL4 bridge railing, the existing railing need not be
upgraded to a TL5 railing, though the warrants for
the TL5 railing are satisfied. If there is no significant
history of truck accidents, the installation of the TL5
bridge railing shall be deferred until the time of the
deck replacement or deck widening.

INDOTBridgeDesignConference2013

InterimQuestions?
Thank You!

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRailing&DeckDesign
Theremainderofthepresentationwilldiscuss:
INDOTLRFDbridgerailing&deckdesignpractice.
Sidewalkrailingapplications.
Barrierrailingonbridgerehabilitationprojects.

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign
Deckdesignseemssimple,butseveralLRFD
designsectionsareinvolved:
Section3:Loads&LoadFactors
Section4:Distribution
Section5:ReinforcedConcreteDesign
Section9:Deck&DeckSystems
Section13:Railings

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign
Bridgedeckdesignrequirementsarecovered
underIDMChapter404.
Forlongitudinalbeambridges,twoconditions
arecheckedinthetransversedirectiontodesign
thedeckreinforcingsteel:
Theinteriorconditionbetweenbeams.
Theexteriordeckoverhangcondition.

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign Interior
Interiordesignusesanequivalentstrip
method,wherewheelloadsaredistributed
overthestripwidth.

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
Thedeckoverhangdesignrequirescheckingthreecases(LRFD
A13.4,inreverseorderforthepresentation):
DesignCase3:TheloadsspecifiedinArticle3.6.1that
occupytheoverhangfortheLoadCombinationStrengthI
limitstate;
DesignCase2:VerticalforcesspecifiedinArticleA13.2for
theExtremeEventLoadCombinationIIlimitstate;
DesignCase1:Transverseandlongitudinalforcesspecified
inArticleA13.2fortheExtremeEventLoadCombinationII
limitstate.

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
DesignCase3:

StrengthIlimitstate

Thisiseffectivelythesamedesignprocessasthe
interiorstripusingdeadandliveloadsappliedto
thecantilever.(Onlygovernswithlargeoverhang)

September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
DesignCase2:

ExtremeEventIIlimitstate
(VerticalBarrierForce)

Thiscaseinvolvesaverticalloadappliedtothe
topoftherailing.Forconcretebarrierrailing,this
conditiondoesnotcontrol.
Thebarrierrailinglongitudinallydistributesthe
forceifitisconstructedmonolithicallyand
continuous.(IDM4043.02&3.04)
Thiscaseisapplicabletoposttyperailing.

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
DesignCase1: ExtremeEventIIlimitstate
(HorizontalBarrierForce)
DesignproceduresareinLRFDSectionA13.4.
ThispresentationwillfocusonlyonSection
A13.4.2 DecksSupportingConcreteParapet
Railings

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

OverhangDesignLoading
DesignCase1:

ExtremeEventIIlimitstate
(HorizontalBarrierForce)

Thedeck
reinforcingsteel
mustbedesigned
toaccommodate
thecombined
momentand
tensionforce.

OverhangDesignLoading
Ifcertainconditionsaremet,AASHTOallowsaneasy
solutiontodeterminetheliveloading.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
Ayieldlineanalysisproducesthenominalrailingresistance.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDBridgeDeckDesign DeckOverhang
LRFDCA13.4.2states,
Thecrashtestingprogramisorientedtowardsurvival
andnotnecessarilytheidentificationoftheultimate
strengthoftherailingsystem.Thiscouldproducea
railingsystemthatissignificantlyoverdesigned
leadingtothepossibilitythatthedeckoverhangis
alsooverdesigned.

HowMuchForce???
Usingtherailingcapacitytodesignthedeckoverhang
reinforcingcanbeoverlyconservative.
TheIDMnowallowstheuseof1.25xFt asamaximum.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

LRFDRailingDesignForces
TheFt valuecomesfromLRFDTableA13.21usingthe
appropriaterailingtestlevel.

LoadApplication&Distribution

ThecollisionforcesaredistributedoveradistanceLc
formomentandLc +2Hforaxialforce.The
distributionlengthincreasesata30 45degree
anglefromthebarrierfacetothedesignsection.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

RailLoadDesignforTestLevel
CalculateRw &Lc fromayieldlineanalysis.Use
thelowerforcevaluebetweenRw or1.25xFt.
CalculateT&MattheDesignSection.

Alinearinteraction
equationistypically
usedtodesignthe
reinforcingsteelfor
thecombined
loading.

CutoffLocation&BarDevelopment
Afterthereinforcingsteelisdesigned,any
requiredcutofflocationsmustbe
determined,andthedevelopmentlength
mustbeverified.
Therearenumerousdesignguidesavailable.
FHWAisagoodresource.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

FHWAGuide
FederalHighwayhasmany
designguidesavailablefor
downloadat:
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge
/steel/pubs/if12052/

www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/steel/pubs/if12052/volume17.pdf

MinnesotaDesignTables
Sincethedesignvaluesarespecifictoarailtype
andtestlevel,Minnesotatabulatedthem:

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

CaltransOverhangDesign
CaltransamendedLRFDA13.4.2asfollows:

OverhangDesignRecommendations
TherearediscussionwithintheStructuresCommittee
regardingthepossibilityofdevelopingdesignaidsfor
railingloadingonoverhangsinoneofthefollowing
formats:
Tabulateddesignforcesandcriticalwalllengthsfor
INDOTRailingforeachavailabletestlevels,or
AmodifieddesignprocesssimilartoCaltrans.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

SidewalkRailingApplications
LRFDSection13.4
providestwooptions
forpedestrian
walkwaysrailing
dependingonspeed.
IDM4044.02(03)
discusses
considerationsif
sidewalksarepresent,
andlikeLRFD
identifieslowspeed
as45mphorless.

SidewalkRailingApplications
Ifthistypeisused,ashyline ispreferred.
Duringacollision,avehiclecanstillpotentially
mountthecurb.
Thisdoesnotprotectpedestriansfromfalling
intotraffic.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

SidewalkRailingApplications
Manymunicipalitiesandtrailgroupsarenowin
favorofprovidingrailingtoseparatepedestrians
fromvehiculartrafficregardlessofthespeed.
ThereappearstobeatrendtowardsthisHigh
Speedrailingsystem.
Thissystemhasthebenefitofproducingalower
structuredeadload.

JohnnyAppleseedMemorialBridge
SR930overtheSt.JosephRiver,inFortWayne
WidenedexistingINDOTbridgetoextendtheriver
greenwaytrail
PF1Railing w/
pipeadded
Pedestrianrail
atcoping
Greatvisibility

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

JohnnyAppleseedMemorialBridge
Thestructurecouldonlysupportan8foottrailwidth
Providedcurvedrailingtogivetheillusionofadded
widthandforbicyclepedalprotection.

JohnnyAppleseedMemorialBridge

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

JohnnyAppleseedMemorialBridge
Thesystemproduces
averystraighttoprail
appearance.
Pedestriansare
separatedfrom
vehiculartrafficand
bothareprotectedby
appropriaterailing
systems.

JohnnyAppleseedMemorialBridge
Becausethereisstructurebehindtherailingtocarry
theshearforce,thetensioncomponentcanbe
reducedoreliminatedfromthedesign.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Foranexistingbridgehavinganoldersafetyshape
railingwithreinforcingthatdoesntmeetcurrent
standards,thefirststepshouldbetodetermineifitcan
remain.
CommunicationwithAnnesRearicks Department
shouldoccurearlyintheprocesstodetermineifalevel
onedesignexceptionisappropriate.
Ashortformandsubmittalprocesstostreamlinethe
initialreviewisunderdevelopment.
Utilizingtheexistingrailingwillreducecosts,butevery
situationisunique.

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Foranexistingbridgewithunacceptablerailing,
replacementwillberequired.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRehabilitationRailing

Removeenoughof
theexistingrailing&
curbtoaccommodate
installationofthenew
railing.

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Olderdecksmayonly
be61/2thick.This
makesitdifficultto
installtheanchor
systemwithoutdrilling
throughthedeck.
Onpastprojects,we
haveinstalledabarat
anangletousethe
beamflangeasadrill
stop.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Thismethodcanalso
beusedona
reinforcedconcrete
girdersection.

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Openrailingonoldslabbridgesallowedsalt
tocorrodethebottomreinforcingsteel.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Torepairthe
corrodedreinforcing
steelandallowfor
theadditionofnew
barrierrailing,a
sectionoftheslab
mustberemoved.

BridgeRehabilitationRailing
Astandardrailing
concreteformcan
beblocked11/2
toallowtherailing
toactasan
overlayformand
screedrailduring
construction.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

RetrofitBarrierDrainageDetail
Withthenewsolid
barrierrailing,water
cannolongerdrain
offtheslabedge.
Abentonite waterstop
canbeinstalledto
ensurewaterflows
throughthenewdrain
andnotalongthe
edgewheresaltcan
migrateintotheslab.

Bentonite Waterstop
Bentonite waterstop isreadilyavailablefrom
multiplesuppliersandisselfadhering.

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September 17, 2013

2013 INDOT - Bridge Railing and Deck Design

RailingAesthetic
Treatments&Safety
Thisreportcontains
guidelinesforaesthetic
treatmentofconcretesafety
shapebarriers.

http://www.trb.org/main/blurbs/156682.aspx

INDOTBridgeDesignConference2013

Questions?
Thank You!

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