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THE

THEORY OF SOUND.

MARS

~a~

THF

THEORY OF SOUND.

HY

FORMEK.Y

FELMW

OFTRINITV

CAMH)UnOE.

COLLEGE,

VOLUME

1.

&onlton:+

MACMILLAN AND 00.

1877

[~~ ~t~~

r~trt'ed.]J

OEambtitgc:

r)t)M):Y'J'

ATT)tKUS)VRM)TV'')t'<H~.

PREFACE.

IN th work, of winch th

prsent volume is an installent, my endeavour bas been to lay before the reader

a connected exposition of the

theory of sound, which

should include ~he more

important of th adv~nces made

in modem times

y Matliematicians and Physicists.

The importance of the

object winch 1 have had in view

will not, I tinnk, be

disputed Ly those competent to

At th prsent time

judge.

many of th most valuable

contributions to science are to be found

onjy in scattered

penodicala and traiMactions of socletles,

pubMied in

vanous parts of th worid and in several

languies, and

arc often practically inaccessible to those vvho

do not

happen to hvc in th neighbourhood of large

public

hbraues.

In sucli a state of

things the mechanical

impedimonts to study entail an amount of unremunerative labour and

consquent hindrance to th advancoment of science which it would be

dimcult to overestimate.

Since the wcH-known Article on Sound in the

.E~c'~)~

~)~M~(~

by Sir John Herschel (1845),

no complte work lias been

publislied in wilich tlio

suhject is trcatcd jnatl-cmatically.

Ly th promature

death of Prof. Donkin tlie scientific worid was

deprived

of onc w!)oso mathcmatical attainments in

combmation

with a {n-ctic.-d

of mua:c quahned hifn in a

kr~Judge

VI

PREFACE.

Acoustics (1870), though little jnm~ tbsm a

fragment. is

sumcient to shew that my labours would l~ave been unnecessary had Prof Donkin lived to complte his work.

In tlie choice of

topics to be dealt with in a. work

on Sound, 1 have for th most

part foUoAvedth exemple

of my predecessors. To a

great extent th theory of

Sound, as commonly understood, covers th same

ground

as th theory of Vibrations in

gnral but, unless some

limitation were admitted, th consideration of such subjects as the Tides, not to speak of Optics, would have to

be included. As a gnral ruie we shall confine

ourselves

to those classes of vibrations for which our ears

afford a

ready made and wonderfully sensitive instrument of inWithout ears we should

vestigation.

hardiy care much

more about vibrations than without

eyes we should care

about light.

The present volume includes

chapters on th vibrations of systems in gnerai, in

which, 1 hope, will be

recognised some novelty of treatment and results, fol.

lowed by a more detailed consideration of

special systems,

such as stretclied strings, bars,

membranes, and plates.

The second volume, of which a considrable

portion is

already written, will commence with acrial vibrations.

My best thanks are due to Mr H. M.

Taylor of

Trinity Collge, Cambridge, who bas been good

enough

to read th proofs.

By his kind assistance several errors

and obscurities have been

eliminated, and th volume

generally has been rendered less imperfect than it would

otherwise have been.

Any corrections, or suggestions for improvements, witli

which my rcaders

may faveur me will be highly apprcciated.

TEttUNO

PLACE,

.~n7,

1877.

WmiAi.,

CONTENTS.

C'HAPTER I.

MOE

i

1-27

Sound duo to Vibrations. Finite volocity of Propagatiou. Yelooity indopondent of Pitcb. Depmult'a oxporimonts. Sound propagated in water.

'Witoatatono'aexperiment. Enfoeblomontof Sound by distance. Notes

and Noisos. Musicalmoteaduo to poriodiovibrations. Siren of Cagniard

do la Tour. Pitch dopendont upon Poriod. Eelationahip between

musical notes. Tho samo ratio of perioda corresponds to the samo

intorval in all parts of tho scale. Harmonie sca-tes. Diatonio soaloa.

Absolute Pitoh. Neoossity of Temperament. Equal Tomperament.

Table of FroqnonoioB. Analyais of Notes. Notes and Tones. Quality

depandont upon harmonie overtonos. Resolution of Notes by efu;un.

certain. Simple tcnoa correspond to aimpla pondidona vibra.tiona.

CHAPTER

II.

28-4.2

Composition of harmonio motions of like period. Harmonie Curvo. Com.

position of two vibrations of nearly equal period. Bats. Fourier'a

Theorem. Vibrations in porpendionlar directions. Lissajous' Cylindor.

Lissajous' Figures, Bin.ckburu's poudulum. Kaieidophone. Optical

methods of composition and analysis. Th vibration microscope. In.

termittont Illuminntion.

18

viil

CONTENTS.

<HAPTER IH.

TA<!t:

t.

~-c.s

Systumswithon~d~rouoffrt~dom.

Indopcndottcu of ampiitudu~nd

pfriod.

l''))t'cnd\i)))'ati<n)s.

Frictiomdfurccpruportimudtovotouit.y.

J;L'at.S(]uoto H)tpLTp()sitionoff.,rcud~nd

)'riuci)do~fSnpurpositiun.

fn~vibrutions.

M~

Yan<'UHd(~n.c.sofdmnpin(;Stri))Kwit)tL<Hn).

thodofDimcnsionH.

Id<~dTtminn-furk.

I''('r)iSKivon(.-ar)yp)tr(iio])()M.

.f)!-kn<~ standards ofpiich.

Suh~ibScbcibicr'snjutb~dsoftuni;

Itir'sTonomutM's.

Cofnpnnndi'cndtdmn.

l''()rhsdnvuubycluctru.

t)mK"ft"u.

Itcsonfmuo. Guuurftimtlutionforohc

!or]tIntt!rn)ptM-.

deHt~ooffrueJott).

TM-mHofthotiMondur~orj.;ivcrisetctterivod

toucu.

C'frAPTER IV.

~

(,7

(icnorniixedco-ortiitmtcs.

Expression for jMjLontudcncrKy.

StftticaithcorMua. Itiitml motions.

Hxprcsnionforkinet!<:(!)~ur~y.

Hcciprocat

thoornm. ThM))Ho))'sthcorc:r)i. L~'n))HO't!('qutttionn.

ThodiH.si~ftti~n

funetion.

Couxi.stt'ncoofHnMtUinotioxH.

l''t'cc\-i).mtion.swt.])out.fri<

tion. Nnrmnico-nrdinntos.

condiThch'eoponodHfuXtt~Htttt.ioj~u'y

tion. AnncccHsiottofinertijtmcrottsc.sthefrucpoiods.

ArctttKfttif'~

('fHprmf;i))()rL'!Lsc~ti~fM)"i[)dH.

n)t

Tim(;<tt''stfroopcrindi.s

ttbtiotntu maximum.

Ifypcthut.n'fd types nfvntmtinn.

Hx)unj))ofr<))u

ntrinn. Approximntoty simpto Hy~touM. StrioK of vn!-itth)o dcnsity.

Normal fnnctions.

Conju~to propnrty.

]')ctcrnn)Mtion of cf.nstnotM tu

nuit M'hitrary initit conditions.

Stotios' thcurom.

CHAPTER V.

~17

CascH in wluch tho thrce funetiotM Y',

r aro Hunu[t!U)oous)y rcjucibio tu

nmus of fiquarLi.s. Ut;noM)i.tion

of Y'uun~'H thcorcut ou tho undft)

pointu of Htrin~H. H(iui)ibriu)u titeoi-y. SyatomH tit.n'tcd fruin rest as

denectcd by n fora appiied at ono point. 8yntbtUH Ht~rtud froui tho

equinbrium confjgumtiun by an impniHu applicd nt ono point.

Syatcma

startod from rcst na dcftocted by n. force

JuUuuuifonuiy distributed.

oico of sw< frictiona) forcoNon tit vibr~tious of ft

yntom. Solution of

t)m ancrai oqn~tioDH for freo vibMtiotM.

Impres.~d Forces, rrinciptc

"f tho porsititonco of poriods. Inoxontbto motions.

MceiprocttI TJ)uo.

ru)!]. Applicution to freo vibmtiouB. Stutemcnt of

Mciprooa) t)tcnrcm

for itttnnonic forcos. AppHcationH. Extension to cases in wbich

thu

constitution ofthu systcm

isn.functionuftLpuriud.

Equations for

two dcgrcus of fruedom. HoutH of dctornnmmttti

cquittiun. lutct-niittcntvibmtiomj.

Marchofporiods

incro~od.

ttHim.rtin.is~mdu~Hy

Heaction of n dcpunduut f.vHtun).

<~

CONTENTS.

Ix

CHAPTER VI.

pAnx

127

11814S.

Solution of tho pro.

Lnw of extension of n, titritig. Transvurso vihrntiona.

bJcm for n string whoso masH is concontrutcd in cquidistant points. Drivation of no)ution for continuouo string. Pfu'tittI diffcrentitti quation.

Hxpt't.'snious for nnd y. Hoat gonorat form of simpio harmonie moGcnoDt) motion of n stnng pcrition. StritiRS with xoJ extronitios.

Kurtnn.1 ntotlua of vibration.

odio. Mcrsonuc'H L)tws. Sonomotur.

Dctunninat.ion of eonattuits to suit nrbitt'M'y initit ciroumfitttncus. Ca.Mo

of pluoknd HtrinR. Expression.-) for ' and y in torms of noriun] co-ordin<tte!i. Nonntd cqutttionH of motion.

Strin(; oxcitod by plucMn~.

Htiing cxcitud l)y tm impulso. rroblem of pifuioYoHug'a thoorou.

forto strinH. Friction j~'oport.ionni tu vulooity. CoBtptn'ison with oquiIibritttn tLeory. l'oriodic force uppliud nt onu point. Modificationa duu

EGuets

to yiuldiu~ of tho cxtremit.iea. Proof uf Fouriur't) thcorcm.

Correction for rigidity.

of a nnitu loud.

ProUm of violin strin~.

Striuss stretchod on curved (iurfaeca. Solution for tho caso of tho

iiphoro. Correction fur irrcguJaritioa of donsity. TheoMinH of Sturm

of Wt).vcs

and LiouYiDo for n strin(~ of vtu'inbio donsity. rropng~ioa

tdonj~ an uniimitod Htring. Positivo fmd nc~~tivo wavos. Stn.tiona.ry

Hcnootion at )L uxod point.

Dduction of solution for

Vibrations.

friction.

tinito strit)R. Grn.phiod mothod. Progressivowawwitli

CHAPTEK Vif.

188

1491~

Ciftsxincttt.ion of tho vibrations of Bars. DiuM'cntin! quation for longitu.

dimd vibt'jttiottH. Numorieal valuos of tho constunta for stel. Solution for a Lar frco at both uodH. Dduction of tilution fur a Lar with

ona end fret), nnd onc lixod. l!oth ends iixcd. InUuoncu of Mniull Inad.

Solution of problom for Ltu- with ItH'gu Joad n.ttMued. Corrcctiou for

Differentini quation fortorSavM't'H "Hou rauqno."

In.tcft.I motion.

Hioniti vibrations.

Comp~risou uf vclocities of longitudinal a.nd tortiiomd wa.'vos.

CHAPTER Vni.

IGO1U2

PotcutiftI energy of bcndhtg.

Expression for kinctio energy. Drivation

Termimtl conditions.

G encrt solution for

of diSercutitd equ)ttion.

tt hnrmouic vibrittiou. Conjuguto property of tho normal functiona.

YatucB ufintrKratcd sq~n'CH. ExprcsHi).]) of r in tcrms of not'nml cu-

201

CONTENTS.

ordinatos. Normal equatious of motion. Dtermination of

constant))

to suit initial conditions. Caso of rod etartod

bv a b)ow. I~od start~

from rest as dofloctodby ~t~I

~~c. lu CL.~m ~os tho BorioHof

normal funoticus coanostu coj.vcro. Form of H~ norma!

hmettons

li(:u-fiue bur. Lfnv9of Jopotj.Icuooof

frofjuoucyou )ongt)i und tLioknoM. Caso whou both oudH ~rc clampod. Normal fuuctions

for ,)

clampod.Ireo bar. Caleulaticu o puriud.s. CompnrinonHof pitch. Disoussiou of tho gravost modo of vibration of a freo-freo

bar. Threu

nodos. Four ~oJoa. Gravost mojo for

clampod-froobar. Position ut

nodos. Supportcd bar. Calculation of

poriod for clamped-froobar from

Lypothetleal typo. Solution of problom for n bar with a loaded ond.

Euuct. uf adtUtious to a bar. lufluonco of

irrogularitios of donsity.

CorreottOMfor rotatory iuortia. L:ootsof functioua dorived

from

normaJ fuuetioM. Formation of ~uatiou of motiou ~heuiinoarly

thoro is por.

Mauout tousiou. Spoeial trmiual couditioua. Itosultaut of two

trains

of wavcs of iic-iirlycqua) poriod. Fourior'Hsolution of

problom for ini.

nito har.

CHAPTER

IX.

1~213.

Tension of a motubrano. Equation of motion. Fixod

reotangular lonudary. Expression for ~aud

iu tenus of normal co-ordiuatos. Normal

ouations of vibratiou. Examplos of improssed forces.

Frequoncy for

an olongatod rectangle dpends

maitiJy ou tho shortor sido. Casoo iu

whiohdifTerout modes of vibration havo tho samo

poriod. Dorivod

modes thence arising. Effeet of

6li(;ht irrcgulanties. An irregu!arity

rontovo

may

nidoturmiuatonosa of normal modoa. Solutions applicable

to a triaugle. Espro~ion of tho Honoraidiilorontml

eqnation by polar

co-ordm~tes. Of tho two functions, w),idt oceur in tho

solution, ono ia

cxcluded by tho condition at tlio polo.

Expressions for Bossel'a functions. Formutm rdating theroto. Tublo of tho first two

functions

Fixod eiroilar boundary.

Conjugato proporty of tho normal functions

without restriction of boandary. Values of

integrntod squares. ExproHMounfor T nnd F in tcnua of normal functions. Normal

oquations of vibration for ciroular mombraue.

easo

of

froo vibraSpoci.d

tions. Yibratioua duo to a harmonie force

Utohos of tho varions shnpto tonoH. Tabio of tliouniformty distributed

rootsof Bosscl'o functions. Nodal Fiur~.

Circular mombrano with ono radius fixed.

Bessel's Bonctionsof frnctional ordcr. Ejloct of

sma'I lond. Vibrations

of a mombrano whoso boundary is

approximatoiy ciroutar. In many

casos th pitch of a mombrano

mny bu calculated from tlio aroa alono

Of aU .nombraues of equal aroa t)Mt of oireular

form l.M tlio gravost

l'itch

of

pitch.

a mcmbrano whoso boundary ia au

eDipso of smalt

ceeHntricity. Motliodof obtai)iii)g limits in casos that oumot bo dealt

witli rigorouf3ly. Comp~rison of

fruqueucioa iu varions ca.sc.sof mcmbraues of eqna) arc.a.

Histury of tho probion.. Bourh'ot'8 oxperi.

aonta) invostigfttiouB.

l'AUI~

CONTEN-TS.

XI

CHAPTER

X.

RAOP

214-235

Vibrations of PIatos. Potontial Enorgy of Bending. Transformation of 5~.

Superuoial diiorontial equation. Dou.ndary conditions. Conjugato

proporty of normal functions. Transformation to polar co-ordinates.

Form of gonorni solution continuons

through polo, Eqnations dotertho

mining

poriods for a froo ciroular p!nto. EirohhoC'a catouhtions.

Comparison with observation, mdii of nodal cirolos. Irreguln.nties

Kivo riso to boats. Gonoralizution of solution. Cnso of

cJampod, or

Hupportod,cdgo. Disturbn.uceof Chiadni's figures. Hifitory of proUom.

Mn.tl.iou's critieiamo. DoetfmguiM phtto with

aupportoJ edgo. Itoctwith

freo edgo. Boundary couditionH. Ono Hpocialcnso

nnguhn- plato

(~ = 0) iHfunonabluto mfttttomaticfdtro~tmont. Investigation of codai

figures. WItcntatoue'H application of tho mothod of

Hnporposition

CompariMU of Whoat~tono'f. liguros wit]. thoso reaUy n.pp)io~!o to n

pMo in tho cnso = 0. Gravost modo of a squnroplate. Caiouhttion

of poriod on hypothotica! type. Nodal

~igurcHinferrod from considor.

atlona of symmetry. Hoxngon. Comparison hotweoncircle nnd

squnre.

Lnw connooting pitch and thicknoas. In tho cnso of a

elfunpod odgo

nny contraction of tho boundary raisos tLo pitch. No gravest form for

a free plato of givon aron. In similar plates tho

poriod is as tho linoar

dimension. Whoat.stono'a exprimenta on wooden

plates. Knig'a

oxperimontN. Vibrations of cylindor, or ring. Motion

tangentinl as

woll as normal. Bolation betwoon

tangoitial and normal motiona. Exfor

Mnetio

prossinna

and potontial nergies. Estions

of vibration.

of

L'requoncios tonos. Comparison with Chiadni. Tangential friction

excites tanguntiat motion. Exprimental vrification. Bats

duo to

irregularities.

CIIAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

1. Tim sensation of sound is a thing s:M ~e~eW~,not comparab]e with any of our other sensations. No one can express

th relation between a sound and a colour or a smcil. Directly

or indirectiy, ail questions connected with this subject must

comc for decision to thc car, as t!tG organ of hcaring; and

from it thct'c can be no appea!. But wc are not thcrefore to

infci' that ail acoustical investigations arc conducted with thc

unassistcd car. Whcn once wc have discovercd thc physical

phenomena which constitute th foundation of sound, our explorations arc in great mcasurc transferred to another nc!d lying

within thc dominion of th pi-mciples of Mcchanics. ImportMit

laws arc in this way ai'rivcd at, to which the sensations of th car

canuot but conform.

2. Very cursory obscrvatioo. often succs to shew that

sounding bodics arc in a statc of vibration, and tha.t thc p)icnomena of sound and vibration are closcly connected. WIicn a,

vibrating bell or string is touched by the finger, th sound cea~cs

at th same moment tha.t thc vibration is damped. But, in order

to affect th sens of hearing, it is not enough to have a vibrating

instrument t!icre must also be an uninterrupted communication

between thc instrument and thc car. A bcll rung in ~ac!<o,with

proper prcautions to prevent th communication of motion,

rcmains inaudible. In th air of th atmosphre, howevcr;

sounds have a univcrsal vehicic, capable of conveying thcin

without break from th most var)ous~y constituted sources to

th rccesses of the ear.

3. Thc passage of sound is net instantancous. Whcn a g)in

is jn'cd at a distance, a very perceptible interval spartes th

1

y

INTRODUCTION.

[3.

souud in traveUIng from th gun to th observer, the rotardatinn

of the nash duo to th finite

velocity of light bcing altogether

negligible. Th first accuratc experiments wero mado by somo

members of the French Academy, in 1738. Cannons were

nrc-d,

and th rctardationof th reports at different distances ohscrvcd.

Th principal prcaution -necessary is to revo-se

alternatcdy tlie

direction along which the sound travels, in order to cllminatc tho

influence of tlie motion of th air in mass. Down t!ic

wind, for

instance, sound travels reJativeJy to th carth faster than its

proper rate, for the velocity of thc wind is added to that proper

to the propagation of sound in still air. For still

dry air n.t a

temprature of 0"0., thc French observerafound a velocity of 337

metres per second. Observations of tho samo character werc

made by Arago and others in 1822 by th Dutch

physicists Moll,

van Beek and Kuytcnbrouwer at

Amsterdam by Bravais and

Martins between thc top of the Faulhorn and a station

bclow

and by others. Th gnerai result bas been to

give a somcwhat

lower value for tbc velocity of sound-about 332 mtres

per

second. Thc effect of altration of temprature and

pressure on the

propagation of sound will be best consideredin connectiou with

th mechanical theory.

4. It is a direct consequence of

observation, that within wide

limits, th velocity of sound is independent, or at least very

ncarly

of

its

independent,

intensity, and also of its pitel). Wcre this

otherwiso, a quick piece of music would be hcard at a little

distance hopelessly confused and discordant. But when the disturbances are vcry violent and abrupt, so that th altrations of

density concerned arc comparable with th whole density of the

air, the simplicity of this law may be departed from.

5. An claborate sries of experiments on tlic

propagation of

sound in long tubes (watcr-pipes) has been madc

by Rcgnault\

He adopted an automatic

arrangement similar in principle to that

used for me~suring th speed of

projectiles. At thc moment when

a ptstol is fired at one end of tlie tube a wire

conveying an electric

current is ruptnrcd by thc sliock. Tins causes th withdrawai of

a

tracing point which was previonsly marking a line on a revolving

drum. At tho furthcr end of thc

pipe is a stretched membrano so

arranged that whcn on th arrivai of the sound it yields to th

~MofrM<?<:

rjca(~;);.~e~-/tc<t. xxxvn.

5.]

t,

VELOCITY OF SOUND.

soun< i3 rccumpietfd. At thc sa.mcmoment tho tracing point

faits back on tlic drum. Tho blank space loft uumarked corresponds to thc thuc occupied by th Sound in t~aking the joumcy,

and, wltcn th motion of th drum is known, givcs the means of

dctcrmining it. Tho length ofthe journoy hctwccn th first wiro

and the membrane is fouud by direct mcasurcmcnt. In thcsa

cxperimcnts the velocity of sound appcarcd to hc not quitc indcpendent of th dl~meter of the pipe, whieh vn.)'Icdfrom 0'108

to 1'100.

Tho diso'cpancy is perhftps duo to friction, whose

innucuco would hc greater in smaller pipes.

G. AIthough, in practice, air is usually the vehicio of sound,

otiicr gases, liquids and solids are equally capable of conveying

it. In most cases,I)owever,th means of making a direct mcasurement of the velocityof sound are wanting, and woM'enot yet in

a position to consider tlie indirect methods. But in thc caso of

water tho same diniculty does not occur. In th year 182G,

Colladon ami Sturm investigated th propagation of sound in thc

Lake of Geneva. Tlie striking of a bell at one station was

simultaneous with a nash of gunpowder. The observer at a.

second station mcasured the interval between tho flash and the

arriva! of th sound, applying Itis car to a tube carried beneath

th surface. At a temprature of 8C., th velocity of sound In

water was thus found to bo 14-35metres per second.

7. Thc conveyanccof sound by solids may bc IHnstrated by a

pretty experiment due to Wheatstone. One end of a metallic wiro

is connecteclwith tho sound-board of a pianoforte, and th other

taken through th partitions or floors into anothcr part of th

building, where naturally nothing would be audible. If a resonancc-board (such as a violin) bc now placcd in contact with the

wire, a tune p]ayed on th piano is easily heard, and th sound

seems to cmanatc from th resonance-board.

8. In an open space thc intensity of sound falls off with grcat

rapidity as tho distance from th source increases. Th saine

amuunt of motion bas to do duty oversurfaces ever Increa~ingas the

squares of the distance. Anything that confines the sound will

tend to dimini.sh ttte falling off of intensity. Thus over th flat

surface of still watcr, a sound can'Ies furthcr than over broken

ground thc corner between a smoothpavement and a vertical wall

is still botter; but the most crtcctive ofaU is a tubc-likc enclosure,

1S

INTRODUCTION.

[8.

speaking tubes

to faciMtatecommunication between thc dirent

parts of abuHdir)<r

is wcll known. If It were not for certain crfects

(fnctionat and

.other) due to th sides of th tube, sound might

CD be thus conveycd

with little loss to vcry great distances.

9. Bcfore procecding furUicr wc must consider a

distinction,

w!uc!t is of grcat unportance, though not frce from

dimculty.

Sounds may bc ciassed as musicn.!a)jd unmusica] thc former for

convcaicnco may bc caHed notes and titc lattur noises. Tho

(,,

extreme cases will raiso uo dispute;

every one rccngniscs thc

diffrence betwecn th note of a pianoforte and t)ic

ereaidng of n

shoo. But It is not so casy to draw t]ic line of

sparation. Li the

first place few notes arc frcc from a!i unmus:c:d

accompanimcnt.

Wit)i organ pipes especially, thc hissing of th wind as it

escapes

at thc mouth may bc Iteard beside the

proper note of tlie pipe.

And, second]y,many noises so far partage of a musical character as

to hve a definite pitcb. T!tls is more

easily recognised in a

sequence, giving, forexampJe, tite common chord, than by continued

attention to an individual instance. Th

experiment may Le made

by drawing corks from bottles, previously tuned by pouring water

into them, or by throwing do\vnon a table sticks of woodof suitable

dimensions. But, although noises are somctimes not

entirely

and

notes

arc

unmusical,

usually not quite free from noise, thcre Is

no diniculty in recognising which of th two is th

simpler phenomcnon. Titerc is a certain smoothness and

continuity about tho

musical note. Moreover bysounding together a

variety of notesfor example, by striking simultaneousiy a number of conscutive

keys on a pianoforte-we obtain an approximation to a noise;

while no combination of noisescould evcr bicnd into a musical note.

10. We arc thus led to give our attention, in ttic first instance

mainly to musical sounds. Thse an'angc themselves naturall

in a certain order

according to pitch-a quality which ail can

appreciate to some extent. Tralned ears can recognise an enormons

.numher of gradationsmore than a thousand,

probably, within

the compassof the humanvoice. Thse gradations of pitch are

not, like the degrees of a thermometric scale, without

special

mutual relations. Taking any given note as a

starting

musicians can single out certain others, which bear a point,

definite

relation to thc first, and are known as its

octave, fifth, &c. The

corresponding di~i-ences of pitch arc cal!ed intervals, and arc

10.]

piTcn.

"horov.'r th~yMn.ynccm' lli th Hcale,a. note '~d ita. octave arc

sep~u'atedby </tc~~o'uf~ of ~te oc~~e. It will be our object later

to cxplain, so far as it can be donc, tho origin and nature of the

consonant intervals, but we must now turn to considerth physical

aspect of tlie question.

Since sounds are produced by vibrations, it is naturel to suppose

that tho simpler sounds, viz. musical notes, correspond to ~e/~o~'c

vibrations, that is to sa.y,vibrations which after a certain interval

of timc, called th per~~ repcat themselves with perfect regularity.

And this, with a limita-tioMprcseutly to bo notioed, is true.

11. Many contrivances may bo proposed to illustrate tlic

gencratln of a musical note. One of th simplest is a revolving

w)icol whoso milled cdge is presscd against a card. Each

projection as it strikes the card gives a slight tap, whose regniar

rcurrence, as the whee! turns, produces a note of definite pitch,

7't'A-t'yt~the scale, fMvelocityof p't~b?!. MM?-casea.But th most

uppropriatc instrument for the fundamcntal experiments on notes

is undouhtediy tlie Siren, inventcd by Cagniard de la Tour. It

cousists essentially of a stiff dise, capable of'

revolving about its

centre, and pierced with one or more sots of holes, arranged at

cqual intcrvals round th circumfcrcnce of circles conccntric with

th dise. A windpipe in conncction with bellows is

presented

perpendicularly to th dise, its open end bcing opposite to one of

th circles,which contains a set of holes. When th bellows are

worked, the strcam of air escapes frcely, if a hole is opposite to tlie

end of tlie pipe but othenvise it is obstructed. As th dise

turns,

a. succession of puffs of air escape throngh it, until, when the

vclocity is sufncicnt, they btond into a note, whoso pitch rises

continually with the rapidity of th pun's. \Vc shall have occasion

later to describe more claborate forms of th Siren, but for our

immdiate purpose th prsent simple arrangement will sunice.

12. One of th most important facts in th whole science is

cxemplincd by tlie Sirennamciy, that th pitch of a note dpends

upon th pcriod of its vibration. Tho size and shape of th holes,

the forceof tlie wind, and other. lments of tlie problem may be

varicd but if th number of puffs in a given time, such as one

second, romains unchanged, so also does the pitch. We may even

dispense with wind altogethcr, and produce a note by allowing th

corner of a card to t~p against the cdges of the holes, as they

INTRODUCTION,

[12.

sources of sound, such as vibrating solids, leads to the samo conclusions, though th difficulties arc often such as to render

necessary rather rcnned exprimental mothods.

But in saying that pitch depends upon. period, there

lurks an ambiguity, which dcscrves attentive consideration,

as it will lead us to a point of grt importance.

If a

variable quantity is periodic in any time -r, it is also periodic

in the timos 27-,3, &c. Conversely,a recurrence within a given

period r, docs not exclude a moro rapid reourrence within

periods which are tho aliquot parts of r. It would appear

according!y that a vibration really recurring in th time ~r (for

example) may be regarded as having the pcriod -r, and therefore by

tlie lawjust laid down as produciog a note of the pitch defined by

T. Thc force of this consideration cannot be entircty evaded by

defining as tho pcriod th least time rcquired to bring about a

rptition. In tlie first place, th necessity of such a restriction is

in itsc!f almost sufHcient to shcw that we have not got to th root

of the matter fur although a right to th period r may be dcuicd

to a vibration rcpeating itself rigorousiy within a time ~T, yet it

must bc auowcd to a vibration that may differ indefinitely little

thcrcfrom. In thc Siren cxperimcnt, suppose that in one of thc

ch'cles of holes containing an cvcn number, every alternate hole is

disp]accd along th arc of the circle by the same amount. The

dplacement may bo made sosmall that no change can be detected

in tlie resulting note but the periodic time on whieh th pitch

dpends lias bccn doubled. And secoudly it is vident from th

nature of pl'iodicity,tliat th superposition on a vibration of period

T,ofothurs having pcriods ~T,~T.&c., docs not disturb the period r,

while yet it caniiot be supposed that th addition of th new clments bas left thcqualityofthe sound unchangcd. Moreover.sinco

thc pitch is not affectcd hy their prsence, how do we kuow that

clcmcnts of the sliorter periodswere not tbercfromt)ie beginnin"'?

13. Thse considrationslead us to expectrcmarkable rcJations

between th notes whose periods are as th reciprocals of th

natural numbers. Nothing can bc easicr than to invcstigate th

<tucstionby meaus of tlie Sirot). Imagine two circles of holes, the

inner containing any convcnicnt number, and th outer twice as

many. TIien at. wfiatcvcr specd th dise may turn, th period of

the vibration engendcred by blowing the first set will necessarily

13.]

MUSICAL INTERVALS.

experiment the two notes are found to stand to cach other in

th relation of octaves; and we conclude that in passing fromany

?M<e its octave,the~'c~c~/ of vibration is doubled. A similar

method of experimenting shews, that to th ratio of periods 3 1

made

corresponds the interval known to musicians asthe<we~

up of an octave and a fifth to th ratio of 4 1, th double

octave; and to th ratio 5 1, th interval mado up of two octaves

and a major </Mr~. In order to obtain tho intervals of the fifth

and third thcmselves, the ratios must be made 3 2 and 5 4

respectively.

14. From those experiments it appears that if two notes

stand to one another in a fixed relation, then, no matter at what

part of th scale they may bo situated, their periods are in a

certain constant ratio characteristic of th relation. The same

may be said of thcir /?'e~Me?tc~ or tho number of vibrations

winch they excute in a given time. Th ratio 2 1 is thus

characteristic of tho octave intcrval. If wo wish to combine

two Intcrvals,for instance, starting from a given note, to take

a step of an octave and then another of a fifth in th same

direction, the corrcspondine ratios must be compounded

for tins is th stcp which repeated twelve times leads to an

octave abovo the starting point. If we wish to have a measure

of intervals in th proper sense, we must take not the characteristic ratio itself, but th logarithm of tliat ratio. Then, and then

only, will the mcMuro of a compound intcrval bc the SM~of th

ucasurcs of th compouonts.

15. From the intervals of th octave, fifth, and third considered above, othcrs known to musicians may be derived. Th

difference of an octave and a fifth is called a fourth, and ha~the

3

ratio

This process of subtracting an interval from

2~=~.

th octave is called ~uer~M:~it. By inverting the major third

Asinglewordto donotothonumborofvibrations

oxccuted

inthounitoftimo

is indi~ensabio:I knownobutterthan froquoncy,'

whichwasnsodin thissonso

byYoung.ThosMtowordis omployod

byProf.Everottin bisexcellentodition

ofDoscbanol'a

~atw<t!

P/(t'!osop/t~

INTRODUCTION.

[15.

third from a fifth we obtain th minor third; aud from this by

inversion tho major sixth. The following table exhibits side by

side th names of the intervals and the corrcsponding ratios of

frcqucncies

Octave

2

Fifth.

3

4

Fourth.

5

M~jorThird.

MiuorSixth.

8

Miner Third.

G

5

M~jorSixth.

Thcfjo are ail thc consonant intervals comprised witttin thc

limits of th octave. It willbe remarked tliat tite corresponding

ratios are ail expressed hy means of ~M~t~whole numhers, and

t!tat tliis is more particularly th case for th moro consonant

intervals.

The notes whosc frequencics arc multiples of that of a given

une, are called its AM~M~M, and the whole scries constitutes

a /M'7/io?!cscctle. As is well known to violinists, they may ail

bo obtaiued from the samc string by touching it lightiy with the

imgcr at certain points, whiloth bow is drawn.

Tlie establishment of th conncction between musical intervals

and dfunte ratios of frequcncya fuudamcutal point in Acoustics

-is duo to Mersennc (J63C). It was indeed known to th

Grceks iu what ratios tlie Iougtlis of strings must bc chaagcd

in ordcr to obtain tlie octave and rifth; but Mcrsenne duntoustrated tlie Jaw connecting thc length of a string with the ponod

of its vibration, and madc thc first dtermination of the actual

rate of vibration of a known musical note.

16. On any note takcn as a kcy-notc, or <o?n'c,a d!'M<omtc

scale may bc foundcd, whoso drivation wc now proceed to explain. If th key-note, whatevr may bc its absolute pitch, be

called Do, thc fifth above or dominant is Sol, and th fifth helow

orsuhdominantisFa.

TIie common cliord on any note is produced hy combining it with its major third, and fifth, giving th

5

ratios of frequency

or 4 5 6. Now if wo take th

1

common chord on titc tonic, on thc dominant, and on the subdominant, and transpose thcm whcn neccssary into the octave

16.]

NOTATION.

lying immediately above th tonic, wo obtain notes whose frequenciesarranged in order of magnitude are

Do Re

Mi

Fa

Sol La.

SI

Do

5

5

9

4

3

la

2.

1,

8'

4'

3'

2'

3'

8' 9

with thc

Hcro the common cbord on Do is Do-Mi-Sol,

5 3

th chord on Sol is SolSiRe, with th ratios

ratios 1

T~

thc cchord

tlie

101' on Fa 18

is iFa-LaDo,

a- a- 0,

~2x~=l:and

T

X

0 0

still with tlie samc ratios. Thc scale is completed by rcpeating

thcsc notes above and bebw at intervals of octaves.

If we take as our Do, or key-note, the lower c of a tcnor

voice, th diatonic scale will be

c

d

e

f

a

h

c'.

g

Usage diffcrs slight~y p.s to th mode of distinguishing the

different octaves; iu wllat followsI adopt th notation of Helmhoitz. TIic octave below th one just referred to is written with

capital letters-C, D, <&c.;th next below tliat with a sufHx

C,, D,, &c.; and th onc beyond that with a double su~xC, &c.

On th other side acceuts dnote lvation by an octavec', c",

&.c. The notes of thc four strings of a violin are written in this

The iniddie c of th pianoforte is c'.

notation, gd~a'e'\

17. With respect to an absoluto standard of pitch therc bas

bcen no uniform practice. At th Stuttgard confrence in 183-1',

c' =2G4complte vibrations per second was recommended. Tilis

correspondsto a.' =440. Tlie French pitch makes a' =4-35. In

Handc!l'stime the pitch was inuch lower. If e' were taken at 256

or 2",ail th c's would have frequencies represented by powers

of 2. This pitch is usually adopted by physicists and acoustical

instrument makers, and t)as th advantagc of simplicity.

Thc dtermination ft!)tMt~oof the frequency of a given note is

an opration requiring somo care. The simplest method in principle is by means of th Siren, which is driven at such a rate as to

givo a note In nnison 'with th given onc. Th number of turns

cncctcd hythe dise in one second is given by a counting apparatus,

which can be thrown la and out of gear at th bcginning and end

of a mcasured interval of time. This multiplied by th number of

cn'ectiveholes gives th required frotuency. Th consideration of

othcr methods admitting ofgreater accuracy must be deferred.

10

INTRODUCTION,

f~g.

ofc, th notes above

written are ail that are required in a musical

composition. But it

is frequentiy desired to

change th key-note. Under thse circumstances a singer with a good natural

car, accustomed to perform

witliout accompanimcnt, takes an

entirely fresh departure, constructing a new diatonic scale on th new key-note. In tbis

way

after a few changes of key, tho

original scale will be quite departed

from.and an immense varicty of notes he used. On an

instrument

with fixed notes like tho

piano and organ such a multiplication is

impracticahle, and some compromiseis necessary in order to allow

th same note to perform different

functions. This is not th

to

place discuss the question at any length, wc will thcrefore

take

as an illustration th

simplest, as wcn as th commonest casemodulation into th key of th dominant.

By donation, th diatonic scale of c consists of th common

chords foundcd on c, g and f. Jn like manner th

scale of g consists of tlie chords founded on d and c.

Th chords of c and g

g,

arc then commn'to th two

sca!cs; but th third and fifth of d

introdnce new notes. Th thu-d of d written

has a frcquency

t

f#

J

3 5 4a

removed from any note in th scale of c.

8 4 32

But th fifth of d, with a

frequc.cy

little from a, whose

frcqucncy

is

differs but

two, represented by

and called a

is ncglectcd and th two note.

c~

by a suitable compromise

or ~?~-Hwc~ M-eidentined.

19. Various systems of

tomperament have been used th

simplest and tliat now most generally used, or at least aimed

at, is

th equal temprament. On

referring to the table of frequencies for

tlie diatonic sealc, it will be secn that the

intervals from Do to Re

from Re to Mi, from Fa to

Sol, from Sol to La, and from La to

Si,

are nearly th same,

being rcpresented

or

while tjj

by

intervals from Mi to Fa and from Si to

Do, represented by

are

la

~1~'

?~

equal ~mperament treats ~cs~'ap.

relations

proximate

as exact,

dividing the octave into twelve eqnal

11

EQUAL TEMPERAMENT.

19.]

scalc belonging to any key may be selected according to tho following rule. Taking the key-note as the first, fill up the series

with th third, fifth, sixth, eighth, tcnth, twelfth and thirteenth

.notes, counting upwards. In this wayail dKScultIesof modulation

arc avoided, as th twolve notes serve as weUfor one key as for

anothcr. But this advantagc is obtained at a sacrifice of true intonation. Th equal temprament third, being th third part of

an octave, is rcprescnted by th ratio ~2 :1, or approximately

].'2a99, wliile th true third is 1-25. The tempercd third is thus

higher than th truc by th interval 126 125. The ratio of th

tempered fifth may be obtained from th consideration that seven

ficmitoncsmakc a fifth, wliile twelve go to an octave. Th ratio is

thcrforc 2

1, which = 1-4.983. The tempered fifth is thus too

]ow in th ratio 1'4!)83 1-5, or approximately 881 883. This

cn'or is msignificaut; and even th error of th third is not of

much conse<~uencein quick music on instruments like the pianoforte. But whcn th notes arc /teM, as in th harmonium and

organ, th consonanceof chordsis materially impaired.

20. The foltowlng Table, giving the twelve notes of the chromatic scale according to th system of equal temprament, will be

convenient for reference'. Th standard employed is a' =440 in

order to adapt th Table to any other absolute pitch, it is only

necessary to multiply throughout by th proper constant.

C,

0

C~

D

D~

E

F

F~

G

0~

A

A~

B

0,

10-35 32-70

17-32 34-G5

18-35 3G-71

19-41 38-89

20-GO 41-20

21-82 43-G5

23-12L) 4G-25

24-50 49-00

25-95 51-91

27-50 55-00

29-13 58-27

30-86 61-73

C

C5-41

C9-30

73-43

77-79

82-41

87-31

92-50

98-00

103-8

110-0

11G-5

123-5

c"

c

l30'8

138'6

14G-8

155-6

1G4-8

174-G

185'

19G-0

207'G

220-0

333-1

346-9

261-7

277'2

293-7

311-2

329-7

349-2

370-0

392-0

415-3

440-0

4CG-2

493-9

5233

544'4

587"i

G23'3

G59'3

C98'5

740'0

784-0

830-C

880-0

933'3

9877

c~

c""

104G-6 2093-2

1108-8 2217-7

1174-8 2349-G'

1244-G 2480-3

1318-G 2G37'3

1397-0 2794-0

1480-0 29GO-1

15G8'0 313G-0

1GG1-2 3322-5

17CO-0 3520-0

1864'G 3729-2

1975-5 3951-0

Zammiuor, Die J/tMf'~tx! <!<cMtMtA'<t<t<cyfc?t

INTRODUCTION.

[20.

equal teinpra.ment scale are

gtvcn bclow (Zaunuluer)

Note. Froquoucy.

c

=1-00000

Noto.

f~

c# 2~'=I-0594G

d

g 2'~=1-49831

Ii

2 ~=1-122-1G

d# 3'~

# 2'~= 1-58740

Il

2~=1-68179

100

2~~=1-78180

11

L 2~~=1-88775

1-18921

2~=1-25992

2~=1-3348.1

Froqnonoy.

Il

2~'=1-41421 1

c' = 2-000

21. Rcturning now for a moment to thc pbysical aspect of t!ie

question, we will assume, what wc shall af'terwards prove to bc

truc within wide lim its,that, whcu two or more sources of

sound

agitate th air sunultaneousiy, th resulting disturbance at

any

point ni the external air, or In th car-passage, is th

simple sum

the

extendeJ gcomotncal scuse) of what would be caused

(ni

by

cach source acd~g- separately. Lot us consider the

disturbanco

duc to a simultancous sounding of a note and

any or ail of its

]iarmouis. By durmition, th eompiex wholo forms a note

having

t)ic same pcriod (and thcrefore pitch) as its

gravcst element. Wc0

Iiavo at present no criterion hy which th two can bc

distmguishcd

or thc prsence of th highcr harmonies

recognised. And'yetin

th case, at any rate, where th

componcnt sounds have ail independent origin-it is usually not difncult to detect them

hy th

so

as

to

cnect an analysis of the mixture. This is as much as

car,

to say tliat a strictly periodic vibration

may give risc to a sensation which is not simple, but

susceptible offurthcranalysis

In

of

it

Ims

point

fact,

lon~ been hnowu to musicians that under

certain circumstancus the harmonies cf a note

may Le heard along

w.t!t it, uven w!~n thc note is due to a

single source, such as a

vibrato strier, but tl.e sig.lincancc of th fact was not undcrstood. Since attention ]~asbccn <1rawnto the

subject, it bas becn

proved (.nainly by th labours of Ohm and

Hchnho~) that almost

a)t musical notes are

higtdy compound,

in fact of thc

notes of a harmonie scale, from which inconsisting

particular cases onc or

more members may be

missing. Th rcason of the unccrtainty

and di~culty of th aualysis will bc touchod

upon prcsontiy

22.]

13

c:i))ed hv Hehnhoitz in Ccrmn.n a ')!o?t.' Tyndall and other recent

writcrs on Acoustics have adoptcd 'tone' as an Enghsh quivalent,

a practice which will bc followed in th prsent work. Thc

thing is so important, that a. convenient word is almost a matter

of nccessity. ~<~ thcn are in gnral made up of tones, th

pitch of the note being that of th graves! tone which it contains.

23. lu strictness th quality of pitch must bc attachecl m the

ih'st instance to simple toncs only; otherwise th diflcult.yof discontinuity before referred to presents itself. Tlie slightcst change

in th nature of a note may lower its pitch by a wholo octave, as

was oxcmplined in the case of th Sircn. We should now rathcr

say that th effect of th slight displacement of thu alternate

hules in that experiment was to Introduce a, ncw fceble tone an

octave Jowcr than any previousiy present. This is surHcIentto

altcr tho pcriod of th wholej but th great mass of tlic souud

remains vcry nearly as before.

In most musical notes, howcvcr, thc fundamental or gravent

tone is prsent in sunicient intensity to impress its cliamctcr on

th whole. Tho eect of th harmonie overtones is then to

1 of th note, iudcpendently of piteli.

modifythc ~ua~~ or c/t(M'ac<er

Tliat such a distinction exists is wcll known. Th notesof a violin,

tuning fork, or of th hufnan voice with its dincrent vowel sounds,

&c.,may aU hve th sanie pitch and yet differ indepcndent~y of

ioudness; and though a part of this ditl'erellceis due to accompanying noises, which are cxtraneous to thcir nature as notes, still there

is a part winch is not thus to be accounted fur. Musical notes may

thus be classifiedas variable in threc ways First, ~t'<c/t. This we

have already sumcicutly considered. Secondly, c/tHrf(c<e)',

depending on the proportions in which the harmonie ovcrtones are combined with the fundamcntal: and thirdly,~oMc~eM.Tins lias to bc

taken last, because th car is not capable of comparing ('with any

precision) tlie loudness of two notes which differ much in pitch or

character. We shall indeed in a future chapter give a mechanical

measure of th intensity of sound, including in onc system ail

gradations of pitch; but tins is nothingto th point. We are hre

concerned witli th intensity of. th sensation of sound, not with a

mcasure of its physical cause. Th dinerence of loudness is,

howcvcr, at once recognised as one of more or less so that wc

iHnscd

iHt!)is

'timbre.'Thoword'chfu-Mter'

Gcrnmn,'Klaugfarbo'Frcnch,

MosobyEvcrett.

14

INTRODUCTION,

f'23.

on the magnitude of th vibrations concerned.

~a.rt'&M~

24;. Wu Luve seoi that a musical note, as such, is due to a

vibration which is necessarily pcriodic but thc converse, it is

evident, cannot be truc without limitation. A periodic repetitioM

of a noise at intervals of a secondfor instance, tlie

ticking of fi.

clock-would not result in a musical note, be th repetition ever

so perfect. In such a case we may say tliat th fundamentai tone

lies outside the.limits of hcaring, and although some of th

harmonie overtoues would fall within them, thse would not

~ive

riso to a musical note or ovcn to a chord, but to a

noisy mass of

sound likc that produced by striking simultaneousiy tbe twelve

notes of thc chromatic scale. The experiment may be jnadc witit

th Siren by distributing tho holes quite

irregularly round the

circumferenco of a circle, and turning tho dise with a moJcrato

velocity. By tho construction of tho instrument, everything recurs after each complote revolution,

25. The principal remaining dimculty in tlie theory of notes

and tones, is to explain why notes are sometimes analysed

by thc

ear into toncs, and sometimes not. If a note is reallv

comulcx

why is not the fact immediately and certainly perccived, and t)te

componontsdisentang!ed? The feebleness of th harmonie overtones is not th reason, for, as ~veshall sec at a later staf-c of our

inquiry, titcy are often of surprisiug loudness,an(.1 play a promiucntt

part in music. On th other hand, if a note is sometimes perccived

as a wholo, why does not this happen always? Thse

questions

hve been carefully considered by Hcimboitz', with a

tolcrabiy

result.

The

satisfactory

difHculty,such as it is, is not peculiar to

Acoustics, but may be paralleled in tlie cognate science of Pitysiological Optics.

Th knowledgo of external things which wo derivo from th

indications of our sensos,is for th most part thc result of inference.

When an object is beforc us, certain nerves in our rctin arc

excited, and certain sensations arc produced, which wo are

accustomcd to associate with th objcct, and we forthwith infer its

presence. In the case of an unknown object th process is much

the samc. We interpret th sensations to which we

arc subjcct so

as to form a pretty good idea of their exciting cause. From th

sliglitly dincrcnt perspective views reccived by titc two cycs we

infer, oftcn by a liglily claboratc process, th actual relief and

3rj oditioH,

~<'m~;t(!)ty)yctf,

p. 98.

25.]

ANALYSIS

0F

NOTES.

15

~np. Thcse inferences are madc with extrme rapidity a.~dquite

UitCunsciousiy. Tbu 'it~l& life ui' bacii ono of us is a continued

lusson in intcrpreting tho signa presented to us, and in drawing

conclusionsas to the actualitics outside. Oulyso far as we succeed

in doing tins, arc our sensations of any use to us in th ordinary

affairsof hfe. TI)is being so, it is no wonderthat the study of our

sensationsthemselvesfalls into th background,andthat subjective

phenomena, as they are called, becomc exceedingly difficult of

observation. As an instance of this, it is suNdeiil to mention the.

'blifid spot' on thc retina, which might a ~'K))-~ have been

expectcd to manifest itself as a conspicuous phenomenon, though

as a fact prohahly-not one person in a hundred million would nnd

it out for themselvcs. Th application of these i-emar'ksto thc

question in hand is tolerably obvious. In tho daily use of our ears

our object is to disentangle from the whole mass of sound that

may rfach us, thc parts c&mlngfrom sourceswhich may interest

us at th moment. 'Whcn welisten to th conversationof a friend,

wc fix our attention on th sound procecding from him and

cndcavour to grasp that as a whole, while wc ignore, as far as

possible, any other sounds, regarding them as an interruption.

Therc arc usually sufilcient indications to assist us in making this

partial analysis. Whcn a man spcaks, th whoJe sound of his

voice rises and falls together, and wc have no dirnculty in recognlsiug its uoity. It would bc no avantage, but on thc eontrary

a grcat source of confusion,if we werc to carry the analysis furthcr,

and rsolve thc whole mass of sound prsent into its component

tones. A] though, as regards sensation, a resolution into toncs

might be expectcd, tho necessities of our position and th practico

of our lives lead us to stop tho analysis at thc point, beyond

which it would ccase to bc of service in deciphering our sensations, considcrcd as sigus of extcrnal objccts\

But it may sometimes liappcn. that however much wc may

wish to form ajudgment, th materials for doing so arc absolutely

wanting. When a note and its octave are sounding close together

and with perfect uniformity, there is nothing in our sensations to

cnahic us.to distinguish, whctiicr th notes have a double or a

single origin. In thc mixture stop of tlie organ,the pressing down

of each keyadmits th wind to a group of pipes, giving a note and

Matprohubtytho poworof nttondingto tho inipt-tant

nnd ignoringtho

is to ft greatoxtontiuhcntodtQhowgreatair

nnimportant

partofourseusationa

oxtontwoshftt)perha.pa

Bovcrknow.

1C

INTRODUCTION.

[25.

pipes of each group aiways

sound together, and th result is usually

pei-ceived as a single

notfj n!though .h~'H<ujt pt'oecuj fron a cingle sourco.

26. Th resolution of n. note into its

componcnt toncs is n.

matter of very din'crent dimculty with diffrent individuals. A

considrable effort of attention is

rcquired,particu!a~yt).t first;

and, until a h~bit bas been formcd, somc cxtcrn:d aid in the

slia.pc

of a. suggestion of what is to bc Jistoned for, is

very dsirable.

Th difliculty is altogethcr vcry similar to that of

Icarning to

draw. From tlic macitinery of vision it might have hcen

expectcd

that nothing would bc easicr than to

make, ou a plane surface, a

reprsentation of surrounding solid objccts; but exprience shows

that much practicc is gencrally requircd.

We s!ia)I rcturn to the question of tlie

analysis of notes at a

later stage, after we hve treated of th vibrations of

strings, with

th aid of which it is bcst elucidated but a

very instructive

expcnment, duc originaHy to Ohm and improved by Helmholtx,

may bc givcn hre. Helmitohz' toolc two bottles of th sliapc

reprcsented in the figure, onc about twice as )argc as thc other.

ihcsewcrc blownby strcams ofair dirccted acro.ss

th moutti an<t issuing from gutta-pcrd)a. tubes,

whosc ends had been softcnud and prcsscd flat,

so as to rcducc thc bore to the form of a narrow

slit, th tubes bchig in conncction with th samc

bellows. By pouring in wn-terwhen th note is too

low and by pa.rtin.Hyobstructmg tlie mouth whcn

thc note is too high, th bottJcs may bo made to

give notes with thc exact interval of an octave,

such as b and b'. fhe larger bottic, blown a!onc,

gives a somcwhat

munlod sound similar in character to tlie vowclU; but, when bot]i

bottles are blown, th character of thc

resulting sound is sharpcr,

rcsemb)ing rathci- th vowel 0. For a short time after th notes

had bcen heM-dseparately Hchnhoitz was able to

distinguish them

in thc mixture; but as the mcmory of thcir

scparatc impressions

ff)dcd,<thc Itighcr note scemod by degrecs to amaJgamatc with

thc lowcr, which at th same time bccamo budcr and

acquired

a sharper charactcr. This bicnding of the two notes

may takc

place cvcn whcn th t)igh note is th louder.

27. SeGing now that notes are

usuaDycontpound, and that

or~y a particular sort caUcd toncs arc nicapabic of further analysis,

7'r'?~M)~/?))~t)yf);,

p, tf);).

I

27.]

PENDULOUS

VIBRATIONS.

17

to winch they owetheir pecuHarity? What sort of periodic vibratton

it, whicii prod~ces a. simple tone ? According to wha.t

matl)cmatical function of t)ic time does tlie pressure vary in

th passage of thc car ? No cluestion in Acoustics can be more

important.

The simpicst periodicfunctions with which mathcmaticians arc

acquainted are the circular functions, expressed by a sine or

cosine; indecd t!)cre are no otJiers at aU approaclung them ia

.simphcity. TIiey may bc of any penod, aud a<tmitt!ng of no

other variation (except magnitude), secm well

adaptcd to producc

simple toncs. Morcovcrit lias been proved by Fouricr, tha.t tho

most gnerai singic-vit.hicdpcnodic function can bo rcsolvcd into

a soriesof circular functions, Lavingperiods winch arc

submu!tipies

')f that of tho givcn function. Again, it is a

consquence of thc

guttural thcory of vibration that the particular type, now suggcstcd

as corrcsponding to a simple tone, is t!te omy one capabjc of

pt-cscrving its intcgrity among th vicissitudes which it may

Itaveto undcrgo. Any othcr kind is iiabic to a sort of physieat

analysis, ono part being di~crontly an'ected from anothcr. If th

analysis within the car procceded on a dinercnt principle from that

cnucted according to thc laws of dead mattor outside the car,

tho consequence would Le that a sound

originally simple mi~ht

becomocompound on its way to th observer. Thcrc is no i-caMn

to suppose that anything of this sort actually

happons. When it

is added thataccording to ail th ideas we can form on the

subject,

t)tc analysis within t!tc car must takc place by means of a

physical

machinery, subject to tlie same laws as prcvail outside, it will bo

scen tliat a strong case has Lccn madc out for

rega.rdingtones as

duc to vibrations exprcsscd by circular functions. We arc not

ttowevcrleft eutirely to thc guidance of gnera! considrations like

thse. lu tho chapter on th vibration of strings, we shall sec

that in many cases theory informs us beforehand of the nature of

the vibration executcd by a string, and in particular wliether

any

specined simple vibration is a. component or not. Hre we have

a dcisivetest. It is found hy experiment that, whcncvcr

accordIng

to thcory any simple vibration is prsent, th

correspondingtone

can bc hcard, but, whcnever tho simple vibration is

absent, thcn

the tonc cannot be heard. \Ve arc thercforc

justined in asscrtinnthat simple toncs and vibrations of a circular

type are indissoluh)y

conncctcd. This law was discovcrcd by Ohm.

n.

CHAPTER II.

IIARMONIC MOTIONS.

time and variously designated as simple,~w~t~M~OM~

or /mr?)M)n'c,

are so important in Acoustics thatwc cannot do botter thaii (levote

a cha.pter tu thcir consideration, Leforecntcring on tlic dynamical

part of our subject. Thc quantity, whose variation constitutcs

th 'vibration,' ma-ybc tlie displacement of a particle mcasured

in a given direction, th pressure at a fixed point in a iluid

mdium, and Buon. In any case denoting it by M,wo have

or extreme value of u; r is

the periodic <M~e,or jperto~, after th lapso of which th values

of u recur; and e dtermines th phase of thc vibration at th

moment from which t is measured.

Any number of harmonie vibrations of ~e same ~j<M~ affecting a variable quantity, compound into anothcr of th same type,

wliose clements arc dctcrmined as follows

=rcos(~-A.(2),

if

i).ud

?'=(($acose)'+(SHsin6)~(3),

tau = 2 (t siu e~Mcese.(4).

38. j

COMPOSITION.

19

s:ud to t'~cr/b-e, but the expression is rather

misleading. Two

sounds may vcry propeny bc said to interfre, when

thcytogethcr

cause silence; but th mere superposition of two vibrations

(whcthcr rest is the consequence, or not) cannot properly bc so

called. At Icast if tbis bc Iiitei-furence,it is difficult to

say what

non-intcrforenco can bc. It will appcar in th course of this

work that whcn vibrations exccetl a, certain intensity

tucy no

longer compound by more addition; <AMmutual action might

more properly bc called Interfrence, but it is a

pbenomcnon

of a totally diiTorent nature from that with which we are now

dcaling.

Again, if tho phases dner by a quartor or by tbree-quarters of

a pcriod, cos (e e') = 0, and

~=~"+~.

Harmonie vibrations of given pcriod may be reprosented

by linos drawn from a pole, tlie lengths of tlio lincs being proportional to tho amplitudes, and tlie inclinations to tlie phases

oi' th vibrations. Tbc rsultant of any number of harmonie

vibrations is then represented by the geomutrlcn.1rsultant of

th corresponding Unes. For cxample, if

they arc disposcd

synuuctricaHy round thc polo, tlie rsultant of the Unes, or

vibrations, is zro.

2!). If we mcasure off along an axis of x distances

proportional to tlie timc, and takc u for an ordinale, we obtain tlic

Iiarmonic curve, or curvc of sincs~

2-2

20

HARMONICMOTIONS

[29.

whcre

called the wavc-!cngt]i, is written in place of r, both

quantities dcnoting tho range of tlic indcpendcnt varia.biccorresponding to a complte rcurrence of thc fonction. The harmonie

curvc is tlius thc locus of a, point subject at once to a uniform motion, and to a ha-rmonic vibration in a perpcndicuta.r

direction. In th next chapter we shall sec tha.t the vibration

ofn. tuning fork is simple harmonie; so that if an excited tuning

fork is movcd with uniform velocity parallcl to th lino of its

handio, fLtracing point attached to th end of onc of its prongs

dcscribesa harmonie curve, which ma.ybc obtained in a permanent

fonn by allowing the tracing point to bcar gently on a piece of

smokcd paper. In Fig. 2 the continuons linos arc two harmonie

curves of thc same wavc-lcngth a,nd amplitude, but of diSercnt

<he locus of points midway bctween those in which tlie two

curves are met by any ordinate.

30. If two harmonie vibrations of diffrent periods cocxist,

motion with oti~crclments. If r and r' bc inccmmcnRurabIc,tho

value of ?t never recurs but, if r and T be in th ratio of two

who!cnumbers, M recurs after the lapse of a. time equa.1to tbo

least common multiple of T and r'; but tbe vibration is not

simph harmonie. For exampic, whcn a note and its fifth are

sounding together, tho vibration recurs after a time eqnat to

twicc the period of tho graver.

30. J

OF NEARLY

EQUAL PERIOD.

21 1.

periods is worth special discussion, na.me!y, when the dinerenco

ci' the periods is small. Ii' we nx our attention on the course

of thiugs during an interval of time including mcrcly a fcw

poriods, wc sec that the two vibrations are nearly t!ie same as

if their periods were absolutely equa!, in whic]t case they would,

as wc know, bc cquiva!cnt to another simple harmonie vibration

01 tho samc poriod. For a fcw periods thcu tho rsultant

mution is approximatcly simple harmonie, but tho samc harmonie will not continue to rcprescnt it for long. Th vibration

having th stiorter period continuaDy gains on its icilow

thm'cby altering th dittcrcncc of phase on which th lments

of th rsultant dpend. For simplicity of statement let us

suppose that tho two components Iiave oqual amplitudes, frequencies rcpresentcd by ??~and ?!, wlicre ??t?!. is small, and

that when first obsorvod their pitases agre. At this moment

thuir cn'ccts conspire, and th rsultant ha.s an amplitude double

of that of the components. But after a time 12 (M~) thc

vibration ?~ will hve gaincd ha)f a period rclatively to th

othcr; and thc two, boing now in comptete disagreemcnt, ncutrahze cach other. After a furtiicr intcrval of time equal to

that abuve named, Mtwill hve gained altogether a who!e vibration, and complte aceordancc is once more rc-establishod. T!)e

rsultant motion is thcrcfore approximately simple harmonie,

wiLhan amplitude not constant, but varying from zero to twicc

that of thc componcuts, thc frcqnency of thse altrations being

M-M. If two tuniug f<;rkswith frequcnelcs 500 amI 501 bc

cqu~ty excited, tho'e is every second a risc and faU of sound

corrcspnnding tu t)m coincidenceor opposition of their vibrations.

Tins phcnontenon is ca))ed bats. We dn not hbre f~dtydiscuss

th question how t)tc ear behaves in th prsence of vibrations

butit is obvions tiiat If thc motion

having )icar]yetjual fre'~K-ncie.s,

ni th nelg)ibonr!)oodof th car almost ccascs for a considrable

fractiu)! of a second,thc sound must appcar to fall. For rcasons

that will afterwards appear, bats are best hcard wl)en th intcrfcring sounds are simple toncs. Conscutive notes of th

stoppcd diapason of th organ shc\v th phcnomcnon very

wcii, at least in th lower parts of th scale. A permanent Interfrence of two notes may be obtained by mounting two stopped

crgari pipes of similar construction and identical pitch sitic

Ly sido on thc same wiud clicat. Th vibrations uf th two

22

HARMONIC MOTIONS.

[30.

little distance nothing can be heard, except th hissing of thc

wind. If by a rigid w:dt bctwecn th two pip~s one souud

could bc eut off, th othcr would bc Instautly restored. Or tbo

balance, on which silence dpends, may bc upscb by connecting

th car with a tube, whose other end lies close to tlie mouth of

eue of the pipes.

By meaus of bats two notes may be tuned to unison with

grt cxactncss. Tlie object is to make th bats as slow as

possible, siuce th numbor of be~ts in a second is oqual to th

diScrcnce of t]te frcqucnei.os of thc notes. Under favourable

circumstanccs bats so slow a.3 onc in 30 seconds mn,y be recognised, and would indica.te th~t th highcr note gains only

two vibrations a ?~M:M<0

on th lower. Or it mighb Le dcsited

mercly to ascertain th diiTcl'enceof thc froqucncios of two notes

nearly in unison, in which case nothing more is necessary than

to count the number of bca,ts. It wili be rcmcmLcred that t)iG

Jifcrcuco of frcqncncics docs uot determine tite tM~erua~

bctwccn

tlie two notes; tliat df'pcnds on th ?'(t<Mof frequoncics. T!tU3

th rapidity of th bca,ts given by two notes ncariy in unison

is doubicd, when both arc takcn an exact octave highcr.

AnalyticaUy

M= a cos (27r~< e) + a' cos (2?!

e'),

wlicre Mt is small.

Now cos (27r?~ e') may bc writtcn

aud wc hve

cos 2?~

27r()?

~) t

e },

= + a." + 2aat'cos [Spr(~ ?~)t + e e]

whcre

(2),

ft sin e + a' sin {Spr('~ M) + e'{

,n.

tan ec =

.(3).

a cos + (t COS

{27T(~ ~) t +)1

Thc rsultant vibration may tLua bc considcred as harmonie

with clements r and which arc not constant but slowly varying

functions of the time, having th frequency w M. Th amplitude

r is at its maximum when

cos {2-7r

(?n. ?~ t + ' e}= + 1,

and at its minimum whcn

cos {2-n-(w n)

e' e}== 1,

thc corrospondingvalues beiDg a + a' and a <t'respectively.

31.]

FOURIER'STHEOREM.

23

vibrations correspondingto a tone and its harmonies. It is known

that thc most gericml single-valued nuito periodic function can

bc expressed by a sries of simple harmonics-

fouud in Todhuuter's J~~e~ra~Calculus aud Thomsou and Tait's

~~M)Y~r/~7oso~/ty and a line of argument almost if not quite

amounting to a dmonstration will bo given later in this work.

A fcw remarks arc ail tliat will bo required bore.

Fourier's thoorem is not obvious. A vague notion is not uncommon that tlie innnitudc of arbitrary constants in tho sries

of necessity endows it witli the capacity of ropresenting an arbitrary pcriodic function. Tha,t tbis is an error will be apparent,

wlicn it is observed tliat the samo argument would apply equally,

if one term of tbe series were omitted in which case th expansion would not in general be possible.

Another point worth notice is that simple harmonies are not

thc orily functions, in a series of which it is possible to expand

one arbitrarily given. Instead of the simple elementary tcrm

amplitude and period. It is vident that thse terms would

serve as wcUas tlie others for

a~t?!

so that eacli term in Fourier's sories, and thereforc the sum of

tho sries, can be expressed by means of the double elementary

';,t.t:r.v.

24

HARMONIC

MOTIONS

~31.

not, b~in? nc't"aintcd wit~' ~thf) expansions, m~y imagine that

nature tiio only oncs (tu:;Jitied

simpic h~rmoniofunctions arc 1by

to bo thc clements in t!ic dcvclopmont of a periodic function.

Thc rcason of th prccmincnt iinport.a.nceof youncr's scries in

Acoustics is thc mccha.uic:Uonc rcfcrrcd to in thc proceding

ch~pter, and to bc cxp~incd more fuHy))cre:U'tcr,namciy, th:).t,

in guncrfd, simple harmonie vibrations are th oniy kind titat arc

without sun'ering decoma

vibrating

systcm

through

propagatcd

position.

32. As in other cases of a similar character, c.g. Tay~or's

thcorcm, if th possibility of thc expansion be known, th cocfncicnts may bc determined by a. comparativcty simpio process.

\Vc may writc (1) of 31

or sin

Multip)ying by ces

;).complte period from <=C to t = T, wc find

Thc degrec of convcrgency in tho expansion of u dpends in

~cnerfd on thc continuity of th function a.nd its derivatives.

Thc scries formcd hy successive diiercutiations of (1) converge

k'ss and lossra.pidty,but still remniMcouvergcut, and arithnietical

reprsentatives of the diH'erential coefficients of it, so long as

thse lutter arc cvcrywhcrc finite. Thus (T)iomson and Tait,

77), if aM thc dcrivativcs up to th M'" inclusive arc frue

from innnitc values, tlic sories for u is more convergent than

onc with

]~< ();))'

for coc(ncic)tts.

nm)

ni )'

&c

IN PERPENDICULAR

33.]

DIRECTIONS.

25

from

intcresting

~MS of compotin(led vibrations,

observatlic facility with which they Icnd themsel-~cs to optical

U."

harino~c vib~doi~

bion, ~cur wt~i

r~more

cspecialty

~rcc~ons,

ticlc arc exccutcd

~e;~e;~tCM~r

but in the ratio

whcn th pcriods are not oniy commensur~bic,

Th motiorL is thcn complter

oi' two SM~tM whoc uumbcrs.

timcs grcatcr th~u tliosc cf th

not

with

many

pcnod

pcriudic,

If M and v

curve dcscribcd is re-cutrant.

thc

and

co.nponents,

ho thc co-oi-dmatcs, wc may takc

33.

Another

and dimensions

whose

an

position

in

ellipse,

gnral

reprcscnting

vibrations and upon

th

of

tlie

original

amplitudes

upon

dpend

tlie dincrcncc of thcir ph~es. If th phases ~er by a quarter

co-ordinatcs. If furthcr th two cfjmpMieuts ha.vc ecju~!amplitudes, th locus (JcgenGmtcsinto thc cirete..

which is described with uniform velocity. This shows how a

uniform circuiM' motion may bo analyscd into two rcctilmca.r

whosc directions arc pori~enJicula.r.

hn-monic motions,

If thc phases of thc components agre, E=0, and the cl!Ipsc

"r"j

dc"'cncrates iuto the coiticident stmight liucs

in practicc it will ahnnst

but

remains

stcady,

pcrfeetly

path

bctwocu thc

ditTo-cnec

n

is

th:i.t

there

sli~it

:dways happcn

periods. TI~oconsequeucc ie timt though a f~xcJ eHipsercprcscnts

26

IIARMONIC MOTIONS.

[33.

perlods,

tho ellipse! itsc)f iyradually cttangos in -jon'cspondencewith t)io

'cr,noB m t,hujua~uiLudoof e. It becomcs thcroiorc a matter

of interest to cojisider thc system of ellipses

rcprescntcd by (2),

supposing a and b constants, but j variable.

SInec tho extreme values of u and are i a, t b

respcctivcly,

thc cHipse is iti all cases insct-ibcd in thc

rectangle whose sidcs

arc 2(, 26. Sterling with tlio pitascs in agrcemcnt, or

6=0, wc

havo tlic cHipsc concident with tlie

= 0 As

dia"'ona.l

emcrcascs from C to ~-n-,thc ellipse opcns out until its

equation

Leon)es

comcidingwith thc

other

~Tr

+

diagonal

to 7r. Aftcr t!iis, as e mngcs from vr to 2~ th

dHpsc retraces

Its course untU it again coincidcs with t!ie first

diagonal. TIio

sequoice of changes is exhihitcd in Fig. 3.

tangents, is compictcly

dctcrmiucd by its point of contact P (Fig. 4) with thc linc ~=&.

33.] ]

LISSAJOTJS'

CYLINDER.

27

Now if th

when ~=6. cos27r?:<==l;and thercfore !t=acos.

of tvvohn.rmc:nc

uf

th

~tittl~

bc

BUpcrposHion

GJIipticpaLhs

vibrations of ncarly coincidont pitch, e va.ries uniformiy with the

vibration a.lorg ~J.'

timc, so that 7~itself cxccutcs a. l)n.rmo)uc

witit' a fi-cqucneyequal to th differenco uf thc twu givcn frcqucncics.

34. Lissn.]ous'bas shown that this systcm of ellipses may be

of onc and tlic Sfimc enipso

rcr'-arded as thc diffrent aspects

d~cnbcd ou thc surface of a. transparent cylinder. In Fig. 5

Seen from n.u infiultc distance in th direction of tlie common

is

into a

tangent at J. to tlie plane sections, tlie cylinder projcctcd

now that thc

into

its

thc

Suppose

and

diagonal.

ellipse

rectangle,

thc plane section with it.

cylindcr turns upon its axis, cai-rying

Its own projection romains a constant rectangle in which th pro-

inscribcd.

of

thc

Fig.

ellipse

jcction

tion of tlic cylindcr after a rotation through a right angle. It

tlio cylinder round we obtain in

uppcars thereforc that by turning

succession ail th ellipses corrcsponding to thc pa-thsdescribed by

iixcd

a point subjcct to two harmonie vibrations of equal pcriod and

be turned continuously

amplitudes. Moreovcr if tho cylinder

1 ~tHM~s de CAtM~ (3) LI, 147.

28

HARMONIC

MOTIONS.

[34.

wc obtain a complte rcprcsuutation of thc varying orbit

dcscribcd by thc point wh~n Lhc periods uf thc two compunents

differ slightiy, eacli complte revolution answoring to a gain or

loss of a single vibration'. Th rvolutions of th cyliuder arc

thus synchrouous vlt)i th bats which woutd rcsult f)'om thc

composition of thc two vibru-tious,if they wcrc to act in thc s.uuc

direction.

35. Vibrations of thc Mnd hre considercd arc very easily

rcn.Hxt'dexpcrimeutn.))y. A Ii(j:Lvypondulum-bob, hung from a

iixud point by a long wirc or string, descrihes cliipscHundcr t))c

action of gravity, which may in particular cases, according to th

circumstunc'e.sof projection, pass into straight lincs or circles.

But in order to sec th orhits to thc best advantagc, it is necessary

that thcy sliould be described so quic)dy tl~at th 'Itnprcssio!i

ou th retina madc by th moving point at any part of its course

bas not time tofade materially, heforc tl)e point cornes round again

to its

action. This condition is fulfilled by th vibration

of a silvered bead (giving by reflection a luminous point), winch is

att~ched to a straight mctaUic wire (such as a knitting-necdie),

firmiy clamped in a vice at the lower end. When tiie system is set

into vibration, the luminous point dcseribcs ellipses, which appear

as fine lines of light. Thse ellipses would gradually contract in

dimensions under th influence of friction until t!iey subsidcd

into a stationary bright point, without undergoing any othcr

change, wcre it not that in ail probability, owing to somc want

of symmetry, the wire lias s)ightly ditiering puriods according to

thc plane in which th vibration is cxceutcd. Undcr thse circumstances th orbit is sceu to undcrgo t!io cycle of changes

already cxplaincd.

3G. So far we Itavc supposcd tho periods of th component

vibrations to be equal, or nearly cqual; thc next case in ordcr of

sitnpiicity is when one is the double of tho othcr. Wc have

M=acos(4~7!-<e), ~=Z'cos2?!7~.

Tlie locus resulting from thc limination of t may bc written

1 Dy a vibration will

oyclo of

aiwaya ho mcaut iu this work a comj)~<<!

chfUtgOB.

3G.]

CONSONANT INTERVALS.

29

angle 2ct, 2&. If e = 0, or 7r, wo ha.vc

FIg.

7

reprsenta p~bolas.

iutcrvals of tLc octave, twuifth, aud fth.

relative

th transparent cylinder is applicable, and whcn the

th diffrent circ~mstanccs of

from

whctber

is

altcrcd,

phase

or continuously owing to a sbght din

diiferent

cases,

projection

will

viatior. from exMtness in tho ratio of tbe poriods, th cylinder

of th

digrent

to

the

aspects

as

to

so

eye

to

turn,

prsent

app~r

line traced on its surface.

sa.DiO

so

37. There is no dinicutty in arranging a vibrating system

vibrations

that th motion of a point shall consist of two harmonie

in any assigued ratio.

in perpendicular planes, with their periods

A wire

The simplest is that known as Blackhurn's pendnlum.

two nxcd points at tbe samc Icvel.

~t C-Bis fastcncd at ~1 and

CP.

Tbe bob P is attached to its middle point by another wirc

For vibrations in th plane ofthe diagram, thc point of suspension

iH practically C, provided that th wires are sunIcicQtIystretched

30

IIARMONIC

MOTIONS.

J37.

D, can-ying tho wire ~O'j9 witli it. TIic pc.ri~s of vibration in

square roots of CPand

DP. Thus if ~C=36'~

the bob describc.s th figures of thc

octave. To obtain tito squence of curvc.s

correspondin~ to

~pproxnnatc unison, Y~ must bc so ncarly tight, tiiat

is

rdativeJy small.

3S. Another contriv~ncocalled thc

kalcidophonc was originally invented by Whcatstoiie. Astraight tllin bar of steel

carry'i~

a bcad at its uppcr crid is fastcncd in

vice, as cxpMncd in a

previous p~ragraph. If the section of th bar is

square, or circuleth poriod of vibration is

indepeudcnt of thc plane in which it is

pcrformcd. But let us suppose that the section is a rectale

with unequal sidcs. Tlie stress of tl.c

bar-tho force with

which it rcsists Lcndin~-is thcu grcater in t!te

plane of mc.ater

Huc~nc.ss,aud tlie vibrations in this phuie have th shortcr

pcriod

By a suitable adjustmcnt of tho thickncsses, the two

poriods of

vibration may bc brought into any

required ratio, aud th eorresponding curve cx]iibitd.

Thc defeet in this arrangement is that thc samc

bar will r.Ivc

only one set of figures. In ordcr to ovurcome tins

objection

th fullowlng modification lias bccn

deviscd. A slip of steci is

takcn whosc rectangular section is

very ciongated, so tliat as

regards bcnding in onc plane the stiHhcssis so gr~t as to amount

practically to rigidity. Thc bar is divided into two parts, and the

38.]

OPTIOAL METIIODS.

31

broken ends reunited, the two pices bcing turned oa one another

throush a rigtit angle, so that tho plane, which contains th small

thc gi'L'utthujkMt~ i' tho ti~i-. W:

oi' ojf:, ~<j.,tt'.inK

LitickucfiM

tlie compound rod is clamped in a vice at a point bolow the junction, th period of th vibration in one direction, dpending alinost

cntircly on th Icngth of tho uppcr pice, is nearly constant; but

that in t)]C second direction may be controlled by varying th

point at which th lowcr pice is clamped.

39. In this arrangement th luminous point itself excutes

thc vibrations which are to bc obscrvcd but in Lissajous' form of

the experimont, the point of light remains rcaiy fixed, while its

M~Mf/eis thrown into apparent motion by means of successive

reflection from two vibrating mirrors. A smaUhole in an opaque

scrcen placed close to the iiame of a lamp giycs a point of light,

which is observed after reneetion in th mirrors by means of a

small tlescope. The mirrors, usually of polished steel, arc attMhcd

to th prongs of stout tuning forks, and th whole is so disposed

that wlieu th forks are thrown into vibration th luminous point

appears to describe harmonie motions in pcrpendicuhn' directions,

owing to tho angular motions of the renccting surfaces. Th

amplitudes and periods of these harmonie motions dpend upon

thoso of tho corrcspnnding forks, and may bo made sucli as to give

witli cnhanced brill.ianey any of th figures possible witli tlic

kalcidophonc. By a similar arrangement it is possible to project

tho ri~ures on a scrcen. In cither case they gradually contra.ctas

the vibrations of the forks die away.

40. Th principles of this cliapter Itavc reccived an important

application in the investigation of rectilinear periodic motions.

Whcn a point, fur instance a particio of a sounding string, is

vibratiug with such a period as to give a note within thc limits of

hearing, its motion is much too rapid to be followed by tl~ecyc

so that, if it be required to know tlie character of th vibration,

somo indirect mcthod must be adopted. Th simplest, thcoretically, is to compound th vibration undcr examination with a

uniform motion of translation in a perpcndicuhu'direction, as when

a tuning fork dra-wsa harmonie curve on smoked paper. Instead

of moving tlio vibrating body itself, we may make use of a revolving mirror, w!iich provides us with an M~K~ein motion. In tins

way we obtain a. reprsentation of tlic function charactcristic of

tiLe vibration, with thc abscissa proportional to timc.

33

UARMONICMOTIONS,

[40.

ho dimcult or inconvnient. Jn such cases we may substituts for

thc

uniform

n'<u

a.~tDu~ui~

vibnt.t'ofi

i

'fbU~i'bL'

))nri.).1

in

i.h<'

whose motion we wish to invcstigatc, vibratos vertically with a

period T, and let us examine th result of combining witli ttus a

horizontal harmonie motion, whose period is somc mu]tip)o of 7-,

say, M/r. Take a rectangutar pice of paper, and with axes parallcl

to itsedgcsdraw th curve rcprescnting th vertical motion

(hy

sctting off abscissa3 proportional to th timc) on such a scale that

tLc papcr jnst contains ?~repctitions or waves, and then bend tlic

paper round so as to form a cylinder, with a re-entrant curve running round it. A point dcscribing this curve in sucli a manno'

that it revolves uniformly about th axis of th cylinder will

appear from a distance to combine th given vertical motion of

punod T, with a horizontal harmonie motion of pcriod ~T. Conversely thcrofore, in order to obtain tho reprsentative curve of

tho vertical vibrations, the cylinder containing t]ic apparent path

must bc imagincd to he dividcd along a gencrating Une, and

developcd into a piano. Thcre is less difnculty iu couceiviug thc

cylmdcr and th situation uf thc curve upon it, \vitcn thc adjustment of tho periods is not quite exact, for thon tLe cylinder

appears to turn, and the contrary motions serve to distinguisb

those parts of th curve which lie on its nearer aud further face.

41. Th auxiliary harmonie motion is generally obtained

optically, by means of an instrument called a vibration-microsc-opc

invented by LIssajoua. One prong of a large tuning fork carries

a lens, whose axis is perpendicular to th direction of vibration

and which may be used cithcr by itself, or aa t!tc object-glass of

a compound microscope formed by tho addition of an eye-pieco

independently supported. In either case a stationnry point is

thrown into apparent harmonie motion along a lino parallcl to

that of tho fork's vibration.

The vibration-microscope may be appHcd to test th rigour

and universality of the law connecting pitch and ~ep't'o~. TIms

it will bc found that any point of a vibrating body -\v)uc!)gives

a pure musical note will appear to describe a rc-entrant curve,

when examincd witb a vibration-microscope \\hosc note is in

strict unison with its own. By th same means thc ratios of

frequeucies characteristic of the consonant intervals may be

41.]

INTERMITTENT

ILLUMINATION.

33

acoustical mthode to be described in a future chapter, may be

prcfcncd.

42. Another method of examining thc motion of a vibrating

body dpendsupon thc use of intermittent illumination. Suppose,

for exampic, that by mcans of suitable apparatus a series of

cleetric sparks are obtained at regnfar intcrvals T. A vibrating

body, whose period is also T, cxamined by thc light of thc sparks

must appear at l'est, because it can be sccn only in one position.

If, Itowcvcr, th period of th vibration differ from T cvcr so

little, the iHuminatcd position varies, and the body will appear

to vibrato slowly ~ith a frequcncy which is thc diffcrcncc of that

of the spark and tliat of the body. Th type of vibration can

thon be observed with facility.

The sries of sparks can bc obtained from an Induction-coih

whose primnry circuit is periodicauy broken by a vibrating fork,

or by somc othcr intcrruptcr of snrRcient regularity. But a bette)'

rcsult is afforcledby sunlight rendered intermittent with tlie aid of

a fork, whosc prongs carry two small plates of meta], parallel to

the plane of vibration and close togethcr. In each plate is a slit

pM'aIIclto thc prongs of th fork, and so placed as to aAbrd a

fj'cc passagethroug)i th plates whcn th fork is at rcst, or passing

through th middte point of its vibrations. On th opening so

formed,a beam ofsunHght is concentrated by means of a burningglass, and thc object undcr examination is placed in th cne of

rays diverging on thc furthcr sidc'. When tlic fork is made to

vibrato by an cicetro-magnetic arrangement, thc illumination is eut

off exccpt when the fork is passing through Us position of equilibrium, or nearly so. The nashcs of light obtained by this method

arc not so instn.nta.nouusas clectric sparks (especially when a

jar is connected with thc sccondary wire of th coil), but in my

exprience th rcguhu'ity is more perfect. Carc shoultl bc takcn

to eut on' extrancous ]ight as far as possible, and thu cnect is thon

very striking.

A similar result may bc arrived at by looking at th vibrating

hodythrough a sries of holes arranged in a circlc on a-revolving

(tisc. Several sries of holes ma.y be providcd on the same

<tisc,but th observation is not satisfactory without some provisionfor sceuring uniform rotation.

Ti~ier,2'/ti/Vn~. Jtm.1807.

H.

3

34

HARMONIC

MOTIONS.

[43.

the samf when the pcriod of th light is any multiple of tt~t of.

th vibmtin~ ~c'y. Tiiis pouit. ~HHt bu att,ciided tu ~i)eu th

revolving wheel is used to determine an unknown frequency..

When the frequency of intermittence is an exact multiple of

that of th vibration, t!te object is seen without apparent motion,

but generally in more than one position. Titis condition of things

is sometimes advautageous.

Similar effects arisc when th frcquencies of th vibrations

and of th flashes are in th ratio of two smaU whole numbers. If,

for example, th number of vibrations in a given time be half

as grt again as the number of flashes, th body will appear

stationary, and in general double.

CHAPTER Iir.

IIAVINGONEDEGREE0F FREEDOM.

SYSTEMS

43. THE matcrial systems, with whosc vibrations Acoustics is

concerned, are usually of considrable complication, and are susccptible of very varions modes of vibration, any or a!l of which

may cocxist at any particular moment. Indeed in some of th

most important musical instruments, aa strings and organ-pipes,

th number of independent modes is theoretically infinite, and

the consideration of several of tliem is essential to the most practical questions relating to the nature of tho consonant chords.

Cases, however, often present thcmselvcs, in which one mode is

of paramount importance and cvcn if this were not so, it would

still be proper to commence th consideration of thc general problem with th simplest case-that of one degrce of frcedom. It

need not be supposed that th mode treated of is th only one

possible,because so long as vibrations of other modes do not occur

their possibility under other circumstances is of no moment.

44, TIte condition of a system possessing one degree of frecdom is denncd by th value of a single co-ordinate M,whose origin

may be taken to correspond to thc position of cquilibrium. TIie

Mnetic and potential nergies ofthc system for any given position

arc proportional respectively to and

r=~~

F=~(i),

whcre w and are in general functions of M. But if we Hmit ourselves to tlie consideration of positions M!.the ?'y~:e~'<~e?:eK/Au is a small quantity,

&~u)7iOOfZ

o/</Mt<

con'M~on~t')~ e~x~t~,

and m and are sensibly constant. On this understanding wo

3-2

36

[4~.

friction or viscosity,or imprcss'~don the systcm from without, the

\vhole energy remains constant. Thus

y+ 1~=constant.

Substituting for T and V their values, and differentiating with

respect to tho time, wc obtain tlie e~ua-tionof motion

~m + /tW= 0

(2)

of which th complte integral is

~=(tcos(?)<

a)

(3),

vibration. It will bo

whcrc ?~=/7):,

rcprcscnti))~ a ~Muc

scc that thc pcriod alone is detemuned by th nature of the

system itself; the amplitude and phnse dpend on cothttcral circumstances. If tlie difrercutial equation wcrc exact, that is to

and F to thon, without

say, if T werc strictly proportional to

any restriction, th vibrations of th system ahont its conDguration

of equilibrium would bc accuratc)y harmonie. But in th majority

of cases tlic propoi'tionaHtyis only approximate, dcpending on an

assumption that tlie displacemeut ?<is always smallhow small

depends on th nature of the particular system and tlie degree of

approximation required and thon of course we must be careful

not to push th application of th intgral beyond its proper

limits.

But, although not to be stated without a limitation, the prineipic that th vibrations of a system about a configuration of

cquilibrium have a period dcpending on th structure of th

system and not on the particular circumstances of tlie vibration,

is of suprme importance, whcthcr regarded from th theoretical

or th practical sidc. If thc pitch and th loudness of th note

givcn by a musical Instrument wcre not within wide limits indepcndcnt, thc art of th pcrformer on many instruments, such

as th violin a.ndpianofortc, wouldbc revolutionized.

Th periodic time

of a vibration. By a generalization of the kuguage employed in

th case of a matcrial particle urged towards a position of eqnHibrium by a spring, ?~ may be called th inertia of th system, and

44.]

DISSIPATIVEFORCES.

37

of

u. th force of th quivalent spring. Thus an augmentation

mass, or a rc!f).xationof spring, incrcas<?sth perK'dic t.imc. By

means of this principlc wc may somctimes obtain limits for

the value of a,period, which cannot, or cannot easily, he calculated

cxact)y.

415. Th absence of atl forces of a frictioual character is an

idal case, never reahzcd but only approximatcd to in practice.

Tho original cnergy of a vibration is aiways dissipated sooner or

latcr by conversioninto leat. But there is another source of loss,

which though not, properly speaking, dissipative, yet produces

results of much thc same nature. Consider the case of a tuningfork vibrating in ~fMMO.TIic internai friction will in time stop

th motion, and th original energy will bc transformed into

heat. But now suppose that th fork is transferred to au open

space. In strietness tlie fork and the air surrounding it constitute a single system, whose parts cannot be ti'catcd separately.

In attempting, Ilowcver, tlie exact solution of so complicated a

prohicm, wc sliould gencrally bc stopped by mathematical dinicultics, and in any case an approximate solution would be desirable. Thc crfect of thc air during a few periods is quite insignincant, and hecomes important only by accumulation. We are

tbus led to considcr its effect as a ~s~<r~?:ce of the motion which

would take place t'~ ~acKO. Ttie disturbing force is periodic (to

th same approximation that th vibrations are so), and may he

dividcd into two parts, one proportional to tite acclration, and

the other to the velocity. Th former produces th same offectas

an altcration in th mass of th fork, and we have nothing more

to do with it at present. Th latter is a force arithinetica.Hyproportional to thc velocity, and aiways acts in opposition to the

motion, and thcrefore produccs enccts of thc same character as

those duc to friction. In many similar cases th loss of motion by

communication may bc trcatcd undcr th same head as that duo

to dissipation proper, and is reprosentecl in th diScrential quation with a degrce of approximation sumcicnt for acoustical purposes by a tenn proportional to th velocity. Thus

0.

M-TXM+H"M==(1)

is tlie quation of vibration for a system with one dcgreo of

frcedom subject to frictional forces. The solution is

M=~e'~ cos (~i~.

<(}.(2).

38

[45.

> thc solution changes its

fonn, and no lorger f'orrRsp.nds to nn os<-Hiatnrymotion; but In

.di acousticai applications A:is a small

qu~ntit'y. 'Under Dicso

circumstances (2) mny bc r~u'ded as cxprcssinga harmonie vibratton, whosc Mnpiitudc is not constant, but dimiuishcs m

gcomett-ical progrc.SHio]),

wlicn consi~o-cd aft-cr cqu~l iutcrv~Is of

time. Thc difercncc of th logarithms of successive

cxtronu

excursions Is nc:u-)yconsent, :md is ca)!edt]tc

Logar:t!imlc Ducremfut. It is cxpresscd by ~r, if T bc thu puriodie timc.

Titc frcquotcy.dcpcnding on ?~- ~~Invo!vG.s

on]y tite sccotd

powcr of A:;so that to thc rir.storder of approximation ~e/c~'o~

/t(M?!0e~ec~o~ ~c y)en'o~a principe

ofvo-y gnera! appiicatiun.

Tho vibra~on iicrc consided is ca!]ed

thc/y-ce vibration. It

is tbat cxccutcd hy thc System,when disturbcd from

cquiHbrium,

and tbcn

to itself.

4G. Wc must now turn oui-attoition to anothcr

problem, not

Jcss Important,th bchaviour ofthc systcm, whan

subjuctud to a

ibrcc varying as a harmonie funetion of thc timc. In ordcr tu savc

rcpctition, wc may takc at once the more gcncral case ijicludinnfriction. If tho-c be no friction, wc bave

on)y tu put in oui- rcsults

/<= 0. Th dincrential quation is

['

This is caDeda./M-c<~vibration; it is thc

responsc of thc System

to a force Imposbdupon it from wititout, and in mainta.iued tho

by

coutinued opcratioa of that force. T]ic

amplitude is proportional

46.]

FORCED

VIBRATIONS.

39

as that ofthe force.

Let us now supp<jHu gi~uu, ahd trace tLe effuuton a given

system of a variation in tlie period of th force. The effects

produced in dinfcrent cases are not strictly similar; hecause tlie

frequency of th vibrations produced is always the samoas that of

t)ie force, and thcrefore variable in th comparison which we are

about to institute. Wc n~ay,however, compare th cncrgy of the

system in different cases at th moment of passing through the

position of equilibrium. It is necessary thus to specifyth moment

at which the energy is to be computcd in each case, because the

total energy is not invariablo througitout tlie vibration. During

one part of the period tho systcm reoives energy from the

impressed force, and during th remainder of th period yields it

back again.

From (4), if u = 0,

cncrgy ce ceshi~c,

and is thcrefore a maximum, when suie==l, or, from (5), p=n. If

th maximum kinetic energy bc denoted by

wc bave

T=~sm~(6).

The kinctic encrgy of the motion is therefore the grcatest possible,

when the period of the force is tliat in which th system would

vibrato fruciy undcr the influence of its own ela-sticity(or othcr

internai forces), ~t0i<t ~h'c~'o?! Th vibration is then by (4)

and (5),

quarter of a period bohind that of tlie force.

Thc case, where = ?!, may also be treated IndGpendentIy.

Since tho period of tlio actual vibration is the same as that

natural to thc system,

40

ONE DEGREE

0F FREEDOM.

[46.

phase relatively to tho

force lies betwech xeru and a qu:u-te!pcriod, aud whcn is ~reater

tit:m}.[.,butwcchi(.~U!u'~t'~(.'i:m!n.i,.bntfuut~d.

In t!)c cuscof a systcln devoid of i'riction, tlie solution is

tliat of thc force, but whcn~ Is th

grever, the sign of th vibration is clianged. Th change of phase from

complte agreement

to complote disagrcemeut, which is

graduai wlien friction acts,

hre take~ place abruptty as pa.sses

through t!ic value 7t. At th

samc tune thc expression for th

amplitude bccomes inanit. Of

course this oniy means that, iu thc case of

cqual periods, friction

7~<~he taken into account, Ijoweversmali it

may be, aud liowevcr

insigniricaht its rcsult wben and ?t are not approximatc!y cqua).

Thc limitation as to th magnitude of thc

vibration, to which we

are all along subject, must a)so bc borne in mind.

That th excursion shouid bc at its maximum in one

direction

whi!e th generating force is at its maximum in tho

opposite

as

for

du-eetion, happons, cxampic.in the canal theory oft!ic tiftc.s,

is somcti.ncs considcred a paradox.

Any dimculty that may be

fc)t will bu ronovcd by considering the extrme

case, in which th

".spring vanishes,so t!.at thc natural period is Innnitety lono-. In

fact we nced ody consider the force

acting on the bob of a'common pendutum swinging

frecly. in which case t]ic excursion on one

sicle is greatest w)tcn the action of

gravity is at its maximum

m thc opposite direction. When on thc other

hand the inertia of

th system is very sma)I,we hve the otticr extrme

case in which

th so-c.Ued equiHbrium

theory bccomes applicable, tlie force and

excursjou being in tlie samc phase.

Wi~en t]te pcrioJ of thc force is

longer than the nature period,

thc cncet of an increasing friction is to

introduee a retardation

in th ph:Lscoft)tc

dispiacementvaryingfrom zero up to nquarter

penod. If, ),owever,the period of th natural vibration bc tho

longer, th original retardation of haf a period is diminished

by

short

ofa

somethmg

quarter period; or th cn'eet of friction is to

Mc~e

tlie phase of thc disphccment cstimatcd from that eon-cspond.ng to thc absence of friction. In cither case th influence

of fr.ct~oni to cause an

approximation to thc state of things that

wou!d prcva)I tffrictioTi wcre paramount.

46.]

PRINCIPLE 0F SUPERPOSITION.

41

vnry s1o\v1yto a maximum and then slowly dcrte, thc dispjacement docs not rcach its maximum untd aftcr th force lias

bcgun to diminish. Under thc opration of the force at its

maximum, thc vibration continues to increasountil a certain limit

is approachcd,and this incrcase continues for a time cven att))ouglt

tlie force, having passed its maximum, begin.s to diminis)). Ou

ttds principic tlie t'utardation of spring tidcs bchiud tlie da.ysof

ucw and full luooulias bccn cxp]ained'.1.

47. From tlie linearity of the cquations it follows that the

motion rcsulting from thc simuItanGOusaction of any numbcr of

forces is thc simple sum of tlie motions duc to the forcesta~en

scparate!y. Each force c:uises tlie vibration proper to itself,

wthout regard to tlie presoicc or absence of any othos. Thc

peculia-ritiesof a force arc thus in a manner transmitted into th

motion of tho system. For example, if thc force be periodic in

timc T, so will be th resulting vibraLion. Each ])armonic element of tlie force will call forth a corresponding harmonie vibration

in tl system. But since tlie rctardation of phase e, and the ratio

is not the samc for th different components,

of amplitudes M

the resulting vibration, though periodic in th same time, is diffrom the force. It may happcn, for instance,

frent in c/t<t7'KC<c?'

that one of thc components is isocbronons, or ncurly so, wit)i th

frce vibration, in whicli case it will mauifcst itself in thc motion

out of al] proportion to its original importance. As another

example we may consider the case of a System actcd on by two

forcesof nearly cqual period. Th resulting vibration, bcing compounded of two ncarly in unison, is intermittent, accordiug to the

pt'inciples cxphuned in thc last chapter.

To the motions, which arc tlie Immdiate effects of t])c impressed forces, must always be added thc tcrm expressing frec

vibrations, if it be desired to obtain the most gencral solution.

Thus in thc case of one impressed force,

48.

~Airy'B2'(~t'<n))~n'at'f~Art.328.

42

ONEDEGREEOF FREHDOM.

[48.

former is detenniucd solcly by thc force whicli is supposed to act

.u Umh~

lic-ni ~rdiQut:, ~hHu Lii:t ut' thc htttcr dpends

un)y

on the constitution ofthe system itself. Anothcr point of din'ercnce is that so long as the extcrnal influence continues to opcratc,

a forced vibration is permanent, being rcpresentcd strictly by a

harmnic function; buta frec vibration graduallydies away, becoming ncghgibic aftcr a timo. Suppose, fur cxample, that the

systcniis :),trcst when thc force 7~cos~j{bcgins to operate. Su.ch

rinitc vaincs must bc givcn to th constants jd and a iti

(1) of 47,

that buth and ii arc initiatty zro. At first tllen tiiere is a

frec vibration not less important than its rival, but after a time

friction rednces it to insignificanee, and the forced vibration is left

ill complte possessionof the nc!d. Tins condition of

things will

continue so long as the force oprtes. Wlien thc force is removed,

thcrc is, of course, no discontimuty in the valucs of Mor !<,but

tho forced vibration is at once convcrtcd into a frce vibration

and the poriod of thc force is cxchangcd for that natural to the

system.

Dm'ing thc coexistence of the two vibrations lu thc earlier part

of thc motion, tho curious phc'nomcnon of beats

may occu)', in

case the two periods diiicr but siight)y. For, ?!

and being nearly

equa), and smali, tlie initial conditions arc approximately satisfied by

!<= a cos (~< e)

e'

cos ~1-

ej.

Thcrc is thus a risc and faU in the motion, so long as e' remains

sensible. TI)is intermittence Is vcry conspicuous in the earlier

stages of thc motion of forks driven by cicctro-magnetism ( G3).

49. Vibrating Systems of one degree of freedom

may vary in

two ways according to t)tc values of the constants Mand K. Th

distinction ofpitch is sumcIe)tt!yIntG!!igibic; but it is worth w]nle

to examine more closcly the con'sefjncnccs of a

grcatcr or less

dcgree of damping. Titc most obvions is the more or less rapid

extinction of a fi-cevibration. The enbct in this direction

may be

mcasurcd by the numbcr of vibrations wliich must

e)apsc bcfore

the amp)Itudc is reduced in a given ratio.

Initit )y tho amplitude

may be takcn as unity; after a time <, lot it be 0. Then 6 = c'

VARIOUS

40.]

nnjucru-Lu

du~reu

DEGREES OF DAMPING.

2

xT log

ut' dampmg,

\vc

43

tua.y

tn.kc

upprox.UTmtcly,

thea.)nplituduf!iih)to0.

Thc inuucncc of damping is aiso powcrfu~y Mt in a, forccd

'Ibra.tion, wlicu thcre is a. :uear approach to isochronism. In the

case ci' an exact equality betwcen a.nd ?~ it is thc damping alone

witich prcvcnts thc motion becommg m~nite. We might casily

auticipate thatwheu tUc damping is small, a. compara.tivelyslight

dcvia-tion from perfect isoein'onismwuld cause a large fa.Hmgoff

in thc Magnitude of thc vibration, but that with a larger damping,

thc s:uuc precision of adjustmcut would not bc rcquired. From

tlie enuatious

producc a, motion ]iot grea.tly Icssthan th maximum.

Th two principal eScets of damping may be compared by

climijiating betwecu (1) and (2). Th result is

the right-hand sidc ngative.

If, when a system vibrtes frcely, tlie ampUtude be reduced in

the ratio after x vibrations then, wben it is acted on by a force

(p), thc energy of the resulting motion will bc less than in th

case of perfect isochronism in the ratio T T~. It is a mattcr of

mdiifcreucc whcthcr th forced or tlie free vibration bc th higher;

all dpends on the M/erua~.

In most casesof interest thc intcrval is small; and then, putting

p = ~+8~ tlie formula may be written,

44

['49.

givcn by Hcimlioltx'

Ijttcrvfd con-cspon.Ung to a rduction

of Uto ruM.ttauco to ouc-touth.

y

y

~Q

i'itcnHity of a frco vibrntiou is roducudtoono.tunth.

~=A.

tonc.

~.oo'~

19'00

9-50

?

Whuif! tonc.

G-33

4-75

tuno.

3.~0

7 toile.

Twu whuit'

tonea~

g. jy

2-71

major third.

~'37

as

'1.

Mtt)~~

a:

50. From observations of forced vibrations due to known

forces, tlie natural period and dampiug of a system may Le detertniGd. TIio formuhuare

known, tlie comparison of amplitudes tells us tlie value of

sav

~ifH~/ntJf~fyc~

p. 221.

50.]]

STRINGWITH LOAD.

45

frcc vibra.tionsis important but it may be remarked that most of

th forced vibrations which we shall Lave to consider as affecting

a system, take tbcir origin ultimately in the motion of a second

system, which influences thc first, and is innuenccd by it. A

vibration may thus have to be reekoned as forced in its relation

to a system whose limits are fixed arbitrarity, cvcn when that

pystem lias a share in dctcrmining thc period of the force which

acts upon it. On a wider view of thc matter embracing both th

as

An

Systems,thc vibration in. question will be recognizcd free.

example ma.y ma~c tliis clca.rer. A tuning-fork vibrating in air

is part of a compound system including th air and itself, and

in respect of this compound system the vibration is free. But

although thc fork is influenccd by thc raction of th air, yet thc

amount of such innuence is smaU. For practical purposes it is

convenieat to eonsidcr the motion of the fork as givcn, and Lhat of

motion

th air as forced. No crror will be committed if th f<c<:ta~

of the fork (as innucnccd by its sun'oundings) be takcn as tbe

basis of eaicutation. But th peculiar adva.ntagcof tlils mode of

conception is manifcstcd in thc case of an approximatc solution

bcing rcquired. It may then sumce to suhstitute for th actual

motion, what would bc tbc motion of th fork in the absence of

air, and afterwards introduce a correction, if uecessary.

52. Illustrations of the principles of this chapter may bc

drawn from ait parts of Acoustics. Wo will give bc're a few

applications which deserve an early place on accouut of their

simplicity or importance.

A string or wire J.CJ3 is stretched bctwccn two nxed points

~1 and

and at its centre carries a mass J~ which is supposed to

bc so considrable as to rcndcr th mass of the string itself ncgliis pulled asidc from its position of equilibrium,

gibic. WIten

and thcn Ict go, it excutes along th lino C~ vibrations, whicb

C= 6'~ = M. C'.V=x. Th tension

are the subject of inquiry.

of thc string in the position of equIHhriumdpends on the amount

of the stretchiug to which it has been subjected. In any othcr

4G

[52.

of vibrations so small that tt~e additiona!

strotching is a ncgJigibJe

fraction of the who)c. On th~ (~ncHii~n thc ~<i)i rn:~ bc

treated as con&tant. We dnote it by y

Th amplitude and phase dpend of course on th initial circumstances, being arbitrary so far as th dinforcntial quation is

conccrned.

Equation (2) expresses th nanner in which 7-varies with each

ofthe Independent quantities V.~a:

resultswhich mayall bc

outained by considration of the (~MCHs~~ the tcchnica!

(in

sensc)

of the quantitics involved. T!~G

argument from dimensions is so

often of importance hi Acoustics tliat it

may bc wcll to consider

this first instance at Icngtit.

In the first place wc must assure ourselvcs tliat of all

th

quandties on which T may dpend, th only oues

involving a

53.J

METHOD 0F

DIMENSIONS.

47

mnssure a,

and T. Let th solution of the problem bo

wnLLeuThis equation must rcta.in its form unchanged, whatever may

l)ethe fundamcntal units by means of which th four quantities

arc nnmerically expressed, as is vident, when. it is considered

that in deriving it no assumptions would be made as to th magnitudes of those units. New of all tlie quantities on which f

dpends, Tis the oniy onc involving time and since its dimensions arc (Mass)(Length) (Ti.me)' it follows tl~at whe!i ? and ~f

arc constant, oc.T'

otherwise a change in th unit of time

would necessarily disturb the equation (3). Tins being admittcd,

it is ca~y to see that in order that (3) may be independent of the

unit of Icngth, we must Imver ce T"~ n~,when Is constant and

finally, in order to secure indcpcndence of the unit of mass,

docs not prove. Wc Iiave nMKMte~that thcrc is a deHnitc

periodic time dcpeuding on no other quantities, having climensions in spacc, time, and mass, t!ia.nthosc aLove mcntioncd. For

example, we hve not proved that r is indpendant of thc amplitude of vibration. That, so far as it is truc at ail, is a consquence cf thc linearity ofthe approximate dinercntial quation.

From the neccssity of a complte cnumeration of all the

quantifies on which th required rcsult may dpend, thc method

of dimensions is somewhat dangerous but when used with

proper

Ct~reit is unqucstionably of great power and value.

ONE L.MCREE 0F

FREHDOM.

F~.

prsent problem might bo made thc

foun~tion of a ,nethcd for Lhe absolute

n~asurerncnt of pitch.

pnncip~J impedunc-nt to accuracy would

prubabjy.be t!to

oi

difBculty u~ku~

iu relation to th m~ of

suf!ictcutfy

tlie ~u.c, without at tlie samc timc i~

th note too much in

lo~crin~

th musical scalc.

by wcight

fur hcr en<) beyo~i

bndgo or pulfey at

wouidbcc:dcu);),tcdfrom

~t~chcd te its

Th pcnodic time

T).c ratio of

= ~i,

t).e balance. If r. be ,no..sured

in fect, aud~= ~.2. tl~c

pcriodic timc is exprcs.sedin seconds.

musical

the .vcight, Instead of

~n~

an

being

concentratcdin th centre, is

uniformtydistnbuted over its !cn~

t)ic prsent problem gives some ide~ of th

n~tu.'coi~evertiK.Icss

the gr~vest vibration of snch

string. Let t.. compare th two

more c osoJy,

supposingthc amplitudes of vibration t)te same

c~cs

at th jmddie point.

-When th uniform

string is .straight, th moment of passin~

tLro~h th position of cquilibruua, its dirent

parts are a~

54.]

COMPARISON

WITH

UNIFORM

STRING.

49

thc centre. If we attribute to th whole mass tho vclocity of tho

centre, it la vident that th kinetic cnergy will bG cousidcrab!y

ovcr-estimated. Again, at the moment ci' maximum excursion,

th uniform string i.s more stretched than its suhstitutc, winch

foltows thc straight courses ~1~

and accordingly the poteutial cncrgy is dumnished y t)to substitution. TIiG concentration

"i th mass at the middie point at once increascs tho kinctic

cncrgy whcn a;= 0, and decreascs ttte potential energy when ~-= 0,

and thercforc, according to the principle explained m 44, prolon'~

the pcriodic timo. For a string thon the period is less than that

catcuiatud from the formula of the last section, on the supposition

that ~1/ dnotes th mass of the string. It will afterwards

appear

t)jat in order to obtain a correct result we should !)avc to takc in4

4

Of

stcadof.Von!y-~V.

thefactor-~TT hy far thc more importTT

ant part, viz.

one dcgree of freeclom,let us considcr tlie vibration of a

spring, one

end of which is clamped in a vice or otherwise held

fast, wliile thc

otiter carries a heavy mass.

In strictncss, this System !iko tho last lias

an innnite numbcr of Indcpcndent modes of vibration but, whcn thc mass of t!tc spi'mg is

)-e!ativc!y sn-i:d),ttiat vibration which is ncarly

indcpcndont of its inci'tla. buconics so much th

most important t!)at tho othcrs may bo ignored.

Pusinng this idca, to it.s limit, we may regard the

spring merety as tite origin of a force urging th

attaehed mass towards th position of equilibrium,

and, if a certain point be not excecded, in simple

proportion to thc disp!acement. Thc result is a

harmonie vibration, with a period dpendent on

th stinhess of tho spring and the mass of the

toad.

56. In consquence of tho oscillation oi' the centre of

inertia,

H~ci-eis a, constant tendency towards the communication of motion

to tlie supports, to resist which

a.dequate!y th latter must be

very ni'm and massive. In ordcr to obviate this inconvenience,

R.

4

~0

[5G.

m~y bc mountcd ou

tlie same frame-work in a symmctrical manncr.

If thc two loads pcrform vibrations of

cqual amp)itude in such a, manner that the motions arc

a.Iwn.ys

{m

opposite, or, it may otherwise bc e.xprcsscd,with

a phasc-tiiHcrcucc of !m]f a period, thc centre of

inertia of thc whole system rcmains at rcst, and

thcro is no tendency to set thc fra.mc-workinto

vibra.tion. We shaU sec in a future chapter that

this peculiar relation of phases will

quiddy estab)ish itself, wt~tever may be tho original disturba.nce. In fact, any part of tho motion winch does

not conform to the condition of

Icaving thc centre

of inertia unmoved is soon extinguished

by damping, unless indccd thc supports of tbe system arc

more than usually nrm.

57. As in our first exemple wc found a

rough illustration of

tho fundamental vibration of a musical

string, so hre with tlie

spring and attachcd load wc may compare a uniform slip, or bar,

of elastic material, one end of which is

securejy fastencd, such for

instance as the ~:<e of a )~e~ instrument. It is truc of course

that tlie mass is not coucentmtcd at onc end, but distnbutcd

over th whole Icngth; yet on account of tlie smallness of

thc motion ncar the point of

support, th inertia of that part

ofthe bar is of but little account. ~einfer that thc fundamental

vibration of a uniform rod cannot be

very dincrcnt in cbaractcr

from that which we ])ave bcen

considering. Of course for purposes rcquiring prcise calculation, the two Systemsarc sufnciently

distinct but where t!ie object is to form clear idcas, precision

may

often be advantagcously cxchanged for

simplicity.

In the same spirit we may

regard tlie combination of two

springs and loads shcwn in Fig. 13 as a reprsentation of a

tuning fork. This instrument, which bas been much improvcd

of late years, is indispensable to the acoustical

investigator. On

a large scale and for rough

purposcs it may bc made by wciding

a cross piece on the middle of a bar of steel, so as to form a and

T,

then bending the bar into t!io

shape of a horse shoe. On th

handle a acrew should be eut. But for th botter class of

tunmg

forks it is prfrable to slape th whole out of one

piece of stecL

A division running from one end down the middic of a bar is first

S~J

TUNJXGFORKS.

5jI

madc, thctwo parts opcned ont to form the prongs of the fork,

and th whole workcd by tho iiammer and n!u into thc

rcquircd

T)ic

two

shape.

prongs must bc cxactiy symmctricat with respect

to a plane passing through the axis of thc

liandie, in ordcr that

during t!ie vibration th centre of incrtia may remain unmoved

unmoved, tiiat is, in thc direction in which thc prongs

vibrato.

Thc tuning is cnected t)ms. To make th note

higher, th

quivalent incrtia of thc System must bc rcduccd. This is donc

hy nling away t)ie ends of thc prongs, cithor diminishing their

thickncss, or actuaiy sliortening thcm. On the other hand, to

Jowcrthe pitch, tlic substance of the

prongs ncar thc bcnd may

be rcduced, the effect of which is to diminish th

force of the

.spring,Icaving t)te inertia pmctically unchangcd or the inertia

may be increased (a mcthod which would be prfrable for tcmporary pm-poscs) by loading thc ends of thc prongs with wax, or

material. Large forks arc somctimus

othcr

provided with movcable weights, which slide

along thc prongs, and can be nxcd in

any position by screws. As thse approach thc ends (whcro thc

vetoeity is greatcst) the quivalent incrtia of thc System incrcascs.

In this way a considrable range of pitch may bo obtained from

one fork. TJ)c number of vibrations

per second for any position

the weights may be markcd on th

prongs.

of

Tite relation bctwcen the

pitch and thc''size of tnnin~ forks is

In a future chapter it will be

rcmarkably simple.

provcd that

the

material remains thc samc and tho

provided

shape constant'

tt.c period of vibration varies,

dircctty as t)te linear dimension

TIrns, if t!ic linear dimensions of a tuning fork be

doubicd, its

note falls an octave.

58. Thc note of a

tuning fork is a ncarly pure tone. ImmediateJy after a fork is struck, high tones may indccd be hcard,

to modes of vibration, whosc nature will bc subsecon-esponding

qucnHy considered; but thse rapidiy die away, and cven whilc

s they exist, they do not b!cnd with th propcr tone of the fork

part~y on account of thcir very high pitch, and partly bccause

ihey do not bchng to its harmonie scale. In the forks examincd

~.byHelmhoitz the first of thse overtoneshad a frequcncy from 5-8

to n-G timcs titat of the

proper tone.

Tunmg forks are now generaUysupplied with rsonance cases,

whosc effect is greatly tu

augment the volume and pnrity of the

42

53

[58.

In

sound, according to principles to be hcreaftcr dcve!opcd.

oiJer to excite thon, a -viotin or ccHo bow, wcll supp)icd with

:~dr~t.t .Cr~~ rh< prongs'u ~'u dit'<<t)uuof\'b''ai.u)r'.

')~

Thc souud so prothccd wIUlast n minute or more.

T)~

R~. As standards of pitch tuningforksarcinvaluabic.

and with th

pitclt of organ-pipcs varies with tlic temprature

with th tension, wltio])cnn

pressure of t!ic wind; th~t of strings

nuvcr be rctaincd constant for long; but n. tuning fork kcpt ctc.m

and not subjccted to violent changes of temprature or magnctixation, prcscrvcs its pitch with grt fideUty.

with

bc

By means of bcats a.standard tuning forl. may copicd

a second is

of

!)card

iu

bats

Th

nnmbcr

very grt prcision.

t))u dinurencc cf th frc()uencicsof thc twu tcncs which produce

hah'

thcm; so that if thc bcats can 1)0madc so s)ow as to occupy

a minute cach, ti)C frequcncics diH'cr hy on)y l-3()th of a vibration. Still grcatcr precision might be obtaincd by Lissajous

(~ptic:tlincthod.

In

Very sh)\vbcats bcing dimcult of observation, consc<)ucnc

uf tho unccrtainLy whcthcr a faHing ofi in thu sonnd is duc to

interfrence or tu thc gradut dying away of tho vibrations,

Schcib)cr adoptcd a sonicwbat modihcd plan. Ho took a fork

standardwbcther highci- or

~ightiy diffrent in pitch from tho

lo~cr is not materia!, but wc will say, tower,and countcd tbc

'Tmmberof bcats, when they were soundcd togctbcr. About fuur

bats a second is th most suitab)c, and thse may be countcd for

is then made sligbt]y

perbaps a minute. Th fork to bc adjustcd

tuncd to givc wit)t it prccisdy

higbcr than the auxiuary fork, and

tlie samc numbcr of beats, as did th standard. lu tins way ft

To facilitate Ute counting

copy as exact a~ possible is secured.

of thc bats Scbcibk'r cmployed pendulums, whose periods of

vibration could bc adjusted.

60. T)ie mcthcd of bcats was aiso employed by Scheibler to

dtermine tbe al)so]ute pitch of lus standards. Two forks were

tuned 'to an octave, and a number of others prcparcd to bridge

ovc-r thc lotcrval by stcps so smaU tliat cacii fork gave with its

immdiate ncighbours hi t! sries a numbcr ofbcats that could

be casily couutcd. T!tC din'urencc of frcqucncy con'csponding to

each stcp was observcd with aU possible accuracy. Thuir sum,

of th octave,

being tlie din'crencc of fi'cquencies for the intcrval

was 'quai to thc frcqnencyof that fork which formcd th starting

(;0.'j

SCHEIBLER'STONOMETER.

53

point at th bottom of tho sries.

couldbc dcduccd.

If conscutive forks givc four bats per second, C.5in a.ll will

bc rnquirod to bridge over thc intcrval frora c' (2.')G)to c' (5L2).

Un thisaceountthc mctitod is laborious; but it is probably th

most accm-atcfor tl)C original dctcrmina.tion of pitch, as it Is liabtc

to no ct-rors but such as care and repetitioti will clhninatc. It

is tho mcasurcmcnt of

mn.ybc obscrvcd tliat thc cssctYtiatthing

t)tc ~er~ce of frcqucncics for two notes, whosc ~o of frcqucncics is UKlcpcndcnt]yknown. If wo could be sure of its accm-a-cy,

thc Intci-v:dof th nfth, fourt)i, or cvcn.major third, might bc suhstitutcd for th octave, with th advantagc of rcducmgttie number

of th ncccssary interpolations. It is proba.b!c tttat with thc aid

of optic!d mcthods t))i.s course might bc succcs.s(ut!yadoptcd, as

thc con'csponding Lissajous' ngurcs a.rc casily rccognised, and

thcit- stcadinoss is a vcry sovcrc test of t!ie accm'acy with whicb

tt'e ratio isattainud.

Thc frcqnency of large tuning forks may bc detcrmincd by

which

aHowiugthem to trace a harmonie curve on smokud papcr,

of a rcvo)ving

tnny couvcnicnHybc mountcd on thc circumicrenco

drmn. Thu muubci' of wavcs cxccutcd in a second of thnu givcs

thcfrcqucncy.

In many cases tbc nsc of Ittterniittcnt Hturnination duscribcd

an nnknown

in 4-2givcs a convcniunt )net))odof dctcrmining

frcqucncy.

(il. A scrics of forks ranging at snndi int.crv:usover an octave

is vcry uscf\d for th dcturtnination of thc frcqucncy of any

)nusic:d note, and is caUcd Schuibtcr's Tonomctur. It may a~o

bc nscd for tnuing a note tu any desirct).pitch. In cilber case

of th note is dctermincd hy tl)e nuinher of beats

thu f')-u(Utcncy

\vhic)i it givcs with thc i'orks, which lie aearest to it (on cach

sidu) in pitch.

For tuning pianofortcs or organs, a. set of twelvc forks may be

uscd giving thc notes of thc cbromatic sealc 0)1tho equal temprament, or any dcsircd system. Tbc corrcsponding notes are

is

adjusted to unison, and t])C otbcrs tuned hy octaves. It betto-,

I~owevcr,to prpare th forks so as to givc four vibrations per

second k-ss than is above proposed. Eacli note is thcn tuncd

little higher than tlie corresponding fork, until thcy givc when

sounded togcthor cxactiy four bats in thc second. It will be

54

C~K

DEGREE 0F

FREEDOM.

[61.

to thc frcfptencics is not the samc thing as a more displaccnicut

ofthescatcinabsolutcpitch.

In th ordinary practicc of tuners a' is takcn from a fork, and

tlie other notes dctermiued by cstinm.tion of (Iftt)s. It will bc

rcmcmbcrcd that twefve truc ~fths arc slightiy in excess of seven

uct.ivcs, so thitt on tho equal tcmpcranicut System cn.chf)ft)~is :).

little fit. Thc tuner procccds upw:irds from

Ly succci-isivu

fifths, coining down au octave aftcr about every altet'ttate stop, m

ordor tu reimutt in nearly the same part of the scfdo. Twcivc

Hfths should britig ])itn back to . If this Le not thc case, the

wurk must bc ruadjustud,unt,iJ all the twe)vc ftfths arc too fhtt by,

as nearly as can bcjndgcd, thu samo sma!) amount. Thu incvitabiu o-ror is thcn hnpartiaUy di.stributed, an<t rotdcrcd as little

sensible as possible. Tt)c octaves, of course, arc all taned truc.

Th fo!Iowii]gnumbers indicatc thc order in whic)t the ilutes may

bc takcn:

JJ

c' c'~

e'

a'

b'

c"

c"

y'

c~

M~

13 51G 81911 314 6 17 9 1 12 415 7 18 10 3

In practicc thc cqual temprament is only approximatcly attaincd but this is pcrhaps not of muc)t consquence, cousidering

titat the systcm ainied at is itself by no mcatis pcri'uction.

Violins and other Instruments of that class arc tuncd by truc

nfthsfrom'.

G2. In illustration of/o;'C6(Zvibration let us consider the case

of n. pendutum whosc point ci support is subjoct to n small hurixouta! harmotuc jnution.

is

thcboba.ttachedbya.fincwu'c

to a movcn.btcpoint 7~. 07'*=

7'() = and .r is th honxoltal co-ordiniitcof (). SIncotlie

vibrations arc supposed sina.)!,

thc vertical motion !n:).y Le

~cgiccted, and tho tension of

thc wlrc Cfjuatcdto thc wcight

of (,). Hunce for t))c Itorizonta!

motion

;e+~+.(.t;J=0.

C2."]

COMPOUND PENDTJLUM.

New

tlie form ah'cady trea-tcd of, viz.

.v+ A:~+ )~ = cos~

55

Thc a~sumed horizontalharmonie motion forP maybe rcajized by

mc:ms of a,second pcndulum of massive construction,which can'Ies

.P witli it in its motion. An cfncicnt arrangement is shewa in

t)tc ngnrc. /t, .Harc iron rings scrowcd into a beam, or other nrm

cqua! hcavy weights A', :tttac!K!dncar its ends, and is supportcd

in a hurizo)it,al position at riglit angles to th beiuri by a wirc

passing through thc fuur rittg.s in thc tnanner shcwn. Whcn tlie

pcndulutii i.s)nndc to vibratc, n.point m thc rud midway bctwcot

C' and D excutes a hiu'mouic motion ni a direction paridtcl to

6'D, and jnn.ybo nmdo th poitit of a.tta.chmcntof auother pcndutunt -Z~. If ttte wcights A~and

be vcry grcat in relation

to Q, t)jc uppur penduhun swings vury ncn.r)yin ils 0~1 propur

poriod, and induccs in () a. furccd vibr:<.tionof titc s!t.nicperiod.

\Vhcn thc ]c!)gth ~Q is so adjusted that thc nattu'id pc!'i<j(!s

oftite

two pcnduimns arc nearly t)ic s;unc, Q will bu tLrown into viuk'ttb

motion, evun t!)&u~hthc vibration ot' j! bc of but niconsidura.bln

ampHtudc. ln this case the diHcrenccof phase is about n (~)artcr

5G

ONH DEGREE

OF FRKEDOM.

[62.

If the two pcriods hf vnry dHTo'cnt, thc vibrations ~either a.g)'ec

or arc compictcly opposed in p!)asc, accordin~ to quations (4)

and (5) of 4C.

63. A vo'y good cxa)np)c of {t furccd vihruttcn i~iabrdcd by

n. ibrk under thc iunucnec of tui intermittent ctcctric cui'rcnt,

~hoso period is ncarly cqual to its own. ~).CZ?is the fork; 7?a

sma!) c)ectro-magnct, formed by winding insula.tcdwire on nn iron

corc of tho shape shcwu ni E (simila.r to titat known as 'Sioncn.s'

armature'), ~nd supportcd betwccu tho prongs ofthc fork. Whcu

an intermittent current i.ssent through th wire, a periodic force

acts upon the fork. This force is not cxprcssibic by a simpic circular fonction; but mn-ybc cxpandcd by Fouricr'.s theorcm lu a

scrics of sucli functions, ha.vlngporiods T, T, T, &c. If nny of

thcsc, of not too small amplitude, bc ncarly isochronous with the

furk, thc latter will be canscd to vibrato othcrwisc t]tc effect is

insigninca.nt. In wbat follows wc will suppose that it is the complete pcrioclT whicb ncarly ngrcc.switlt tliat of the furk, and couscqucntly rega.rdthc sries expressing th pcriodic forceas reduccd

to its first term.

lu order to obtain t))C maxitnum vibration, thc fork must be

cai'cfuHytuncdhy a small siiding pice orby w:LX',uutit its j~turat

pcriod (without friction) is cfpud to that ot'th force. Dus is bcst

cloue by actual trial. Witen tho desired c~uidity is approacticd,

and th fork is a)!owcd to start from rc'st, thc ibrccd and comptctncntary frce -vibration arc of nearly cqual amplitudes a.nd

frequencics, and therefore ( 4-8) in thc bcginning of thc motion

produce~ef< whose stowncss is a measuro of the accm'acy of

y"r Uu~j'urposc\\nxmny<'onvp))ifnt]y

it wiU)a )itt)<i

Ly)nc'IUnK

Lofioftcncd

txrjK'ntino.

G3.]

RELATION

0F AMPLITUDE

AND PHASE.

57

time to subside, that th motion assumes its peru.anent ch~'acter.

T))Cvibrations ofa tuning fork properly constructed and inounted

arc subject to very little damping; consequcntly a vcry slight

dviation from perfect isoclironism occasionsa markcd falittig off

in th intcnsity of the rsonance.

The nmpHtudo of thc forccd vibration can bc obsci-vedwith

suficicnt accuracy by thc car or cyc but th exprimenta! verification of thc relations pointed out by thcory bctwccn its phase

and that of th force which ca.uscs it, re<~uresa modined at'rangcmcnt.

Two similar cicctro-magncts acting on similar forka, and included in thc samo circuit, arc excitcd by the same Intermittent

current. U])dcrthcsc circumstances It is ctear tha.t th Systems

will bo thrown intn sunDar vibrations, becausc thcy arc actcd on

both to phase

by cqual forces. Tliis similarity of vibrations rcfcrs

at)d amplitude, Lot us suppose now that the vibrations arc

effected iu pcrpendicula.r directions, and by mcans of one of

Lissnjous'mcthods arc opticallycomponndcd. The resulting ngure

is ncccssarity a. straight lino. Starting from tho case in which thc

of both

o.mpHtudesare a maximum, viz. whoi tbo natural pcriods

forks arc tbc same as that of thc force, lot onc of them bc put a

little out of tnnc. It must bc rcmonbercd that whatevcr their

natural periods may be, the two forks vibrato in perfect unison

with thc force, and thcrcfore with onc another. Tho principa.1

Ciffcctof thc dift'urcnce of tbc natural periods is to destroy the

synchrolism of phase. Thc straight hue, which prcviousiy rcprcscnted the compound vibration, bccomcs an ellipse, and this

i-cmaius perfccHy steady, so long as th forks arc not tonchcd.

Originally thc forks arc botb a quartcr period behind thc force.

~Vhcnthc pitch of one is slightiy ]owcred,it falls still more bchind

the force, and at thc samc timc its amplitude diminishcs. Let titc

diifcrcncc of phase betwccn thc two forks bc e', and tlie ratio of

amplitudes of vibration (t: (t.. Thcu by (H)of 4C

M= Mycose'.

58

ONE

DEGREE

0F FREEDOM.

The following

e table shows th simu1ta,neousvalues of a

a.nde'.

[C3.

c<

0

e

1-0

-!)

-8

.7

'C

-5

'4.

'3

-2

-1

0

2550'1

3C52'

4.T'3-t'

537'

GO"

66"25'

72 32'

78 27'

84.15"

direction may be obtaincd without very materialty reducin"' th

amplitude. Whcn one furk is vibrating at its maximum, thc

othcr may be made to dinfcrfrom it on either sido by as muc)t as

CO"in phase, without lo.singmoro than t)alf its amplitudu, or by as

much a.s-I<5",

without losing more tha)i Iiaf its e?M)'~y. By aHowing one fork to vibratc 45"in advance, and tbc othcr 45"in arrcar

of t)te phase corresponding to t]ic c:~c of maximum

rsonance,wo

obtain a phase diScrcncc of 90" in conjonction with an

cquality of

amplitudes. Lissajous' ngurc then bccomes a cir~e.

G4. Tbc intermittent current is best obtaincd Ly a forkinterrupter invented by Hchnbottz. T)tia may consist of a fork

and cicctro-magnet mountcd as before. TIie wires of thc

ma~nct

arc connected, ono witb ono po!c ofthcbattcry, and th othcr with

a mcrcury cup. Thc ot]ier ple of tbc battcry is connectod with

a second mcrcury cup. A U-shapcd rider of insulatcd wirc is

carried by t!)c lower prong just over thc cups, at sucb a

Iieigbt

tha.t during the vibration th circuit is altcrnatejy made and

brcken by titc passage of one end into and out of thc

mercury.

T)ie other end may bc kept pcrmancntiy immcrscd.

By mcans

of t!tc pcriodic force t)tus obtaincd, thc cnuct of friction is compensatcd, and thc vibrations of th fork pcrmancnciy maintamed.

In order to set anotbcr furk into forced vibration, its associatcd

ctcctro-magnct maybc includcd, either in tbe sanic drivix'Y-circuit

?'<)'))t;~?)t<~o~t't),

p. li)0.

G4.]

FODK

INTEBRUPTER.

59

rider dipping luto mci'cury cups'.

of tm.s kind ui seti'-act-inginstrument is

Tho ??~(~<&

~/

often imperfcctiy apprehcudcd. If the force acting on th fork

dependcd only on its positionon whetlier tlic circuit were open

or eloscdtb work donc in pressing ttirough any position wouid

bc undono on tlie return, so that aftcr a, complte period therc

wouldbe nothing outstanding by wliieh ttie effect of thc frictional

forces could bc compcnsa.tcd. Any explanatiol whic!i docs not

take accouut of'thc rctardation of thc currcnt is wholly bcside the

mark. Thc causes of retfM'datiouarc two irregular contact, and

scJf-mduction. Wltcn the point of th rider nrst touches th mercnry, thc cicctnc contact is imperfcet, probahly on account of

adhcring air. On thc other ha.ud, in leaving tlie mcrcury tho

contact is prolonged by the adhsion of tlie hquid in the cup to

thu amaigama.tcdwire. On botli accounts th currcnt is retarded

behiud wliat would correspond to thc mcrc position of the furk.

But, evcn if the resistance of the circuit dcpended only on the

position of th fork, thc current would still be rctarded by its selfhiduction. However perfect th contact may be, a finite current

efumot bo gencrated until aftcr the lapse of a finite time, any

more ttian in ordinary mechanics a finite vclocity eau be suddenly

impressed on an tuert body. From whatcvcr causes arising", the

effect of th rctardation is that more work is ga.iued by thc fork

during the retreat of tlie rider from tlie mcrcury, tlian is lost

durin<Tits entrancc, and thus a, balance remaitis to be set off

against friction.

If t!)Cmagnetic force depcuded onlyon t]tc position of the fork,

th phase of' its first harmonie component nught bc considcred to

be ISO"in advance of that of tlie fork's own vibration. Thc reun t)iocomponont

1 1 Lnvoarr<mgc<l

aoveraliutcrruptoraon tho nbovopJfH),

blucksmith.

beingofhomomanufacture.Thoforksworomadobythovilittgo

n)trtn

on onoomiuf copierslips,tho

of iron thimbloa,(ioldored

Thoeupnconxiat.od

downou tho bo.soboardof thoinstrument.Scmo

furtherentl beingticrowod

surfacoia necosMry.lu Hcimholtx'

tuomsofadjuatingthoIcYclof tho morciu-y

thoforkin adoptcd,but I nul

a horso-.shoo

embraemg

cloetro-magnot

intcrruptor

nt auyrate if tho pitchbo low. In

to profurthoprosentarranHcmcnt,

inctmod

magnotactingonn.

byn horffo-fihoo

somocasesa greatermotivepoworiHobtuinod

toit.

carriedhorizontally

iron Mmftturo

bythoupporprongaudporpoudicuhtr

Kuft

1h<wo

ususUyfounda singloSmcocullsuicieutbutterypuwor.

of thormcans,by

mightbo obttdued,in dcffmH

Anydesiredrctardtt.tion

tlio rider,not to tho prongitscJf,but to tho fnrthoroudof n liglit

attnching

Hirnight

spriugcnrriebytho prongandBetiutoforccdvibrationbythomotionof

its pointofnttttclnuent.

60

[G4.

be rcdueed to 90", th force acts in th most favourable manner,

~tU.'t.x~t

p'-K-~bh.~Yibmuon.i.sptudtiL-cfJ.

It is important to notice t))at (cxccpt in thc case just, rcfcrrcd

to) the actual pitch of ttie mterruptcr dKFcrsto some cxtent from

tbat natur.'d to thc fork according to th hnv cxprcsscd in

(5) of

4G, e being in thc prsent case a. prescribcd pbase-difcrenco

depcnding on t!)c na.turo of thc contacts :ind <Lojnagnitudc of thc

selt'-uiducti.on. If thc Intermittent currcnt hc empioycd to drive

a, second ibr]<,thc maximum vibmtion i.s obiained, wlien thc fre'jucncy of thc fork coincides,not with thc natural, but with tbc

modHic-dfrcqn<jncyof t)te inten'ttptcr.

Thc dviation of a. tunmg-fork intcrrupter from its natur:d

pitch is practica.Hyvery smitt); but th fact that such a dviation

is possible, is a.t nrst sight rather surprising. Tho explanation (In

th case of a. sma,Hrctarda.tionof current) is, that

during t)u),t,iia-If

of th motion in whieb th pt'ongs tu-c th most scparatcd, th

eicctro-magnet acts in aid of thc proper recovering powcr duc to

rigidity, and so natnrally mises Hie pitc)). Wha.tc'vcr tlie relation

of phases may be, Hic force of thu magnct n):Lybe dividett into

t\vo parts rc.spectivc)yproportional to tho vclucity and

(tisn)acemcnt (or acculcration). To ti)c nrst exclusi-vetyis dnc t]ie sostaining powcr of th force, and to thc second the atteratioti of pitch.

G5. TI)e gnerai pbcnomenon of rsonance, thnugh it cannot

bc exhaustively considcrcd undcr tbc hcad of onc dcgrco of freedon), is in th main referab!e to the same goncral prineipic.s.

AVhen a forced vibration is cxcitcd in onc part of a. system, all

the other parts are aiso Innucnccd, a vibration of thc same pcriod

bcing cxcitcd, whose amplitudo dpends on thc constitution ofthe

systum eonsidercd as a whote. But it not unfrcquently happons

tliat intcrcst centres ou th vibration of an outiying part whose

conncctio)i with thc rest of th System is but Joosc. In such a case

the part in question, provided a certain limit of

amplitude bc

not exccedcd, is very inuch in thc position of a. systcm

possessinf

onc dcgrce of frccdoni and acted on by a force, \vhich

may bo

regarded as ~e~, indepcndcntty of thc natural pcriod. T)ic

vibration is accordingly governed by th ]a\vs we bave

ah'cady

investigated. In th case of approximatc cfpudiry of pcriods to

which t)ie name of rsonance is gencra))y restnctcd, th

amplitude may be very considcrahic, cvcn titough In other cases it

might bp so sma]! as to lie of !itt)c account; and thc prcision

C5.]

RESONANCE.

611

th effect. dpends un tlic degrcc of damping to winch th systcm

Is subjcctcd.

Among bodics winch resound without an extrme prcision of

tuning, may be mentioned strctched membranes, and strings associated with sounding-boards, as in tho pianoforte and thc violin.

\Vhcn th propcr note Is sounded in thcir neighbourhood, thcsc

bodies arc caused to vibrato in a very perceptible nianner. Thc

cxperimcnt may bo made by singing into a pianoforte tho note

giveu by any of ils ttrings, Iiaving nrst raised tlie con'csponding

dampcr. Or if onu of tbo Mtringsbeionging to any note bc plu.ckcd

()ikc a Itarp string) with tlie nnger, its feHowswill be set Into

vibration, as may immediatcly bc proved by stopping thc nrst.

T)tC piienotncnon of rsonance is, howover, mo.st striking in

cases ~'hero n. vo'y accm'ato c([uality of pcriods is nccessary in

order to cHeit t))c full cfrcct. Of tins class tuning forks, 'muuntcd

on rsonance boxes, are a. conspicucus example. Witen thc UMison

is perfect thc vibration of ono fork wIH be taJ~cn up by anothcr

across thc width of a room, but thc slightcst dviation of pitch

is sumcicnt to l'cnder thc phenomcnon almost insensible. Forks

of 25C vibrations pcr second arc commonly used for thc purposc,

and it is found that a dviation from unison giving oniy one bcat

in a. second makcs ail thc dincrencc. Whcn thc forks arc '\vcU

tuncd and ciose togcthcr, th vibration may be transferred backwards and furwards bctwcen thcm scvcral times, by damping thcm

a!ternatc!y, with a toucit of th nngcr.

IMustrutions of tho powerfui c~ccts of isochronism must bc

vitinn t))e exprience of every onc. Tticy are often of importance

in very dinerent neld.sfrom any with which acoustics isconccrned.

For cxample, few things are more dangerous to a ship than to lie

in th trough of th sea.undcr thc innucncc ofwavcs whose pcriod

is ncarly that of its own natural ro)Hng.

(iG. Th solution of thc quation for frcc vibration, viz.

M+/C!t+)'M =0

(1)

may be put into another form by cxprcssing tlie arbitrary constants of intgration J- and a in ternis of tlie initial values of !<

Wc obtain at once

and M,which we may dnote by and

vdocit.y r<

rc8u!t a.Ltune <will thcrcforc be

[f!G.

w))o.sc

The lowcr limit of tlie

intgrais is so far arbitr.-uy,but it will

gencrally bc eonvunicnt to make it zero.

On this supposition u aud

as givcn by (G) vanish, wlien

=

t 0, and the complete solution is

complementary tcrms tcnf] <o

Y~Ish on account oftl)c factor e-~ and

mny ti~en hc omittc<1.

C7.]

G3

tho vibrations uf t)i0 systons, with which wc may ha.vc to deal,

:m m~nituly sm!).H,or i-iLthcras simil.n' to Infiuitcly srn:Jl vibrattons. This rust.nctiu]i is thc i'omuhttion of thc important lim's

oi' isoclu-ontsmfur t'r<jGvibrations, and (jf pc-rsistcucc of pcriod

fur forecd vibrations. Thcru arc, nowevcr,ph<jnunicn:t,of a subordina.tcbut not insigniricant charactcr, winch d<jpc!td csscutiidiy

on the s<trc and highcrptjwc'rs of thc motion. Wc will thcrcforc

dcvutc t]ic rcmaindur of this chuptcr to thu discussion of thc

motion of a syton of onc dcgrcc of freuttom,thc motion not bemg

so smaU that th souarcs atid Ilighor powcrs can be a~togcthcr

ueglefted.

The approximate expressions for the potcntlal and kinctic

nergies wIMbe of thc form

G4

[G7.

by its octave (2y:), whosc ?'e~e importance lucrotses with tho

!'fti~Htud(.'uf Yibr:d.io!t. A t'tihc(! (.~rc~.iiguncr.diy pcrccuc th

octave111tho suu))()of a. tunitig fork causcd to vibrn.testrongty by

)H(;:t.ns

of a bow, imd wit)i thc :ud cf i).pp!i:).uccs,

to bo cxpl!uuc(t

):(,tu]',t))c cxist,uncoof the octave may bc niadc manifcst to any

onc. By foUowhtg thc same inethod the appmxnnatioa ca)t

hu ca)-)-iudfurthcr but wc pa,.sson now to the case of :).

syston

)n which thc recovo-mg power is

synmiotncal with respoct to

)hu position of cqmtibrmni. T])c

quation of motiou is t!tcn

app)'oxi)))n.tu!y

winch may be uuderstood to i-ufc-rto Miovibrations uf a hcavy

p'n(h)!un~ or oi'a )u:).<1

c:u-n<jdat tho end ofa, sti'iu~ht spring.

If wu t:tkc an a jh'st npj~'oxitnatmnM=-~ cos?~,

cotespondi)]g

to /9 = 0, a.ud substitatc in tttc tcnn

muhiplicd hy /3, we get

wc shonid

Corrcsponding to the last tcrmofthiscqnation,

obtain ni tho soh~tion a tcrm oftiie form <sin~,

becoming

without

Jnnit with t. Tt.is, as in a paraUd case in t]ic

grcatcr

Lun:n- Thcury, indicatcs that our assumcd iirst

approximation

is not rc!).]!yan approximation at a]), or at Icast docs not coH~e

to bc such. If, Ilowcvcr, wobikc as our

starting point u=~4 cosM~,

~ith a, suitaUc vaillo for M?,wc sita find that titc solution

tnay

be cotnplutc() with thc aid of perio(]ic tcnns

on!y. lu fact it is

evident buforchand that all wc are entiticd to assume is that thc

motion is approxinuttely simple harmonie, with a

pcriod ah~M'o.-n~n<<the sanic, as if /3=0. A very slight cxamination

is sn~cicnt to s)tcw that the terni

varying as M",not on!y may,

but ~~M<afcct tho period. At tlie saine time it is vident

tlmt a solution, in which thc

pcriod is assumed wrongly, no

n)!)ttcr by tiow little, must at Icngth ccascto rcprcsent thc motion

with any approach to accuracy.

Wc takc thun for the approximate cqnation

67.]

TERMS 0F THE

SECOND ORDER.

655

of th fundamcntal vibration, a,ud it introduecs th <MeM!~as

a uccessary accomp~nimcnt. Thc altration of pitch is in most

ca~csexcccdiuglysmalldcpcuding on th square of the amplitude,

but it is uot altogether insensible. Tuning forks gencrally risc

a little, though very little, in pitch as th vibration dics away.

It may be remarkcd that thc samo slight dcpendence of pitch

on amplitude occurs wlien tlie force of restitution is of thc

form M'M+mM,

as may be seen by continuing the approximation

to th solution of (1) onc step furthcr than (3). Thc result in tbat

case is

is of the same order in J. in bot)i cases

but in one respect there is a distinction worth noting, namely,

that in (8) m" is always greatcr than

while in (7) it dcpcuda

on the sign of /3 whethcr its effect is to raiso or lowcr the pitch.

However, In most cases of the unsymmctricat class the change

of pitch would depend partly on a term of tho form M' and

partly on another of the form /3 and thcn

forced on an unsymmetrical system by two harmonie forces

Thc cq~a.tionof motion is

CG

Substit.uting this in tLc term muJtiplicd by

[68.

wc~ct

frcqucncic~

which arc scvcndty thc d.u.bius ~.<I tl.c sum having

nud di~n-nec of

t)iose of thc prin~ncs. Of th two latter tlie

iUT.phtudcs~e

proportion~ to thc product of the origine ~nplitudcs,

s)icwing

th~t t!iu derivcd toncs incrcasc ni relative

impcrt:tuco with

tho intensity of their p:irunt toucs.

lu a future chitptL-rwc shidt have to consider thc

important

cousequeuecs which Hulmlioltz lias dcduced from this thcory.

CMAPTER

IV.

of f),systcm posscssed of onc dcgrce of frccdom, nnd thc i'esu)ts,

at whicit wu have an'ivud, hve a vcry widc apphca.tion. But

m:Ltt.;ri:dSystems cnjoy iu guticnd more than ouc dL'grcc of

frcudoui. In o!'(!cr to (tufinc thcir cou(1gur:ttio)iat. any moment

scvcnd uxhipcmtott vin'mbic qn~tttidcs must bc spccificd, whici),

of ):u)gU!~c ori~hin.Hycm]))oyc<lfor a ponit,

by :t ~(.'))ut':dix:t,tif)t)

arc caUuttthu co-or~t'~f~eset' thc systcm, thc uumbcr of indcpcudcnt co-ordin:tt(jsbumg tho MK~ q/rce<?o?~. Strictiy spc:dting,

thc disphtccmuuts possibtc to {t n:).tm'a,lsystcm arc infmitcly

Viu'ious,and caunot hu l'cp~'cs~ltc(~as m:)d up of a finitc numbcr

of dplacements of sp<jcifiu(1.

type. To thc cicmcntary pru-ts of

a. so)Id body !uiy nrhiti~ry dispt~ccmcnts may bc givcn, subjcct

to coti()Itioi)sof cotitituuty. It is ody by a pt'ocL'ssof idjstraction

of t]tu kind so constiUtttypr.LctIsctt in N~tuml ThMosophy,th:it

so!i<)saru trc:t.tcd as )'i~'i.d,fluids n~ incompressible,n.nd othcr snn.

phdctitions mtroduecd so tli:).t th position of a, Systemcornes to

depoid on :), finite numbur of co-ordin:).teH.It is not, however,

our intentiou to cxcludc thc considration of Systems possessin<'f

infirntely various freedom oti thc contnu'y, somc of thc most

mtcresting appHcatius of t!ic results of this eh:mtc]' will lie in

that direction. But such Systems arc most conveuicutiy conccivcd

as limits of othcrs, wl)osc frcednm is of a, more rcstncted Mnd.

Wc sh:).ll accordi))g)y commence with systcm, wtiose position

is spccincd by a, finite uumber of independunt co-oi'diitatcs

-~r,

t~ &c.

70. Thc ma,In prohicm of Acoustics consists itt t!io investigation of th vibrations of a, system about a position of stable

cquihbrium, but it will bc eonvenient to commence with the

st.itica.1part of thc subjcct. By thc Frinciple of Virtual VcK_o

C8

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[70.

&c. from tho

configuration of equilibrium, tlie potentiel energy of any othcr

cuufigumLtuu will bu :(. h~~m'nc-ous qud.cr~i.ic function of t))C

co-ordiuatcs, provided t!~t the displacemcnt be sufHcicnDysmdt.

Tins quantity is ciUlcd and reprcseuts thc work thf~t

may bc

gfdncd in passing from the actuel to tlie equilibrium configuration.

We mny write

Since by supposition thc equilibrium is thoruughiy stable, tho

quantitics c,c~, c, &c. must bc such that V is positive for

all real values of th eo-ordiaa.tes.

71. If tlie system bc Jisplaccd from tho zero configuration

by thc action of given forces, thc new configuration may ho

found from thc Prineipic of Virtual Velocities. If th work done

hy thc given forces on th hypothetical dispkcement 8~, S~,

&c. be

this expression must bc cqu:vn,!cntto 8F, so thfttsmcc

8~, 8~,

&c. nro ludcpcudcnt, the new position of

cquilibrium is dotermincd by

c,

c,,

From thse quations the co-ordinatcs

may bc dctermmcd in

terms of the forces. If ~7bc thc dctrmIuMt

71.]

RECIPROCALRELATION.

G9

~r,, &c. uniquely, slaco doca

] .'i~

~u t).ppcm. ~ont

t. ~h' Lh' 'f~f;{'.L'uh

ilot Y:in)Hh,

Mt

'iLb~til

t! co.~idi.'t'Htiuit

===

0. &c. could othcrwiso be s~tisficd by fmitc values of tha

co-ordina.t.cs,

provided oniy ttmt tho ?'(t~'oswcre suitable, winch ia

contnu'y to th hypothcsis timt t!ie systcni is tboroughiy stable

iu t)ie xct'o conHgura.tioa.

If thc forces~F,a.nd

be of the same Mnd, we may suppose

them equal, aud wu then recoguiso that a force of any type acting

alone produces :i displacetneut of f),second type cqual t.o tlie

displiicement of tlie first type duc to thc action of au cqnid force

and R 'be two points

of thc second type. For example, if

of n, rod snpported horlzont:dty in ~ny maunc! the vertical dericction at jl, whcn a wcight }F is ~ttachcd at

is tl)u s:t.meas

the dtection at 7?,wlien ~F is appiied at ~t\

73. Since F is a homogeueous qua.dra.ticfunction of thc coordinates,

If

+ ~~). ~+ ~~) ~c. rcprcscnt auniticr (Iisp!act'mcntfor

wbich thc neeessary forcus n.ro ~+/

~+A~,&c.,thecorOuthiBeubjoct.,

sco7~tt~.J/< Deo.,1874,nudMMeh,

1875.

70

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

f73.

whL'rcA'FistiKi'n~n.'ncuojf'thupntcntI.dcnL'rgicsinttxjtwo

ciLScs,:unt wu must p:u'<.Icnl:n')yuoticu tIi:Lt by tlie i-eeinroc:~

rui~iuu, 72 (I),

From (~) and (~) wu may deduectwo nnport:u)t Dicorc'tns

rclating to t!ic vainc of fur a systeni subjeetcLt to <Ivcn disand tu given forces respect!ycty.

pitt.cement.s,

7~. Th first thcorem is to t!tc eNfuctt!):tt, if given ()isn]accmcnts (llot su~iclunt hy ttionscivos to dtcrmhio thc C())tti~u)':)tK)ii)

b(.'produd in a. systcm by f'urccsuf con'c'spundixgtyp~s, t)tc rcHulting vaJuc of ~for thc .sy.stcmso displaccd, :uid m u~uHi))rium,

is ns sin:dt as it can bc u))(icr th givcn di.spinccmoit couditiun.s'

and that the vainc of fur :Uty othcr couhgurattou excuc-dstins

by thc potcntia! uncrgy of thu cunHguratioRwincli is th (tiSurcnce

of t)m two. Thc on)y diHioLdtyIn thu abovc statcmcnt consists

in undurshuidit~gwhat is ntcant by 'fores of coi'r<spo]]di!)"'

types.'

Suppose, for cxampic, that thc systum is a. strutchcd stri))" of

which agivcn point jf-*is to bu subjcct to an cbligatory dispJacc!n(U)t; thu force of corrc.spondingtype is Itre a. force applicd

ut thc ])oint .P itself. And gun(.'r:dty, thc forces, by which th

proposcd displacumt.-ntis to bc tunde, must bc such as woul(i do

no work on Hic systum, proyidud on!y tiuLt thut disptuccmcut

wurctio~made.

By a suitabic choicc of co-ordinatcs, ttic givcn displaccmcnt

cotditicustnaybe cxpt-L-ssud

by ascribmggiven vaincs to thc first

?' co-ordinatcs

nud thu conditions fmto thc forces

wdl thcn bc rcpr<j.s(jntcdby inaking thc foroja of thc

rcmaini))~

&c.

vanish. f -+A-~ rcfur to any ot)~cr contypL's

hgnratiou of thc systum, and ~+A~ bc tho corrcsponding forces,

we are to suppose that A- A~, ~c-. as f:n' as

A~ aH vanisli.

TIiusfor tite first r suifixes

vauishcs.aud fur th remaimD~

0

STATICALTIIEOREMS.

74.]

71

2A~=~A~.A~(1),

which provcs that if thc givcn dplacements bo niadc in any

othur than tinj prc'scribcd way, thu potcntial cncrgy la incrcased

by t)ic encrgy of thc diffrence of the configurations.

By means of t!i!s t))corcm we may trace thc cH'ccton T'of any

l'cl~xationm t!)esttH'ucssofa. System,suhjcct to given displacemcnt

conditions. For, ifaftcr tlic altration m stitTnessthc original cquilibrium connguration Le considut'cd,thcvidnc of Vco)'ruspon()ing

t))crcto is by supposition Icss t)i:m bcforc; :md,as wc h~vc just

seoi, therc will be n. still furthcr dinunution in tbe value of F'

whctt tlio Hystcmpasses to cqnilibrimu undtjr the niterud conditions. Henco wc condudc titat a. diminution I)i as a functiou

of thc co-ordin:t.tcscntails also n diminution in the actual vatuo

of F' whcn a systcnt is subjcct to given disp!:).cemcnts. It will

bo undur.stoodtluit in pa.rticuhu.'cases thc dinunution spokcn of

l.

may vanish*.

For cxample, if a point J' of a bar dampcd at both ends be

disph~cudlatcndiy to a given small antount by a force tbm'c appiicd, thc potentiel cnurgy of thc dcfui'mation will be diminished

by :).nyrelaxation (howeverloc:d)in tite stiihess ofthe bar.

75. Tlic secondtheorem relates to f),system displaccd ~tM~

forces, and asscrts that in this case tho value of V in eqnilibriuni

is gi'cater than it would be in any other connguration in \vhich

thu syst~'mcoutd bc maintained at rest undur t))c givcn furecs, by

the opration of mcre constraints. We will shew that tho )'c?/MM~

ofconstt'aints increascs t!)c vainc of

TIio co-ordinatcs may bc so choscn that th conditions of constraint arc cxprcs.scd by

~=0,

~=0,=0.(1).

Wc hve thon to provc that whcn ~P~, ~P~ <c. arc givcn, tho

va)nc of V is Ica.st whun t!tc conditions (1) !~))d. Thu second

+ A~, &:c.,wc seo

configuration bcing dcnutud as bufot'u by

that fur snrRxcs up tu ')' inchtsive

vanishcs, and fur higinjr

sunixcs A~Fvanislics. Hunce

S~A~=SA~P=0,

Soon.imperonGoncrfit

aud luititdnt)d

Thcorcma

rchtingto Eqnilibrium

Motiouij.2'/7.Af~ Mure!1H7S.

Stuady

~2

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[75.

and therefore

shewing that thc incrcase in F duc to thc rcmoval of the constramts is cqual to tlic potcntial

encrgyof tlie din~rcnce ofihc two

configurations.

7G. We now pass to the

luvesti~tion of thc initial motion of

a systcm which starts from rcst undor thc

operation of givcn

impulses. The motion thus ~equired is

Indepcndcitt of any

potuutm encrgy .vhicl~ the system n~y possess .vhcu

actu~y

disptaccd, siueo by tho nature cf impulses we h.wc to do

only

with th mitml configuration itself Thc initial

motion Is also

mdependcnt of any forces of Huitc kind, whethcion

imprcsscd

tlie system from without, or of the nature

of viscosity.

If

Q, 7i'bc the component impulses, parallel to thc

axes, on

~partie e ~vhoso rcct.nguhr co-ordinates

h.vc by

are

DAlGmbei't'sPj-iucip!o

whcrc

by

particle in virtuc

of the impulses, aud

correspond to auy arbitrary displaccmcnt of thc system which docs not violate thc councction of its

parts. It is required to transform (1) iuto an cquatiou

cxprcsscd

by thc independerit gcncralizcd co-ordinn.tcs.

For th first side,

whcrc

system,is supposcd to be expresscd as a function of

&c.

IMPULSES.

76.]

73

dtermine tlie motion wc ha.vo

whcrc

S

ofi;i)putsc.

'77. Since y is a homogcncousquadratic fuuction of the generalized co-ordiuatcs, we may takc

Again, by the nature of T,

displaccmcut of a. system froni a configurationof stable cquitibrinm

by steadily a,pp!Icdfores. lu th prsent tucm-yth initial kinetic

encrgy T bears to the vclocities aud impulses tho same relations

as in thc former F' bcars to th displacements and forces respcct-

74

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[77.

L in gt'ncmt oniy

complet~ in!).s)nuc)i.as is cxactty, w)ti!c

approximatcty, a, itomogcuc'jus(~uadrnticfuuction of th variables.

dunotc nnc set of vclociticsand impulses

If'

for n. systuin st:u'tcd f'run)rcst, :utd

a. second

sct~wu iua,ypt'uvc,as in 72, th fuDuwingrecipt'uca.l

t'L'ta.tiun

This thcdn'm ndniits cfitttcresting' :)pplie:ttl<)!ito f)~)i<~

motion.

It is kuu\v)),:utd will bc provcd I~t'jr in thu coin'sf.!of tins work,

th:)t thu tnoti~n ui' !), inctiun!uss ineotnprcs.sibtuliquit), which

starts i'rota rc'.st,i.s cf such :t.kind t))!~tits cumpom'nt vutoeitics

~t nny point aru thc con'L'spondi)~dit'fu)'c'nLi:d

cocHicicntsuf n,

('(.')'t,:nufnncti"n, c~Hm]thc vctocity-potcntiid. Let t))c fh)i() bc

sut In )n(jt[onby :t prcso'ibu)! tn'bitt'in'y()L'fo)m:).tiu)i

of th(j surface

/S'of :t c)')SL'()

spucc describud within it. Tiiu rcsniti))~ mution is

(h.'tL'nnincdhy thc normid vctocitics of th cloucnts of winch,

bL-in~s)t:n'L'dby t!ie Hnid in contact witti thcm, m'c duuotcd by

if Mbe tho vc'ioeity-potcuti.t.],\vltich luto'prctcd phy.sica!)ydnotes tnc ijnputstvc pressure. Hunce by thc t]iC(H'cm,If bc t]io

VL'Iucity-potuntliduf u, secoud motio;), corruspuuding to unother

set uf arbitrary suifacc vclocitics

bcsi()<s~'thurc be ou)ytixcd soli<[sinunur.scd in tho ftuid. Th

prusunt ]m;t)n)dunabius us tu attributc to it a much Itighur gcnuruHty. yur (.x:unp)u,t)ic untm'rscd soHd.s,mstuad of buing Hxc<

m:i.yt)c irc-L',:dtogct))cr or ni part., to takc tho motion iinposcd

upo)j tl)u)n by thL!Huid prcssm'

78. A paTtk'ular cnsc nf t)ic gcticra! thcorem is wortl)y of

spcial notice. In thu nrst motion Jet

THOMSON'STIIEOREM.

78J

75

In words,if, by mcans of a suitabic impulse of the corresponding type, n givcn arbitrary vclocity of onc co-ordinatc bc imprcsscd

on a system, the imputse corresponding to Msecond co-ordinatc

nccessary in ordcr to prcvent it from changing, is t)ie samc M

would bc rc'ptircd for the first co-ordiuatc, If titc given velocity

\vo'c hnprMS.sud

on ttic second.

As :t simple uxampic, ted the eMC of two sphres

and J~

nmncrHcdin a liqnid, wliuscccntrca arc f)'L'ctu !)iovL;along ccrtiun

lines. Jf ~t bc sut in motion with

givcu vulf~'ity, -B will

natnndiy bL'gin to movc also, Thc thcorcm :LS.surtsth:Lt the

if) thc s:mic as if

i]))pt))su rctmin.'d to prcvent thc motion uf

thc functions of yt !md7? wo'c cxchimgcd :uul this cvcn thuug)i

thcrc Le ot])cr rigid bodius, C',D, &c.,in the ituid, citl~cr fixcd, or

frcc ill whulc or i)t part.

Thc case of cicctric cnrrcnts mutually i)iflnencing cach othcr by

induction is prccisciy simihu-. Lct thcru bc two circuits and

m titc ncig!ibour)toodof which thcrc maybe a.ny numbcr of othcr

wirc circuits or sohd condnctors. If a unit cnrrent bc snddcidy

duvulopeclin thc circuit J, tho clectromotive Impulse induced ill

is the slulc as there wouldhave bccii iu ~1,hn.dtlic currcnt been

furcibly dcvclopcd in

79. Thc motion of a system, on which given a.rbitraryvclocitios

are nnprcs.scdby mcans of thc ncecssfu'y Itnp)dscs of t)ic corrcsponding types, posscsscs a rcmarkabtc prnpcrty discovcrcd by

Tiiom.son. Thc conditions arc that

arc givcn,

vanish. Lct

&c. currcspoiid to

thc actu.d motion; and

~+A~,

~t.A~

~+A~, ~+A~

to anothcr motion satistying thc saine velocity conditions. For

cach snmx cithcr AT~u)' vailislics. New for t)iu kiuctic cnergy

of thc supposcd motion,

2(~+Ay)=~+A~)(~+A~)+.

=2~'+~A~+~+.

+ A~

+ A~. +.

+ A~A~

+ A~A~

+.

~A~.+.

=A~+.

of \vbich tlic former by ItypoUtcsisis zro; so that

2A2'=A~A~+A~A~,+.

(1),J

7G

VIBRATFNG

SYSTEMS

INGENERAL.[79.

off

th actual motion by th

energy of that motion winch would hve

bc

..ith

},t.

rc

p,.d.~

ihc

fbnner.

Th

motionc.nrlod

actualtymduced in thc System bas tf~.s Jcss

~y other s~. yn.g tho same velocity conditions. In aoucrgytlm,i

snbs~.cnt

ch. ptcr we shall make use of this propcrty to find a

supenor Jinut

to the cncrgy of a system set in motion

with prcscribcd vc-Iocitics

~ny dnnmutiou be made in th inertie of

any of t)je parts of

a system,t)ic motion

correspondingto prescribcd velocity conditions

wu iu genem undorgo a

change. Thc value of will nece.ss.riiy

be less than before for t)~ere wouM

be a decrease cven if tlie

motion rc.nained

unchangc<I,and tl.crcforc /b7~

w]~enth

niot.on ~ssuch as to make 7' an absoJute

mim.num. Converselv

any incre~c m tlie inertia increascs thc initia! value of T.

lu. thcorcm Is analogous to that

of 74. Th analogue for

initial mot.ons oi th thcorem

of 75, relating to t].c potential

~~gy of a.system d~.ced by given forces, is that of

Bertrand

and may be thus stated -If

start

from rest under th

,y,

of

opera.on givcn nnpu!scs, the kinetic

encrgy of tl.e actual motion

Lxccedsthat of any otlier motion which th

system might I~.ve

been gu.)ed to takc with the a.ssistance

ofmere

kinetic encrgy of the din-crenceof t)to motions' constrain~ by the

1.

80.

WcwiIluotdwcUatanygreaterIengthonthemcd.anics

of a system

subjcct to impulses, but pass on to

investie

equations for continuous nation. Wc .shalt

Langes

suppose

that

the connections bniding

togcthcr th parts of U.c..svstc.n

are not o.plicit functions of t).

tune; sucli ca~sof H

motion as we shall have te consider will bu

speciaily .shcwn to

ue wiHun th scope of the

investigation.

combination with that of Virtual

Ydot~

Vc10citics,

(~~ + y8~ + ~~) = S (.Y~ + F~ +

~)

dnote a d:sp!acemont ofthe

system of th most

~herc

8~

t~ -nection.

of":f

~r

Sn.cc r'~

parts.

th d,sp)acemcnt.s of th individu.-d

partides of

t system arc ~nutuaHy

relatcd,

are not indcpen~t.

T)

ohjec .ow is to transfonn tu other variahJc.s

which

s!tatl bc indcpcndent. We hve

~,7..V.y.

Mareh, 1875.

80.]

LAGRANGE'S

EQUATIONS.

77

so tha,t

cocfHcicntsorc ni gcuerfil functions of

whose

AIso

disp~cemcnt

ma.y bo recoarded as thc gcncralized component of force.

In th case of a, conscrvativc system it is convnient to

thosc parts which dpend only on thc connTurfiseparate from

tion of tho system. Thus, if V dnote thc potential encrgy, wc

may write

~F'

are not aIrGadytaken account of in thc tcrm

a~

78

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[81.

it is ofton a~/fmt~gcous to rccngnizc

spccifdty, namoty thosc

if y~ .pp~o

?;r..s)r~ 'n.i fn.-n~t

yip.Hy.

L),)H c~h

piu'ticlc of thc syston is rctiu'dcd by forces proportion~ to its

eomponbnt velocitics, t)ie cH'ectwill bc sitown in thc fu)jd:uncnt:U

quation (1) 80 by t!tc addition to tl)c Jcft-Jtiuu! mcnibur of

thc terms

whcrc

A-y, nrc cocfHcicnts indpOKicnt of t))o ve!(jcit.Ics,

but pos.stbiydcpcudcitt on t)tc configuration of thc

syston. T))c

tr:msibr)n:itn)u to thc indc'pcndunt co-ordinutus

&c. is

cHucted iu a. sirnihu' manner to tJKttof

a honngcncons quadratic

fucetiou of t!tc vuioctLies, po.siUvu for :dl rL-:d v.ducs of tho

v:u-)ab)cH.It !~pruscnt.shait thu r~tu ~t whidt

cncrgy i.s(hs.sij~~cd.

Thc abovc itivcsti~tiua i-ufcrtito

t~tarding iornus propordonat

to thc absolute vclucitics but it is

equaUy important tu cuusidur

sucb as dupend ou tho p-e~~c vulocitics of thc

parts ci' titc

system, and furtuuately tins eau bc done witiiout auy incrcaso

01 complication. For cxampic, if a furcc aet ou the

partielc xi

thc-rc will bo at thc samo momont an

proportiona! to

cqu~I and opposite force acting ou th partide a- T!ie additioual

terins in the faudamental eqoatioti wi)l hc of the furm

pairs of mutually ]nfhtctic;ng

pfirticics. TIic only effect is th addition of ncw tcrms to 7~

whicli still appears iu the form (2)'. We silall secprcscntly t)iat

Thodifforecoes

rferredto iu tho toxt mayof coursepassiutodjilcrcntia!

eoefUcients

in thocaseof a bodyoontiuuouBly

deformed.

81.]

THE DISSIPATION

FUNCTION.

7!)

thc existence of tho fonction 7~ which may bc cailed th Dissipation Funetion, implics certiLin rctations among thc coenicicnts

ut' tho gcncralizcd cqn:t.tio!]sof vibration, which ctu'rywith Utem

l,

Iniportaut couscqucnecs'.

But althougli In an important c]~ss of c~ses thc cffccts of

th question romains

viscosityarc l'ept'cscutedby thc function

opcn whctitcr snch a method of rcprcsGntation is apptic:).b)cin aU

cases. 1 think it pTobableth~t it is so; but it is cvidcnt that wc

cannot cxpect to provc any gncmt proprty of viscous forces

!) t'hc absence of n strict (L'nnition \v!ncbwill cnable us to duterminc wit)).certainty wha.tforcus are viscous !H)dwhat n.rcnot. In

sono CMCScons!dc;['!Ltio)is

of symmetry arc sun~'Icnt to shcw

tbat th retardmg forces ma.y bu rcprcsoitcd as dunvcd from a

disHipatiotifnnction. At any rate whuucvcr tbc rctarding forces

arc proportional to thc absolute or relative vcloeittcs of thc

parts uf tlic systuia, wc slutti liavc quations of motiun of tlic form

takcs place iu tho nn)nc()i:).tcneigh'b(n)i'hoo(Lof a. conH~u'tt.tIon

of t)iorou~I)lystable cquHibnum 7' and F' arc then homogcncous

qmuh'atic functions of ti~c vclocitics witli coufHciuntswinch aro

to bc tatcd as constant, !ui(l

i.s a snnUar fuucttou of th

co-ordina.tcs tticnisdves, provided that (as we suppose to bo

t!io case) the origin of CMh co-ordmatc is taken to con'esponj

with the couhgura.t.ion of cquilibrium.

Moreovcr all threo

~V

fuuctious arc ossentiaUy positive. Since ternis of tho form

f/

:n-cofthc second ordcr ofstnMilquantities, the equations of motion

heconic h)iear, assumiug the form

n.cting on thc System

not alady provided for by tlie diffcrcutial

coefficients of Faud

Tho Dissipation Funetion ttppoMs for tho Rrat timo, so far as 1 am nwnrc, iu

a pnpor on GonoralTItooroma retatmg to Vibratious, publishod m tlio

2~ocfe~HM<

the

~~tCMNttca!

for

o/'

Soete~

Juno, 1873.

80

[82.

expressed as foUows

1

whcrc thc cocfHeicnts

c are constants.

From quation (1) wc may of course fait back on

prcvious

results by supposing ~and F; or .Fand T, to vanisii.

A thin! set of thcorcms of intcrcst in tlie

appHcation to E)~tnc.tymayboobtaiucd byomittlng~and

F; wliile ~isrctaincd,

but it is uuneccssai-yto pursue the

subject hcrc.

If we substitute thc values of T, F and

F; and write D for 1

dt

we obtain a system of equations which

may bc put into tlie forni

may draw an important

inference from th

of our equations. If

correspondinc

to tho two sots of forces

respectivoly

H\0

i

l't~tt"'

\P

motions dcnoted

by

be possible, thon must

also be possible thc motion

in conjunet:on

~,+~

~+~

with hc forces ~+~

a p.rticuL case,

~+~

Or,

when there arc no impressed forces, th

superposition of any two

natural vibrations constitutes also a natural

vibration This is thc

ccJcbrated principle of thc Coexistence of SmaU

Motions, first

clcar)y cnunciatcd by Daniel Bernoutli. It will be uuderstoo.!

that its truth dpends in gnerai on tlie

justice of th a.s.sumption

that the motion is so small that its

square may be neglectcd

84.]

COEXISTENCE

0F

8MALL

MOTIONS.

81

l~qu:J

toI' lui'~1~

.n:d

we

4Yjjl P-01H11IPl!e

~jt.l!

Il f.:ytt~.m On which

n0

are

for which

therefore thc coefRcienta &c.are

frictioual forces-n!~

equ;)Jt.~

~ct, v-'c

wiHcotmttt'ttce~'itLany'ttf'mouwhic]).

We havo

M)~ functioDSof th symbol

system possessesdegt'ces of liberty, lot all but onc of thc variaMes

bc climin~tcd. Thc result, wliieh is of the samc form whichcvcr bc

the co-ordinateret<uucd,may bc writton

~=0.(2),

where \7 denotca th determinant

roots of V=0 coueidered as au

\t

\

Let i\

quation in D. Then by the theory of dliferential equations th

most genera.1va,!ucof is

whcrc the 2w quantities ~4,J/, J?,J~, &c. are a.rbitrn.ryconstants.

This fonn hoids good for eMh of the co-ordinatcs,but tlie consta-nts

in the diffrent expressions arc not indcpendcnt. In fMt if a

particular solution bo

&c.,

~=~

~=~'

the ?'a~M ~t~

-~a. M'c complete]y determined by th

quations

is substituted for D.

where in each of the coefficientssuch as

Equations (5) arc necessarilycc~upa,tible,by the condition that

is a. root of \7=0. Th ratios ~1/

=-~3' correspouding to

but for

th root

arc tho samc as the ratios ~1~ ~1,

th othcr pairs of roots X~,

&c. titcrc are distinct Systems of

ratios.

G

R.

82

fgg.

system with which wo arc doalinrr

imposes an importt restriction on the possible values of

If

wcro .6a}, elthciwoutd bc re~I and positive, and wo

or

sho-Jd obtain a particular solution for which tho

co-ordinatos, aud

with them th kinetic energy denoted bv

incrc~c without limit. Such a. motion is

obviousiy Impossible fdr

a conscrvative system, wbose whoJc

energy can uever di~cr from

the sum of tho poteutial and kinotic

energies with which it was

Mimatcd at starting. This conclusion is not cv~cd

by takmg

ngative, beeausc we arc as much at liberty to trace th motiou

bMkwards as forwards. It is as certain that t!te motion ncvcr

~s

as

tliat

infinite,

it nover will

The same argument excludcs t).c

possibility of a complex value ofX.

Wc infer that aU ttie vaincs of are

purely imacrniary corto

rcspondmg

values of

~a~e

Ana)yt:caHy,t)ie tact that

thc roots of = 0, considered as an

are at! real and

quation iu

negative, must bc a consquenceof thc relations

subsisting bctwecn

th coefficients

virtuo of

fact

for

all real values of the variables 2' and F arc

positive. Thc ca~eof

two degrees of liberty will be afterwards

worked out in full.

86. Tho form of tlic solution

may now be ~IvMta~cousIy

changcd by wnting

for

&c. (wherc .=~1),

~d ~dng

new arbitrary constants. TIius

where

&c. are th

roots of th equation of

decrec

111n' found by

for

writing -M"

in = 0. For each value of

th ratios

~1, ~1, are dctcrminatc and real.

This is thc complte solution of the

problem of tho frce vibrations of a conscrvative system. We sec that th

whole motion

may be resolved mto normal harmonie vibrations of

(in gnral)

difforent priode each of which is

entirely indepeDdcnt of tbc

others. If tbe motion,

depending on thc original disturbance, bc

such as to reducu itsdfto onc of thse

~.), wc hve

NORMAL

COORDINATES.

83

t'

where th ratios AI

dpend on the constitution of th

system, and only thc absoluto amplitude and phase arc arbitrary.

Th several co-ordinatcs arc always in similar (or

opposite) phases

of vibration, aud the whole system is to be found m the

configuration of equilibrium at th same moment.

We peroive hre the mechanica.1foundation of tlie

suprcmacy

harmonie

vibrations. If the motion be sufHcientIysmall, tho

pf

diffcrential quations becomc Iluear with constant

coefficients

~hi]e circular (and exponentia)) functions arc th ouly oncs which

reta-intheir type on diffcrentiation.

87. Th 7~ pcriods of vibration, determined by t!ic

quation

= 0, are quantities Intriusic to th system, and must corne out

t.he same whatever co-ordinatcs may be choscn to define the conn~uratton. But there is one system of co-ordinatcs, which is

especially suitable, that namely in which the normal types of

vibration arc defiued by th vanisbing of aU tlie co-ordinates but

onc. In the first type the original co-ordinatcs

&c. Iiave

given ratios let the quantity nxing thc absolute values be < so

that in tliis type each co-ordinate is a known

So

multiple of <

in thc second type each co-ordinate

may be regarded as a known

and so on. By a suitable determultiple of a second quantity

mination of th quantities

&c.. ~y configaration of tite

system may bu rcpresentcd as compoundcd ofthc ~t configurations

of these types, and thus tlie quantifies <~thcmselvcs

may b'c Jookcd

upon as co-ordinates denning tite configuration of th system.

Titcy are called tlie ttor~a~ co-ordinatcs.

When expressed in terms of thc normal co-ordinates, ?' and V

arc reduced to sums of squares; for it is

easily sccn that if the

products also appcarcd, the resulting quations of vibration would

not be satisned by putting any ~-1 of the co-ordiuates

cqual to

zero, whilc thc rcmaining one was finite.

We might

ZD hve commenced with this transformation,

assumin~

1

0

from AJgebra that any two homogcncous

quadratic functions can

bo reduced by linear transformations to sums of

squares. Ttms

tono-cr

are

required)

ncccssarilypositive,

G2

84

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[87.

tlleorem of considcrabio importance, which

may bc thus statcd'.t.

Th period of cousorvittivusystem vibrating i)i a,const)-!nned

type

about a position of st<).h)ccquiHbrium is stationary in v:Uuc when

th type is norm:

We might provc this from the

ori~inid cqua.tions of vibmtion, but it will bc more convcnicnt to

cmploy the

normal co-ordinatcs. Thc constnunt, w]nc)i

may bo snpposcd to

bc of such a cha.racter as to ic:ws only onc

dcgrc'e of fj-cedom,is

represcuted by taking th quantittes in givcn rutios.

If

wc

put

type

and it is vident tliat thc period is

stationary, when a!l but one of

th cocfncients ~l,, ~1,

vanish, that is to say, -when th type

coincideswith one of those natural to the system, and no constraint

is necdcd.

By means of this tlicorem wc may provc that an iucrease in

the mass of nny part of a vibrating

system is attendcd by a prolongation of all tho natural periods, or at auy rate that no pcriod

can be diminished. Suppose tlie incrernent of mass to

bc infinitesimal. Aftcr th altration, the types of free vibration will in

gnral be changed; but, by a suitable constraint, th system may

r~~c~t')).?)!

of ~;f;~~<fma()ra!

,9of'~)/,Juno JH73.

88.]

PERIODS

OF FREE VIBRATIONS.

85

it is certain thnt any vibration which involves a motion of th part

whosu inass lias been increased will I)ave its period prolonged.

Only as a particula.1'case(as, for exampic, whcn a load is placed at

the nodc oi' a vibrating string) eau th period romain unchangod.

Tlic tlicorem now allows us to assert that tho removal of tlie constraint, and tlie consquent change of type, can only aScet th

period by a quantity of thc second order; and that therefore in th

limit the free period cannot bc Icss than before the change. By

intgration wc infcr that a imite incrcasc ofinass must proloiig the

period of' every vibration which Involvcs a motion of th part

aliected, and that in no case can tlie period bc diminishcd but in

order to sec the corrcspondcnce of th two sets of periods, it may

be necessary to suppose the altcrations madu by stcps.

Couvcrsely,th efect of a rcmoval of part of thc mass of a

vibrating system must bo to shorten the pcriods of all th froc

vibrations.

In iike manner we may prove that if the system undergo sucli

a change that the potential energy of a given configuration is

diminislied, whileth kinctic energy of a given motion is unaltered,

the periods of th free vibrations arc aU increased, and convcrscly.

This propositionmay sometimes be used for tracing the effects 6f

a constraint for if we suppose that th potential energy of

any configuration violating the condition of constraint gradually

incrcases, we shall approach a state of things in which tl]e

condition is observed with any desirod degree of completeness.

During each stop of th process every free vibration becomes

(in gnral) more rapid, and a number of th free pcriods (equal

to thc degrees of liberty lost) become infinitely small. Th

same practical result may be rcached without altcring th potential energy by supposing the kinetic energy of any woftOM

violating the condition to incrca~e without limit. In this case

one or more periods become infinitely large, but th finite

periods are ultimatcly th same as those arrivcd at whcn tlie

potential energy is increased, although in one case the pcriods

have been throughout increasing, and iu tlie other diminishing.

This example shews the nocessity of making th altrations by

steps; otherwise wc sliould not understand tl)C eorrespondcnce

of tlie two sets of pcriods. Furtlier illustrations will bc given

under th head of two degrees of frecdom.

86

VIBRATING

By me~s

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

of th

principe

wc n..y

ea.i!y

~h.

[88.

that

periods

stationary

calculato eorrcctions

duo to any

J~

a<!cv~n hypothct~

type of yibr.tion

that prope~ to th

sl.nplu

th punod so found wiH

systc~

di~r from the truth

by quantit.es dcpcndmg

ou tho ~uares

of ti.e

Scvcral

u.rcguh.-Itic.s.

cf

suci~

exaiaplcs

c..dcu!atiuns

will Le gtvcn in th course of

tins work.

unpor~ncc reJ.ting to thc period of

,n .n ~rbitrary

y.steiu

type rcn~ins io be noticed

vihr~ng

t .ppcars

from (2 88 that thc

p.riod of fhe vibration o

~c.sp n. u~ to ~ny hypothcti~I type is inciu.Icd bctwocn thc

and Ic~t of thosc n.tur.I tu t!~

system. In thc c~

~.tcst

o c ntuu~.s

deior.n.t~n, thcrc is no I~t uatu~

pericd;

~i

any hyh c.d"Ytype c.uinoL cxcccd that

puthet

bclo~l,~ to th Gr~est

typ. Whe. tLer.f..c ti. cLjecti.J~I~

of calculons

~cdr'

result

will como outt tao small,

~1

type jadgn~nt must bc

usc~h~

t)~

uscd

ohjcct ben,g to approach th truth as

nearly as can

he donc w~thout too grc.t

sacrinco of

.hnpHcity.

ypcor

~g

hc.vily ~i,ht.d

~ht

Le tdu froin thc extrme case of an

innnite Joad ~hen tho

two

of th st.~ .ould Le

As Je.~pl~

str~ht.

p~

cale..tion

of tins Jun~ of which the

rcsult is known, wo

~~h:d

will t~Tj~

w~th

tcusion 7 anj mquirc what the

period would be on

certam supposions as to th

type of vibration.

Taking the origin of .r at t)io ~idd!o of tho

string, lot the

curvc of vibration on thc

positive sidc bo

Im~c of tins in the axis of y

bc~g not !c.ss than .nity. This form satires th

condid~

ihat y vanishes whcn ~.=1

Wc h~vo now to form the exprcs~.s for 2' aud

a.d it will Le su~icicut te

c~t~

89.]

87

(tcuHtty,

and

Hcucc

If M==l, thc string vibratos as if tho mass were concentratcd

in its middie point, and

TT-T

Tho truc value of p" for the gravest type is

so that

,r,

plu

tho assumption of a para-boUcform gives a pcriod which is too

small in thc ratio 7r ~/10 or '993G 1. Tlie minimum of p",

VG+1

as givcn by (2), occurs when

and gives

~==l'72-t74,

choicc of a type, even tho violent supposition that th string

vibratos as two straight pices giving a period less than ton

pcr cent. in error. And whatever type wc choose to take, tlie

period calculated from it cannot be greater than the truth.

90. The rigorous determination of thc periods and types of

vibration of a given system is usually a matter of grt di&culty,

arising from th fact that th functions necessary to express tho

modesof vibration of most continuons bodies are not as yet rccognised in analysis. It is therefore often ucccssa.ryto fait back on

methods of approximation, referring t!io proposed system to somo

88

[90.

analysis, and calculatiug

corrections depending on the

supposition that the differerce between the tv.'o sy.ste~.s .aU.

Th. r~

~proxi.c!v

simple systems is thus one of great importance, more

especially

as it is impossible in practice

actually to realise tlio simple forn,s

about winch wc eau most

casily reason.

Let us suppose then that tho vibrations of

a simple System arc

thoroughly known, and that it is required to

investigate tho.sc

of a systcm derived from it

by introducing small variations in

thc mechanical factions. If

&c. bc the normal co-ordinates of tho original system,

the same co-ordinatcs

whicharc how only

approximtttciy normal,

in which

&,

small

In eert.m cases new co-ordinates

may appe~ but

quan

~cs. coe~cnts must bc

so t!.cir

small. From (1) ~c obtam for the

if

ijagrangian equa,tiousof motion,

fondamental types of vibration

are thosc .h.ch

corrc.spondto the variation of but

a single coerd~na e.1 a timc. Let us fix our

attention on one of

them,

involving say

variation of

while a!I thc

remnining coordinates vanish. Thc

change in tlie system ,vi!l in ~1

cntail an altcration in tlie

iund~c.tatcr

normal types; but

under tlie cu.cumstanccs

contemplatcd tlie alteratio~

small.

ne normal type is

e.pre~cd by the synchronous variation

of h' other

in

to

but

ratio of any

small.

known, ~e normal

mode of the aftered systcm will be

dc-tei-mincd.

90.]

APPROXIMATELY

SIMPLE

SYSTEMS.

89

tha) cn.ch o~-ordinato va-ucs a~ cos~, a"<! f.~Lft.it.utu thc

occurs

for D' In th a"' quation

diff'erential quations

with tiio Snitc coefEcient

sincc both the co-ordma.te(rcla.tivcty to ~) and its coefficientarc

small quantities. Hcnce

Now

andthus

tlie required result.

If th kinetic energy alone undergo va.ria,tion,

equation of (2), not hitberto used. We maywrite it,

Th first term gives tlie value of p/ calculated without allowance for th change of type, and is sufficient, as wc have aiready

proved, wheu thc square of thc altration in the system may

he neglectcd. The terms included under thc symbol S, in

which the summation extends to ail values of s other than r,

give thc correction due to th change of type and are of the

second order. Since ?, and a,, are positive, th sign of any term

> p~ that is, if the mode

depends upon that of

p~.2* If

s be more acute than the moder, the correction is ngative,

and makes tlie calculated note graver than beforc; but if the

mode s be thc graver, th correction ra-isesthe note. If t' refcr

90

[90.

negative; and if r refer to th acutest mode, tho whole coiection

is positive, as we have aJrea.dyseen

by another method.

formulae, we may

take th case of a stretched string, wliose

longitudinal

is not quite constant. If x ho measurcd from oue density p

end, and

hc tho transversc displaccmcnt, t!ie

configuration at any time t

will he exprssed by

arc tlie normal

co-ordiuatcs for p==constant, and t)iough hcre

p is not strictly

constant, tlie configuration of tbc systcni may still bo expressed

by means of the same quantits. Since the potential

cnergy

of any configuration is tlie samc aa

if/)= constant, 8~=0. For

tlie kinetic cncrgy we liave

dis&c. arc, on that supposition, the normal

appear, since

co-ordm~tcs. As it is, tlie mtcgml cocaicicnts,

thoug!i uot actually

evancscont, arc small quantities, Lot p=p.+~;

thcn in our

previous notation

by

or, since

01.]

EXAMPLES.

91

nodu.1point of the second mode (?'=2), which would bc iu the

iniddte, if tlie string woro uniform. In the neighbourhood of

this point, if x == + &c,tho approximate value ofy is

Hcncc when~=0,

approximately, where

the Irrcgularlty to consist in a. small load of mMS p~ situatcd

at x =

though thc result might bc obtained much more easUy

JIrectIy. We have

'l'lie rcal value of 8x is, however, very simple. Thc series within

bmckcts may bc written

and thus

92

[91.

periods of vibration of the two parts of th string, tha.t of the loadcd

part buing

ca.Icutatcd:),pp!-oxim:ttc]y

on the assumption of' unchanged

type.

As ~u cx:unp)Gof tlie formu!:),((!) 90 fur th

pcriod, wo

may tn.ko tho case of a. striug c:u-rymg a, smaH lo~d

at its

middie point.. Wc havo

?' is evcu, =7~ and wheu r is odd,

= 0, wc g'ct whcu

ofNot,herthan?'. If?'=],

square of th ratio .

In the gencml case the value of p, correct as fur as thc

rtrstorJcriu~p.wiIIbc

expansions

of arbitrary functions in sries of other <\mctlo)is o('

spccif]cd

types. Th best known cxamptc of such cxpansioDs is th~t

gencrally callod after Fourier, in which an arbitrary periodic

92.]

NORMAL

FUNCTIONS.

93

arc submultiples of that of the given function. It is well known

that th diniculty of thc question is confined to thc proof of tho

~OMtM~yof the expansion if this be assumcd, th dtermination

of thc cooHjcieutsis casy cnough. Wlia.t 1 wtsh now to draw

f~ttentio)).to is, that in this, aud au immense varicty of similar

cases, th possibility of the cxptuisioli may bc infcrred from

physica.1considerations.

To fix our ideas, let us consider the small vibrations of a

tmif'u)')astring strutc)~ed bctwceu rixc<tpoints. We know from

the gcncnd thcory that th wludc motion, wha-tever it may

hc, c:tn bc aua.)ysG(tiuto a. scries of componcnt motions, each

rcpresuntcd by a, harmonie function of tho time, and capable

of cxisting by itscif. If we can discover thcsc normal types,

wc sh:dl bc in a position to rcprcscnt thc most gnral vibration

possible by combinmg thcm, assiguing to cach an arbitrary

amplitude and phase.

Aasuming that a motion is Iiarmonic with respect to time,

wo gct to dtermine tlie type an equation of th form

We infer that tlie most gencral position which tho string can

assume is capable of rcprcseuta.tion by a scrics of tlie form

bc Jio dirHculty in proving th tlicorem in its most general form.

So far the string has bcen supposed uniform. But we ha.ve

only to mtrojucc a variable density, or cven a single load at

any point of th string, in ordcr to altcr compictely the expansion wliose possibility may be inferred from th dy~amical

tlicory. It is unnecessary to dwc)l hre on this subject, as

wc stmil liave furtlier examples in th

chaptcrs on the vibrations

of pa.rticular Systems, such as bars, membranes, and connned

masses of air.

94

f93.

arbitra

initial conditions may always hc

rcadily enfected bv the fundamental property ofthc normal functions, and

Itmay be convenicnt

to sketch the process Iicre for

systems like strings, bars, membranes, plates, &c. in which thcre is only one dpendent variable

~tobe considcred. If

tlie normal functions, and

~be

~t, ~j, th correspondtng co-ordinatcs,

so as to

correspond with arbitrary values of and

If p dx bc tite mass of the eicmcnt dx, wc have from

(1)

&c.cannot contain

of~,

tiie products of tlie normal

gcnGraI.zed velocities, and therefore

cvery iutcgra.1of tlie form

only to multiply thc first

of quations (4) by pu, and

intcgratc over tlie system. Wo thus

obtain

Similarly,

93.]

CONJUGATE

PROPERTY.

95

area, or volume.

The conjugate property, expressed by (5), depends upon the

fact that the functions are normal. As soon as this is known

by the solution of a diSercntia.1 quation or othcrwise, we may

infer the conjugate property without further proof, but th property itself is most intimntely connected with th fundamental

variational equation of motion 04'.

94. If

be the potential cnergy of dformation,

th

displacement, and p thc density of the (line, area, or volume)

clement dx, th equation of virtual velociticsgives immediatety

as may bc rca.dily provcd from the expression for V in terms

of gencralizud eo-or<U)ia.tcs.In fa.ctif

Suppose now that

n. normal function

so tha.t ~+?:~=0, whilc 8~'is idontinod

with another normal function M, then

varies as M, fu)d 8~ as K~,we gct for th same quantlty ~V,

from which th conjugate property folln-ws,if th motions rcpresentcd rcspectively by a.d M,have diffrent pcriods.

A good example of tlie connection of the two methods of

treatment will be found in the chapter on the transverse vibrations

of bars.

9G

VIBRATINO

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[95.

law connecting thon. p:~t~ &f t!ie f.ue mut.iunwhich dpend

on the initial cKsp~ce~M?t<s

of a system not subject to fnction~l

forces, with titosc which depend on tlie initial velocities. If

a velocity of any type bo communicated to a system at rest,

and then after a small intcrvnl of time th opposite velocity

ho communicated, tlie effoct in t)ie limit will be to start th

system without velocity, but with a displacement of th corresponding type. We may rcadily prove from this that in order

to dcduce th motion depending on initial displacements from

tbat depending on tlie initial vclocities, it is only necessary to

diSerentiate with respect to th time, and to replace th arbitrary

constants (or functions) which express th initial velocitics by

thosc which express th corrcspouding initial displacements.

Thus, if ~) bc any normfti co-ordinatc satisfying the equation

Stokes' rule,

Dynamical

y/t<'or;/

ofDt~'racft'on,

Can~rtf~erraM.Vol.IX.

CHAPTER

V.

VIBRA.TINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL

CONTINUED.

<)C. WlfENdissipative forcesact upon a system, the charactcr

of the motion is iu gnral more complicated. If two only of th

functions 7', and be finite, we may by a suitable lincar transformation rid our.setvcsof the products of th co-ordinatcs, and

obtain t)te n<jrm:dtypes of motion. In the preceding chapter we

h:).vcconHidcrcdth ca.soof ~= 0. Tho same theory with obvious

modifications will apply whcn 7'=0, or F=0, but these ca.ses

thougb of impurtance in othcr parts of Physics, such as Heat and

Electricity, scarcolybelong to our prsent subject.

Thc'prcscjice uf friction will not interfuECwith the rduction of

T and

to sums of squares'; but th transformation proper for

The

them will not in general suit also the requirements of

gnral quation can thcn only he rcduccd to th form

&c.

(1),

+~=~.

~+~~+~+and not to t!te simpler form applicable to a system of ono dcgrce

of frecdom, viz.

uc.

(2).

~+~+cA=~i.

Wc may, howcver, choosc whieli pair of functions we shall

rcduce, though in Acousties tlie choicc would almost always fall on

l' and Y.

97. There is, however, a not unimportant class of cases I)i

which the rduction of ait thrce functions may be effccted and

tlie theory then assumes an exceptiona.1simplicity. Under this bead

U~emost important are probably those when j~is of th same form

as T or V. The first case occurs frequently, in books at any rate,

when thc motion of cach part of th system is rcsistcd by a retarding force, proportional both to the mass and velocity of th

7

R.

D8

VIURA.TINC6YSTHMSIN GENERAL.

[97.

Iinear fun.)

of T'Mf'! K cr wbon 7' is itself oft~.r' ~mp form

K J.n any of tliese cases, t)io quations of motion are of thc samc

form as for a. system of onc degrcc of frccdfnn, and tlie theory

possGsscscertiua pccuHarities which m{tke it wortLy of scparato

cousidGra.tiou.

Thc quations of motion aro obta-incd at once froin

F

~nd

For the froc vibrations we Itavc oniy to put < = 0, &c., and

tlie solution is of the form

and

and

The whoc motion may thcreforc bo analysod into component

motions, each of wltich corresponds to thc variation of but one

normal co-ordinate at a tinis. And tlie vibration in eacb of thse

modes is altogcther similar to that of a systcm with only one

dcgt'cc of libcrty. After a certain thnc, grcatcr or less a.ceording

to the nmount of dissipation, tbc free vibrations become insignificant, and tlie system returns sensibly to rest.

Simuttn.ncous1ywith thc frce vibrations, but in pcrfcct indcpen<)enccof thon, thcre may exist forccdvibrations dcpending on

tho quantitics tl\ Precisuly as lu. tlie case of ouc dc-groc of frecdom, thc solution of

right-hn.ud member of (4), which makes the initud values of

and (~vanish, th terms given in (2) which rcprcscnt th rcsidue

97.]

GENERALIZATION

0F YOUNG'STHEOREM.

th<Y-<!(.i(.'of'~i.u(~)rcducc;,I.j

99

If there be no friction,

leads to au interusting theorcin concerning the relation of tho

subsequent motion to th initi.d disturhancc. For if tlie forces

whicii act upon th system bc of such a clmracter ttiat' thcy do no

work ou thc Jispiaeemunt indieatcd hy

tlicn

= 0. No such

forces, huwe~er long continucd, eau produce any cn'uct on tho

motion

If it cxist, thcy cannot destroy it; if' it do not cxist,

they cannot gcncratc it. TI)c most important application of th

theorcm is wt~cntlie forces apphcd to t!)G system act at a nodo of

tlie uormi],!component

tliat is, at a point which thc componcnt

vibration in question does not tend to set in motion. Two extrme

cases uf such forces may bc specially noted, (1) whcn tho force is

an impulse, starting tlie system i'rom rest, (2) \vhen it lias acted so

long that the systum is agai)i at rest under its influence in a disturbed position. So soon as tho force ceascs, natural vibrations

set in, and in tlie absence of friction would continue for an indennite time. We infer that whatevcr in other

respects their

charactcr may be, thcy contain no component of thc

Tliis

type

conclusionis limited to cases w!tcre T, F, F'admit of simultaneous

rduction, ineludmg of course tlie case of no friction.

99. The formutniquoted in 97 are applicable to any Mnd of

force, but it will oftcu Itappen that wo have to deal only witli the

cnccts of impressed forces of tlie harmonie type, aud we

may then

advantageous]yemp)oythe more spcial formu)u3applicable to such

forces. In using normal co-ordinates, we iiave first to calculate tlie

forces cl\, (1~,&c. corrcspondingto eacli period, aud thence deduce

thc values of the co-orclinates titcmselves. If

among tl)e natural

periods (calculated without allowance for friction) there be any

nearly agreeing in magnitude with the pcriod of an imprcsscd

force, tlie corresponding componcnt vibrations will be abnormaHy

large, ultless indecd tlie force itself bo grcat)y attenuatcd ni tlie

preliminary rsolution. Suppose, for example, that a transverse

force of harmonie type and given pcriod aets at a

single point of

a stretched string. Ail the normal modes of vibration

will, in

gnerai, be excited, not however in their own propcr periods, but

7-2

~0

VIBRATIN~

SYSTEMS IN (-.ENEKAI..

['~9.

v.hich b:t~u.nojj aL the p!j:nt o!' n,pp!iu.tuu~wit! not bt; cxcited.

Thc magnitude of cach componcnt t)ms dpends on two tbings:

(1) on th situation of its notics with respect tn the point at which

thc forceis appHed, and (2) on th denre of agrccmcnt betwccn

its own proper period and that of th force. It is import.fuit to

remembor that in respousc to a simp]u h:u')nomcforce, thc syst.on

will vibra-tc in gcnera.) in ~ its modes, :dthong)i in pfn-tK'uhu'

cases it ma.ysomctimcs be snOicicnt to nttc-nd to only onc of thcm

as bcirig of paramount importance.

100. When tho pcriods of tho forces oporating a.rc vo'y long

rc)~tivc!yto th free pcriods of thc systcm, :n] cqui!ibriumthcory

is sometimes ad~uate, but in such n. ca.sc tlie solution could

gcnc!Lt!y Le fuund more casily without thc use of th nonnn)

co-ordina.tcs. BcrnoulH'.sDicory of thc Tides is of this class, :Lnd

proceeds on thc assumption that thc frcc pcriods of' thc masses of

watcr found on tbe globe are s!n:d) rdativdy <.othc pcriods of thc

operative forces, in whicli case thc incrtia, of thc water might bc

As a matter of fact this supuosition is on]y

Icftoutofaccount.

vcry rougidy and pa.rtialty applicable, and we arc conseqnc'ntiy

still in tbe dark on many important points relating to thc tides.

Thc principal forces have a scmi-diurnal pcriod, whicb is not sufnciently long in relation to tbe natural pcriods concerned, to a)!o\v

of th Incrtia of Ibc water buing ncgiccted. But if th rotation of

the cartb bad bccn much slower, tbe cquilibrium theory of the

tides migbt !)ave bccn adc(ptatc.

A con'cctcd cquDibrium t!)cory is sometimes uscfuL w])enthc

pcriod of tbe imprcsscd force is sumcicntiy long in compar!son

witb most of the natund poriods of a System, but not so in thc

case of onc or two of thom. It will bc sufDcient to ta){cthc case

\vherc tucre is no friction. In thc quation

f?~ + c~)= <~, or

+ ?t~ =

Theti

100.]

EQU1LIHHIUMTHHORV.

101

S)!ppo'.<)o\v <'))f~thi~t'u'c'sj~stif!;(,bk\f'xcfpti)(:p''ct

uf thu sin~te normal co-ontinatc ~),. Wc )):LVC

tho) only to :uid

to th rcsult uf thc cquitibrium thcary, the diircrcncc betwcou

the truc and thc tliere ;),snut)iedv~luc uf (& viz,

ftu'ccf! vibrations bc cxtrcmciy rn.pid, they may becoino ne:u')y

iodupendunt of th potential enei-gy of the system. Instout

of ne~cctin~

in comparison with

wc ]i:wc thcu to ncg!cet

?; iu comparisofiwith

wlucti ~ivcs

If tbere Le onu or two co-ordinatcs to w)iic)i this trcatnicnt

is not i~pplic~bic,wc may suppicniott thc result, calcuintcd on

Lhc hypothu.sisth:).t is !t)t.ogct!tcrnc~tigibic, with con'cet.ious

fur thse particular co-ordinates.

101. Before passing on to t))c ~encml theory of thc vibrations

of .Systemssnbjcct to dissipation, it may bc well to point out

Home pcculiaritics uf thc free vibrations of onntinuons Systems,

startcd by a force applicJ at a single point. On thc suppositions

aud notations of ~8, tbe con6guration at any time is detcrjnincd bv

at thc poijtt (?. T))Cvalue of

is detjcrmincd by th considemtion tha,t <I\8< reprcsGnbsthc work donc upon th System hy tlie

itnprcssed forces d'n'ing a hypothetical disptaecmcnt S~=S6

that is

102

VIBRATINQSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[101.

twe a.t any sub.uu't

t:nie <

converges wltb t)~

Again, suppose that thc system is started by an impulse

from th configuration of equilibrium. In this case initially

Dus gives

is more slowly tha.u in thc prcvious case.

that

101.]

SPECIAL

INITIAL

CONDITIONS.

103

symmctrical with respect to 2-'aud

proving tliat tho disptaccncnt n.ttime t for th point 7-*when the force or impulse is appitpd at < is the Sinneas it would bo at () if tlie forceor impulse

h:td bueu {),pplicdat -P. This is an example of a vcry general

reciprocal theorcm, which we shall consiclerat !eugt)i pt'csc!itly.

As a thit'jd case wc may supposa th body to start from rcst

as dcfur)ned by a force M)!bn~y f~M~M~c~, over its lcn~t.1),

arca, or vuluinc. \Ve rcadily Hud

The series for will hc more convergent than whcn thc force

is conccntratedi)i a siugtc point.

In exactly tlie sa.mc w~y wc may trcat th case of a continuous body whonc motion is Eubjcct to dissipn.tion,pruvidod

tliat th tlirce futictions 2~ J~

bc simulta.ncousiy reducible,

but it is not necessary to write dowu tlie formuJ.

102. If th three mccha.nica.Ifunctions T, -F'and V of any

system be not simultancousiy reducibic, tlie natural vibrations

(as has aiready bcen observed) arc moru complica.tcd in tlicir

charactcr. Whcn, lowever, th dissipa.tion is small, the mctttod

of rduction is still usofnl; and this class of casusbcsidcs being

of sonc importancu in Itscif will form a good introduction to

tlie more gcncrat theory. We suppose thcu. that 2' and V arcc

cxprcsscd as sums of squares

in which the coefficients &

]f tlicrc were no friction, ttic abovc systcm of c(}uationswuuld

JU4

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

F 103.

to vf~' suitahly,

while t,!ic other co-ordinatc-svanish. In the actual case thero

will be a corrusponding sohttion in which the value of

any ot)icr

co-ordi!mtc will busmall rclativcty to 6,

Hence, if wc omit tc'rm.sof the second ordc-r,thc ?' equation

bceomes,

from which wc infcr tliat

varies n-pproxim~tuly :LSif tliere

were no c!)angc duc to friction in thc type of vibration. If

(A

v:u'yase'wcubt:utitodct(;rmiuc~

Thc roots of this quation arc comptux, but tho real

part

is small in eomparison with tlie imaginary part.

From thc

quation, if wc introduce tlie supposition that

a-Mtho co-ordinates vary as e" we gut

approxiniatdy thc altcrcd type

of vibration. Sincc thc chief part

la ima~hary, wo sco

of

tliat thc co-ordinn.tcs arc a.pproxi!natc!y in the sa.me

phMc,

~<~

</tC6<

~j~Me f~y'e~ ( ~MM?'/er

per~o~ /?'o!~ </<e~aM

Hcnec wttcn thc function F docs not rcduee to a sum

q/'

of squares, thc chamctcr of thc

c]cmentary modes of vibration

is ic.sssimp)u th~n othei-wisc,aud thc Y~rious

parts of tlie System

arc no longer simuttanconsly in thu samc phase.

We provcd abovu that, w)tC!ititc friction is small, the value

of y?, may bc calodatcd approximatuty without aUowancc for

thc change uf tyj)e but hy means of

(6) we may obtain a still

closur approximation, in winch thu squares of th small

quaritities

are i-ctahied. Thu ?- quation (3) givea

thc con-uctiun lias no uifuct un Litc ruai

p.n-t uf

titc r:T.teuf dceay (lej)cnds.

bcingrcit),

oa w}dch

103.]

105

103.

cquations of 84.

If

&c. bc th co-ordinates an<I

&c. tlie forces,

wc !ia.vc

V~=0.

(4).

S~ncc \7 nnw co))taius odd powcrs of' D, t!)G2?~ roots of tho

= 0 no jouter uccur in equal positive :uht

cquahon

ncgativc

piurs, Lut cot)ti).in!). ruai as wu!! as an imagmary p~rt. TIte

compJutu intgra! may ]n)w<;vcrstil bc writtun

= ~c~ + J'g~~ + Z?e~+ 7/e' +.

(5),

where thc pairs uf cunjug-u.tcroots are

uc. CorruMpoiding to cach rot, thcro is a. particular solution such as

~=~~

~=~

&c.,

~,=~

in which thc ?Yt~'osj'l,

arc determined by thc equations of motion, and oniy thc absohjtc value ronains

arbitrary.

In t!te prsent case ]iowcvur (wlicre contains odd

powers of Z))

thse ratios aru not in gcncral i'c:d, and therefore th variations

oi thcco-oi'din:Ltes'&c.:u'c

not synchronous in phase. If

we put /~=a,+t/3,, ~=a,-t/3~,

&c., wc sec tha.t none of th

quantifies a can bc positive, since in that case thc energy of

thc motion would Incrcase with the time, as we know it cannot

do.

Enoug)i bas now beeti said on thc snbjcct of the froc vibrations of a System in general. Any further illustration that it

may rcqnirc will bc anorded hy t!)c discussion of the case of two

dugrees of frccdom, 112, and by the vibrations of strings and uthur

spcial bodics with whicli \vc shaU soon be occnpicd. We rsume

ti)e quations (1) with thc view of invcstigating further tbc

nature of forced ~m~to;

10G

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS

IN GENERAL.

[104.

104. In or~r to cnmu.atc from thc crjnnH~ns ~!Lt'~ .)ot-dinatcs but onc (~), oper~tc ou tilcm in succession with the

minor dctenuinimts

and a.dd the results togcthcr; and in IH manncr for thc othcr

co-ordinates. We ttius obtain as the cquivalcut of thc urigina.!

system of quations

in which the dincrentiations of ~7 are to be made without recognition of the cquaHty subsistmg botwecn e, and e

Thc forces

&c. arc any whatcver, subject, of course,

to tlie condition of not producing so grcat a displacement or

motion that tlie squa.res of th small quantities become sensible.

If, as is ofteu t!ie case, the forces opcrating he !nade up of two

parts, one constant with respect to timc, and tlie other periodic,

it is convenicnt to separatc in hn~ginn.tion tlic two classes of

cncets produced. T!ie effect duc to tlie constant forces is exactly

the same as if they acted alonc, and is found by th solution

of a statical problem. It will therefore gcneraHy bc sufficicnt

to suppose th forces pcriodic, tlie effects of any constant forces,

such as gravity, being mcrcly to altcr t!tG configuration about

which tlie vibrations proper arc exccutcd. Wo may thus without

any rcat loss of gcnera]ity confine ourscives to perlodic, and

therefore by Fourlor's thcorcm to harmonie forces.

Wc might thereforc assume as expressions for ~P,, &c. circular

functions of th tune but, as we sliidi have frquent occasion

to recognise in th course of this work, it is usualty more convenicnt to employ an imaginary exponential function, such as

~'c' where~Is a constant which may bc complex. When th

corrcsponding symbolical solution is obtained, its real and

Imaginary parts may be separated, and belong respectlvc!y to

tiie real and Imaginary parts of thc data. In thia

way tlie

104.]

FORCED VIBRATIONS.

107

~n!)Jy-t['!

anfl altrations of phnsc a.rc expresscd by mcrcly modifying

th compicx cofHcicntwithout chang-ingthc form of th functiou.

We therefore write

re

thelaw

&c. according to

bolical solutious arc

Considcr f!t'st the case of a System exempt from friction. ~7

and its (liHereutial coefHcieuts arc titen c~M functions of D,

so that ~7(~) is rca!. Tbrowiug a.way th imaginary part of

thc solution, writing ~' for ~t~ &c. wc hve

If we suppose tliat the forces

than one goiera.Uzcd component) liave ail thc same pliasc, they

may be cxpressod by

and then, as is casily sccn, th co-ordiuatcs themsolvcs agrcc

in phase with tlic forces

on the magnitude of \7(?'~). Now, if thc period of th forces

bc the same as one of those bctonging to tlie frce vibrations,

(ip) = 0, a.ud tlie amplitude becomcs iniiiiite. This is, of

J08

VIHRATINC:

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[104.

Ct'nHtdct'f~tiun

of friction, from wltich no natural system is ruaHy

exempt.

If thcrc bc friction, ~7(ip) is eompiex but it may bc dividcd

into two pa.rtsonc rca.1a)id thc otho' puruly Itn~ginary,ofw!iic)i

tlie latter dpends entirely on the friction. Thus, if wc put

V (~)=~ (~) +~ V.(~).

(7),1

and therefore real. If as bcforc

\7.~are eveu functions of

J,=Vt\e~ our solution takes thc form

it is not truc, on the othur hand, th:).t 7,(~) is cxa.ctiythc s~me,

as ift)tcre had been no friction. Howcver, this is approximatciy

the ca~e,if the friction ho sma!]; bccausc any pn-rtcf ~(~), which

dpends on thc first power of th coe~cients of friction, is nocessari)y imaginary. W!)cncvcr there is n, coincidence between tho

period of thc force and tliat of onc of th frcc vibratious, \7~;))

thcrcforc

va.Dishcs,f~ndwe ha.ve tan y = ce :).u<~

friction.

On thc hypothesis ofsmai friction, is in general smaU, and

so also is T, except in case of approximatc (.-qnality of pcriods.

With certain exceptions, thereforc, the motion bas nearly th

samo (or opposite)phase with tlie force that excites it.

Wlicn a.force expressed by a harmonie term acts on a system,

the resulting motion is everywttcrc harmonie, and rcta.ins tlie

original period, providcd always that th squares of the displacements and velocitics may bc neg]cctc<1. This important principle

wa~ cnuuciatcd by Laphicc and a.pplicd by him to the theory of

INEXORABLE

MOTIONR.

104.]

J

lOf)

Hcrsche!, to witomwo owc a formai domonstr~tionof its truth*.

If th force bc not a. harmonie function of the time, thc types

of vibration 'ni dtfferent parts of the system are in.gnral diffrent

from each other and from that of th force. Thc harmonie

fonctions are thus th on!y oncs winch prserve their type nnchanged, wldcii, as was rcmn.rked in thc Introduction, is a strong

rcason for anticipating that thcy correspond to simple toncs.

105. We now tnrn to a. somewhat diffrent Idnd of forccd

vibration, where, instcad ofgiven forces as hitherto, given inexorable wo~t'o~sare prescribed.

arc givcn

If we suppose t)ta,t the co-ordinates

ftinctions of the thno, while th forces of thc rcmaiuing types

vanish, thc quations of motion divide theinselvcs Into two groups, viz.

tcrms are known cxphcit fnnctions of thc time, and hve thc sa.tne

cH'ectas know)i furccs a.cti)ig on the system. Thc Ct~uationsof

this gronp are thcrcfore su~icicnt to (tt.'t.crmincthc uuknowu

quautities; after whic)i, If rct~uircd, thc forces ucccss:u'yto maLinta,m tlie pi'cscribcd motion may bc Jetermiucd from thc rirst

group. It is obvions tit~t thcrc is no esscutial diffrence betwciCti

the two classes of prohtcms of forecd vibnitions.

10G. The motion of a systcm dcvold of friction and cxccuting

slinpic harmonie vibrations in consquence of prescribed variations

of sorneof thc coordinat.es,posscsscs a pcculiarity paraUel to thosc

considcred in 74, 7~. Let

=

= J~ cos

in

whicit

thc

7~)cye.

quantitics

~<~ro~.

~l,.

art. 823.

arc

-j

eos ~<,

regarded

&c.

as

givcn,

whi)c

fino.

thc

110

VIDRATING

SYSTEMS

1~ GENERAL.

~~T

2(y+

[lOG.

=~(~+~,)~/+.+(~+~)j~+.,

+~(~u)~+.+(~J~~+.jcos2~

quations of motion express tlie condition th.t A', tlie variable part of

y+ r, ~i,ich is proportional to

Hc,J~+.

+(~)~~+,~

shall bc station~-y in v~uc, for

variations of tlie claautitics

~r.,

~I, Lcb bc ttie value of~ n~turat to thc

System wlieu

under

tlie

restraitit

vjbratiug

dcHned Ly tlic ratios

be ecrtainfy less than

tbat is,

if the prc.scr.bed pcriod be

grcatcr than any of tllose natural to

the system uuder the partial constraint

rcprescuted by

~t.J,

then is necessarlly positive, aud tl~e

.tationary val~e-t!~re can

bc but ouc-~ an absolute

minin~un. For a similar rea.so~ if the

prs nbed ponod be less tiuL.iany of tliose natural te thc

pa,-tia)iy

constraincd System is an absolute ~xhu~

but

a~braica!Iy,

an

arit)nuctieat!y absoluto rnini.num. But whcu lies witbin thc

range of possible vaines of~,

n.ay bc positive or ngative, and

th actual value is not th

greatest or least

natura! vibration is cor~sistentwith the possible, Wi~enevera

hnposed conditions that

will ue thc vibration assumed. Tj.e

y.,l.Uc part of ?'+

zero.

For convenience of treatment .ve

hve considered apart t),e

two grt cl~es <.fforced vibrations

and f~ vibrations; but hc c

of

is, course, noth.ng to prcvcnt their

coexistence. After tl.e lapseo

of a .sumc~nt interval of

time, the frce vibrations ahvays

appcar, howcver small thc friction

be. The case of abso.nay

lutely uo fnchon is purc!y idca!.

Ti.crc is onc caution,

lowever, ~Lich may not bc supGrrIuou.

in respect to thc case whcrc

givon ~Jare

forcj~

106.]

RECIPROCAL

THEOREM.

111

arc

wh' '~L-n<x' or .non-cxistcnco

givou. Thf'u ~t); .frc't)\'ibt'it.{.iui')~

is a matter of indiffurencoso fur as th forced motion is concerned,

mnst Le understood to be such as th system is capable of, when

the co-ordinates

are not aKo~ <o MtryJ~'o~?~zero. In

order to preveut their varymg, forces of thc

corresponding types

must bc iutroduced; so that from one point of view th motion in

question may be regarded as forced. But tlie applied forces are

mercly of the natu.rc of a constraint; and their ct'ect is the same

as a limitation on the frecdom of thc motion.

107. Very rcmurkable reciprocal relations exist between tlio

forces aud motions of different types, which may be regarded as

extensions of th cerrespondi.ng theorems for systems in winch

only For T bas to be considered ( 72 and 77, 78). If we suppose that ail thc component forces, except twoF and ~F arc

zero, we obtain from 104,

whcn~ vanishes, Mtd secondiy (with da.shcd Ictters) whcn

va.nisitc.'i. Ii"~K=0,

Intgral functions of tlie symbol D; and sincc m cvury case

~r.= ~.r' V is a. symmetrical detcrminaut, and thercfurc

act on the system, tlie coordinatc

is rclatcd to it in the same way as the co-ordinate

is retatcd to tlic force

whcn this latter foi-ceis supposed to act

a.Lone.

lu addition to thc motion hre contcmplated, thcre may be

frcc vibrations dpendent on a. disturbance ah-eadycxistin~ at th

112

VIBRATINO

SYSTEMS IN

GENERAL.

[107.

included in ~F; but thse vibrations are thcmsc)ves tho e~-ct of

iorc~s \t'hicii acLed previousiy. However sinail th

dissipation

tliere

must

be

an

interval of time after which free vibramay be,

tions die out, and beyond winch it is

unnecessary to go in taking

account of the forces wbich hve acted on a

system. If therefore

we include undcr

forces of sumcicnt reinotcness, there are no

independcnt vibrations to be considered, and in this way tlie

theorem may be cxtendcd to cases which wouldnot at first

sigbt

appeM- to corne within its scope. Suppose, for example, that the

systcm is at rcst in its position of equilibrium, and then begins to

bc acted on by a force of the first type,

graduatty Increasing in

magnitude from zero to a finite value

at which point it ceases

to incrca.sc. If now at a given

epoc)i of timo the force be suddcn!y dcstroyed and reinain xcroc-vurafto-wards, frc vibrations of

tI)G systcm wIUset in, and continue until

destroyed by friction.

At any tirne t snbsc()ucnt to th given

cpoch, tlie co-ordinate

has a vatnc dpendent upun t proportional to

T))c tiicorem

allows us to assert that this value bears the same rcJation to

at t))c same mnmcnt hve borne

as~outd

to~ if thc original

cause of the vibrations bad been a force of th second

type increasing g.-aduai)yfrom xcro to

and thcn suddenly vanishing

at th given cpoch of timc. Wc ))avc

ah-cady had an example of

tins in 101, and a like result obtains wiien th cause of th

origin:).!disturbance is nn Impulse, or, as in the problem of the

pianofortc-string, a variable force of finite though short duration.

ln tljesc app)icationsof our theorem we obtain results

rclating to

h'ee vibrations, considercd as t]jc residual effect of forces whosc

actual opration may ]tavc becn long bcforc.

~08. In an important e)ass of cases th forces and

are

harmonie, a)td of th samc pcriod. We may rcprnscnt them

by

and

J,e~

wherc J,

J~ may be assumcd to bc ?- If tbc

forces be in thc same t-hase at the moments

compared. Tito

results may then be written

108.]

RECIPROCALTHEOREM-.

11~

Y~ is by hypothesis real, th same is

true of th ratio

which signifies tha.t the motions

represcnted by those symbols are iu tlie same phase. Passing

to rcal quantifies wu tU~ystate the thcorem thus

= A~cos pt, c(c<t'H~

o~ ~e s~/s<e~ ~n'6 rise to

If a force

= A~ cos pt

<<?~to~t'o~ = 0A, cos (pt e) ~cn wt'~ (t force

~ro~t;cc </tC?~o<K)?t

'= ~A~'cos (pt c).

If thcre Le no friction, e will Le zero.

If J, =

thcn '=~.

But it must be remembcrcd that

thc forces ~F, and

are not nccessarily comparable, any more

than thc co-ordinates of corresponding types, one of wluch for

example may represent a linea-r and another an angula.r disp!accmcnt.

Thc reciprocal theorem may bc statcd in sever~l ways, but

before proceeding to thse we will give another investigation,

not requiring a knowlcdgc of dterminants.

If

and

be two sets

of forces and corrcspuuding disptacctnents, the quations of

motion, 103, give

New,

opcrator

multiply

?'/)for j9

regard to

such an e~ ou any of thc quantttics

is mcrcly to

that quanti ty Ly thc constant found Ly substituting

iu

Supposing this substitution juade, and havicg

tlie rclationa e~ = e~, we may write

~9. lu thc applications that we arc abuut to makc it

will be snpposcd throughout that the forces of ai types In:t

two (whicli wc mn.y as well take as the first and secoud) are

zero. Thus

114

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[109.

dinerent ways. In tlie first we suppose that

whcnco

~=0,

~/=0,

~=~'

~(2),

shewing, as before, that the relation of

to

in th first

case when ~==0 is tlie same as th relation of

to

in

tlie second case, when

= 0, tlie identity of

relationship' extending to phase as well as amplitude.

A fe\v examples may promote the comprehension of a

law,

whose extrme generality is not unilkely to cuuvey an

impression

of vagnencss.

If .P and Q bc two points of a horizontal bar

supported in

any manner (c.g. with one end clamped and tlie other frce), a

givcn harmonie transverse force applied at P will give at any

moment the same vertical dencction at Q as would have been

found at

had the force acted at (~.

If we take angular instcn.d of lincar

displacements, the

theorcm will l'un :-A given harmonie

couple at P will give the

same ?'o~~o~ at as the couple at would

givc at P.

Or if one dispJacemcnt bc Jincar and the ot))er

angular, th

rcsult may be stated thu.s Suppose for thc first case that a

harmonie couple acts at .P, and for th second that a vertical

force of the same pcriod and phase acts at Q, thon th linear

displacement at Q in t!tc first case bas at cvcry moment tho

same phase as the rotatory displacement at

in th second,

and tbe amplitudes of th two dplacements are so related that

th maximum couple at P would do the same work in

acting

over th maximum rotation at P due to th force at

Q, as th

maximum force at <~would do in acting

through tlie maximum

displacemcnt at Q due to the couple at P. In this case th

statement is more compHcatcd, as the forces,being of different

kinds, cannot be taken equa!.

If we suppose thc period of th forces to be

excessivoly long,

tbe momentary position of the system tends to concide with

that in which it would be mamtained at rest

by th then acting

forces, and tlie equilibrium theory becomes applicable. Our

theorem thcn reduces to th statical one proved in 72.

space occupied by

air, and either whol]y, or partly, connncd by sotid boundaries,

109.J

APPLICATIONS.

115

whosc centres have one denre

of freeclom. Thoi a. periodic force acting on ~4 will

produco

tho same motion in j?, as if the parts werc

intcrdtangcd and

thi.s, wliatevcr mcmbra.ncs, strings, forks on rsonance cases, or

other bodie.scapable of bcing set into vibration, may be

present in

their neighbourhood.

dnote two points of a solid etastic

Or, if A and

body

of any shape, a force paraUcl to

acting at A, will producc

the same jnotion of the point parallcl to Oras an

cquaL force

would producc in the point ~1,

pn.ra!Iel to Oy acting at

pM'a!!clto ~J~.

Or aga,in, lot A a)nl Le two points of a

space occupied by

air, between which arc situatcd obstacles of any kind. Thcu a

sound originating- at Ais perccived at B with the samc

intensity

as that witit which an cqual sound originating at jS would be

perccived at ~i/ Thc obstacle, for instance, might consist of a

rigid

wall picrcecl witli one or' more holcs. This

example corresponds

to the optical law that if by any combination of renectin~ or re.

fracting surfaces one point can be seen from a second, the second

can also bc seen from thc first. Fn Acoustics the sound shadows

arc usually only partial in consquence of the not

insignificant

value of th wave-Iength in comparison with thc dimensions of

ordinary obstacles and tlie rcciprocal relation is of considerable

interest.

A further example may be taken from

electricity. Lct there

be two circuits of insulated wire /1 and B, and in their

neighbourifood any combination of wu'c-eircuits or solid conductors

in communication with condensers. A periodie electro-motive

force in th circuit A will give rise to th same currcnt in

as would be excited in il if the cicctro-motivc force

opcratet)

inR

Our last example will bc takcn from th

theory of conduction

and radiation of heat, Ncwtou's la,w of

cooling being assuvned

as a basis. Th temprature at any point ~t of a

conducting and

radiating system due to a steady (or harmonie) source of hcat

at is th same as th temprature a.t due to an

equal source

at

Moreover, if at any time tlie source at B be removed th

whole subsequent course of temprature at A will be the same

as it would be at B if th parts of.D and A were

interchanged.

1 Helmhoitz,

Bd.Lvn. ThoBonnesmustbe Rnchas iu the absenceof

C'r<~<

obstacles

woulddiffusethernselyos

directions.

eq~Iy in ~11

82

n~

VIBRATINH

SYSTEMS IN CHNKRAL.

[110.

fu'rivedat by t~king in (1) of 1()9,

to

ni th nrst case, wlien = 0,

shewing that thc relation of

in tlic second case,

to

is the samc as the relation of

wheit ~=0.

Tlius in tite cxampio of the rod, if thc point P be held at

rcst wliilc a givcu vibration is imposed upon (by a force thcrc

applicd), th reaction at jP is thc same hotli in amplitude and

if that point were beld at rest and

phase as it would bc at

thc givcn vibration were imposed upon 7~.

So if J- a.nd bc two electric circuits in th ncighbourhood

whether closed or terminating

of any uumber of othcrs, C, D,

in condensers, and a givcn periodic enrrcnt bo cxcitod in ~1 by

th necessary cicctro-motive force, th Induccd cicetro-motive

force ii) is thc saine as it wou!d be In ~t, if thc parts of ~1

and

wcre Intcrchangcd.

TItC tinrd form of statemcnt is obtaincd by putting in (1)

of 5 109.

nets

to

in tho first case, \vhpn

proving that th ratio of

in tlie second

to

abne, is tlie ngative of tlie ratio of

cqual to zero.

case, whentho forces arc so rclatcd as to kecp

Thus if th point P of the rod be held at rest while a

periodic force acts at Q, tho rcaction at P bears tho samc numerical ratio to the force at Q as thc disptaccment at Q would bcar

to th displa.ccmcut at P, if th rod wcre causcd to vibrate by

a force applied at .P.

111. Thc reciprocal theorem bas been proved for ait Systems

in which the frictional forces can be represented by tlie function F,

but it is susceptible of a further and an important generaHzation.

We have indeed proved th existence of the function F for

a large class of cases whcrc th motion is resisted by forcf's

proportional to thc absotut.u or relative velocities, but theru arc

11L]

117

whoseeffects it is eqnally important to include for exemple, th

dissipation due to the con(htction or radiation of hcat. Now

f).tt))oughit bc truc that the forces in thse cases arc not for ~M

~)~6'~e ~huns in a constant ratio to the velocitics or displacements, yct in any actual case of pcriodic motion (T) tliey arc

ncccssarity periodic, and tttcrcforc, wliatevur tlicir phase, expressible by a sum of two tonns, one proportional to th displacement (absolute or relative) and tho other proportional to the

vulocity of th part of the system aneetcd. If th coemcicnts

bo thc same, not ncccs.sarity for ail motions whatever,

a~

&br

motions u/e~

T, the fmiction ~exists in thc only sonse

requirud for our prsent purposc. In fact since it is exclusively

with motions of pcriod T titat t)ie Dtcorcm is concerncd, it is

p):un!y a matter of indiiTcruncc whct)icr tlie fonctions Y; F

are dpendent upon T or not. Thus cxtendcd, tho theoi-em is

pct-hapssufliciently gnera) to covo.-tho wtiole ricld of dissipative

forces.

Prnicipio of Reciprocity

is ilmited to systems which vibratc about a

configuration of e~t~M~)t, and is therefore not to bo apptied wititont reservation to

such a problem as tliat presented by thc transmission of sonornus

wavcs through tbe atmosphre wi)C)i clisturbed

by wind. Thc

vibi-iLtionsmust also bc of such a charaeter that tlie

square of the

motion can bo ncglectcd througitout; ot))crwise our dmonstration wou!d not hotd good. Other

apparent exceptions dpend on

a misunderstanding of thc principle itsclf, Carc mnst be takcn

to observe a propcr corrcspoudcnce between the forces and displacements, the ruie being that th action of th force over tho

disphccmcnt is to represent wo~ ~ne. T)ms co!~)~ correspond

to )'oMw:s,~re~M?'Mto inercmcnts of ~'o~trne,aud so on.

112. In Chapter III. we considered th vibrations of a

system with onc degrec of frccdom. TIie remainder of the prsent Chapter will he devoted to sonic detaits of the case whcre the

degi'ccsof freedom arc two.

If and y dnote the two co-ordinatcs,t)ic

expressions for 2'

and F are of the form

118

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[112.

Since l' and F arc essuutiallypositive, thc foHowing mequa)itics

juust be satis~icd

Zy>

~1C>~ .((!).

We procecd tu examine th ciTuctof tliese restrictions onthe

roots of (5).

Iti th first place t!)e tin'ec coefficients in the equation are

positive. For the first and third, this is obvions from (G). Tlie

cocMcicnt of

m winch, as is sccn from (6), ~/ZV~6~ is ncccssarily grcatcr than

J/7- Wu concludc thttt tlie vulucs of

if rca!, arc both ngative.

It rem:t.Insto provc that tlie roots are m ihct rcal. Dm eoito bc satisHcd is that thc i'olluwing quantity be not nga(.Uti<j)t

tive

is positive. This is titc au~ytica! proof th:tt thc vaincs uf are

hoth rca! and ngative a fact tlu~t might I~vc bccn

anticipatud

-iUtout :uiy an:dysis from titc pltysica.1constitution of thc

systum,

whosc vibrations thoy serve tu express.

113.]

ROOTS 0F

DETERMINANTAL

EQUATION.

119

By mcans of a suitable force F the co-ordinatc may be preveuted from varying. T]to systcm thon loses one dugrcc of frcc<!o:n,and thc purnjd eon'cspouding to thc rcmaining onc is i)i

general diUbrent from cither of thosc possible beforc thu introduction. of 3~. Suppose tliat tlie types of the motions obttUtiedby

titus preventing iu tuni the variation of and x are rcspectively

are thc roots of the quation

Tlien

e~

(L~ + A) (~V~-t. C) = 0,

and R Hclice

bcuig that obtained from (4') by supprcssing

(4) may itscif bc put into the form

B)'

(~ -~) = (~+

(8),

Zy(~)

wltich shews at once tliat ncitlicr of tlie roots of X"can be interA little fui'thcr examinaa.ud

modiatc in value betwoeu

tion will provc that onc of the routs is grciLtcrthan hoth the quan.tities

and the othcr loss tha!i both. For if wc put

(.V~ + ~)=,

/) (~ ~)

/(~) = L~(\'

when

wc sec tbttt whcn is vcry smati, f is positive (J~J~);

deercasca (id~cbr&icaDy)to

f dingos sign and bccomcs

there is thcreforc a root; imd :t.)so

ncgativc. Bctwcoi 0 a.nd

aud ce. Wc conchtdutha.t thc

by sintii:).)'rcasoning bctwccn

tones obt:t.iuedby subjecting t)ic systcm to tbe two kinds of constnuut in qnustio)i ar bot)) intunncdia.te In pitc)i bctwecn tbc

tonos giveu by t)~Gnntuml vibrations of tlic system. lu p:ii'ticu!a.r

cases /t

may bc cqua.1,and then

wLidi Icuvcs thc System still in posscssiol of onc (tcgrcc of frcedom may be rcganicd ~s thc impositiou of n, fot'ccd relation

bctwccu t)ic co-ordiuates,such as

120

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[112.

tiult r.f .'s rmd .y,~o tfd!cn ~s n~w vnrinUcp~t.ijo eftinc argument

provcs tha.t tlic single pcriod possible to thc systc'm after t)io

introduction of tho constmint, ja intermc(U:Ltcin va.!nc bctweoi

thosc two in which tlic natural vibrations wcrc prcviousty pcribrmcd. Convcrs~Iy, t!)C two periods which bccomc possibJc

whcn constraint is rcmoved, lie ouc on cn.c!tsi()cof tho original

period.

If tlie values of ."be cquat, winch can on)y iMLppen

when

Z

~=.1

instanco, thc !imit~ti(jn of a sphcrical pundutum to one vertical

phme.

113. As a. simple cxampte of a sysLem wittt two (tegrecs of

wc may take a. strctehcd string of ]en~t)i itsdf withH'CL'doni)

out inortin, but cnrryiug two uqua.) nasses /?t nt distfuiccs a a.nd

6 froin onc end (Fig. 17). Tuusion =

rig. 17.

Sincc T and F are not of thc satne form, it fullows t)tat thc

two periods of vibration aru in cvcry case nncqua!.

If tl)e loftds be symmct.ricn.Hya.ttactio(~ thc cLa.mctcr of thc

two componcnt vibrations is vident. In the first, which wil! Itave

t)Lelonger period, titc two weights move togcthcr, se that a' and y

rcma.inequ:d throughout the vibration. In tho second x n.nd arc

nmncriea!Iy cqua!, but opposcd in sign. Th middie point of the

string thon rcmains at rest, and tlie two masses arc aiways to

bc found on a straight Une passing through it. In the first case

= 0, and in thc second x + = 0 so tliat x

and + y

arc thc ncw vanahies winch must he assmncd in rdcr to rcducc

the functions T and Fsimultancousty to a sum of squares.

113.']

INTERMITTENT

VIBRATIONS.

121

string into three equal parts,

the initial circumstances.

sometimes prcequal, the phe~omcnon of intermittent vibration

scnts itself in a very curions manuer. In order to ittustratc tins,

wo ma.yrecur to ttic string loadcd, we will now suppose, with two

of th

equal masses at distances from its ends cqun.1to one-fourth

length. If thc middte point of tlie string were absolutcly iixcd,

th two sinuhu' aystons on eitlicr side of it would hc compictcly

two

independent, or, if thc whole be considered as one system, the

periods of vibration would bc cqnal. Wc now suppose that

Instead of bcing absolutely nxed, tlie mid(Uc point Is a.ttachcd to

it is

sprints, or other machincry, dcstitute of mcrtia, so that

to incrtia is to

capable of yichling s~/t~y. The reservation us

avoid the introduction of a third dcgrce offrocdom.

From th symmctry it is vident that thc fundamcntal vibrations of tlic system arc thosc rcprcscnted by a;+y and a?-y.

Thcir periods arc shghUy diffrent, bccause, on account of the

yieldin~ of thc centre, thc potential energy of a dplacement

\vhcn and v are equal, is less than t)iat of a disp!acemcnt

whcn x and y are opposite; whcrcas ttie kinctic nergies arc

the samc for the two kinds of vibration. I)i th solution

Now let us suppose that initially a? aud n: vanisi). Thc conditions are

122

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[114.

Thus

approxitoatL'iy cxprcsscd by I~u-rnouictcrm, whosc an.phtudc, being

proportiona!

to

t, is a slowly varying harmonie function of t!ic thne.

sinTIic vibrations of thc co-ordinates are tbcrcforc

and

so adjnstcd t]~t each iuuplitudu v~)ns)icsat tbe Intermittent

moment tl~at the

othcr is at its !uaximum.

T)us phenomenon may bc pret.Uiyshcwn

by a tunin~ fork of

vcry low pitcb, hcavUy wui~htud )Lttbc ends, i~d fh-m!y'hdd

by

t!ic

staik

iuto

a

screwing

massive support. W!tcn tLc fork vibrato

in thc normal nanncr, th

rigidity, or want 01 rigidity, ot' th

stalk ds not comc into p!ay; but if' tbc

di.spj~ccmcntsof'the two

Le

m

t)ic

prongs

samc direction, t~c .s!ig)it yidding of Hie sta!k

cntails a small change of pcriod. If t)ic furk be

excitcd by strikh~

oneprong,t)ic vibrattons are intermittent, and appcar to transfetl~emscivesback~-ard.sand forward.sbctwecu th

prongs. U.dc.sa,

howcvcr, t)ie suj~port bu vcry firm, Utc abnorm:d vibration, which

involvcs a .notion of th centre of Inertia, is soon

dissipated and

of

thon,

course, tbe vibration appcars to bccomc

stcady If thc

iork be mcrc)y hctd in thc hand, t!ic

p!ienomeuon of' mtennittenec

cannot bc obtaiucd at a!

115. TItc strctclicd string with two attaclt(jd

nasses May bc

uscd to ~lustrale somc gnerai

principies. For example, ths period

of t!tc vibmt.ou which remalus

pos~ibte wbcu onc mass i.s !te)d

at rcst, is Intermedi~te between th two frec

pericds. Any incrcase ni eithcr Joad

depresses t!ic pitcb of both th natural

vibrations, and co~vcrsciy. If t)ie new load be situated at a

point

ci th string not,

cuinciding witb tlic places whci-c t)ie other !oa()s

are attiiched, nor with tho uodc of one of' thc two

prcviousiy

possible frcc vibrations (thc othcr lias no nodc), th ef'cct is still

to prolong both thc periods

alrcady prc.scnt. With regard to the

third nnite period, w]iicli becomes

possible for thc first time after

the addition of the new load, it must be

rcgardcd as denvcd from

115.]

IMPRESSED

FORCES.

123

may be 8t)pposcd to form part of the system. It is instructive

to trace tlie enect of the introduction of a new load and its graduai

increase from zero to infinity, but for tins purpose it will be

simpler to take thc case where there is but one other. At the

connueiicejncnt thcre is one finite pcriod T~and another of innnitcsimal tuagnitudo T~. As t!)e load increascs T~bccomcs finite,

and both T. and T.. continually increase. Let us now considur

wliat happciis when th load becomes vcry grcat. Onc of thc

puriods is nccessarity largo and capable of growing bcyond ail

limit. The otiicr must approach a fixcd iinite Innit. T!ie first

bcloags to a motion in which thc largi- mass vibratos nearly as

if tlie other were absent th second is tlie period of th vibration

of tlie smiUlermass, taking place mucb as if the larber wercfixed.

must be aiways th

Now sincc ~ and T~can nover bc equaL

gruatcr a~d we infer, that as tlie load becomes cot~tinuallylarger,

it is ~ tliat met-casesiudennitcly, and T~ that approachcs a iiuite

limit.

Wc uov pass to tlie consideratio!i of forccd vibrations.

116. Th gnral quations for a system of two degrecs of

frecdom including friction arc

constants Jt~,~3, are small, so that tlie tcrm (J9 ~W+1'/3~)"

in th denominator may in gnral bc ncglected. 'When this

is pcrmissiblc, thc co-oi-diiiatey is th same as if x had been prevented from varying, and a force V had bcen introduced whose

tna~itude is independent of N, y, and C. But if, in consquence

of an approximate isoclironism between the force and onc of the

motions which beeome possible whcn x or is constraincd to bc

be smaU, then tlie

zero, eitlier ~+~~orC'+~

term in the dcnominator coutaining tlie coefficients of mutual

innuencc must be retained, bcing no longer ?'e~~ue~ unimportant;

and thc solution is aecordingly of a more complicatcdcharactcr.

1~

VIBUATI~O

SYSTEMS IV GENERAL,

Hl~

~'mmetry

A~=0 y=~" w.

~o.Id have fou..d the .ne va).c fur

..s no~v

Th

obtah.fur.

is

a

R~.p,

uc lurcncd to as .u

exiunpjo.

-suppose

th.tTi~

~<

~==~) ~t is p.-c.scnbcd,

v- 1 r 1=0,

<

and for g~ter

we .shalt coufinc ourscIvcJ

.ImpHcity

vhi~

to

t!.c case ~hcrc /3 = U. TI~ vaiuc

of~ is

.n.

''?'~

spcetivejy ~j

"7

P~

~~y

of t)'6 co.mcl.nt of

Le

~e icrc

and

ffc'ctof

of tho reaction

and above

of (

(over -1

becauscd

~hat:

= is ~J~~scnted by

into

.4

chang.-ng

ci'

the

~~1"

to

~n

in

tho

tl. coefficients

~1

of spring and friction,

'l'liese a1tcmtiolls, howcver,

=~

of tlce peniod of tlee ~~aotioncoutenrylccted,whose cllaracter ive now

pl'occed to cousicler.

Por~

the value

corrcspondingto ~e n.tnnd frictiun!ess

of (., be~g n~u~aincd at

zro); so that ~V=o'

'l'jJ(3ll

we are lrvctically C0J1ccrno(1

'Y is

of y nut l11ucI.ditJer..

Wo sh.JI

?:?=~

acconhng!y Jeavc out of account ihc

0FADEPENDENT

SYSTEM.125

117.] REACTION

and in thc small tcrm

variations of thc positive factor (ZF- J!

Witcn p

uot

'y~, substitutc for~) its approximatc vainc ?!.

nearly equal to M,the tcrm lu question is of no importance.

As might be anticipatctt from th gnerai pnncipic of work,

&' is aiways positive. Its maximum. value occurs wlicu p =

ncarly, and is thcn proportiollal to

'y. Tins might not hve bcen cxpected on a supernclal view of the

mattcr, for it sccms rather a paradox that, th grcatcr th friction,

hc its resn!t. But it must bc remonhci'cd tha.t 'y

th !c.ssHho)t)(!

is on]y tiie co~'c~e/!<of friction, and that whcn y is small t)io

maximum motion is so much incrcascd thf~t thc whoc work spent

against friction is gi'catcr tilan if'y were more considurahle.

But thc point of most Interest is the dcncndeiicc of ~1'on

If ~)bc less than x, ~1'is ngative. As p passes through th va.Iuc

?:,~1' vanisitos, am~ changes sign. WI)on J.' is ngative, th inHncncc ofy is to diminish th rccovcringpowcr of tbc vibration a?,

aud wc sec that this happons whcn thc furccd vibration is slowcr

Th tenduncy of th vibration y Is thus

tliau t)iat natural to

to retard th vibration x, if tho latter be ah'cady thc slower,but to

accelcratc it, If it bc ah'cady thc more rapid, ou!y vanistting in tbc

critical case of pcrfect isochronism. TI~c attempt to makc .B

vibrate at thu rate detcrmincd by n is beset with a peeuHar

difnculty, anaiogous to that met with in balancing a hcavy

body with th centre of gravity above th support. Ou whicbcvcr sido a shgtit departure from prcision of adjustmcnt may

occur th innucncc of th dpendent vibration is aJways to incrcasc

thc error. Hxatnph's of thc Instabihty of piteh accompanyinga

strong rsonance will comc across ns hercafter; but undoubtcdly

thc most intcrcsting application of thc results of this section is to

th explanation of the anomahius rfraction, by substances posscssing a, very markcd sclectivo absorption, of th two kinds of light

situated (in a normal spcctrum) Immetnatuty on citbcr sidc of tbc

absorption band*. It was obsc~'vc(~by Christianscn and Kundt,

thc discovcrcrsof this rcmarkalde phenomenon, that mdia of the

in a!coho)icsolution) rcfract

kind in question (for example,/MC/~MC

th ray immcdiatcly ~~o~ th absorption-band abnorma.UytM

e.CMs,and that above it in <e/ec<- If we suppose, as on othcr

grounds it would be natural to do, that th intense absorption is

r~y. /i)t)).t. cxliii.p. 272.

J'/u't..1~ M~y,1872. A)soSoUm~inr,

<

126

VIBH.ATING

SYSTEMS

IN GENERAL.

[LIT'.

light affected, and somc vibration proper to tbc mo]eeu)es of thc

absorbing age~t,oui- theory would in(!ica.tctb~t for light of somew]t~t gi-(i:ttcrporiodt!ie cH'cctinust bc thc saine as a relaxation of

tho natural clasticity of the cthur, rnanifustuig itscif

by a slowcr

propagation aud incrasud rfraction. Oit t))c otitor sidc of tbc

absorptioM-bandits rnHucucc must bc iu thc opposite direction.

lu ordcr to trace tlie law of conncction hctwecn ~1'

and takc,

for brevity, 'y~ = f/, jV~

/r) = x, so t)t:Lt

Whcn.the sign of .<-is chan~'d, /t' is rcverscd with it, but prserves its muncricai value. Whun a;=0, or M, ~1' vanislies.

axis of x is an asymptote. Th maximum n.ndminimum vaincs of

~t' occur wtien x is respectively eclual to + ce, or a a.n(tthcn

maximum alteration of

tuni tlio corrcspohding vainc of will

approach uearcr a.nd nearer to n. It may be well to repeat, that in

tlie optical application a (liminishcd is attend cd

by an ~crpf<M~

maximum absorption. When the adjustment of

periods is such as

to faveur ~t' as much as possible, thc

corrcspondijig value of a' is

one hn.lfof its maximum.

CHAPTER

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

VI.

0F

STRINOS.

more promineut position than Stretclied Strings. From tlic

earliest times thcy have bcen employed for musical purposes,

and in th prsent day thcy still form th essentiel parts of such

important instruments as tlie pianoforte and the vioHn. To tho

mathematician they must always possess a peculia.r interest as tho

battle-neld on which wcre fouglit out tlie controversics of D'A)cmbert Euler, Bcruoulli and Lagrange,relating to the nature of tho

solutions of partial difTerential quations. To tlie studcnt of

Acoustics thcy arc doubly important. In consquence of th comparative simplicity of their theory, they are the ground on which

difncult or doubtful questions, such as those rclating to the nature

of simple toncs, can bc most advantageousiy faccd while in t!]o

form of a Mouochord or Sonomcter, thcy afford tlie most gcncratty available means for thc comparison.of piteli.

Thc 'string' of Acoustics is a perfectly uniform and floxible

clament of solid matter stretched between two fixcd pointsin

fact Ml ideal body, never actually realizcd in practico, though

closelyapproxima.ted to by most of th strings emptoyeJ in music.

We shaUafterwards sec how to takc account of any small deviations from complete ncxibility and uniformity.

Th vibrations of a string may be dividcd into two distinct

classes, which are practically independcnt of one another, if the

amplitudes do not exceed certain limits. In th first class t!tc

so

displacements and motions of the particles are ~o~tf~

that th string always ret~ins its straightness. The potential

energy of a dplacement depends, not on the whole tension, but

on tho changes of tension which occur in th various parts of tho

string, due to thc increased or diminished extension. In order to

128

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[118.

of

a strmg and tlic stretching force. Th

iipproxim~tc hw (giveti by

Rccku) may be exprcsscd by s~'ing tliat th extension varies

as thc tension, so that if aud

dnote tlie uatural and t!ic

stretched Jengths of a string, and 7'tlie

tension,

whcre is a constant,

dpendit on thc m~tcn:d and th action,

~ncti m~y bc intcrpreted to meaa tl.e

tension th.tt would bc

necess~y to strctcii t].e stnng to twice its natuml

!cngth, if t).c

law apphed to so grcat

cxteu.sions, whicl., in gcnem!, it is far

irom douig.

119. Th vibrations of U.e second kind arc

~YtH~~e; that is

to say, the particles of th

.string movo sensibly in planes perpendiclllar to the Ime of t), c

string. In tliis case t)~e potential ener.-y

of a dplacement

depends upon the genend tension, and th

variations of tcnsion accompanying t!.e additional

~aU

stretcl.iur.

duc to the dLsp]accmcnt

bu

Icft out of account. It is he~

.nay

as.suincJ ti.at the

.s~ching duc to ~c inotioa rnay 1~ nc~c.cted

in co.npar~on with tl.at to ~)uch tho

string is aircady subject il)

its position of e<tuilibrium. Once

assured of th futnimcntof t).is

condition, wc do not, iu th investigation of tmnsverse

vibrations

rcqnu-e to know anyt)ung further of the huv of

extensiou.

The most gnera! vibration of th

or latral, kind

transver.se,

.y bc resolvcd, a~ve shal! presently

prove, into two sets of comnor~

P .ent

v~rat.ons, executcd in perpcndicu)ar

pL~s.

b.nc. it is only ill tho initial

circumstances that there can be

any

d.st.n.tion, psent

to the question, bctw~ ono

plane and

e~c

? sufHc~nt for .nostpurposes to

regard the motion as

cntndy couhned to a single plane

passing tbrough th line of the

Mrin~

In treating of tlle

theory of strings it is usual to commence

with two particular solutions ofthe

partial di~rential quation

the

representing

transmission of waves in the positive and

ne~

tive directions, and to combine thc.se in

such a manner as to suit

w).ose ire

theeaseofannitestring,

maintained at rest;

ne~ther of the solutions taken

by itself' boing consistent with the

existence of

or places of permanent rest.

This aspect of tho

T'cst.on .svery emportant, and we shaU

fully consider it; but it

VIBRATIONS

0FSTRINOS.139

119.] TRANSVERSE

aecms scarcely dsirable to found thc solution in tlie first instance

on a property so pecu)iar to a MMt/b?'7H

string as the undisturb~d

transmission of waves. Wc will procced by thc more gencral

mcthod of assuming (in conformity with what was provcd in thc

last chapter) that the motion ma.ybc resolvcd into normal componcnts of thc harmonie type, and dutorminingthcir pcriods and

chajactcr by the special conditionsof th system.

Towards carrying out tliis design th nt'st stop would naturally

bo tlie investigation of thc partial din'ercntial equation, to which

thc motion of a continuons string is subjcct. But in order to

throw liglit on a point, which it is most important to understand

cicarly,tho connection bctwccn finite and Innnite freedom, and

the passage corrcsponding thereto between arbitrary constants

and arbitrary functions, we will commence by following a somewhat different course.

120. lu Chapter in. it was poiatcd out th~t thc fundamental

vibration of a string would not be entircty altered in charactcr,

if tho mass wcro concentratcd at th middic point. Followin~

out this idea, wu sec tbat if ttte whole string werc divided into a

uumbsi' of small parts and tho mass of cach concentrated at its

centre, we might by sufficicntly mulbip~yiu~tttc numbcr of parts

arrive'at a system, stii of finite frecdom, but capable ofreprcsentat

ing the continuous string with any dcsired accuracy, so far

lc:~t as tlie lower component vibrations arc conccrncd. If th

analytical solution for any numbcr of divisions can bc obtained,

its limit will givc thc result correspoudiug to a uniform string.

This is thc mcthod'followcd by Lagrange.

Lot be the Icugtb, pl tho whole mass of the string, so that

p dnotes the mass per unit Icngth, T, thc tension.

Fig. M.

Thc Icngth of tlie string is divulcd into w+1 equal parts (<t),

so that

R.

130

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STBINGS.

fiSO.

At th ?? points of division

equal in~sc.s

arc supposed concentratcd, which arc tl.e reprsentatives of' th mass of th

portions (~ of thc string, .vlucii

tl~cj ,.vur.y LLsect. TI~e mass of

cach

portiou of' lengLh

is suppose.! to be concoutratcd

term~I

at th flua.1pomts. On tlus

understand.in~ we hve

vibrions of a strin~, itself

o

but Icadcd at e.ch of

points ,ant

dcv~d

mcr~, aud from thc

(a) from thcmsolvc.

euds, witli a mass

If

<~notc thc ~tcral

displaccmcnts of thc

loadcd pon~t.s.mciud.ug tlic initial aud

~nal poin~ wo h.vc thc

fuUowmgexpressions fur F mid F

~nd

y~ish.

Lugranges Mcthod the quations of motion

These givc by

whcrc

Supposing now t),at the vibrat:ou under consideration

is ono

ci normal type, wc assume that

&e. arc atl propor io a~

.c.uain.s to bc dctcnniu.d.

cos~-e).where

tlien bc rcgardcd constants, with a

.suL.titution of -7~ for

If for thc Rakc of brevity wc

put

tlie form

tLc ..iucs of

..uu~cs

120.]

MASS CONCENTRATED

IN POINTS.

131

It may bc provcd th~t, if C= 2 cos t!ic dterminant is equivalcnt

to sin (?~+ 1)

sin but \ve shall attain our o1)]Gctwith grea.tcr

GfMC

dircctly from (5) by acting on a hint dcrivcd from the known

results rclating to a continuons string, and assuming for trial a

particular type of vibration. Titus lut a solution be

uquations (5), we find that thcy arc satisfied, provided tliat

whcre

and P,, 6, dcnote arhitrary constants indcpcndcnt of the genernl

constitution of tlie systcm. Thc w a.dmissibtevalues of ?! arc

found from (14) by n-scribiugto N in successionthc vatucs 1, 2,

3.W, and arc all diHcrent. If wc tnlce .s'=Mt+l, ~vttnishcs,

so that this ()oesnot correspond to n, possible vibration. Grcatut'

values of s give only tbc same periods over a.ga.in. If ni + 1 bc

evcn~ one of thc values of Mthat~ uame)y, con'cspondiug to

93

132

TRANSVERSE

vmRATJONS

0F

STRT~GS.

[1~0.

n.single load (~ ==1). Thc interprtation is obvions. Jn tho kmd

of vibration considcred every n-lterruitepartictc rona.ins nt rcst, so

that the intermediate oncs rca.Hy movo as titough thcy wo'u

a.tta.ched to tlie centres of struigs of Icngth 2c< fMtcncd at

the ends.

Th most general solution is funnd hy putting togcthor a,Iitlie

possible particular solutions of norinul type

identificd with thc vibration resulting from arbitrary Initit circumstanccs.

Let a; dnote tbc distance of the partic~o f from thc cn(~of the

then hy substituting fur~. unda

striug, so that ()'l)ct=x;;

from (1) and (2), oursolution may he written,

oniyt') put ?~ induite. Th fn'st Qqnn.t.iourctains its form,)') 1

RpcciHesth disptacumcitt at any point a*. ThL: tiMiitingfurm oi

ttie second is simply

that of tiie gravcst of the series, fuund by puttin~ N=1. Thc

whole motion is in a.Ucases periodic; and th pcriod is 2~t/

This statement, however, must not bc undcrsiuod as cxcludi!)~

a shorter pcriod for in particular cases any uumber of tl~

Jower compoueutsmay bc n.bsciit. Ail that is asscrtcd is that, ti)u

MASSCONUENTRATED

IN POINTS.

120.J

13~

tobring aboutacontp!(.'tcr(:cu!<)~?'\ W';t!<f")'.))'th prusentanyfurthpr discussion

oftttc import:t.~tformuJn,(1!)), but it is ititerusting to observethe

approach to a limit iti (17), as ?~ is madc Hucccssivelygrca.ter and

~rcuttjr. For tins pm'poso it will bu suHiciuntto takc thc gr~vest

tuuc for w))ich s=l, f).nd according)y to trace the variation of

?!2(w+1)

n/'

,1~'

TT

2(M;+1)

Thc fuilowing arc a sries of simnitancoua values of tho function aud variable

?~

~)

-T

19

39

sni

.9003 .9549 .9745 -983C

-9997

~(~t.+l)

.995U .9990

closelyapproachcd. Sinco ?~ is tlie rnnuber of (!novca.ble)loads,

the case ?;= 1 corresponds to thc probbiti uive.sti~ated in Chapter 111.,but in comparing th results wu must rememher thn.t we

tliere supposedthe w/~e m~ssof tlie string to bc concentrated at thc

centre. In th prcscnttCasc thc h):).dn.t thcuntre is oniy haf as

grca.t; thc reina.indcr bcing supposed couecutrated at tlie ends,

wbere it is witliout cf~ct.

Froni th fn.ct that our solution is general, it follows that any

initial form of the string c:ULbu niprcscntcd hy

mn,ybc

rc-g~rdmlas initud, we infur thut any iini.t.esinglu valued functioti

at ~=0 ~nd a;=~, c:ni be exp~nded withiu

uf te, wltich v:).)M.s)ies

those Ihnits in n. scries of sincs of

more gcncml furm cnn bc duducud.

121. We might now dtermine the constants fora. continuous

string by Intcgrntio!i a~ lu !)3, but it is instructive to solve the

probicm first in tho gcnct':d c:tso (~ finitc), aud afterwards to

procecd to the limit. TIic iuitial conditions are

134

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

[121.

and~-(r~), '(2a)

i~(mM)

arc tlic iuitial displaccments of th w p:u'tictcs.

To dotcrnano a.ny constant

muttiply t!tc first quation by

sin

s~,

byTrigojiomctry, thc coefficients of a!l the constants, cxcept J,,

vanisli, wliile tliat of = (~~+ 1) Henco

'Wc ncc'd not stay !)orc to write down the values of 7?, (cqu~l

to jf~,sin e,)ibsdeponding on the initial vcincitics. W!tcn becomes

I)i~nite]y smaU, )'~ under tho sign of sutumation ranges by in<i= ai

At tlie same time

nitcsinial stcps from zero to

'??t+ i t

we Iiavc u!tima.tc!y

so tliat writing ?'M= x, f = (1,,v,

122. Wc wi)tnow invcstigatc indcpcndently the partial difFercnti:i] quation govcrnin~thctt'ansvo'.sumotiottofa.po'fcctiy HcxiLfc

strin~, on th suppositions (t) thatthe jnagnitudc ofthe tension

mny bo cunsiucrcd constant, (2) t!)at thc square of H)cinclination

of any part of thc string to Its itntial diruction may bc ticgicctcd.

As befure, dcnotusthc lincar dcnsity at any point, and y'~is the

constant tension. Let rcctat~nlar co-ordinatcs bc takcn pandie!,

and pcrpcm~cuhtr to thu stril~, su t))at x: givcs tite cquilibnum

and .c, y, z thc disptacud p<jsiti<'nuf any partictu at tinic t. Thc

forces acting on thu clment (/.c :u-oth tensions at its two cuds,

und any impresscd forces .)~

~p<

ByD'AIcmbcrt's PnnToJhuutor'H

J)t<.C;c.,p. 267.

122.]

DIFFEBENTIAL

EQUATIONS.

135

against acclration,

If thc squares of

Le

so that ttic forces acting

(a; c~x ncgiccted

on thc clment

arising out of tlie tension arc

attogethcr indupundont of onc another.

Tho student should compare tlicso quations with the corrcspoudmg cquations ofHuitc diM'crcncGs

in 120. Thc latter may

be written

13G

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

CF STRINGS.

[123.

second, it is sufHcipnt ~o notice tha.t thc potcnti~ cncrgy in a.!iy

configuration is the work requiro~ to producc tlic nceessary

stretching against th tension T,. Ruckoning from tlie conHgura.tion of equihbrium, wc ha.ve

tho dctiatty p Is constant, there arc no imprcssed forces, and the

motion may bu supposed to take pheu in onc plane. We may

thon convenicBtIywrite

bccomcs

This, howcvcr, is uot thc most goieral ha-rmonic motion of

thc period in question. lu ordcr to obta,in the lattcr, ws must

assume

M'c fuuctiotis of a*, not ucccssarUy thc samc. On

\vhcro ;?/

substitution in (2) it appca.rsthn.t y~ a.ud arc subjuct to cqua.tions uf th fut'm (3), so tlia.t Hnally

:ut expression conta-himgfour a.rbitra.ry constants. For any contiuuous tcu~tL of string sa.tisfyiug without iutcrruptiou the differ-

123.]

PIXED

EXTR.EMITIES.

137

th condition, th~t th motion at every point shaH be simple harmonie. But whenever thc string forms part of a. system vibrating

frccty n.nd withoub dissipation, wo know from former chaptcrs

t,)):it :).I1parts aru simuit~neousty in thc same phase, which

t'cfjuircs that

r\

and then thc most goncra.1vibration of simple harmonie type is

connected with our prsent subjccb is the investigation of th free

vH))-~tionsof a fnntc sti-iug of Icngth held fast at both its ends.

If we takc thc origiti ufa.- at ono und, tlie tcrmirnd conditions a,rc

vanishes for ~11values of t.

that when a:=0, Mid wheM a!=~

T)ie nrst i-cquit-estha.t in (G)of 123

and th second that

or that ~==.S7r, wlicre s I.s ~n intcger. We IcM-nthat thc only

hM-mouicvibrations possible are such as mnkc

iUtdthuu

CMtbe rcprusoitcd as a suni of simi'ic htu-mouievibrations, a.nd

wc thurcfurc coucludc th:tt th luost gcncra.1 solution for a string,

138

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

[124.

so that, as has bccn aiready statcd, the whoc motion is under ail

circumstanccs pcriodic in the t:mc r~. Th sound cmitted constitutes in gnerai a musical 7:0~, acconUng to our dennition of

that term, whose pitch is nxed by

the period of its gravest

component. It may happen, however, in special cases that the

gravest vibration is absent, and yct that the whoc motion is not

periodic in any shorter tune. This condition of things occurs, if

vatjish, while, for examp)c, ~l./+7?./ and ~t~+~ are

~/+~/

finite. lu such en.sesthe sound could hrn'dty be called a note;

but it usuiJIy h~ppcns in practicu that, w]tcn tho gravcst tone is

absent, .someothcr takcs its p)acc in the cbaractcr of fundamcntal,

and the sound still constitutes a note in the ordiltary sensc,

though, of course, of c!cvaLcd pitch. A simple case is wheu ail

the odd compollcnts beginning with thc first are missing. Tho

whote motion is thcn periodic in the tit-nc ~Tp and if the second

component bc prsent, th sound prsents nothing nnusual.

T]~cpitch of thc note yicidcd by a string (C),aud thc character

of the fundainenta! vibration, werc first invcstigatcd on meclianical

principics by Brook Taylor in 171-5 but it is to Daniel Bernouni

(175.')) tbat wc owe the gnrt solution containcd in (5). He

obtained it, as wc bave donc, by the syutbusis of particnlar solutions, pcrnussibic in accordancc with his Principtc of the Coexistence of Sniat! Motions. In bis time tbe gcncrality of the

result so arrived at was opcn to question; in tact, it was tlie

opinion of Eu!er, and aiso, strangdy cnough, ofL:t,grange',that

th scrics of sincs in (;"))was not capabte of rcprescnting an

the other side,

arbitrary function; and Bcrnouln's on

drawn from the iunnitc nuinber of thc disposabic constants,

was certaiu!y inadquate~

Most of the ]aws embodicd in Taylor's formula (C) had been

discovcred experinientaHy longbefore (1G3L!)by Mersennc. Thcy

may bc stated tbus

SoQRiGmfU)D'ajPr<<f~<;D~/c'rctXtn! O/t'tc/tftN~c~, 78.

DrYounK, iti Lia momou' of 1800, HC-iHH

to liave understood this matter quito

<orrcct)y. Ho s~'H, "At tlio samo timo, ns M. DernfXtUi tma ]HHtIy obsorvod, Rinoo

nvory ligure may bo iu~uitoty approxinxited, by ctt.sidunnt; its ortiinutofj as

<'u)nposoJ of tho ot'dinfttos of au iniinitc mnuber of tmcix'id.s of (liFfcrcnt tun~nitUticH, it may bo demonstrntod thttt aU tbcs cunstitnont ou'ves woulJ revert to

tLicir initia) Htato, in tho samo timo tbat a Rimiln.r choni bcnt into a trochoida!

curvc wouhi purforn) a sinn)o 'vibration aud this is in ttoinc retipecta a couvomoat

oud eumyoudious mothod of consideriug tho problom."

124.]

MERSENNE'SLAWS.

139

(1) For a, givcn string and a givcn tension, the time varies as

the length.

This is the fundamcntal principle of th monocbord, and appears to hve bccn understood by th anciects*.

(2) Whcn tho length of the string is given, the time varies

inverseiy as thc square rout et' tho tension.

(3) Strings of th same length and tension vibrato in timcs,

w~~icharc proportiona) to t)tc Stmare roots of thc lincar dcnsity.

Thcse important rcsults may aH bc obtained by the mcthod of

dimensions, if it be assumud tha.t T dpends on]y on p, and 2'

Fur, if thc units of length, time and mass be denoted rcspectivcly by [Z], [2'J, [~j, th dimensions of thse symbols are

givcn hy

~=M,

p=[~Z-'],

~=[~L~],

and thus (see 52) the onty combination of thcm capable of reTh oniy thing left uudetermined

prcscnting a time is T,

is Uic numeriea.1factor.

125. Merscnnc's laws are cxcmphfied in a!l stringed instruments. In playin~ th violiu din'ercnt notes are ubtaincd from

thc same string hy shortening its cnicient Icngth. la tuning tho

vioun or the pifmuforte, an adjustment uf pitch is cectcd witli

a constant !engt.h by varylng t!ic tension but it must ho remcmbercd tliat /) Is not quite invariable.

To secure a prescrihcd pitch with a string' ofgivcn materiaL it is

rcquisitc that onc rctation only bc satisficd bctwccn the Icngth, tiie

thickness, and th tension; but in practice thcrc is usuaUyno grcat

latitude. Th length is often limited by consi<turations of conVnicncc,and its curtaiimcut cannot idways be compensatcd by

an incrcase of thickness, bccausc, if thc tension he not increascd

proportionaDy to thc section, thcro is a loss of HcxihiHty,

whUcif'thc tension bc so incrcascd, nothing is cH'cctcd towards

lowering the pitch. T!ic dirricuity is avoidcd in t!tc )owcr strings

ofUic pianofortc and violin by thc addition of a coil of fine wirc,

whose cU'ect is to Impart Inc'rtia' wiLhout too much impairing

ncxibility.

Aristono "hncw t.tmt a pipo or (t ohnrd of dnohi Jen~th pt'oduco'l )t ftonud of

which tbovibmt.iousoccupitid

a JuuH timo; [md timt tho propcrtics of coiteords

JopeudoJ on tho pmport.muH of tho thnes occnpiod by tl)0 vibrations of tho

Lcetu~M o)t Ntt<xnft~/tt<uM~y, Vol. i. p. ~01.

soparftto sounds.Youu's

140

TRANSVERSEVJBRATJONS0F STRINGS.

[125.

aononcter is emphjycd. Hy mcans of a, weight lianging over a

puUey, a catgut, or a mctaHic wire, is stretcijed across two bridf-cs

tnounted on a rsonance case. A moveable bridge, whose position

is cstimated by a sca!c running parahel to thc \vire, i-ivos thc

means of shortcning tite cfHcicnt portiott of tlie wire to

any

dcsit'cd extunt. TIie vibrations may bc cxcitcd by p!uckin" as

in thc harp, or witli a. bow (well suppiicd with rosin), as in tit

violiu.

If the moveable bridge be placed ha!f-waybGtwecn the Dxcd

nnes, thc note is raiscd an octave; whcn thc string is reduced to

one-third, th note obtained is tt)C twclfth.

By means of the law of lengths, Mcrscnnc determined for thc

nrst time thc frequencics of knowu nmsicul notes. He adjusted the

Icngtil of a string until its note was one of assurcd positiuu in th

musical scale, and then prolonged it under t!)e same tension until

th vibrations were slow enough to bc couuted.

For exprimental purposes it is convenient to hve two, or

more, strings mounted side hy sidc, and to vary in turn thehJcngt!i3,their masses,and tlie tensions to winch they are subjucted.

Thus In order that two strings of equa! length may yle!d t))c intcrva! of t)te octave, their tensinns mnst be In thc ratio of 1 4.

if th masses be tlie samc; or, if thc tensions be the same, th

masses must bc in thc reciprocal ratio.

Thc sonomctcr is very uscfut for thc nmnerleal dtermination

ofpitch. By varyiug the tension, tlie string is tuned to unison

with a fork, or other standard of known frcf~ucncy,and thcu

by

of

th

moveable bridge, thu Icngttt of the strin"' is

adjustment

determined, whieh vibrtes in unison with any note proposed for

mcasuremcnt. Tito ]aw of Icngths tticn givcs th mcans of

cn'eeting t]ic dL-siredcomparison of frequcncies.

Anotiicr application by Scheib)er to tho dtermination of

absente pitch is Important. Th priucipiu is tlie samc as that

cxptainud in CIiapter ni., and thc mcthod dpends on deduchifr

tiiu absulute pitcii of two notes from a knowlcdge of both t)ie

?'a~o and th (/~(;7-e7ice

of their frequencies. Th Icngths of t)ie

souometerstrmgwhen in unison with a fot'k.andwhengivin~with

it four bats p'u- sucond,are cafuUymcasured. Th ratio of th

lungths is th iuversc ratio of th frcqueucies, aud thc difierence

125.]

NORMAL MODES.

141

th fork can bc ea.leula.ted.

Thc pit.ch of a string may be calcnlatcd a!so by Taylor's formu]a from tlie mcchamcal eicmcuts of tlie system, but grcat prcautions are necessary to secure a.ccuracy. Thc tonsio))is producc<)

by a.welght,whosemass (cxprcsscdwith tl)o samc unitasp) m:t.ybo

called P; so that y, =

whGi-e = 32'2,if th units oficngth a-nd

timc bc the foot aud th second. In orderto securc that tho who)e

tension acts on t!tc vibrating segment, no bridge must bc intf.;]-poscd, a condition only to bc Siltisfied by suspending tlie string

vcrtiea.lly. After thc weight is !Lttachcd,a portion of th string

is isola.tedby dumping it nrmiy at two poitits, and tlic length is

mea~urcd. The mass of the unit of longth refers to tbc strctchcd

statc of the string, and may bo found in<Urcct!yby obscrviug thc

as

elongation due to a tension of the same order of magnitude

and calculating what -\vou!dbe produced by T, a-ccording to

Hooke's law, and byweighing a. known length of th string in its

normal stato. After the clamps hve bccn sccurcd grca.t carc

is rcqnircd to avoid fluctuations of' tonpcra.turc, which wotdd

scriousty inftucnce th tension. In tliis way Sccbcck obtaiued very

~cenratc resttits.

126. Whcn a string vibrtes in its gravcst normal mode, tlie

'7T.7;

to

excursion 13 at any moment proporttouf).i stn

incrc~smg

nurnerically from eithor end towards the centre; no intcrmcdiato

point ofthu string rcina.tnspcrmaucntly nt rest. But it is othcrwiso in tlie case of thc ingher normn.l componcnts. Thus, if the

vibration bc of thc mode cxprossed by

1.' l

l

1

whichvanishesat~1

S7rX to

excursion is proportional

sin.

points, dividing thc string into s cquat parts. Thse points of no

motion arc caticd nodes, and rna-ycvidcntiy Le touci~cd or Iield

fast without in any way disturbinp; the vibration. T)tC production of harmonies' by iightty toucliing thc string at thc points of

Ail

aliquot division is a well-known rGsourceof thc violinist.

at thc

component modes are excludcd which hve not a node

point touched; so that, as regards pitch, tlic cuuct is the same as

if tho string werc securely fastened thcrc.

t]

le

142

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[127.

127. Tho constants, which occnr h) the gnerai value ofv, 124,

dpend on thc epcci.i!cii'cn)nnt:mcesof t~ \)i.t.t!ot), ~))~:~t;y b'

exprcsscd in tcrms ofthc initial valuus of~ a.ud

Putting t = 0, we fmd

Multiplying hy sin

wo obtain

of~,which

dpends on thc mitia-! vctocities, is

displaccmcnts may bc

infcrref!, by diH'ci-eutiatingwit!i respect to the tirne, and substitutmg~for~.

Witcn thc conditiou of the string at some one moment la

thoronghiy known, thcsc formu!:L!allow us to c{dcula.te the

inotiou ibr ait subsquent timc. For exemple, ]ct tho

strLng bo

initiany at rest, aud so displaced that it forms two sidcs of a

triangle. Then = 0, and

on intgration.

Wc sec that

if thcre be a

=0, that

nodc of thc componcnt iu question situatcd at j~. A more comprefensive view of tlie subjcct will bo aitbrdcd by another mode

of solution to bc given prcsently.

128.]

POTENTIAL

AND KINETIC

ENERGY.

143

arc

tiio normal co-orfimatcs of Chn-piers iv. M]d v. We wi)I

denote thcm thcrcfofGby

so thfit the conjuration an<] motion

of tho Systemat any instant arc dcfined

by the values of d~ tmd

according to the quations

to dcducc thu no)'ma.Ieqnatious of vibration.

vanishing

0 by the bgcnend

proporty of normal co-ordiua.tcs. Hence

any paj-ticular jnotion, either

or

natural,

othcrwisc but we may apply thcm to calculate tho

wi)o!e energy of string vibr~ting

nattirally, as follows:If j)~'

bc tlie whoc mass of tlic string (pl), and its

cquiv~cnt (n~) bu

substituted for

we find for the smu of th cuergies,

144

TRANSVERSHVIURATIONS0F STUINCS.

[128.

wc havn

nK'rc'Iyto add th cno'gy of thc vibrations in tbc pcrpcndicuiai'

plane.

Lagra,nge's metbod givos immcdia.tcly thc quation of motion

initial values of 6 and tlie guncral solution is

bc tho

by thc imprcssud forces on thc dispI.Lcemcnt 8~. Hcncc, if thu

fut'ccacting at tirnc ou an cioneut of tlie strmg p

bc p 1~

<I~is thct'cfore a force of th ordinary kind.

129. In tlie a.pplica.tiousthat wc Ii~vc to make, the only

unprcsscd force will be supposcd to act in the immediate neighhourilood of one point .K=6, and may usually be rcckoned as

a whoc, so that

tbc mode (~), <I~,=<),and wc Icarn that the force is aRogether

without influence on tho componcnt. in question. Tins principle

is of grcat importance it shcws, for exarupic, that if a string bc

at l'est in its position of cquilibrium, no force applied at its centre,

whether in th form of plucking, striking', or bowitig, can generate

auy of th even normal componcnts'.1. If aftcr tlie opration of

the force, its point of application be datuped, as by touehiug it

1 The obaBrvation

that a.harmonie!s uot gencratcd,whtionoof its uodnl

itiduoto Youug.

polutaia plucked,

129.]

YOUNG'S

TIIEOREM.

145

with th finger, aH motion must forthwith cease for those components which have not a. node at t! point, ht q~stion a.re

stopped Lyttie dumping, and tl~oso wbich hve, are absent from

thc bcginumg'. More gencraHy, by damping any point of a

sounding string, wc stop :dl the composent vibrations which have

not, aud Jeave cntirely unaifueted those which ha.ve a nodu at tlie

point touched.

The case of a string puticd aside at one point and afterwards

let go from rest may Le regardcd as includcd in th preceding

statements. Th complete solution may be obtained thus. Let

the motion commence at th time <=0; from which moment

= 0. Th value of at time t is

affected with th suiBx N. Now in tlie problem in ha.nd (~ = 0~

and (~). is determined by

point b. Hclice at time t

..(5),

where

= s~ra

of th principle of 107.

The problem of determining the subsequent motion of a string

set into vibration by an impulse acting at thc point b,

may be

treated in a similar manner. Integrathig (6) of 128 over tlie

duration of thc impulse, we find ultimately, with th same notation as bcforc,

romonoeudofthostringas the poiutof excitation

iafromthoothoron!.

R.

10

146

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONSOP STRINGS.

[139.

if~y~

(2)atHme< t

convergent for a, struck

than for a plucked string, M the

prcceding expressions shcw.

The reason is that in thc lattcr case t!ic initial value

of y is

continuous, and only

IV cliscontinuous,wlu!e in tlie former it is

y itself that makes a sudden spring. Sce 32, 101.

The problem of~ string set in motion hy an

impulse may also

be solved by tho gnera! formuJ(7) and

(8) of 128. Tlie force

<mdstLc string at rest at < = 0, and acts for an

infinitely short

time from ~=0 to ~=T. Thus

(~.). and (~). va~ulsh,and (7)

of 128 reduces to

Hithcrto we hve supposcd tho disturbing force to be concentrated a.t a. single poi)it. If it be distributcd over a distance

on citlier side of we l)avc only to iutcgratc th expressions (C)

aud (~) with respect to

substituting, for cxample, in (7) in

r tT-sin

of

place .1,

-y,

tbe series for y more convergent.

130.]

PIANOFORTESTRING.

147

that of th~ p!ancfnrtc wit'. Thc causu of t!ic vibration la hcro

thc blow of a hammcr, wiiich is projeeted against tlie

string, and

after th impact rehounds. But we should not bc

justified in

assuming, as in th iast section, that the mutual action occupies

so short a time that its duration may be ncg)ccted. Mea.surcd

by

tlie standards of ordinary life tlie dnration ofthe contact is Indecd

very small, but hre thc propcr comparison is with tlie natural

periods of tlie string. Now tlie hammcrs used to strike th wires

of a pianofoi-toarc covcrcd with svcral layers of eloth for tho

express purposc of making them more yielding,with the effect of

prolonging the contact. The rigorous treatment of th problem

would bc difficult, and th solution, when obtained, probably too

complicated to be of use; but by introducing a certain simplification Helmholtz has obtained a solution representing all the

essential features of the case. He remarks that since th actual

yielding of the string must bc slight in comparison with that of

the coveringof tlie hammer, tlie law of tlie force called into

play

during the contact must be ncarly thc samc as if th string wero

absolutely nxcd, in which case th force would vary very noarly as

a circulai' function. We sliall tlicrcforc suppose that at the time

t = 0, whcnthere are neither velocities nor displacements,a force

.Fsin~ betiins to act on th string at a:=~ and continues through

half a period of the circuiar function, tliat is, nntil <="7r-jp, after

which th string is once more frce. Th magnitude of ~) will

dpend on thc mass and clasticity of the hammcr, but not to any

grcat extcnt on th vulocity with which it strikes tlie string.

T)io i-cquiredsolution is at once obtamcd by substituting for

in thc gnerai formula (7) of 128 its value given by

148

TRANSVERSE

their Ya.}nus,

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[130.

point of excitctnent, but this cnnctusion does not dpend on a.ny

particu): !:(.wof force. Th Intcrest uf th prsent solution lies

in thc infortnationH)!).tmay be ctieitcd frnm it a.sto the depcndenco of th rcsulting vibrations un thc duration of contact. If

wo dnote the nitio of tliis q~antity to tlie fundamcnta! period of

tlie stnng by so tha.t = Tra 2~ th expression for th amplitude of the cumponcnt s is

t.~c duratinn of contact; and wltbn .s is vcry

'

?'

grcat, thc sries coivo-ges wit)i N' Some tUbwancc rnust at.so

bc ))i!idGfor tho (hnte breadt)~of thc btunnicr, thc cHect of which

will a!so bc to faveur th convergenceof thc sries.

Thc laws of tl)c vibration of strings Tnaybe veriHcd, at least

in their main featm'cs, by opticiil mcthods of observationcither

with thc vibration-tnicroscope,or by n.trn.cingpoint rccoi-ding tlie

characteroftttc vibration on a revolvmg drum. This character

dpends on two tbings,thc mode of cxcitement, a,nd the point

whose motion is se)eetcd for observation. Titosc components do

not appear winch bti.'venodes either at the point of cxcit.cmcnt, or

at tbc point of observation. Th former are not gcno-atcd, and

t!)Clatter do ])ot mfmifust.thcmselvcs. Thus t!ic himpicst motion

is obtaincd by ptucking thc string at the centre, and

obscrving

une of tbc points of trisection, or vice w?'M. In this case t!te

first harmonie wbich contamintes th purity of thc

principal

vibration is thc nf'Lh cornponcnt, wbose intcnsity is usuaUy insunictcnt t.o prudnco nmch disturhancc. In a future chaptcr wc

shall compare t)ic results of tiic dynamica.! tlicory with aurai

130. j

FRICTION

PROPORTIONAL

TO VELOCITY.

14S

thu [awsof iimm~, LiuUiuf confirming' Lhutheury Itseli'.

131. Th case of a. penodic force is Included in t!) general

solution of 12!S,but we prter to foUowa somcwha-tdirEcrent

jnethod, lu ordcr to m:Lkcfui cxtcusion in anc'thcr dircetion. We

have hithcrto takoi no account ofdissipativc forces, but wc will

now suppose that th motionofca.ch lment of th string is resistcd

by a force proportional to its velocity. TIte partial dinercntia!

quation becomes

simptor to avail oursetves of th rcsults uf th last chiipter, rema.rkmg that in tho prsent case the fnctiun-function

is of

the s:unc formas T. In fact

are thc normal co-ordinates, by means of which

y fmd

are reduccd to sums of sq)t:u'o.'j. Tho equntiot)s of

motion are thei'cfore simpfy

~+~.+~.=~(3),

of thc samc form as obta.ins for Systems with but one

dcgrcc of

frcc<)o)n. It is only ncccss:u'yto add to what was said Iti Citapter ni., that sincu K is indupcndunt of thc jmtural vibnt.tions

subside in suc!) a manuer that t!tc amplit.udcs manitidu thcir rclative values.

If a periodic force .Fcos~ act at a single point, wc liave

any one ncarly

isochronous with cos~< tLcn a large vibmtio)i of th:ht

ty})o will

bc forcer, unless Indecd thc point of Gxcitcment s)iould

happcn to

150

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[131.

coincidence, thc componcnt

v:brn'-) ~n .i'j<<)~ VMmshc.s; n< fo app]id !tt a.nu'-iuca.u

gcneratc it, under thc prsent law of friction, whieh howcvcr, it

may be rcmarkc(), is very special in character. If tliere be no

friction, /<:= 0, and

example of the use of

normal co-ordinatcs in a probicm of forced vibrations. It is of

course to free vibra.tions that titcy are more

cspcciaHyapplicable,

and they may gcncrally bo uscd witli

advantagc throughout,

whcncvcr the system after th operation of various forces is

ultimately left to itself. Of this application we have already had

examples.

In tlie case of vibrations due to

periodic forces, one advantagc

of the use of normal co-ordinates is the

facility of comparisonwith

th efir:<(?~ ~<?o?-~

which it will Le remcmbercd is the theory

of th motion on the supposition that th inertia of the

system

may bc left out of account. If the value of thc normal co-oron thc cquilibrium theory bc A,

dinate

cos~, then thc actual

value-wiH bc given by the quation

theory is known and

can rcfidiiy bc cxprcssed in terms of thc normal

co-ordinatcs, the

true solution with thc effects of inertia included cn.u ~t once bc

written down.

In the prsent instance, if a force

.Fcos~ of vcry long period

act at tlie point b of thc string, tho result of the

equilibrium

in

aecordacc

with

theory,

whieh the string would a.t any moment

consist of two straight portions, will bo

132.]

COMPARISON

WITH

EQUILIBRIUM

THEORY.

151

bysimply

in place of

writing

Thc value of in tins and similar cases ma.y Itowcver be

cxprcsscd in finito tcrms, and th difHculty of 0'btaltnng tlie

funte expression is usua.IIy no greater than that of findin"- th

forni of the normal functions wlien tlie systein is frec. Thus in

tlic quation of motion

and a subsequent dtermination of ?~ to suit thc boundary conditions. In thc probicm of forced vibrations ??tis given, and we

havo only to supplemont any particular solution of (3) with' th

compicmentary function co~taining two arbitrary constants. This

function, apart from tlie value of and th ratio of tho constants

is of the same form as thc normal functions; and a.11that remains to

be enected is the dtermination of the two constants in accordanco

with th prcscribcd bounda-ry conditions whicli tlie

complete

solution must satisfy. Similar considrations apply in the case

of any continuous system.

133. If a periodic forcebe applied at a single point, there are

two distinct problems to be considcred; the first, whcn at th

point =&, a given periodic force acts; tlie second, when It is th

actual motion of tho point that is obligatory. But it will bc

convenient to treat theni together.

Thc usual differentia.1equation

is satisfied over both thc parts into which thc string is (UvIJcJat

b, but is viola.tcdin crossingfrom one to th othcr.

152

TRANSVERSE

VfDBATIONS

0F STRINGS.

[133.

must thcrofore assume distinct expressions for

and a,ftcrwa.rd8

introduce tlie two conditions whidi must bc satisfied at thc point

of junction. Thse arc

(1) Tha.t there is no discontinuons change in thc value of

(2) That thc rsultant of the tensions acting at b balances the

imprcsscd force.

Thus, IfFcos~ bo tho force, th second condition gives

where A

Incurrcd

\.a~/

(")

f~'

in crossing the point x = in th positive direction.

We sha! however, Hnd it advantagcous to replace cos?~ by

the complex exponential e" a.nd 6tia!Iy disc~rd tho imagiuary

part, when t!ie symhoHcalsolution is completed. On the assumption timt~ varies as e" thc differential quation becomes

The most genera.1solution of (3) consists of two tcrms, proportionn.irespcctively to 8ui\a;, and cosa;; Lut thc comlition to

be sa,tishcd a.t ~= 0, shcws tliat thc second ducs not occur here.

Hence if ye' be tlic value of at x = b,

string from a;=0

to x;=

In likc manner it is vident that for ttte second

part wc

sttaJtlia.vo

symbolica.1solution

of thc problem, but if it be thc force that bc given, we

require

further to kuow thc rcla.tionbetwecn it and

133.J

PERIODIC

153

analogous to (2) givcs

Thus

proved in the last chaptor; for it appcars that tlie motion at x

duc to th force at &is th same as would have been found at

had thc force acted at x.

In discussing th sohition we will take first the case in which

there is no friction. Tfjc coenieicnt is then zero while

is

rca. aud equal to p a. Thc rca.1part of th solution, correspondinb to th force .Fcos~, is found by simply putting cos~)<for

in (8), but it sccms scarcelynccessary to write th quations again

for the sal of so small a change. Th same rcmark applies to

the forced motion given in terms of y.

It appears that thc motion beco'mcsinfinite in case the force

is isochronous with one of th natural vibrations of the entire

string, unicss th point of application be a node; but in practice

it is not easy to arrange that a string shall be subjcct to a force

of given magnitude. Perhaps th best method would be to attach

a. s)nall mass of iron, attractcd perIodicaUyby an elcctro-magnet,

whose coils are travcrscd by an intermittent currcnt. But unless

some means of compensation wcre deviscd,the mass would have to

bc vcry small in order to avoid its Iiiertia Introducing &new comphc:).tion.

A better approximation may he obtained to the imposition of

an obligatory motion. A massive fork of low pitch, cxcited by

a bow or sustained in permanent operation by electro-magnetism,

exccutcs its vibrations in approximate independcnce of the reactions of any light bodies which may be connecte(l with it. In

order tbei-cforc to subjcct any point of a string to an obligatory

Donlnu'3

~co)M<<M,

p. 121.

154

[133.

necessary to attach it to th extremity

of one prong of sucha fork, whose

plane of vibration is perpendicular

to the length of th

string. This method of cxhihiting th forced

vibrations of a string appels to hve beou first used

by Meldc.

Another arrangement, hetter

adapted for aurai observation,

bas been employcd by Helmholtz. Tj~ end of

th stalk of a

powcrfui tuning-fork, set into vibration with a bow, or othenvise

is pressed against th string. It is advisable

to ~e the surface,

which cornes into contact ~ith t),e

string, into a suitable (.saddieshaped) form, tho botter to prevcut slipping and

jarring.

Referring to (5) we sec that, if sin X&vanished, th motion

(according to this quation) would hecome Infinit, which

may be

taken to prove that in thc case

eontempiated, the motion would

real!y become great-so grcat tl.at corrections,

insi~upreviousiy

rise

into

ficant,

importance. Now sin

vanishes, when the force

is isochronouswith one of thc natural

vibrations of th first part

of tho string, supposed to be )tdd

nxed at 0 and b.

When a fork is placed on th

string of a ~onochord, or other

instrument properly providcd with a

sound-board, it is casy to

find by tnal th

places of maximum rsonance. A very

slight

displacement on eitlier side entails a considerable

falling o~In~e

volume of tlie sound. Th

points thus determined~i~

the

string into a

of

parts, of

length that the

natural note of any one of them

~hen nxed at both ends) is

tlie same as th note of th

fcrk, as may readily be verified, The

important applications of resonance .vhieh Helmholtz lias

made to

a

tone

purify simple

from extraneous accompaniment will

occupy

our attention later,

134. Returning nowto the

case

complex,

o have to extract th real

from

parts

(5), (R), (~ of 133. For

~f~~T~

occur as

reduced to

the form Beie. Thus let

134.]

155

By a similar process from (8) 133, if

obtaiu tlie forms of

ex,&c.

The values of a and /3 are dotorminecl by

while

If thc friction be very small, the expressions may be simpliHcd. For instance, in this case, to a sufEcicut approximation,

15G

[L34.

=-yeosp!; tLc

:uu!j~ bt'i~c~n

0 ;ut.t

nmphiudt'' of

is, )tpp~Xit)jft.tu!y

= or thc

M 0,

point of application is a node.

If thc hnposed force, or motion, bo ])ot exprcsscd hy a single

harmonie term, it must first bc rcsolvcd into such. Thc preceding

solution may then be applicd to each componcnt separately, and

thc resuits addcd togcther. T!ic extension to th case of more than

one point of application of thc imprcssed forces is atso obvions.

To obtain tho most gcnera) solution s~tisf'ying the conditions thc

expression for the i)fitur:d vibrations must also Le addcd bnt

thse become reducecl to Insignincancc after tnc motion lias been

in progress for a suficiunt timc.

Th !n.wof friction !msumcd in the prcccding investigation is

th only one whoso resuits can bc ca.si)yfuilowed

doductivety, and

it is sunicient to givc a gnerai idca. of t))C effects of

dissipativc

forces on tlic motion of a string. But in other respects th conclusions drawn from It possossa nctitioua simplicity, dcpcndinr'-on

the fact that 7'tl)e frictinn functionis similar in form to 7'

which makcsthe normal co-ordinatcsindepcndent of cach other.

In ahnost any other case (for oxample, when but a sit)g)c

point of

the string is rctardcd by friction) tttcrcarc no nonnfd co-ordinates

propcriy so called. Tho-c exist itutocd ctcmcntary types of vibration into which the motion may bc rosolved, a)id which arc

perfectly indcpendcnt, but thse are essentially different in character from thosc with which wc have hecn conccrncd hithcrto for

the varions parts of the system (as affected by onc

dcnicntary

arc

not

in

thc

samc phase. Spcial cases

vibration)

simu!t!).neous!y

cxcepted, no lincar transformation of th eo-ordinatcs (with real

coefficients) can rcduce T, and F togcther to a sun) of squares.

If wc suppose that tho striug lias no itx.'rtia, so that ~==()

-~and F may tbcn be reduced to sums of squares. This

probfem

is of no acoustical importance, but it is

Intercsting as bcing

mathcmaticaMy analogous to that of thc conduction :utd radiation

of lipat in a bar whuse ends arc maintaiucd at a cojtstaut temprature.

135.]

EXTREMITIES

SUBJECT TO YIELDING.

157

= 0 and .c = ttt string is hcld at rest. Since absolute Hxtty

c:),nnotbc fLttu-uibdm prit-cticc,it is ~ot without iuterest to inquire

in whut ma.nncr t))Civibrations nf a string are liable tu bo modiried

hy a yichHr)~ cf t.bc points of attactuncnt; and tlie prob!cm

wiU fm'tush occasion for onc or two remarks of importance.

For t))Csahc of simplicity wc shaU suppose that thc System is

synunctrical witti rcfurcncc to tho centre of thc string, a.rid that

cactt cxtrundty is a-ttachcd to a mass (trcatcd as uncxtendcd in

spacc), and is urgcd by a spring (~t)towards thc position of cqniiibrium. tf uo frictionat forces act, th motion is nccessa.rity

rcsolvabiciuto normal vibrations. Assume

cos (wa~ e).(l).

~= (~ sin )Ha;+~3cosMM'}

Tho conditions at th ends arc that

whiehgivc

E)inun:tt.i)tgtitc lattur ru.Lio,we Hud

fnund by writing tan for so tliat tan ?/~= tan 2~, and the result

th corrcspoudingparticular sohttions, each

of adding togcthcr

with its two arbitrary constants et and c, is necGssfu'ityth most

guncralsoiution of winch th prublem is capable, and is thercforc

adquate to rcprcsunt th motion duc to an arbitrary initial distribution of dispiacemeut and velocity. Wc infcr tbn.t any function

of x may bc cxpanded bctwucn x = and a;=~ in a-scrics of terms

~,(~,sin~)cos?)!) + ~~(~s!nm.c+cos~)

+

(5),

&c.thc coi'rcspouding

?~ H~,&c. bclug thc roots of (~) and

158

values ~p~"

of' t] i syst.em,

arc

co-ordinates

system it follows that in each

thc s.,nc at points

"y

distant

th

P~.

twoends,wherc~=0~d.

l. Hcncc ~sm.t-co~

=+1 1,

8

4

as may bc proved also from

(4-).

T!.e Mncdc energy y of thc ~I.ole

nation Is made up of thc

Mergy of thc string, and that of the masses

T!u~

r;

SUl + cos

y=~p) {S

f~

M!a-)~

+~+~+.r+~~(~sin~+cos~~+.

Buthy theenaracteristic property of normal

co-ordinates, terms

cannot ~lypr~eut

in t.. c.prc.ssion

for

~I~~tr'~ l' 80 that

1

.9ili9?bX

sin

cos?M~)

(~

(vr

+,coq

+

ili,x) (~ sin M~.t+ ces M,?;)

pf"

p~

+ + (~ sin m~ + cos7~) (~ sin M/ + ces M/) =0.

if 7' andg Le differcjit.

(G),

This

s~gcsts how to dtermine th

t~orem senc-s

arbitrary constMts sothatthe

(5) mayrcprcscnt au arbitraryfunction

y. Takc th expression

y(.sin ~~+cos~)~.+~+

sin

cos

p~

~(7)

.~d

in it th scrics (.)

Th rc.nit is a

exprc.ssi.,g

scries~titutc

of tcrms of thc type

(~ sin

p~~

+

+

+ cos~)

+ eos

ail of

vanish hy (6), cxccpt thc onc for

whieh 7.=

whi~

to

js equal th expression (7), dividcd

by

Hencc

p~.sin~+cos~+~+~

and thus th

cftho series arc detcrnnnod.

coc~icnts

If ~=0

even

bo rinitc, thc p,

althc.g~

but thc

unrcstnctcd prob~ is Instn,ctive. So

nu,ch strc.~

135.]

FOURIER'S

THEOREM.

159

tho st~doit Mapt, <,o~cquirc' tor*contra<;tcda vic~vof thc na-torc

ofthosc important rcsults ofanaly~Is.

We shall now shew bow Fouricr's thcorom in its ~encrai form

can bc deducpd from our prsent investigation. Let ~=0; thcn

if /t= -X),the ends of th string arc fast, and th quation detcrniining ?~ becomcs tan M~= 0, or m~= ~Tr,as we k~ow It must

bu. lu this case t!)o sries for y becomes

of.K,vanisiting at 0 an'l ?, betwccnthosc Innits. But now suppose

th~t~ is zro, ~/8ti!l v!t,nishmg. Thc ends of thc string may be

supposedcapable of slidiug on two smaotit m:ls perpendicuiM-to

its length, Mid the tcrmina.l condition is the vanishing of

Thc cquf~tionin is th same OM~e/~rc; and wc Ic~rn.that any

fnnctiony' whose rates of variation vauish a.t a?=0 and a?= can

be expanded In a scriua

and th first series mcrcly changes sign without altcring its

numcnc:il magnitude. If tlierofore y' ho an even function of x,

to +

And in the samc wa.y,if y bc

(10) represciits it n'om

au odd funetion of x, (9) roprescuts it betwecn thc samc limits.

Now, whatcvcr funetion of a; ~)(:r) may bo, it can bc divided

into two parts, one of w!iichis even, and the other odd, thus

it eau bc rcpresetitcd betwccn th limits by the inixed sries

possessthc samo property, no matter what in othcr respects its

160

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

OF STRINGS.

[135.

Founcr's thcorcm*.

Wc now procccd to cxa.minc titc c~ccts of a slight yielding of

thc supports, in tlic cfu-:c

(.)f:).striog whosconds are approximat~'ty

~xcd. Titc quantity tnay Lu g)-(.),t,cit!)c;)-through or throngj)

Wc shn)l conHne oursulvos to thu two principal cases, (1)

-whcn is ~rea.Laud

is

vanishes, (2) wlicn vauishes and

grt.

is approxhnatdy

and

To this ordur of approximation thc tones do not cease to form

a harmonie scalc, lmt tlie pitch of tlie whule is

slightiy lowered

Tho effect oftftcyiciding is in fact thc same as that of an increase

in tlie length of th string in the ratio 1 1

+

have been anticipatcd.

Th rcsult is otherwisc if /t vanish, while Al is

great.

as might

Hcre

and

Hcnce

from dynamic~I considra.

tio~ is au cmUess chain ~tchod round s,u.~th

cyiiudcr (S M!)), or thiD

ro-outraut culumn of uir eucluecdiu a

nitH.sIfnpcd tube

135.]]

FINITELOAD.

l(j~1

pitch, t]ie rise bcing th

grcatcr thc lowcr tho couiponcut tone. Tt nngl.b bc thought

tttfit any kind ofyiL-!di!)g wou)(t deprcss thc

ptieti of thc string,

but thc preceding uivestigation sficws that tins is not tiie case.

Whet))cr thc pitch will be raiscd or lowcrcd,

dcponds on thc

sign of and this agam dcpcnds on whcthcr tlic nn-tura.!note of

thc mas-s urgcd by t!)c

spriug I.slowcr or !iig]tcrth:ui th~t of

thc component vihra.tion In (question.

136. Thc proDcni of an ot))crwise unifonn

string c~n'ying

a nuite load ~at .;= ciui ho .sutvcd thc formut

by

InvcstigiLtett

!n 13:}. Fur, if thc force 7''cus~< be duc to the raction against

accuIcraHonof thc mass

which comhined with quation (7) of 13~

gives, to determine thc

possible vaincs of (or p r/),

Thc vfihtc of y for any normal vibration corrcsponding to

is

It docs not rcfjuh-c anaiy.si.s tn

provc thn-t any normal cojnponents which have a, no.h at t!)C pnint of attachment are mi.ectcd hy tlie prsence of tlie load. For

Instance, if a stnng be

wei~hted at the centre, its componcnt vibrations of evcn orders

rcin~in unchanged, \vhi)c a)i thc odd

components arc dcpresscd in

pitch. Advantagc m!Lysomctitnc-s hc takcn of t)tis effect of a.

load, wi)cu it is desircd for anypurp~cto distnrb the harmonie

relation of thc comptjncnt tones.

If

bc voy g-reat, titG gravest component is

wideiy separatcd in pitc)i from !i]I t).u others. We will take thc case when

t)te !oad is at thc cfntrc, so t.hat =

b = U.l. Thc quation in

t])cn hceomos

where

3/, dcnnting th ratio of t)te masses nf the stritig and

th.' )oad, is a sma]) quantity which

Th<~<ir~

may bc caltud

K.

1

162

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

~:3G.

sma,!l,andsucht)i~t

obLn.incdin a previous chn.ptcr ( 52), by ncglecting th(; Ino-tin. of

thc st.ring :dtogcthcr. Thit.t it won)d bc i~htitivc might. I)n.vc

hecn cxpcctm), at)d indecd th formuia.a.s it stands jua.y bc obta.incdfrorn thc considcra.tionthat in thc actutd vibration tlie two

~:u'ts of tlie string in-c ncn.riystr&ight,and may bc n.ssmncd to hc

<'xnct,Iyso in conipnting titc kitK'tic n.nd potcntifd nergies, -\v!th<'ut C!)t)ufi!)gfmy apprcci:d)Ic crror in t)tc cn.lcoh~tcdpcriod. On

<J)i.ss~ppu.sitionthc rctcntion of t))e incrti:t of thc string incrca.scs

thc kinctic cnf'rgy corresponding to {tgivcn vclocity of t))CJond in

thc mtio cf

whic)) icads to thc nhovc rcs)dt. This

~)7'+

mothod t):is indced thc a.dvantagc In onc rcspuct, aa it )ni'd)t bc

npplicd whcn is not nnifortn, or ncarly uniform. ~)] th:tt is

ncccss.iryis t.ha).),hc )oad -/)/shoufd he su(H(.-icnt)y

prcdouioant.

CORRECTION

13C.]

FOR RIGIDITY.

1G3

thc second component of thc .string,a, vibration indcpcndent of

the load. T!ie roots aftcr thc first occur ni closely contiguous

pairs; for oue set is givcn hy ~X~==S7r,~nd tho other approxiin which tho second tcrm is sma.

mn.tc!yby ~=N7r+- &'7T./)/

Thc two types of vibration for N= 1 are shcwn in th Hgurc.

The goncral formula (2) may a)so be applicd to find the cifcct

of a small loadon thc pitch of the various components.

137. Actua.1 strings and wh'es arc not perfectly flexible.

Thcy oppose a.certain rsistance to bcnding, which may bc divided

into two pa.rts,p)'oducing two distinct enccts. Thefirst is called

viscosity, and shcws itself hy df~nping th vibrations. This part

produces no sensible efTcct on th poriods. The second is conservative Iti its chtu'a.ctcr,an<tcontributes to the potcntia.1cnorgy

of thc system, with thc effect of shortening thc pcriods. A eomphjte investigation cannot convcnioltiy bc givcn hcro, but thc

case 'which is most intcrcsti))g in its application to musical instmmcnts, adinits of a sufficicntly simple treatmeut.

Whcn rigifhty is takcn intn account, somctiling more must ho

specined with respect to thc terminal conditions tha.u that y

vanisties. Two cases may hc particularly noted

arc clamped, so that

tli~it q = 0 at

tt thc

tll("C.,n(ls.

ends.

Mrliciitii(,

t)ic ends

eiids are

(1) Whcn

=0

(2) Whcn thc termina) dircftions are pcrfcctiy free, in which

= 0.

case

f/.C'

Jf tho'c wo'c no ngi'tity, t)tc t.ypc of vibration wouht hc

,c~r,r,

y

p

x

si~L

f '1

satt.sfymg

t!ic

second

1,

1 cnn'Ution.

hnt whethcr such a rcsult occur or not, thc priod calcntatud

from thc potcntiiU a!)d kinctic nergies on thc supposition that

the type rc)n:uns mudtcrcd Is nccc.ssarilycorr'-ct as f:n' ~s thc first

ot'dcr of.stna)) qu:)nLit.ic.s

( US).

N')\v Dit' potc))ti:d pocrgy duc to thc stiincs.sis expresse'! by

~64

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

OF STRINCS.

[137.

where /e is a quantity

dcpcnding on the nature of thc mntcrial

n.nd on t.he form ofthn ~cticu in a pir.infr thn.t.

nrc. nnt.ncw

prepai.;(i K, u.nh.j.

Ti.e/u. ur~' is vident, bcc-mscttic f~i-cc

required to bcnd any clment

Is proportion. to

and to thc

amount of bcuding a]rcady c-iTcctcd,t!)at is to

Thc whoic

work w))icli mu.st bo donc to

producc a curvaturc 1 p in ds

is thcrcforc proportional to

~-p'; whl)c to thc app)-o.ximatnmto

1

which we work =

and = 1

p M.<,

pcriod wouM bccomc if t])c st.nng wcrc

cndowcd with pc.rfect

fi~ibiHty. It nppears that t).c cffcct of thc

.st~ncss n.crc.ascsrapidiy wilh t].o ordcr of thc

couinent vibrattons, which cea.scto bc)o.~ to !LI~nnnnic scalc.

Ho\vcvu! i.t t!.c

Htrn~s cmpjuyc..) in niu.sic, t).c ton.si.m i.s usn~Dy suficicnt to

rcducc thu inHucnce ofrigi()it,y to

insignifiance.

T))G)neH)odoffhis section cannot hc

~ppjicd without inodinc.~ion to t).c ot).e.- case of t~nina)

comiition, n:unc)y,whcu t).c

cnd.s arc c-hunpcd. In thcir immudiatc

nci~hbuurhood t)ie type of

vibration must dm' from that a.ssuincd

by a po~cHy Hcxible

stnng byaquantity, w),.d. is no !o)~c.r s,n:dt, and w).osc

thcrcforc cannot be nog]~t~d. Wc sha)) rcturn to this square

suhject,

wttcn ti-cattog of thc transvcrsc vibrations of

rods.

J38. TLct-Gi.sonc p.-obicm

rdating <ot).u vihratiut.s of.strin.s

whtdi wc I.ave not yut considcrcd, but which 1~of

.s.~ncpracti~i

intcrcst, na.ndy, thc cluu-acterof th nation of a vioiin

(or ccHo)

undor

thc

stnng

action of thc bow. In this prob]e.n th ~o~s

~W!~ oft!)c bow is not .sufHcicntJyu).()c.stood to aUowus to

foHowcxeh.sivdy thc M;)~~ mcthod thc

indications of thoory

mo.st bc .supp)emuntL~

).y spccia) observation. By a dextc-rou.s

combitiationof cvidcncedrawn frorn both Kourcc.s!Id)nho!tz)tas

-snccccdcd m d.r.nining th

principe tcaturus of thc. cas~ but

somc of thc dtails arc .stii)obscure.

138.]

VIOLIN STRING.

165

wc infcr thaL Lh~yibraLiuurta.i'c stricHy pcriodiu,or at least that

strict periodieity is thc td'td. Morcoverand this is very importantt!ic note clicitcd by the bow lias nctu'Iy,or qnitc, tite sn.me

pitch a.stho n:itu)':d note of th string. TIic vibra.ttons,although

ibrccd, arc thus iti sutuc sens frcb. Thcy are whony dpendent

for tbcn' mn.intcnn.nccon th energy drf),wnfrom th bow, and yet

tho how doos not dctcrniine, or cvcn sensibjy mod)fy,their pcriods.

We arc rcmindcd of thc scif-aeting clectricaL intcrrnptcr, whosc

motion is Indcd furccd in thc tochnica.! sense, but haa t!ia.t kind

offrcedom which consi.stsin dcturjnitnng (who))y,orin part) undci'

what influences it sha,llcoinc.

But it docs not at once fullow from th fuct thn-t tho string

vibrtes witti its na.tura.1pcriods, that it confortns to its naturnl

types. If thc coefHcientsof tlie Fourier expansion

be takcn as tlie independcnt co-ordhiatcs by wlticbthc conngura.tion oftiie system is at any moment de~ned, we kuow that whcn

tliere is no friction, or friction such tliat oc titc na.tur:Uvibra.tiu)is arc cxpresscd by ma.king cach co-ordin:tten.s~e harmonie

(or quasi-harmonie) Hmction of th timc; while, for a.l).that h:m

hitticrto appeitred to t))e contrary, eacii co-ordin.~toin the prsent

c:mcnii~ht bc M?t~/

function of tim time periodic in time'T. But a

Httle examiua.tionwill show that tlic vibrations must hc sci)sib)y

natural in their typos as wcti as in thcir periods.

Tho force excrciscd by the bow at its point of application may

bc exprcsscd by

is

will give a corrcspondin~ tcrm of its own pci-todin th solution, but tbe ono whosc period is th same as tho natuml po-Iod

of~ will risc cnoi'tnousiyin relative importance. Pra.ctienUythen,

if tlic damping bo suialt, wc uccd only rctain tha,t p:~rt of

166

whicL

W

11(:"

TRANSVERSE

( 1.

d' j"!en!

pendsS 011

on J,

ij.

VIBRATIONS

c,

c.~

i"

e~

~

0F

thut

) tua!'

STRINGS.

I., tu ~y,

ci

s.ty,

[138.

w~ ~n.y

Wu

may regM'

rogm-d

Anuther matent fact, supported by cvidnccdrawn both from

theory and aurai observation, is tins. AHcomponent vibrations

are absent which have a node at the

In

point of excitation.

ordcr, however, to extingui.sh thse tones, it is neccssfa-yt!)at the

coincidenceof the point of application of the bow with tho nndc

shonid bo vcry c.mc<. A very small dviation

rcproduces t)tc

jnis.si)igtones with considorabJc strcnf-tb'

Tlic rcm~inder of tho vidence on w)nch He!mboltx'

theory

rcsts, vas dcrived from direct observation with thc vibrationmicroscope. As explained in Chapter n., t)tis instrament affurds

aview oftbe curve rcprcscnting th motion of thc point undcr

observation, a~ it would e seen traced on tlic surface of a transparent cylinder. In ordcr to Jcduec t!te reprsentative curve in

its ordinary form, the imaginary cylinder must be conceivedtu

be uni-otiud,or developed, into a. p)anc.

The simp]cst results arc obtaincd whcn the bow is

a.ppl!cdat a

nodc of one of tho higher componcnts, and th

point obscrved is

onc of the otlier nodes of the samc system. If th bow works

fairly so as to draw out tho fundamcntal tono cicarly and strongly,

thc reprsentative curve is tha.t she\vn in

figure 22; where tho

abscisse correspond to tho tirne (~173hcing a conpicte

period),

and t]io ordinates reprcsent the displaccment. The rcmarkabio

fact is discloscd t))at. thc whotc po-iod T ma.ybc divulcd inin two

parts ~ nnd r-T., during c~ch of whieh thcvdocityof thet)bsct-vcd point is consent,; but th vulucitics to and fro ;).re in

goict'a! uncqua].

Wc Iiavc now to rcprc.scnt this curvc

by n so-ies ofiiarmnnic

terms. If t)tc ori~in of timc corrospond to t))c point J, and

Donkin'<~cf)~.<f)~,

p. 13).

138.]

J 7'

VIOLIN

1GT

STRING.

T'Y?

== Fourier's t)teorcm E;ivea

With respect to thc value of T., wc know that ail those com(xa being thc

pouents of~ must vauish for which sm-=0

point of observation),'bccn.uscunder th circumstances of the case

the bow cannot gcnGrato them. Tliere is thcreforc reason to

suppose thn.t T. T= a', l; and in fact observation proves tbat

J.C' C~ (iti tho figure) is cqual to the ratio of the two parts iuto

which tlic string is divided by the point of observation.

Now thc i'rec vibrations of thc string are rcprcsentcd in

geucral by

=

+ sin

sia

cos

and Uns at thc point a;= must agrec with (1). For convenience

of euu)parison,we inay write

2S7T/. T~

2S7T<

287rt

2S7T<

=

A

Co.2s7r < ~)

ces

Sin~~7rt (7,

C~

~, cosT + R

B~sin

T

T t

2/

19

D

~(<),

Ir (

1'0)

We find a.Isoto dtermine D,

whcucc

but wc know ou otlier groundH tliat DHthen vanistics. Howcver,

for the sakc of simplicity, we sh:dl suppose for tlie pt'cscnt that.

D~is ahvitysgivcn by (2). If the point of application of tlie bow

do not concide with a nodc of any of the lowcr componcuts, thc

error comtnittcd will bc of nu grcat cousof~uenc.

On tliis undGrsta.udingtlie complote solution ofthc problem is

168

OF STRINGS.

['138.

proportions) to

int~u!p!!t~,)dMt!-l;

A

~)U;tdfu!fi'JC<;)t'C!t)~)"'

0

y

futictiou

i'uuctiou

1 l is sonicwhat

whic)i

l,

'JsinnJfn-. If

Iftijc

J string

s'sin'S~ L,

s-"sln'

ho ptucked at th mnhilc, th cvcn

components v~nish, but thc

Oth!oncs foHowthc same )!twas obta.hjs fur a vioiin

strincr. T))c

c()ua,tin (3) ulcHcatcst]):tt thc strmg is :Jways m t))e fun~oftwo

.st.mi~ht Unes mcetittg a.t an angtc. In order inore convettiontiv

to shew this, !ct us change thc origin of tftc tune, a.ud t)ic constat

mu)t,ip!ier, so that

string :tt any titnc.

Now wo know ( 127) that thc C(tU!ttio.iof th

p.ur of lines

proceeding from thc fixod em]s of thc .string,and mcet.nrr at a

puint wliosc co-ordinates arc or,/9, is

projection on th axis of:B

cf thc point of intersection moves

uniforndy backwards and

forwanis bctwecn .~=0 an.! ~=Z, an.) t.)iat t).c

point of inter.suction itscif i.s situatc.d on onc or ot).< uf t~-o

p;u-abo]ic arcs,

'~t' whieli thc equilibrhun positon of th

.string is a connnon

chofti.

Since the motion ofthc string as th~ d~nu<i

hy tl.at of thc

point of intersoction of its two straight parts, bas no

cspccia!

rctatioti to (Lhc point of

observation), it. fo)h~-s that, accordin.

to t])c.seouations, titc sa.ne J<indof motion

m.gbt Le obscrved a't

any otho- point. And t)iis is approximatciy trnc. But tbc thcorctica) rL-.suk,it wil! bo romonbcrud, was

o)i)y obtaincd by asH)))ni))gtbc prsence in certain proportionsofcomponent vibrations

ha\'in~ nodc.s at

thongh in tact thuir abscucc is )-<j(p)ircdby

"chanica) !aws. Thc prsence or absence of thse

components is

138.]

but not in nny otho' c-f. Wh~n thc nid.' i.-idoparted from, thc

vibration curvc shews a sries of ripples, duc to thc absence of

thc conponcnts In question. Somc furt!icr dctails will be fuund

in Hcitnhoitz and Donhin.

Thc sustaining powcr of thc bow dcpeuds upon the fact that

so)id frictiuu is Ic.ssat modrate t))an at smalL velocitics, so thf).t

w)tt]t)tc part of th stri!~ actud npou is moving witil th bow

action is greater

(nut imprububly at thc s:~mcvulocity), thc mutual

titmi wi'eu thc string is moving in tho opposite direction with

:L greatcr relative vulucity. Th ~ccctcrating eH'cct in tl~c first

not cntirdy ncutratiscd by th subthus

is

motion

of

thc

part

accctcra.tion rcmains

squent rctfu-da.tion, and an outstanding

vibration in spite of other losscs of

cap:(.b)cof ]n:untaining th

of solid friction

~ncr"-y. A cm-iouscncct ofthc samc peculiarity

bas becn obscrved by Mr Froudc, who found that tl)0 vibrations

uf a, pcndulnm swinging from a sbaft might bc maintained or

cvcn Incrcascd by causing tt~cshaft to rotate.

A strin"' stretched on a. stnooth cui'vcd surface will in

to certain concquilibrium lie along a gcodcsic Une, and, subject

ditions of stubitity, will vibrato about tilis eonnguratiun, if disthat call bc proposcd is when. tlic

ptaced. TI)C simplest case

surface is a cyHnder of any form, and th cquitibrium position

of tlie string is perpcndicular to titc gnerating hncs. Th studcnt

will casUyprovc that tbc n~otion is indcpcndcnt of thc curvature

of tlie cylinder, and that thc vibrations arc in :dlessential respects

thc samc as if th surface wcrc developcd into a plane. Th case

of an endiess string, funning a nccidace round th eylindcr, is

v/orthy of notice.

In oi'tterto Ulustratc tlic charactcristic features of this class of

of a

problenis, we will tako thc conparatively simple cxample

and lying,

string stretched on th surface of a smouth sphre,

v/hcn in cquilibrium, :dong a grcat circle. Tite co-ordinatea to

which it will be most convcnicnt to refer thc system are th

mcasurcd front thc grcat circle as equator, and th

Jatitudc

of thc sphre be

~n~itudc measured alung it. If thc radius

wb bave

139.

170

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

fl39.

Now

sothat

so

tliat

f~

J(~i)~.

~=(~f~+(ocos~

= f/

{(~~ +

= 1/

2 (~~

2 ~PP'tc]y.

Thus

~(y-(~'

andli

a.nd

Cltp

V= aTl.

Q

i-~ -10

~)~.

If thc ends Le fixed,

-8-

dtp.(2);1

ose ~(to

+ e Jcp.

~=0'

L~J. 0

and thc equation of virtual velocitiesis

0 se dtp

0 0 8~

whence,since S~ is a-rbitrary,

o0

+ 8 dcfJ=

= o,

0,

(10

"(~)

This is thc cquatiou of motion.

If wc assume occos~<,wc get

_rl'B 0 cc'p 22

~,+~0.

cf \vl)ieh the solution, subject to t)ic condition that

with is

(4),

vanishes

.cos~ .(5).

~=~sinj~~+l~

Tho rcmaining condition to bc satisfied is that

vanislics whcn

~= or <j&= et, if a =<! K.

Tiiis givcs

I\

( :I- cG~

~h' -~=p'(~

1)

a p a -1 p

J

~herc ?~ is an iutcger.

CambrMHO

Mathcmaticftt

TritMB

187G.

Exnmination,

.G

139.]

VARIABLE

DENSITY.

171

Tho normal functions arc thus of ~'c samc form a,a for a.

stnufht strmf. viz.

is to makc cach tone graver thao. the corresponding tonc of a

is

straigbt string. If a> 7r,0110at least of tho values of p2 ngative, mdica.ting tha.t the corrcspouding modes are unstable. If

a =='7r, is zro, tlie string bcing of tlie same length iu tlie displaced position, as whe!i = 0.

A similar method might be applied to catculatc the motion of

a striug strctched round tlie equator of any surface of rvolution.

140. The approximate solution of the problem for a vibrating

bas been

string of ncarly but not quitc uniform longitudinal dcnsity

of

fully considcred in Chapter IV. 01, as a convenierit cxampic

thc general thcory of approximately simple systems. It will bc

thc

sufficienthre to repeat thc result. If tlie density bc ~+

pcriod , of thc ?' component vibration is given by

Thse values of r" arc correct as far as thc first power of thc

small quantifies 8p and ?~,and give the incans of calcul~ting a.correction for such slight dcpartures from uniformity as must always

occur iu practice.

As might be expecte(l, th effect of a small load vanishes at

nodes, and rises to a maximum at tlie points midway bctw<;cu

conscutive nodes. WIien it is dcsircd mcrcly to make a rough

Gstimato of thc effective dcnsity of a ncarly uniform string, thc

formula indicatcs tliat attention is to Le given to the neighhourhood of loops rather than to that of nodcs.

1-tl. The dinerential quation determining th motion of a

string, whose longitudinal dcnsity p is variable, is

172

TRANSVERSE

from which, if wc

assume

.'<))';n:u

iuucti~

VIBRATIONS

occos

0F STRINGS.

F 141.

wc obttuu to dctcrmu~ th

~yhcre

,swntt.n for~-?',

of th second

This~uationis

hncar, b,.thasnothit)icrtobccn.so!v.d:n

o'rand

huitotcrms.

Cun.s.dcrc.t dcH.ling th curve ~su.ucd

by tho .st.rin.r In thc

uonna! mode uih!cr considration, it dutcnnincs

thc c~rc

at

nnd

any pou.t,

accordin~jy cinbodic~ a ru)c I.y whidi th c-n-vo

can bc construct.cd

Thns in thu npptic~iun to

~phic.Hy.

string nxcd both cnd.s,if

st.t from c.ithcr end nn ~rbitrary

inclination, and wit). zro curvatm-c,~-0are

ahvay.sdirectcd by tbe

quation w.Lh what eurvaturc to p.-uceed, and in tins

wc

way

trace

out

th cutirc curvc.

jaay

If thc assumcd value of

be rigbt, the curvc will cross

th. axis of at thc

rc.uircd distance, aud thc ]aw of vibration

will hc con~tctdy dctcrndncd. If

Le nul known, ditterent

vaincs may bc tri.d untii thc curvc

ends rightiy; a sufncient

approximation to tho value

cf~m.~u.su~iyho

~-nvcdathy~

c~cul~tion founded on an as.smncd

type (88, 90).

Whcthcr t!.c longitudinal

density be uniform or net th

pcncdic timo of any simple vibration varies c~~

as thc

root

cf

thc

s<(u~e

den.sity aud Invcr.s.ly us th .square root of the

tension undur w)nch t]io motion takcs

piace.

Thc eonvcrsc prob)cm of

dct~mining thc <icnsity,w!,c.uth

pcnod and H,c type of vibration arc gi vcn,is

always sutuhic For

tins purposc is ody

necessary <o substitutc thc givcn vah.c of v

and of its second di~brontial cocmcient in

quation (2). Unkss

tbedcns.tybo innuitc, th extrunutics of a

string arc points of

zero curvature.

W!tcn a givcn string is

s)iortencd, every componcnt tono is

ra..scd ,n p.tc)L For tho new stato of

things may bc rcgarded as

dcnvcd from thc old by

intradnction, at t!ic proposed point of

hxturo, of a spring (without inc.rtia), ~vhosestifFncssis

gradua]!y

incr~scd without limit. At

of

thc

cac)..stc.p

proccss tho potcntia!

cncrgy ofa givcn dformation is angmentcd, and t).c-rcfor

( 88)

th intch of every tone is raiscd. In likc

manner an addition to

thc length ofa str.ng dcpresscs thc

pitc! cven though thc added

part bc dcstitutc ofiucrtia.

173

VARIABLEDENSITY.

142.]

14-2.

a gnerai

Atthongh

<<

Sh' ~c'

v'

pr,ui'

of

Intgration

t'~

m.T\p~y

(2)

quation

.u-

t!n)-~k'n

1.

of141

c'ft.h'

of'thc second order.which liavc hcen detnonstrated LyMM. Stnrnt

and LiouviHu'. It Is impossible in tins work to give anythiug

hkc n. compictu ~ccomit of titeir invc.st.i~Lions;bot :), sketch, in

which tho te:tdi))~ fca.tm-csn.ruinctudcd, m~y be found intcrcstth

incr, and will tin'uw li~ht on sone points comicctud with

not

gcncnd thcory of the vibrntions of continuons bodics. 1 hve

thought it ticccs.s:u'yto adhre vcry c~osclyto t)'c mcthods adoptcd

io thc origina.)tncmon's.

A.t no point of t!t0 curvc satisfying thc cquation

rl'r/ 2

~+~~n.(D,

(1)

vanish simnitancousiy,

n,nd

Cl'`

&c. musta!so

C~:Cs

curve must eoincidcwith th axis of a;.

Whatevcr

suu~

being

\duc

be

conc:wc

ascnbcd

to

tbt'oughout

thc

cn)-vc

to\vard.s

tlio

satisfying

axis

of

(1)

is

a-, sinec

ana

l

1 and

origin y vanish,

Ilositive. If at th

cvoywhcrc positive.

p isis cverywllere

~Lx

Lu positive, thc ordinatc will rcnmin positive for aU vaincs of a;

bclow a curtain limit dei'cndcnt on thc vainc ascribed to

bc vu'y smaH,thc cm-vaturc is slight, artd thc curve will

If

remain on t]tc positive sidc of thu axis for a gi'cat distance.

incrcascs, aU tho vahtcs of a;

Wc hve now to provo that as

which satisfy thc cotation = 0 gradua)Iy diminish in magnitude.

Lct Le th oi-dinatc of a second curve sati.sfyingth quation

+ Il p?J

~+,=0

cl;c'

.(2),

as weil as thc condition that

Multiplying (2) hy y,

suppose t)iat is somcwhat grcatcr than

iu titofirstvolumeof

T)to)i)c;]))"i)'n

rnferrc~to ui tho tcxt nrt: euittttmcd

.yuto'/t'~

LiouyiUu's

()'S!it!j.

174

0F

STRINGS.

[143.

n.nd (1) by

subtmcting, and integn).th]g with respect, to x

bctwecu ttic limita 0 and x, wc obtn't), sincti and .1 ~ot!) vnmsh

wii,L.'t!,

;u]d th~t tlie di~rcucc betwccn and is

y vcmi.sfK's,

vcry small,

we gct ultimately

csscntially positive,

wo Jcaru that y and

arc of thc samc sign, and thcrcforc t!)at,

w])ethor

be positive 01-ngative,

as that to which y is changing, or in o~K-rwords, th value of a;

for which vanishcs is less t)ian that for

winch vanishcs.

If wo Hx our attention on thc portion of the curvc

!yin~

betwccn ;K=0 and .r=

thc ordinatc contitmcs positive t)n'ou"'hont as th value of incrcases, until a curtain v:duc is attaincd,

which wo will call

Titc function is now idcntical in form

with thc first normal function M, of a string of dcnsity (ixod

/)

at 0 and a~d lias no root cxccpt at thosc points. As

a'~ain

iacreases, thc first root movc.sinwards from a;=~ unti), when a

second special value

is attaincd, th curve again crosses th

axis at th point a'=~, and thcn rcprcscnts t]tc sccon(t norma!

functiou M,. This function bas thus onc internat root, and onc

ot~y. In likc manucr corrcsponding t.o a hi~hcr value

wc

ohtain titc third nonna! functiot ?~ with two interna! roots, and

so on. Thc ?"' functiou M,,bas thus cxactiy

1 intcrnid roots, and

sinco its ih'st dinurcntial cocfticientucvcr vanis))cs sinndtancousty

with thc function, it changes sign cach titnc a root is passcd.

Frn)n quation (3) it app~u-s that if nnd

hc tw.) di~'rcnt

normal functions,

to the mnnhur uf Uic routs ci' funcLio;)(k'rivcd

by addition

from Hnitc tiumbur of nurnud fuuctious. If

bu thc eompoucnt

143.]

STURM'S THOREM.

175

&c. arc arbitrary coefHcicnts,has a< ~ecM<

m11

whcrc ~), <

internai roots, and

~os~ Ml intcrna.1 roots. The cxtrenutics

f~t~=0 aud at .~=~con'cspon.d of course to roots in a.Ucases.

The followingdmonstration bca.rssomc rcsonbluncc to that givcn

hy Liouville, but is considcrn.blysimpicr, aud, 1 bellcvc~not less

rigorous.

If 'wc suppose that /(.E) ~as cxact]y

Internai roots (any

number ofwincli may bo cq)ia.l), thoderived functionj~) cannot

Iiavo less tl)an + 1 internai roots, sincc therc mnst bc at ]cast

onc root of/'(.'c) bctwccn cach pair <~fconsccntivcroots ofy(a;), and

t.Itu whoc numbcr of roots of~(.~) eoncurnud is ~.+2. 1); liko

roots ofy'(a:),

manncr, wc sec that thcrc must bo at Icast

bcsides tlie cxtrenutics, which thcmselvcs necessarlly correspond

to roots; so that in passmg from _/(~) to y"(~') it is impossible

that any roots can bc lost. Now

tu fmy uxtcttt. la this w~ywc obtai)i a scrics of' ftmctions, :t.])

intct'n:d roots at !en,st, whieit dUrur from the origina!

with

imtCtioM/(:)')by tho continua]]y menjasin~ relative !))iport!inccof

the componL'utsof thc hi~Lcr oniurs. Wi~cnt!i(i procL'ssI):~sbcot

ciu'i'iud sufficicnt.Jyfur, we sh~H :),n'ivc!tt a function, whosu iorm

ditturs as )itt)c :)Hwe p!t.'ascft-om that of t))c normal fonction uf

hi~))cst ordcr, viz. M, and w)iic)i])as thcnjforc )t 1 intcrn:d roots.

IL funows thi~t, sincc no roots can 1je lest in passit)g down thc

so'ics uf fu))ctio!)s, thc m))ub(.'ruf Int(.'t'))a)ruuis ufy(;<') c;U)n<jt

UXC'));) t.

17G

TRANSVERS

VIBRATIONS

0F

STUINOS.

[142.

proved in n..simDarmannor

hycc!tt:t~:u~th~8';)-Ic:~if'un.cti.<

h.kw.'n~

:;i fl'u~i'

h.ll

Utiswaywcobt:).i)i

normal fu])ctionof

ordcr, v~

~nd havin~ Lhei-cforo

M-lnitcrnali-oots.

Sinccnoroutsc.-mbctastinp~sin~upthc

senesfrom <.hisfunctinn

to/(..), it full~y.s t].at/(.r) ~nr~ot Lave

fewertntcrn~ roots tl.nn ~-1;

but it must bc und~-stood that

auy number oft)~ w 1 roots mny be cqu.d.

Wc wi!!now prove tl.at,/(.) cannot be

ide..t:ca!!y zcro un)c~

a!I tlic cocfHcicnts va.n.sh.

is not 7ro

Supposa t).at

and intgre wit),

Muhiply (G)hy p

respect to~ betwccn

~nnc t!tc

Jhmts0aud/.

Thc.tby(5)

rigbt-hand sidc i.s ~nitc we

sec t)iat/(.r) cannot vanish fui- aU vah.c.s of

Incli.dud withuAhc

t'fmgcofintogratio)).

LIouviiIe ].M inadc u.sc of Stur.n'.s thco-ent to sliew

i)ow a

scriGSof normal f.u.ctions n~y be eo)np<,u)h)c<I

su as to have an

at-bitrary sign atatt puint.s iymg bL.twccn ~=0 and a;=~. His

methodi.ssunK.'wItatasfoDuws.

Thc va]u~ of~ fur windt th n.nc~iun is to

changr. sign bfi.)<

&,c,

(.juantitic.sw).)) wiDxmt loss ofgcnera.Hty~G

m~

suppose tu bc aU (tiOcrent,fut u.scon.sidc.rtl~suries of dterminants,

~andbyStunn's

T.c~.snsa!.nc..u-funct,onof.,(.)~.)

t!K..o,-cm

h.~th~forc

onci.iU.rna! n,o< atn.ost,whidi

roulis

]\rcover t).o dL.tcrunnant is not

cvidc.ht)y

idcntica))y zcro

sn.ce th cu~ciont of ,(..), viz,

~~), .) ~.t ~)~

,,]~tevcr

bcth.v~ho

ut'

-\Vchve thus oht.in.d a

function, ~h:ch

chan~s~natauarLiLrarypuiut.r/ui.!thcreon)yiuL.rn:t))y

143.]

EXPANSION

1~7

und, ~inc it canuoL hnvc tnure tb~n tv.u iatcmai ~oms,it chu-u~ca

sign, wheu x passer through t)ieso values, and tl)ere on!y. Thc

coefHcientof ~(a;) is tlie value nssumod by the fii'st dcterminn.ut

whcn x = &,and is thcrefoi'e finite. Hcnco thc secoud dcterminaut

is not identically zro.

Simila.rly thc third dctermma.nt in th series vanishes and

changes sign whcn x = a, when a;= and wilcn = c, and a.t those

internai points only. Thc coefficient of ~(;E) is funtc,bei!)gthc

value of the second dterminant wheu .E= c.

It is evident that by continuIng this process we can form

functions compounded of th normal functions, whieh s!)allvanish

aud change sign for any arbitrary values of a*,and not eisewhere

internally; or, in other words, we can form a function whose sign

is arbitrary over th wliote range froin..B=0 to x =

On this theorem Liouville founds his demonstration of the

possibility of representing an arbitrary function between x = 0 and

.c = by a series of normal functions. If we assume the possibility

of the expansion and take

t!)c necessary values of < < &c.arc determiued by (9), a.nd wc

fiad

1

J

f8l

/(.c) = 2 j'~)

(.

f~o

p i').)~

cst.abtislithc idcutHy of/(..t') and ~(x:).

Iftiie right-hmjd mcmbhr of (11) he tunttiplicd by pi<~(~)and

Intcgra.tud with respect to from a:= 0 to x = wc sec that

where M~(-c)

ts ct~y nonna.)function. Frutu (12) it followsthat

it.

~),

178

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[143.

Idcntic~Hyxcro, it will bc pnssiMo

so chonsct.hc

t~ <M

c<.tis~)t.s.1. J,.

-t .<.r~

tuLsthroughout thc sa).tc

in' \v])ic). CMc'cvc.-y

sign ~'Y.'(.<:) -),

eloncnt ofthe jutcgmt woul(!bc positivu, :m()

cqu~~ion(13) cuu)d

not bu tn.o. It fuUuw.sLh.Lt

F(.) -/(.<.) cannot <)i~r imn) zro,

or th:),t t])e s(;i-ics of sonnt fnnciions

fortning tho right-hatxt

nimber of (11) is idcntie:d

wit)i/(.r) for ~11vaJue.sof .t-from tc= 0

to =

Thc arguments and rc.suits of Uns snctinn arc of course

~~pptic-aDo tu thc ]):u-ticu).-ucase of a unifonn stmig fur wi~ch tite

normal functious arc circuhu'.

14.3. Whcn Lhcvibmtions of a string arc not con~icd to cno

pJanc, it is usua)]y ninst e.mvenient to rcsnivo thon into two sets

cxGcutc-din perpendicuL-u-~imc.s, which

m.~y be trcatcd indcpcndonUy. Thcro is, howcvcr, onc case of t!.i.sdescription worth

p~sing notice in which thu niotion i.smost casity cuuccivcdaud

tt'catcd witliout rsolution.

Suppose tha.t

Thcn

aud

one j.Jano

wh.cii ~volves

uni(ur.n)y, :uni tliat cach pa.-Ucic dc..scrib~ circi~

with radius siu~

t!.c wh.dc ~tcni

Intact,

turns witi~ut t

rdativc <]isp)ace.ncnt. ahuut. its

position < c.tui)ib.-iuni, c.mi{~tin<r

cachrevuludunin

H.ctimuTTh~n~nic.s

uf-t.hiscn.sci.s

as wh~t).cnmt.H)u!sc<~finu.)

quitc assise

t.,o.K.phuK.,thc

rsultant uf)L].c tensions

arti.~ at i!H.L.xt.-cn.iti~<,f any s'n~t)

p..rtiuu oi' thc striu~ iu~Ht bL-ing Latancud

by tlic cuntrifu.~]

furce.

144.]

144.

UNLIMITED

Thc

gnerai

cHScrendal

STRING.

equation

179

for a uniform

stril)"-

'ix.

string. A change In tho value of t is mercly cquivaleut to an

attcra.tion in thu origm of x;,so t!)at (4) indicates that a certain

/or?~ is propn.gatcdaiong thc string witli uniform velocity ft in tho

positive direction. WImtcvcr thc vainc of maybcat thc point

a; and at thc tuue t, th samc value of y will obt:uu at thc point

a:+ a A<at ti~e time + A<.

Ttio form thus perpctua.tcd may ho any \vlu).tcvcr,so long as it

docs not viotatc thu rustrietioas on whici~(1) dcpcnds.

Whcn titc motion consists of thc propagation of a wave in thc

positive direction, a certain relation subsists betwccn thc iuchnation and thc velocity at any point. Dif'ercntiatinn'(4) wc find

Initia [y,

und

by(4).

Inasmultu'nmnucrthcuquatiun

y=~+~).(G),

dnotes the propagation of :),wave in tho ?<e~(t<tM

direction, and

t!)Crelation butween

:Lnd corresponding to (5) is

]2_2

180

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[]4.t.

propagation of two waves with vciocity ?, thc one in the positive,

anu iL~ cthcr in die uugative du-cc~L'u; aud tiiesu wa,ves arc

entirely indepcndcnt of one a.nother. lu the first

~=

ft~

<c'

and

m tthe secon

second

=

T)ie

10Illltw,

initial va

values

\lCSof

an

and

must ho

ue

=

Mt, n~conecived to be divided ioto two parts, which

satisfy rcspcctivcty

the relations (5) and (7). The nrst ccn.stitutcs the wavc which

will adva.ncein thc positive direction without

change ofform the

second, the negative wave. Thus, Initia)]y,

whence

If the disturbance be

origina)!y confined to a rmite portion of

the string, the positive and

ncgative wavcs sep:L:-atcafter t))0

interval cf time required for each to traverse bulf the disturbod

portion.

Suppose, for example, that

A point P on the positive side remains at rest nntil th

positive

wave has travelled ft-omA to P, is disturbed during th

passngo

of the wave, and ever after remains at rost. Th negative wave

never affects P at ail. Similar statements apply, ?!H~M ~M~iA',

to a point <3on th negative si deof~4Z?. If th character of th

original disturbance he such tha.t f<.c o a< vanishesinItiaUy. tho-~

144.]

AND

NEGATIVE

WAVES. 18L

POSITIVE

vanisti initially, there Is no ngative

and if +

wave. If

C)

t

Cf~ (tM<

K<

vanish iiiitially, the positive and the ngative waves are similar

and e(~un.l,and tlien ucither can vanish. In cases whei'e eittier

wavc vanishes, its cvanesccncemay be considered to be due to the

mutual destruction of two componeiit waves, one depending ou

th Initi:d di.sptaccments,and tlie other on the initial velocities.

On th one side thse two wavcs conspire, and on the other

thcy destroy one anotlicr. Ttiis explains th apparent paradox,

that P can fail to bo affectcd soonct' or later aftcr -~jB Las been

disturbcd.

Th subsquent motion of a string that is initially displaced

without vutocity, may he readHy traced by graphical mcthod.s.

Sinco tllC positive aud the ngative wavcs are equaL it is on)y

ncccssary to dividc t)iu original disturbance into two equal parts,

to ()i.spi:(ccthse, onc to tho right, and th ot)ier to the left,

through a spacc equal to at, and then to recompuund them. We

shall present)y apply this method to tho case of a plucked string

of nnite tongth.

]-t5. Vibrations are called N~o?M)' when th motion of each

partidc of th system is proportional.to some functiou of th time,

tlie same for a!l th particles. If weendeavour to satisfy

a. function of t ou[y, wc H)id

sothat

1 ~T

Y'=A'=~

Id~Y

~constant),

arbitrary pcriod. Thc value ofy mny be written

y = cos (~t~ e) cos (/a; a)

= PCOS(~(~ + M.T; e Ct)+ ~7'' cos (Mf;< ?~.K e -t-a).(3),

shcwing that th most gcner:).lkind of stationary vibration may

be regarded as due to the superposition ci' cqual progressive vibra-

~82

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

[145.

Converscly,

two stationary vibrations

may eotnbinc into a progressive one.

Th solution

in tlic

~=/(~)+~~+~

instance to an infinite

string, but may bc interprcted so as to

give thc solution of thc prol)le.n fur a nnitc

string in certain

ca~cs. Let us .suppose, for

cxamp!c, tl~t tl string termintes

at ~=0, a)id is he!d fast

thcrc, whilc it cxtcmLsto inHnity in

th positive direction

on)y. Nuw so long as thc point .-c= 0

Mtua]!y rcmains at rcst, it is a mattcr of indinfcrcncowhcther

the string Le prulongcd on t!to

ncg~Ive hidc or not. Wc

arc thus Icd to regard th

gh'cn string as ibrnung part of one

doubly inrin.tc, aud to scck ~iicthcr and how thc initial

disp]acGmcnts a.nd vetocities on tlie ucgativc side can hc

taken, so that on

thc wltolo t!)crc shidi ho no

dispfaccmcnt ~=U throughout t!ic

subsquent motion. Titc initial values ofy and y on thc positive

snic dtermine thc

corrc.spondingparts of t!.c positive and ngative

wa.vc.s,into which wc kuowthat thc whulc mution can bc resolvcd.

Thc former bas no influence at thc

point .7-=0. On th ngative

S)de thc positive and th ngative waves are

hntiaHy at our disposa!,

but with thc latto- we arc not concerned. TI.c

problem is to

dtermine th positive wave ou th

ngative .side, so that in

conjunct.ion with tlie givcn ngative wave on t).c positive side

of tlic origin, it sh:dt Icavu that

point undisturbed.

Lct

bc thc line (of any form)

i-cprcscnting th

wavc m M~ wluch advanees in ttie

ngative diruetiou. It is

by taidng on

thc uthur side cf 0 what may be caUcd t!)c

c?!<a?-~wave, so that

is tlie gcumctncid centre,

biscctmg every chord (such as TV)

which ])a.s.s~tijrough it.

Au:dytlc:d)y, If =/(.c) is thc quation

of O~

is thu equatiou of O~'Q'7);

=/(-)

REELECTION

145.]

AT A FIXED

POINT.

183

Whon after a, timc t the curves M'e shifted to the loft !md to

th right rcspectivcly throttgh a, distance at, the co-ordinatca

cut'rcspojiding to ? = 0 arc necessa-ntycqual and opposite, and

tlicreforc when conipoutidcd give zero rcsultant displacomont.

Thc efcct of the coustrahit at 0 may tttcrcforc bo reprcsented.

by supposing t!):T,tth ngative wavc tnoves through undisturbed,

but that a positivo wnvc n.t tho s~mc timc merges from (9. This

l'cfL'ctcd w~vu may a,t auy timc be fouud from its pa.rcut by tbe

iulluwing rule

Lcit ~7bo tho position of the pM-cnt wave. Thon the

rcflectcd wavc is ttic position which this would assume, if it werc

rotation, and then thrungh thu samc angle about OY. In other

words, t!)G rutuni \vavc is thc itnagc of ~P()~~ formcd by

successive optical rciteetion iu O~Yaud OY, regarded as piano

mirrors.

Th same rcsult may aiso bc obtamcd by a more analytical

process. lu the guneral solution

y=/(a;)+F(~+ft<),

tito functious/'(~), J~(s) arc dutcrmincd by the initial cn'cumstances

fur al! positive values ot'z. Th condition at = 0 requircs that

/(-~)+(F(~)=0

fur

al!

positive

values

of

or

/(-~)=-F(.)

fur positive values of z. Thc functions

tc'nnincd ibr aH positive values of and

~o points of thc strmg -/i and J? are hctd fast. Thc initial disturbance in ~17~dividcs itself Into positi.vc and ngative wavcs,

which are l'cnuctcd backwards and furwards bctwucii tlic nxed

184

TKANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STUINGS.

['145.

negative, and

vice M)' at each renection. Aftcr an even numhf~

pf )~

tions in each case tite original ibrm and motion is

recovcrcd. The proccss is most casiiy followej in compictely

when thc iniLiaI Ji.sturb.mcc is connncd to a .sma!l imagination

part of the

iitring, more particularly when its charactcr is suc!t as to give rise

to a wave propagatcd in ouc direction on!y. The

~~ travels with

uniform velocity (f()to and fro along th

Icngth of the .string, and

after it has rcturned ? ~eco?~ time to its

starting point' the

original condition of things is exa.et]y rcstorcd. The period of

th motion is thus tha time requircd for the

pulse to traverse

the length of the striug twicc, or

of the original disturbnncc, only in tlie gcnera! case it

may

that

th

s/io?'~ period of rcurrence is some aliquot part

happen

of T.

14G. TItc metliod of the !a.5tfcw sections

may bo advantageons!y applied to thc case of a plucked string. Since the initial

velocity vanishes, haf of tho displacemcnt belongs to the positive

and haf to th negative wavo. The ma.nner in which th wave

must be complotcd so as to produce the same effect as tlie constraint, is shewn in th figure, wliere th uppcr curve rcpresents

negative wave in their initial

positions. In order to find the connguration of the string at any

146.]

GRAPHICALL%IETI-IOD.

185

fotm'f time, the two curves :nust be superposed, after the upper

has been sluftcd to th right and tbe lower to the left through a.

space e(~ualto at.

TI)Gresulta.nt curve, like its components, is made up of stra.ight

pices. A successionof six at intervals of a,twcifth of th period,

taken from Helmholtz. From the string goes back aga.Into il

through thc same stages'.

It will be observed that th inclination of th string at tho

points of support alternates bctween two constant values.

147. If a small disturbance be madc at th time t at the

point x of an infinite stretched string, tlic effect will not be fcit at

0 until aftcr thc lapso of the timc

a, and will be in ail

respects the same as if a like disturbance had bccn made at

the point a; +Ax at time t- A.c-r a. Suppose tliat similardisturban ces are communicated to thc string at intervals of time r at

points whosc distances frorn 0 incrcase each time by ctS~ then

1 Thismothod.

of troittUf;thovibrationof a plackodstringis duoto Yonng.

fftmi!iar

withit

to mnkcIdmself

J~tt!.2'Mf~ 1800. Thostudcntis Tecommonded

thformsofFig.27.

byactuaHyconstructiug

18 G

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

('147.

tlic dis~nc~w<~anniauuatth.!san)upoint,j)rovtdu(t~iatti!Ctii:i~

intorvais bc incrca.sedfru.n T to T + 8r. This

rcmarkcontaiu.s tlic

of

t!)tjoiy t)to altoi-atiun of pitcit duc to motion of tixj s(n)i-ceof

disturbance; a subjcct w)uc)t will corne uuder our notice

a~aiu

in connecti'Jtiwith acrial vibrations.

148. AVitenonc point cf an innnitc

string i.ssubjcct to a forccd

vibration, trains of wavcs procccd frorn it ill bot!)'directions acoord.n~to hws, wf.ic)i arc roadity invost.i~ated. Wc shall

snjipo.sc

tb~ thc or~in is thc point of excitation, th

string bcing thcro

subject to t!~ forccd motion y=~

and it will bu suniciunt to

con.sidcrtl.c positive sido. If tbc motion of cach

dc.ncnt

bo

resistcd by t)ic frictional force

tlie dinTercutialquation is

WAVES. 187

0FPROGRESSIVE

148.] DAMPIN&

If wc supposethat /<:is small,

:uid

This snhttion sttcws thft-tthcrc ia propa~tcd a!oi)g the string

a wavc, '\v))ost;funptitmtu stowty duninishus oti nccunut of ttie

cxponcntiaHactur. If <=(), t)iis factor disappca.rs, iuid wc hve

simpty

whcn thcre is no friction, thc forccd vibrations uf a. System (due

to a sing)e snnph harjnonic force) must bc synchrouous in ptiase

tbrougbont. According to (9), on tho contrM'y,t)iu phase varies

cuntiuuuusty in passin~ ft'omune point to a.uother along tiie string.

Thu fuct is, tl)a.t wc M'o not a.t liburty to suppose /e==0 in (8),

Inasmucti as timt cqmt.tion was obtalucd on tuu assumption that

thc rca,l part of Xin (3) is positive, aud not zro. Howcvcr long

a nulte stnng may 'bc, t!m coenicicut oi' friction may Le ta~en so

stnaM that the vibrations are not dampcd bufurc readiing t!t0

Hirthcr end. Ai'Ltjr tliis poitit of smaUness~reficctcd waves bcgin.

to compHca.tcth result, and when thc friction is dinilnistied

indonuitely, an iunnite sries of such inust be takeu iuto accoun.t,

and wcuid give a.rsultant motion of thc samc phase throughout.

This problemmay be soivedfor a. string whosemass is supposed

to be concuntratcd at C(p)idistantpoints, by th mcthod of 120.

Thc co-oi'din:Ltc may be supposc<) to hc givcn (= ~le""),and

it will bc found that thc systcm of quations (5) of 120 maya.11

be satisned by taking

whcrc is a comptex constant dctemuucd by a quadratic cquatn)!i. Thc result for a. cuntmuous string )nn-ybc afterwards deduecd.

CIIAPTER VII.

LONGITUDINAL

ANDTORSIONAL

VIBRATIONS

0F BARS.

1-tJ. Tin, next sysL.m to th

string in order of simnjicity

is tlie bar, by winch terni is

usuaUy undcrstood in Acoustics a

of natter of uniform substance and

mass

orm. At t!ic c..ds thu cylinder is eut oH' c)ongatud cytindrical

to tlie gc~-atu~ lincs. Tho centres of by p]anes pcrpcndicuJar

u.c.-tia of t).e tmnsvcrse

sections lie ou a stra.ght ]inc whic!. is calk-d

t!.e

Thc vibrations <-t-a bar arc of throe

kind.s-iongitndina!

the

~-rorJ:

but

~T~'at t.c same time the most diHicu)t in

tt.cory. Tbcy are

considered by thc.n.sctvcsm thc next

chapter, and will on]y bc

rcferrcd to hcrcsofarasis

ncce.ssaryfor

and contrast

W)th thc othcr two ktnd.s of vibrations. co~parison

Long.tndu.at votions arc those in which thc axis romains

nnmoved. whde t)~ transversc sections vibrato to and fro

in the

direction pcrpendieuL-u.to their

planes. Thc moving powcr is

tho r~stancc o~red by thc rod to

extension or compression.

OucpccuH~ityofthIs class of vibrations I.s at once vident

Since the force neccssary to

produce a given extension in a bar

is proportional to tho area of the

section. ~hHe th ,na.ss to be

moved a!so in the same

proportion, it fo)!ows t!mt for a bar of

given length and inatcrial ti.epcriodic tunes and the

modes of

vibration arc ~dpendent of th area

and of tlie for.n of th

traverse

sect.on. A.sinufar law obtain.s, as we shaU prcsentty

in

tite case ot torsionat

-sce,

vibrations.

Itisothcrwiscwhen

the vibrations arc latral. Thc

pcriodic

tunes are mdecd i.~ependent of t!.e

thickness of tbc bar in th

direction perpendicular to ~o

plane ofuexurc. but the motive power

14!).]

CLASSIFICATION

OF VIBRATIONS.

189

th~i the thickness in that plane, and therefore an incr~lae in

tinckuess ]s accompa.uicdby n risc of pitch.

In thc case of Iongi.tudiun.1

and latral vibradons, ttic mcchanical consta.uts coticcrncda.rc thc dcnsit.y of thc m~terud nad tho

v:due ofYoung's tnodulus. For sm:d) extensions (or compressions)

Hookc's Ia.w,accordingto w!dch thc tension v:n'icsa.sth extension,

aetnid Icngth nntural ]ongth

hoids good. Tf

If ,i

tLe extension, viz.

-n

",i

nittundtengtn1

bc callecl c, we liave y=~, whet'o is Young's nioduius, and T

is th tension per unit m'en,ncccssary to producc thc extension e.

Young's moJnhis maythercforc be dcancj as tlie forcewhiehwould

ha-veto bc appHcd to a bar of unit section, in oi'dcrto doub]c its

length, if Hooke's law contiuncd to hold good for so grea.t extenthose of a forcedivided by an

sions; its dimensionsare a.ccol'd.ing~y

area.

The torsional vibrations depend aiso on a second clastic constant IL, whose interprtation will be considered in the proper

place.

Although in tlleory the threc classes of vibrations, depcnding

respectively on rsistance to extension, to torsion, and to ncxurc

are quitc distinct, and independent of one another so long as th

squares of the strains may be neglectcd, yct in actual exprimenta

with bars which are ncititer uuiform in matcria).nor accuratcly

cyliudrical in figure it is often found Impossible to excite longitudinal or torsional vibrations withont tlie accompanimentof some

measure of latral motion. In bars of ordinnry dimensions tb

gravest lateral motion is far graver than tbo gravest.longitudinal

or torsional motion, and consequently it will generally happcn that

thc principal tonc of either of th latter kinds agres more or less

perfectly in pitch witli some overtone of th former kind. Under

such circumstances thc rcgidar modes of vibrations becomc

uustabic, and a small irregularity may prcduce a great effect, Thc

dimculty of exciting purely longitudinal vibrations in a bar is

similar to that of getting a string to vibrato in one plane.

With this explanation we may proceed to consider tbe threc

classesof vibrations independently, cominencingwith longitudinal

vibrations, which will in fact raise no mathematical questions

beyond those aiready clisposeclof in th previous chapters.

190

LONGITUDINAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

D.50.

parallel to its tcngth,

the stretching is in gnral

accompanied by latral contraction in

su~-ha manner tha. th ~<)

of v<Juiuo I~ss than if

th dplacement of cvcry particlc wcrc

paraHc!to thc axis. In the

case of a short rod andof a partiel situated ncar tlic

cyliudrical

this

L~tcral

motion would bu comp~ble iu

bonndary,

jn~nitudc

with thu longitudinat motion, and eou]d not bc ovorlookcd

without

risk of considrable crror. But where a

rod, whosc Io)gth is grc~t

in proportion to tho lincM-dimensions of

its.section, is subjcct to

a strctching of onc sigu

tliroughont, t)ic longitudinal motion accumultes, and thus In th caso of ordinary rods

vibratmg lon.din

thc

tu()in:d!y

graver modes, thc inertia of thc hter~motion

may bc negicctcd. Morcover wo shall sco lator how a correction

may bc introducud, if necessa.ry.

Lct bc th distance of th hyer of

particles composino-any

section from thc cqnHibrium position of onc

end, whc.i thc~-od is

unstrctchcd, cithcr by pcrtnancnt tension or as thc rusuit of

bc t]ie <Hsp]accment,so that th actuat

vibrations, an<I !ct

T)~ eqnihbrium and actuai

position is givcn by +

position

of a, nuighbounng laycr

bcing a;+~

rc~-+~+~+~~ f~

is

und thus, if T be thc tension

spoctivcly, tl.c e~~

per

unit arca, acting across thc section,

a:

by

and + 8~. If tl.o arca of tho suetion bu the tension at

.c is

by (1) y~

actiug In thc ngative direction, and at a:+~

tho tension is

~~+~

due to th action of th

adjoining parts is on Die whutc

If p bc tl.e original

density

and thcreforc if ~be titc

acce!erating force acting on it.thc equa-~

DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATION.191

150.] GENERAL

tion of oquilibrium is

of:ui itnprcsscd force. To find th quation of motion wc hve

aud

ouly to replace

by th raction ~gaiust acclration

thus if

p =a~, wo hve

transverse displacuments of a, strctched string, an<) itidicatcs thc

undistnrbud propagation of waves of any type in ttie positive and

ngative directions. Ttie velocity <t is rotative to thc UH~'e<c/<er/

condition of thc bar; thc apparent vuloeitywitb which a disturbn.uce is propugatud lu spacc wilt bc gruatcr in th ratio of th

strctched aud uustrctched Icngths of any portion of thc bar. Tho

distinction is matcrial oniy in t!ic case of permanent tension.

151. For tho actual magnitude of thc vclocity of propagation,

wc liavc

f~=</ p = ~M ~)M,

which is the ratio of the wholo tension necessary (according to

Hoo~c's law) to double thc length of th bar and t)t0 longitudinal

density. If tho samc bar wcrc strctchfd wit)t total tension T,

and wcrG ncxibic, th velocity of propagation of wavcs alung it

would hc ~/(2' /3M). In order titcn that thc vclocity inight bo

thc 8:nnuin titc two cases, Tmust Le ~M,or, in othcr words, tlic

tension would hve to bc t)iat thcorcticaUy nccessary in ordcr to

double tho Icngth. Thc toncs of longitudinaUy vibrating rods

arc thus very high in comparison with tilose obtainable froin

strings ofcompiu'abtc Icngttt.

In titc case of stcel thc viduc of q is about 22 x 10" grammes

weight pcr s<p)are centimtre. To express this In absotnte utnt.s

of force on thc c. f!. S.' systmn, wc ninst mnttipty by 9SU. In

thc same syston thc dcnsit.yof stcct (Identical witb its spcifie

gravity rcferrcd to water) is 7'8. J~-nec fur steel

of tboDritiBliAasociatiu. Brit. Ase. Report, 1873.

102

LONGITUDINAL

VIBRATIONS

OJ BARS.

fiS].

velocity of

-~el is

cent.n.etre.sper second, or about 1G ti~es grc.ter

~ut. 0,000

Lhc

L samc as

"T in .stec].

It ought to bc nicntioncd th<itin strictnoss

t.hc value nf dctcrminedby.statua! expc.ri.ncnta is not that wiuch

o~ht tu be ~scd

hre As in th

of ga.cs, .vbi.~ will bc.trcntod lu a

c~c

.subscq~nt

chaptcr, thc mp,d

altcration.s of state co.~crnc-diu t)~

pr.p~tion ofsounJ arc tende.! witli

ther,~ e~cts, onc rusul~of

to n~e

thc active va!ne

cf bcyond tl.at obtaluod

~nch

on c.xtcn~. co.luct.cd at a

constant tc,np~

from cbscrvat.~s

turc

But tho d.ta arc not prcise

to m..d<cthis con-cction

ci any consGqucnccni tlie c~sc of enoug]~

solids.

v~

vibrations ofau uniimited bar,

n:unc]y

'<~tud;na]

~=7(~-a<)+~(~+~),

bcing the same as t~t appHc~Ie to a string, need not be

furti~r

eonsidered hcre.

Whcn both ends of a bar are

fre~ titere is of course no pcrminent tcns.on, and at the ends the.n.sdvc.s

titerc is no

tcn~rv

tension. Thoconditiouforaf.-cec.ndisthcrefore

~=0.

le doter~nc t)~ nor.ual n,odc.sof

vibration, wo must assume

vanes as a harmonie function of tho

timc-cos7i~

th~t~

TI~n

as a function of .r, ,nust

satisfy

Now

sinco~vanishcs

again smce

an<!

g vanishcs ~~cn ~=/-thc

bar, sin ~~=0, wbich sl~cws tih.Lt is oftiie form

t'bcingiutc'graj.

152.]

BOTHEXTREMITIES

FREE.

193

form

<

<!esh'cd.

Thc complete solution for Il bar with both ends frce is thcroforc cxprcssed by

whcrc

and arc arbitrary constants, wliieh may bc detcrmincd

in the usu:d mauncr, whun thc Iuiti:d values

arc

of

aud

givcu.

A zcro vainc of i is admissible it gives a term

rcprcsentmg a.

dispIn.ecmGnt constant with respect both to spn.cc and tuno,

aud amounting in fact only to an altration of the origin.

TIic period of the gravcst component in (6)

corresponding to

which is thc tinlc occuhiedby a. disturhanee in

t=I, is 2~

travelling twice the Icngth of t)io rod. The other toncs fonnd

Ly ascribing integral values to i form a complte harmonie scale i

so that according to tliis theory tl)c note givcn

hy a rod in

longitudinal vibration would bc in aU ca~cs muslca.1.

In thc gravest mode thc centre of the rod, whcro /c=

is a

place of no motion, or nodc; but thc periodic elon~ation or comf~ is thcrc a maximum.

pression

153. The case ofa bar with onc end frec and the other fixed

may be deduecd from th gcncral solution for a bar with both

ends froc, and of twice the Icngth. For whatever !rmy be ttie

initial statc of thc bar froc ut .B=0 n,nd ftxcd at x = l, sucii displacements a.ud velocitius ma.ya.!waysbo ascribed to the sections

ofabarextending from 0 to 2~ and frce a.t both ends as shaH

make thc motions of th parts from 0 to Identical in th two

cases. It is only ncccssary to suppose that from to 2~the displacements and vclocitics arc initially cqual and opposite to thosc

found in thc portion from 0 to at an cqnal distance from thc

ccutre x =

Uiidcr thcsc circumstanccs tho centre must by

tl)c symmr-try rcm!).inat rest throughout t)ie motion, and thcn thc

R.

13

194

H 5 3.

required conditions. We conc udc that the vibrations of a bar frce

at one end and fixed at tho

othcr arc ~dcnfj.d ~L .h.

of

bar uf twice the

longth of whichboth ends arc free, thc latter

vibrating only n

unevcn modes, obtained by

in successiona))~

~king

i~~

T!~ tones of tlie bar still

te

a

hannomc ~.h, b~'

belong

cvcn toncs (octave, &c.of th

fund.menta!) are .vauting.

Th period of the gravest tone is th

time occupicd by a

pulse

in travelling/b~ timcs the

length of th bar.

154. ~)cn both ends of a bar are

fixed, the con(litions to

be satisfied

that the value

~t~

At K-0, we may

that

suppose

~=0 At

& is a small1

constant .h

is zero if

j no permanent tension.

"'1:"

dep.n.).nt)y of' th. vibrations w.),av.

~idcnt)y

f~T<

we should obtain our result most

simply bt~M'

this tenu

at once. But it may

method.

that as a fonction ofthe

Assuming

timc

~COS7!f~+ 7?sinK~,

varies as

satisfy

J

values of t,

<. rC'=0,

n nnd

~) thus

we may write

BOTH EXTREMITIES

154.]

FIXED.

1!)5

(ft-on

which ])owcvcr any of the mcmbo-s may bo

mi.ssiug ni any

actua! case of vibration), and tho period of the

gravest componcnt is the tinic takcn by a pulse to travc! twice tho Icnn-t.b

of th rod, thc sa)nc thcroforo as if both ends wcre frec. It

nnist be observed thnt we hve bore to do with thc MH~r~c~~

length of th rod, and that th period for a givcn natural length

is ludependent of the permanent tension.

The solution of the problcm of the doubly fixed bar in the

case of no permanent tension might aiso bc derived from t)iat

of a doubly free bar by mcrc ditfcrfmtiation with

respect to .c.

For in thc latter problem

quation, viz.

masmuch ns

(I' ~.E~

d

satis~cs

= a2

(le

<

vanishcs. According!y

iu this problem

(lx

dx

satisfies ail tl~e conditions prcscribed for

in the caso when

both ends arc ~xcd. The two sries of toncs are thus identicul.

155. Thc effect of a small ioad ~f attac])cd to

any point of

the rod is rcadi]y ca!cu)ated

approxnnatc!y, as it is sufncient

to assume thc type of vibration to bc uuaitcrcd

( 88). \Vc

will takc the case of a rod nxed at .~=0, and free at .t'=

The

kinetic cncrgy is proportinnal to

or to

~G

LONGITUDINALVIBRATIONSOFDARS.

[155.

cncrgy is uudtcred, we sec by t!ic prmciples of Chapter iv., th~t tho cfrcct of ti~) sma!) !o~

at a

'h~ucc &: u'u:ti Lhe iixcd cud is to inci-cMCthe

period of' tho

compouent toucs in thc mtiu

wholo mass of th rod.

Iftheload

and tlic

sm'~=l,

effect is to dcprcss the piteli of

cvery tone by t!ic s~mc small

mtcn'd. It will bc rcmembei-udt!)at i is hei-can MMC~t

mtcgcr.

If the point of .~chmcut of J!f bo nodc of

any componcnt,

tlie pitch of that eojupouontronams uualtcrcd

by th addition.

150. Another problem worth notice occurs whcn t]to load ~t

thc frcc end is grc~t iu

compiu-isoi with thc masa of thc rod.

In th)3 CMCwo inay assume as thc

type of vibration, a. condition

of Utntbrmextension

along tlic Icngth of the rod.

If bc tttc displaccmcnt of thc load 3/, tho kinetic cncrgy is

thus cquivalent

to t)ic dition to ~ofone-third of thc

mass of the rod.

1.~7. Our mathem~tic~ discussion of

JongitudinfLlvibrations

close

with an estimatc of thc cn-or invo!vcd in

nmy

ncgieetinrr

tttc latc.ral n.ut.ou of thc

of

th rod net situatcd on tlic

parts

157.]

CORRECTION

FOR LATERAL

MOTION.

197

denutcd bj.

i,injhuerai disp~acoment of a.

particie distant

?-from thc axis will bc ~re, in the case of

cquilibnum, where e is

the cxtcMsion. Altiiougli in strictiless this relation will bc

modiiicd by tho Incrtia of thc httcl-al motion,

yct for thc prsent purpose it may bc supposed to hold good.

TIic constant /t is uumerical

quantity, lying between 0 and

If/~worc ucgativc, a longitudinal tension would produce a latral

were greater tbau

swelting, and if

tlie lateral contraction

would bc grcat oicugh to ovcrbalance th

elongatiou, and cause

a diminution of volume on the whole. Th latter

statc of thin~

would be mconsistclit witli

stability, aud tlie former can scarccy

be possible in ordinary solids. At one time it

was supposed

was nccessarily equal to

that

so tliat thcro was

only one

independoiit clastic constant, but oxperimcuts have since shcwu.

that is variable. For glass and brasa Wcrthchn found

expcri=

nicutally /t

If dnote tlie lateral displacement of thc particlc distant r

from the axis, and if thc section bo

circular, th kinetic encrgy

duc to t]ie lateral motion is

thct'cfoi-c<o

Inercascthe poriod m thc ratio

graver modes of

bars of oi-dinaryproportions of

length to thickness.

198

[158.

v.'itii icds of dc~l r ot' g!a.~s. Tho vibmtbns arc cxcitcd by

friction, with a wet doth in the case of glass; but for mtal or

wooden rods it is neccssa.ryto use Icather charged with powdered

rosin. "T!tc longitudinal vibrations of a pianofortu string may bc

cxcited by gcnt)y rubbing it longitudinaUy wIHi a piece of india

rubber, and those of a violin string by p!a.cing the bow obliqucJy

across the string, and moving it aiong thc string loogitndina.Hy,

kecping tire same point of thc bow unon th strirtg. Thc note is

unpjcasn.ntiysin'ill in bot!i ca.sus."

"If t]te peg of thc vioini bc turncd so as to attc't' thc pitcb of

th lateral vibrations vcry considcrabty, it will be found tba.t t))u

pitch uf'th ]ongitudina.ivibrations )ias:dt(ired vcry shghtty. Tim

rca~on uf this is tha.t in thc case of t)tc lateral vibrations thc

ehtuigc of vclocity of wavc-transmission dpends cbicny on t)io0

change of tension, which is considrable. But in thc case of thc

longitudinal vibrations, thc change of vclocity of wavc-transniission dpends upon th change of extension,which is comparativcfy

sligttt'

In Savart's expci'Imcnts on longitudinal vibrations, a, peculia.r

sound, calted hyhim a "son rauque," was occasionaMyobservcd,

whosc pitcii was an octave below tl)at of tbc longitudinal vibration. According to Terquem" thc cause of this sound is a transverse vibration, whuse appcarance is due to an approximatc

agrecmcntbetwee)i Itsown pcriod and that of the sub-octave of thc

longitudinal vibration. If this view be correct, the phenomenon

wuld be one of th second order, prubabiy referable to the fact

that longitudinal compression of a bar tends to produce curvature.

15!). Thc second class of vibrations, ca)ted torsional, whic!i

dpend on t!te rsistance opposed to twisting, is of very small

importance. A solid or hoi)ow eylindricat rod of circular section

may be twistcd by suitable forces, applied at the cuds, in suctt a

nianuer that cach transverse section remains in its own plane.

But if thc section be not circular, th cneet of a twist is of a

]norc compticated cliaractcr, the twist being necessarUy attendcd

by a warping of th layers of matter originally composing tho

nornud sections. Altijough tho enccts of th warping might proDoukin'H

~c')t~t'M,

p. ~i.

~'f.

C'Anott-, Lvn.

12U1!)U.

159.]

TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS.

199

'.vhi!c, v~jh:I

c~nnti. our~ivc~ iicrc t,o dm c~e ut' c~-cutai

section, wheu there is uo motion pa.r:~telto the axis ofthe rod.

Th force with which twisting is resisted

depends upon an

clitstic constant different from q, ca.Hed th

rigidity. If we denote it by n, tlie relation

betweenq, m,a.nd may be written

M=~.

and

of a thin tube of ra.dius r a.ud thickness ~r, and Ict dnote

t]io

angular displacement of any section, distant a: from the origin.

Thc rate of twist at a: is reprcsentcd

by

material composing the pipe by

r~.

umtof area

is~

round the axis is

The opposing force per

equation appUcato a

cyliader of fmitc thickness or to one solld throughout.

The velocity of wa,vepropagiitionla

A/

is prccisely similar to that of longitudmal

vibrations, the condition

TIiornson

aodTait.683. This,it ahouldbo remarkcJ.appliesto inotropic

mntcria!on]y.

200

LONGITUDINAL

7/]

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

and for a fixed end

'C = 0,

permanent twist be coutempla.tcd, = constant.

[159.

= 0, or, if a

vibrations in tlie ratio

or ~/(3+ 2~) I. Th samc ratio

applics to the frcqucncics of vibration for bars of cqna! Icngth

vibra.ting in corresponding modes under corrcsponding termint

conditions. If == the ratio of frequencies would bc

:=~/8

:3=1'G3,

corresponding to an interval ratitcr grcatcr than a nftb.

In any case tbc ratio of frcqucncicsmust lie between

V2 1 = 1-414, aud~/3 1 = 1-732.

Longitudinal and torsional vibrations were nrstinvcsti"-atcd bv

Cbladni.

CHAPTER

VIII.

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F BARS.

160. IN tho present chapter wc sliall consider the lateral

vibrations of thin ctastic rods, which in thcir natural condition arc

straight. Next to those of strings, this class of vibrations is perhaps tlie most amenable to thcoretical and exprimental treatment.

Thcre is dimculty sufncieut to bring into prommenco somc important points connected with th gnerai theory, which th familiarity of th reader with circular functions may lead him to pass

over too Hghtiy in th application to strings; while at the same

time the difficultiesofanalysis arc not such as to engross attention

which should be devoted to general matliematical and physical

principles.

Daniel Bernoulli' scems to have been tlio first who attae~ed

th problem. Euler, Riccati, Poisson, Cauchy, a.nd more reccntly

Strehiko", Lissajous",a.nd A. Scebeck~ arc foremost among thoso

who have advanced our knowledge of it.

161. Thc problem divides itsolf into two parts, according to

the presence, or absence, of a permanent longitudinal tension.

Thc considration of permanent tension entails additional complication, and is of interest only in its application to stretchcd

strings, whose stiffiiess, though small, cannot bc neglecte altogether. Our attention will therefore bc given principally to the

two extrme cases, (1) whcn there is no permanent tension,

(2) when the tension is thc chief agent in the vibration.

t. xnt.

/<M<J'<'<r~).

C'oHUMn<.

rogg.~;t)!.Bd.xxvu.

~;)~.f!.Chimie

(H),xxx.!}85.

d. !rfj!C;td. ~/<!< J'/ty~.ClassefL/C..S'<M'/.

CMC~M/t~/t

~h/!))~~f~<'M

sc/t<fc)t.Leipzig,1852.

202

[161.

suppose that

one principal axis lies m thc phuic of vibration, so that t!ic

at cvcry part takcs p!acc iu a direction of maximum or bendinomiuimm~

(01 st,atinary) rtcxunUri~idity. For uxample, thc surface of thc

rod may bc onc of rvolution, cach section

bdug circular, thoun-h

not ncccssarilyof constant radius. Under t!icsc

circumstances thc

potentiaJ cncrgy of th bending for each clment of lungth is

proportional to the square of thc curvaturc multiplied by a

qnantity

dcpcnding on thc matcriid of t))e rod, and on thc moment of

inertia of thc transvcrsc section about an axis

t))rough its centre of

inertia pcrpeudicuhu-to tlie plane of bending. Jf

be thc area

ofthe section,

its tnomcut of inertia,~ Young's

moduius,~ th

clonent of icugth, and ~F' t)ic

corrcspouding poteutial energy for

a curvature 1

of tlie axis of the rod,

coDsidermgthe extension of

th varions filaments of whicli the bar

may Le supposed to bo

made up. Lot be tlie distance from the axis of thc

on th piano of bending of a nl&ment of section ~M. projection

TIien thc

length of the niament is altered by the bending in th ratio

thc axis for

whidi~ is positive, viz.on th o~c~

side, a filament is extended,

while on thc other side of th axis there is

compression. Tho

force necessaryto produce th extension

by the deiiiis (~

tion of Young'smodulus; and thus th whole

couple by which th

is

resisted

amounts to

bending

gyration about

a Imc through tlie axis, and

perpendicular to the plane of bending.

The angle of bcuding

correspondingto a length of axis ds is

aud thus the work rcquired to bend o~ to curvature 1 Ti!!q

c

~t

siucc th Mea?;is hdfthc~~

161.]

203

Th~t th potential Ct'icrgyofthcbcndingwoutd bc proportionn.1,

cc~e?'tN

~ft~tfs, to the squ:).roof thc cut-Yidure,is vident bcforehand. If wc en!!tho couificiotitJ9, wo may tako

thc rod w!iosc abseissa,mc'asurcd paraltel to th undisturbed position, is x. In th case of a rod whose sections arc similar and

siniiladysituated 7~is a constaiit, and may bc removed from under

the intgral sign.

Tho kinetic cncrgy of thc moving rod is derived partly from

tlie motion of translation, parallel to of th lments composing

it, and partiy from tlie rotation of th same elements about axes

through thcir centres of inertia perpendicular to th plane of vibration. Th former part is expressed by

only to observe that th angula.]'displacement of thc lment dx is

Th square of this

therefore its angu!a.r vclocity

",a.nd

(~uantitymust bc multiplied by haf t!ie moment of inertia. of tho

We thus obtain

clement, tliat is, by ~m <

ourselvcs of tlie principle of virtual velocities. If for simplicity we

confineourscivcs to the case of uniform section, we have

204

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[162.

Intgrt sign are to be t~cn hetwu

th I.nuts. This expression inctu.ics

ouiy t])e internat forces due

to tlie ben<hng. In what futlowa ~ sh.U!

.s..pposcti.at there are

no forces Mting from wltlinut, or ra-thcr none that

<)owork upon

t))c System. A force of con.stramt, suc)i as th!it

to ]iotd

ncccssary

of

the hn.r at rc.st, need not bc

any pu.nt

it do~ no

work and therctore cannot appcar in t!~c rcgn.rded,

quation of virtual veioettics.

Thc virtual moment of tlie acclrations is

is

between th limits. From this we mte~-al sign arc to h.. takcn

Jer~edatallpo~ofthel~t~f~~

..J~. tud

Jongi

inl11

lVilVl'S.

1G2.]]

TERMINALCONDITIONS.

205

forma according to thc circumstances of tlic case. It is possible to

conceive a constraint of such a nature that thc ratio 8 ( ")

8vhas

obtained from (5) by introduction of this ratio. But in aH the

cases that we shaH hve to consider, there is either no constraint

or th constraint is such that eithcr 8

or Sy vanishes, and

[-")

thon th boundary conditions take the form

an end be frcc, 8y and S

( ~)

becomc

acts at thc frec end, and tlie second that no force acts.

If th direction at th end be frec, but the end itself he constrained to romain at rcst by the action of an applied force of the

necessary magnitude, in which case for want of a botter word the

rod is said to be supported, th conditionsare

A third case crises w!)cu an cxtrcmlty is constramcJ to maintttin its direction by a.n applied couple of the necessary magnitude,

but is free to take any position. We ha-vcthcn

position and direction, in which case thc rod is said to be c~n~ec~.

Thc conditions arc plainly

206

[162.

Of these four cases th first and last are the more important

tlie third we shall omit to consider, as there are no exprimentt

means by which the contomplated constraint could bc rcaHzed.

Even with tins simplification a considrable varicty of problems

romain for discussion, as cither end of thc bar may bc frco,

clamped or supportcd, but the complication thencc arising is not

so groat as might have hccn expected. We shaH find that

difforent cases may be treated togethcr, and that thc solution

for onc case may sometimes bc dcrivcd immediately from that of

another.

In cxperimcnting on thc vibrations of bars, thc condition

for a clamped end may bu rcahzcd with thc aid of a vice of

massive construction. In thc case of a frec end thero is of course

no difilculty so far as thc end itself is concerned but, whcn both

ends are free, a question arises as to how th weight of the bar

is to be supportcd. In order to Interfre with the vibration

as little as possible,th supports must be connned to th ncighbom'hood of th nodal points. It is sometimcs surHcicntmcrely

to !ay th bar on bridges, or to pass a loop of string round the bar

and draw it tight by screws attached to its ends. For more exact

purposes it wou!d perliaps bc prcferabJc to carry th weight of

th bar on a pin travcrsing a holc driHed through th middie of

th thickness in thc plane of vibration.

Whcn an end is to ba 'supported,' it may be pressed into

contact with a fixed plate whoso plane is perpendicular to the

longth of the bar.

1G3. Before procccding fnrthcr we shall introducc a supposition, which will greatly simplify thc analysis, without set-iolisly

intcrfcring with th value of tlie solution. We sliall assume that

th terms depending on th anguhu' motion of the sections of

th bar may be neglected, which amounts to supposing the

tHer~ of' each section conccntratcd nt its centre. We shall

afterwards ( 180) investigate a correction for th rotatory inertia, and shall provo that under ordinary circumstances it is

mail. Tho quation of motion now becomcs

')M.

163.]

HARMONIC VIBRATIONS.

207

thc assumption of the harmonie form ofy. We may convenicntly

take

whose value ha.s to be deternimed. Substituting ni (1), wo

obtain

p"*

If M==e be a, solution, we see that p Is one of tlie fourth

roots of unity, viz. +1, 1, +t, t; so that the complte

solution is

Wc have still to satisfy thc four boundary conditions,-two

for each end. These detcrmino th ratios A

(7 -D, and

furnish besides an equation whieh '?~must satisfy. Thus a series

of particular values of w a.rc alone admissible, a.nd for cach ?~

th coiTcspondingicis determincd in everything except a constant

multiplier. Wc shall distinguish the different functions u belongiug to the sa.mcsystcm by suffixes.

Thc value of y at any time may bc cxpanded in a series of

the functions

( 92, 03). If <

&c. be tho normal coordiDates,we have

and

intcgrated product of the functions vanishes, and tl]crcforc th

process of th followiiic,section need not bc regarded as more

It is however rcquircd in order to determine

than a Mr(/?ce[<t'o?t.

th value ofthc intcgra.ted squares.

308

[164.

IC't. Lot

rcspcctivcly, and thcn ixtugmtc over thc lungHi uf thc biu',

we!ia.vc

Now whcthcr thc end in question bo cla.mpcd,supportctt, or

free', eacli terni vanishcs on account of one or other of its

factors. We may therefore couchtdc that, if M~,?< rcfcr to two

modes of vibration (corrcspondingof course to th same terminal

conditions) of -wincha rod is capable, then

providcd

The

attentive

rcader will peroive that in the proccss mst

foiowcd, we ha.vc in fact rctraecd thc stops by w)nch t))c fnndamcntd diicrcntial quation was itsctf provcd iu 1G2. It is the

Tho ronder ahonitl obscrvn t)nit tho eftscs hcro RpoeificdMGpa.rticuJn.r andV

thnt tho right-hand monbt'r of (;!)Vtuushcs,provided t.)t)tt

<~

~j

t:Llll

<~

~m<<j:

~.E

<

f/

towm'Jsits position of L'quili)')-iu)uLyn terce pr~portional to thc dispUtcc'ment,as

by n spring witimut inertia.

209

CONJUGATE PROPERTY.

164.]

originat MM'M!<MK<i!

cquatio!) that ha.s the most nnmcdin.te conncctiun with tho conjug~tc propcrty. If we dcnotc by Maud Sy

by~.

TIie reader may investigate the formula corresponding to (6),

whcn th term l'cprescnting tlie rotatory inertie is retnined.

By !ne!msof (G)we m!iyverify thn.t tlie admissible varies of n2

aro rca.1. For if 7~ were complex, and 1t= a + !3 were a normal

function, thcn a i,8, th conjugatc of u, would bc a normal

fonction also, corresponding to tlie conjugate of ?~,and thon tlie

product of the two functions, being a. sum of squares, would not

vanish, whcn Ititcgratcd

If in (3) w. and ?~' hc the samc, thc quation hecotncs Idcntica.lly truc, and wc cannot at once Infcr the value of n~

Thismcthofl

is,I bdicvo,t!notoroisson.

R.

14

210

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0FBARS. [164.

th equation as 87~tends to vanish. In this way we find

Now whether an end be clamped, supported, or free,

M~"=0,

~V=0,

and thus, if we take the origin ofa; at one end of the rod,

==~(~-2~V+~),(8).

Th form of our integral is independent of th terminal condition at x =0. If th end = b& free, M"and u"' vanish, and accordingly

that is to say, for a rod with one end free the me~n value of u' is

one-fourth of tbe terminal value, and that whether the other end

l)e clamped, supported, or free.

1G4.]

VALUES0F INTEGRA/FED

SQUARES.

vanisL, a)id (8) givc's

==

211

n.ndM

Since tins must huld good whatevcr be the termina.l condition n.t

the other end, wc sce tliat for roJ, one end of which is fixed and

theot.itcrfree,

shewing thnt in t)iis case M'at the frec end is the samc as M"'a.t

thc c!ampe() end.

TIie a.!i!)cxedtable gives t)ic vahiesof four times th mea.nof M*

in thc diffrent cases.

M(ft'ccend),ot'M"'(cIu.mpedend)

c!tunped,frpf.

M'(ft-Rccnd)

free,ft'eo

M' (clampcd end)

clf~mped,c]!i)npcd

2~

supportcd, supported

(supportcd end) = 2~"

M"(freo end), or -2M'M'" (supported end)

supported, ft-eo

snpported, chmpL-d M"' (damped end), or 2M'M'"(supported end)

assumes a. simpler form. In th case, for example, of a clampedfree or a frec-frec rod,

is supposed to befrce.

165.

values of

and

In the derivation of equation (7) of the

jM"~c,

preceding section nothing WM assumed beyond th truth of th

equation M""=M, and since this quation is equally true of any

of th derived functions, we are at liberty to replace Mby M' or u".

Thus

142

212

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

c~es.

OF BARS.

[1G5.

at thc two ends. WhcUtcr u bc positive or ngative at a' =~, ')(t/

is positive.

For a rod which is clamped at a:= 0 n.ndfree at

M"'=u/, so that

=l

By n.pplyingthc same quation to tlie cva.inn.tionof ~M'

find

wc

Comparing tins with (8) 1G4-,wc secthat

Tho samc result maybc arnvud at more dirccMyby intcgmting

by pa.rtsth equation

213

NORMAL EQUATIONS.

1CG.]

normal co-ordina.tcs.

If

sion

thc

fonctions

:t

bc

thosc

propcr

to

nt ~=

t)us

expres-

reducesto

furcusduring tlie dispin.ccmcnt8~

If thcre be no impresscd forces,the cquatiou reduces to

~+

1C7. Th signidc~ucc of the rduction of the Intgrais

te dcpoidcnco on thc terminal values of thc function aud

~(~

its dcnvativcs may be p!a.ccd in n clearcr light by thc foHowing

!me of fu'gmncnt. To fix tlie ideas, considur tho case of a

rod chunpcd at x=(), and free at A-=~ vibrating in the normal

mode cxpressed by u. If a sm:di addition A~ bu madc to the

rod at ttic frec end, th form uf K (cons~ered a~ a function of

~) is ehanged, but, l!i accordaucc with thc gmicral principlG

CHtabii~hcditi Chaptcr iV. ( SH). wc ma.y calcntatc tlic period

214

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F BARS.

[167.

of type, if we are content to ncglect tbe square of thc

change.

In consquence of th strajghtness of thc rod :).tthc place where

the addition is made, therc is no altration in th potentiel

energy, and therefore the altoration uf period dpends eiitirely

on th variation of ?'. This quantity ia incrcased in the ratio

augmcutcd. Now, as wc sliall suc preseutly, tlie actuat pcr!ot!

varies as f, and thet-cforc the change in the square of tlie

period

is in the ratio

M;'

ft(W~

=-i.

but it serves at least to exptain tlie rduction of which ttie intgral is susceptible. Other cases in winch sucli Intgra]~ occur

tnay be treated in a sunitar manncr, but it would often require

care to predict with certainty what atnonnt of discontnunty in the

varicd type might be admitted without passiug out of the range

uf the principle on which the argument dpends. The reader

may, if lie p)cases, examine tlie case of a string Iti the jniddic

of whieh a small piece is Ititerpolated.

168. In treating problems relating to vibrations t!)o usnal

course bas bceu to dtermine in th first place the forms of the

nornial functions, viz. the functions represeuting th normal

types, and afterwards to investigate the intgral formuim by

<neans of which th particular solutions may be conibined to

huit arbitrary initial circumstances. 1 have prefen'ed to follow

a dinercnt ordcr, t)ie bcttcr to bring out the generality of th

jnethud, w/~cA(/oes not depend M~o~(t knowledge of the 7:o?'?~a~

yM/tc~'c~s. In pursuance of th same plan, 1 shali now investigate

168.]

INITIAL

CONDITIONS.

315

the conncction of th arbitrary constants with th initial circumstiUlces,and solvc oue or two problems analogous to those treated

uiidcr th head of Strings.

Th gcnend value of~ ma.y be written

B,.

It must be observed that we do not need to prove analytically

thc possibility of th expansion expressed by (1). If a~ the

particular solutions arc iucludcd, (1) necessarily represents th

most general vibration possible, and may therefore be adapted

to represent any admissible initial state.

Let us now suppose that th rod is originally at rest, in its

position of cquilibrium, and is set in motion by a blow which

imparts velocity to a small portion of it. lilitially, that is, at

thc moment whcn tlie rod becomes free, = 0, and differs from

zero only in th ncighbourhood of one point (x = c).

From (4) it appeurs that the coeiHcients vanish, and from

(5) that

216

LATERAL

CiUling~~<u~,

ha.vc

VIBRATIONS

0F BARS.

[1G8.

If thc blow bc app)ied at a no(te of onc of thc normal componcnts, tha.t conponcnt is missing in th rcsutting motion. Tlie

prcsunt ca.)cu!atiun is but a. pai'Licular c~c of thu investigation

uf101.

ICf). ~a another examplG we may take the case of a

bar,

which is initially at rcst but dcHected from its natural

position

hy a latral force acting at .'c=c. Undor thse circumstances

the coefficientsB vanish, and tlie others arc

given by (4), 1G8.

Now

iutcgml sigii arc to 'bc takcn

bctwccu tlie inuits; by t))e nature of th c:).sc satisdes tlie

169.]

SPECIAL

CASES.

217

and thus a.ll thse tcrms

vanisli a.t both limits. If tlie external force initially applied

bc yi~c, th cq~a.tion of equilibrium ci' tlie

to thc .cicmeut

har tri vos

a. force applicd in thc immdiate mjighbuurhuod ut' t))c punit

a; = c. wc tiave

th ends, but

any special assumptiuns as to the couttitions at

if we nowconfine curscivus to ttte case of fiba.t'which is c!cnnpcd

at a;= 0 aud irec at x = l, ve may replace

Ifwc suppose furthcr that the force to whk-h thc Initial dcHcetio))

is duc acts at th end, so that c= wc get

Whcn t=0, this cquadon nuist represent t)'c initiid dispjacc:tncnt. Iti cases of this Idnd di~culty tnay pi-cscnb itMu[fas

to !)0\v it is possible for the series, cvery terni of which satisfics

th condition y"' = 0, to rcprcs~nt au initial displacement Iti

which tins condition is violated. Th iact is, that after triple

tlic series no longer converges

diH'crentiation wiHt respect to

for a~, and accurdingly the value of y" is not to be ~rrived

at hy making the diHerentia.tioas first and summing the terms

218

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[1G9.

<vecousiJer a point distant dl from the end, and replace

the reader is referrecl to 101.

170. Thc forms of tlie normal functions ni the varions p!u'ticutar cases arc to bc obtained by deterimuing thu ratios uf thc

four constants iu thc gnrt solution of

be written for

th solution may

heputintothofonn

by

th quations

1 hve foltowed thc usual notation,

though thc introduction of

a special symbol might vcry weHbe dispcnsed with, since

cosha'==cos/.c,

sinha;=-.t'siu

.(3)

w]~t-et== y- 1, and then tI)Gconncctioti between tlie formuh~ of

circular and hypcrbo)ic tngttnoniet.rywou)dLe moi-c

apparent. Th

ruics for diiTurcntiationarc cxprcs.sedin ttic

cquatiuus

In diicrentlating (1) any number oftimes, the same four compound funetions as thcrc occur are contmuaUy reproduced. Th

on!y one of them which does not vanish with is cos a;' + cosh ic,

wbosevalue is thon 2.

170.1 ]

NORMAL FUNCTIONS

FOR FREE-FREE

BAR.

219

Let us take ~h'st the case in which both cnJs are free. Sincc

C given in (5) ~rc e(tual,

If (7) be satisfied,tlie two ratios of

:m(leither of titcm ma.ybe substituted ia (4-). The constaut multifunction

plier bciug omittud, wc have for thc !iorm:d

a velocity dcpcnding only on the material of which th bar is

material

formcd, a-ndHt.is an abstract number. Hence for a given

and mode of vibration tlie frcqucncy varies clirectly as Kthc

radius of gyration of tlie section about an axis perpendicular to th

~0

fl~I.

rusults might hve bccu

anticip~tcd by thc argument f'rumdimcnStons, tf if worc considrt that t))C frcqnency is

Mcccssari)y

dctci-tninc-dLy tl.e v.d)!e of

togeUtcr widt th~t of ~tho

uuly qu.mtity (]cpendh)g on sj~cc, timc and mass, which occurs in

t)to diH'crcntiidcqn~ion.

If cvcrytitingeonccnnng a bar be given,

cxcept its absolutc m:~It.udc, tiic frettuency vanes

as

invcrscly

thc iincar dimension.

Thcsc I~wsfind an Important application In thc case of

tuning

furks, w))oscprongs vibratc fm rods, Hxcd at t))c ends wherc

thcy

juin the stal!~ and frce at tiie othcr cuds. Thusthc pcriod uf vibration of furks of t.hc samo tnatcrinl and

shapc vancs as thu lincar

dimension. Th period will Le approximatdy

indcpcndent of th

thickncss po-pG!)dicn)arto th plane of

bending, but will vary invcr.scly with thc thickness in thc plane of bcnding. WIien thc

tliiekncss is givcn, tlic penod is as thc

square!of t]ie length.

In ordcr to ]owcr th pitch of a fork we

jnay, for tonporary

purposcs, load thc cnd.s of th prongs witli soft wax, or file away

thc mtal near thu base, thcrcby wcakcnitig thc

sprinn'. To raisu

thc pitch, thc cuds of tit prongs, which act

by inertie may bc

filod.

Thc value of b attains its maximum in tho case of

steel, for

which it amouuts to about 5237 mutt-cs per second. For b'mss

t)ic vcloclty would Le less in about th ratio 1'5 1, so that a

tunni~ fork n~tc of bt-~s woutd bc a.bout a. Hfth lower iu pitch

th~ti ii'thc miLtcrialwere stcd.

172. TIie solution for the ense w!)cn buth ends arc

dampcd

bc

may

un!ncdi)ttu]ydcrived from thc prcccding by a double dif~rcutiation. Since y satisnc~ at both ends tiic terminal conditions

gnerai

dtRerctit.iid eqtmtiot) is a]so s~tisticd hy y". Titu.'jwo

may tal,

oniitting cunst:u]t multiplia-, as bcfur~,

173.]

cos H:cosh ??t=l.(2).

We conctudc that the component tones hvethc samc pitch in tho

two cases.

In each case therc arc four systoms of points determincd by

the evanesccncu of amt its dcrivativcs. WIien vanislies, thore

is a nodc ~hcrc ~anisites,a. loop, or place of maximum displaccmcnt wlicro y" vnnis!)RH,n. point of inftection and whcru

Vimishes,:).

place uf maximum curvaturc. Whcre thercaru in th ni-st

case (frec-fr) points of iuncction and of maximum culture, there

arc in thc second (chunpcd-chunpcd) nodcs and loops rcspcctivcly;

and vice ~er~, points of inftcctiou and of maximum curvature for

a douhly-clampud rod correspondto nodcs aud loops ofa rod whoso

ends arc free.

173. We will nowconsider th vibrations of a rod clamped at

a;=(), and frec at a;=~. Rcvcrting to the guncral intgral (1)

170 we sec that ~1 and C' vanish in virtuo of the conditions at

a;=0, so that

=~

The

remaining

(cos;r'

+ D

cosh~)

at

conditions

(sin

.r

sinh

~')

.(1).

x = givc

J? sin ?~ + sinh ?M)+ D (cos ?K+ eosli~t) = 0 )}

whence,omitting the constant multiplier,

) \f

i ")

sin

u (sin

ne

+

cosh

= (smsinh?~)

M+

t

(~cost

J

(cos?H+

or

(

cosh?~wsm

i "~1

srnii

(2),

i ~~)

-;cos( t cosh tJ

Ma:

(

smm-Sllll1n

+

sinh ??!.v].(3),

+(smm- smhw~sm

6

J

wherc M:must bc a root oflf

M= (cos Mt+ cosh

= 0

(4).

Thc pcriods of the componcnt toncs in th prsent proLIcm arc

thus dincrent from, though, as wc shall see presently, nearly rchttcd to, thosu of a rod both wtiose ends are clamped, or frcc.

222

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[173.

If th value of !( in (2) or (3) be diftcrentiatcd twice, the rcsult (!) satisfies uf course t!ic fundamcntal diffcrential cqua.tion.

At .u=0, ,t",

but nt.<;=~ M"a.nd-rva.nish.

<

~.c")i"ani.sh,

~.r

The function ?<"is therefore applicable to a.rod clumpcd ft.t and

free at 0, proving that th points of inncction and of maximum

curv~ture in th origina.1curve :u'c at th samc distances from the

clampcd end, as thc nodes and loops respcctiydy arc from tiic free

end.

174'. In dcfault of tn.htcs of tho hyperLoHccosine nr its !ogarithin, th admissible vaincs of M may bc ca)cu!atcd as follows.

Ta.lun~ nrst ttic cquation

we see tha.t ~t, when Jfu'gc, must a-pproximate in value to

~(2t +1) Tr, i being au intcgcr. If we assume

Substituting in (1), wc find

y

eot~=~=~

in ascending powers of th small

cxpamHng tan~ and e

<;uantity/3. The result is

By cn.lcula.tion.

/3, = -OI79CGG -0003228+ 0000082

-0000002 = -017C518.

~t. ~g,

th first term of

ttie sries gives~3 correctly as far as six significant ~g~ires. Th

Thia prncoRs ia aomewhat Himi!ar to that adopted by Strehikp.

CALCULATION

OF PERIODS.

174.]

223

/3, and tlie value of siu ~/3, whichwillbe required fm'ther on.

-F'ee-Free j~~)'.

in dcgroea,

oxproHsed

minutcH.tmdtiCcondt).

.q

1

2

3

4

5

10'' x -17G518

10-777010

10-" x-335505

10-'x-144989

10-'x-C2C55G

Th values of

2'40"-2G99

C"-92029

-2MOG2

-0129237

~2'

~3

10-' x -88258

10-'x-38850

10-1G775

10-" x-72494

10"'x-31328

M, = 4-7123890 + /3, =

M, = 7-8539816 /3, =

= 10-9055743+ =

= 14-137~1669

=

4-7300408

7-8532046

10-995C07S

14-1371655

e"=cot~=~e~

where however

a' = e~

as that of /3, though the corresponding sufHxesare not the same.

In fact

~=~,

a,=/3,cf~=/3.

so that we ha-ve nothing furthcr to calculate than c(~for which

however the series (4) is not sufHcientIyconvergent. Th value

Thiaconnexionbetweena and ~3doesnot a.ppeMto havebeenhitheto

noticed.

224

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[174.

log~cot a, 'C821S82 --t342:)-<-48

a, = 0,

a.nd will bc found tu bc

a.=-304.3077.

Another method by wbieh /)!, may bc obtamcd (Hrcct)ywill bc

givcn prescntty.

Thc vaincs of ?~ wtiich satisfy (5), arc

M, = 1-57079M+ a, = 1-S7.~04

= 4-C94737

w, = 4'7123890

M, = 7-85M.S1C+ aa = 7'85-)<758

= 10'!)!)55743

= ]0'9!).554.1

7)!, = 14'137tCC9+ a6= 14'137JU8

= 17'278759,1

7M,= 17-278759G

aftcr which 7H= ~(2t l)'7r Rensibly. Thc frcqncncics are proportional to ?M",and ~re thcrtifurc for the highcr tones ncariy in thc

ra.tio of thc squares ofthe odd nmnbers. Howcvcr, in thc ca~c of

ovcrtcnes of vcry high order, thc pitch may bo stightiydisturbed

by thc rotatory inertia, whosc effect is Itcre ncglectcd.

175. Since th componcnt vibrations of a system, Dot subject

to dissipation, arc nccessa.rilyof tlic harmonie type, n!! the values

of Mt",which satisfy

cosM

cosh

m =

l.(l),

w, w

1, ??i.

1. Hence, taking nrst th lower sigt], wo

hve

If we takc thc logarithms of both sidus, cxpand, and cquate cocfHcicuts,we gct

COMPARISO~

175.]

0F l'J/J'CH.

225

witli tlie aid ofapproximate values of?y~,w,

Wc fmd

2~

~nd

M~

=-0065t7C2J,

=

-OOOOO.i-237

~=-000000069

~=-000000005.

whencc

w,='OOG5i.33)0

= '187510;'), n.sbefo)-(\

j~iving

9It

1

~W.

'-~+-=~)('

7)r

.Cc.

~n

(4),

(4),

=

crmrsct))p ,;Ill)lnl~itioli

whct'e of

%vliet-e

nf entil-setilt,

sumDin.tionis

Is exclu~~a' :2,tJ)

J &c,

sive ofthc zero value of??{.

wliciice

whcnce S

w". Th interval between any tonc and the gra.vcst of th sries

may con'vcnientiy bc expressed h) octaves and fractions of an

octave. Tins is effected by dividing the diffurencc<ifthc logarithms

of w' hy th logarithm of 2. Thc rcsults are as fotlows

8

r4G2<)

2'C478

2't3.')8

4-1:~2

~'1590

.IO!}G

6

~-8288, &e.

3-7382, ~c.

wliere the first column relates to the toncs of a rod hoth whose

ends are clamped, or free; and the secondcolumn to the case of a

rod clampcd at ottc end but free at th other. Thus from the

second column we find that tlie first overtone is 2'()-t78octaves

higher than th gravest tone. The fi-actioiialpart may be rcduced

to mean semitones by multiplication by 12. The interval i.s then

two octaves + 7'7736 mean scmitons. It will be seen that th

rise of pitch is inuch more rapid than iu th case of strings.

If a rod be clamped at one end and free at th other, th pitch

of the gravest tone is 2 (log 4'7300 log 1'87.51) log 2 or 2-G698

octaves lower than if both ends were clamped,or both free.

R.

15

LATERAL

22G

VJBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[177.

rod vibmtes, wc will transfbrm the expression for M into form

more convcnicnt for nutncrieal odeuladou, takin~ fu'st thc case

when both ends arc free. Sinco w=~(2t+l)7r(l)'/3,

cosM=sin/3, siu?~=cos'7rxeos~3; and thoreforc,

bcing n,

root of cosM ccsh ?/=!,

ccshMt= coscc/?.

AlijO

Hinh"w = coHii"~t

or,

smcc

is positive,

cot/3

= cot/3.

sit)h~

Thus

slM?):8[nh)~

lcos!'7rsin/3

cosMtcosh?~

eus/3

(cos

(COS

ces

COStTT Hit)

~/3

ces

cos

~/3

cos

tTr

sin

cos

'Tr

+ sin

't'Tr sin

~/3)

~)

A/3

(~~ 7T

i~f/3)

SiIl

-~+(-])'~

=~cos<7r.s.n~

Mj

t~

+SHl~e'-COSZ7TCOS~C''

.(~.

If wc furthcr throw out the factor ~/2, an(tput~=l,wc

may ta.ko

M=~+~+7whcrc

= cos '-n-sin {;);

!og7~=

!og

~,=

~7r+ ~( 1//3J

'(2),

~cloge+Iogsin~-logys

Mi~ log

e + log cos

log

~/3

177.]

227

are numcrically

and

cqual i)i ~irtueof e'" =cot ~3. Whcn i is ~fc~ thcsotcrmsea.ncel.

which is cqn:~ to xcrowhcn

For.F~weha.vc ~=(-l)'siu~7r,

i is evcn, tuni to i 1 whoi i is odd. WItcn is even, t)io'cfoi'c,

<hc!sumof thc threctcrms'v:mishcs, and thorc is accordin~y n,

nodc in tlic mi<!d[c.

Whcn = 0, Mreduccs tn 2 (- l)'sin (.~7r

(- 1)'/3}, winch

(since Is a.Iw!).ys

smal!) shows that for no vfttuc of i is t)icre a.

nndo at thc end. If a long ]):u'of steel (hcl(), fur exempte, ut, th

centre) bc gcnt)y t~pped with n, ita.mtncr whilo vtn'ying points of

its length !u-c damped wit)i th nngcr.s,n.n unu.su:d dcaducss in

thc souud will bc uoticcd, as the end is cluscly approacttcd.

178. Wc will now t:).kc somc p:u'ticn!ar cuses.

F~n~'o): w~/t.<wo HOf~M.i = 1.

If -t'=1, th vibration is th ~ravcst of which the rod is capa-btc.

Our fonnuhe bueotnc

=

sin

}

log = 2-054231a; + 1-8494G81,

from whicit is calculatcd titc fuDowlng table, giving thc values of

Mfor a; equal to 'OU,'05, '10, &c.

Thc values of M :M('~)for thc intcrmcdiatc values ofa; (in tlic

last column) werc found by iutcrpoht.tionformulK. If o, ~,?',N,t

be six consccntivc terms, that intcrmcdiatc between aud r is

228

LATERAL

I~

In

VIBRATIONS

7~

I~a

0F

BABS.

?;.

at.

[i78.

~c

M:~(-5)

7c(')

1-45417G

'025

-050 -5292548 -0079059 -5581572

1.0953179 I-2G3134

'075

r0721<!3

-100

'075. -3157243 -0100153

'O1001o3 '~140G005

-440GOC5I '7GGJ401

-7GG3401 1:0721G2

-8837528

'125

-G9<!9004

'150 +-084GIGC -012G874 -3478031

-4451071

-5133028

'17~

-3341(!25

'200 --1512020

-01G072C -2745503 + -1394209 + -1G07819

'225

-0054711

'250 -3786027 -0203G09 -2IG7256

-1G31982

-14151C2

'275

-3109982

'300

-5849255 -0257934 -1710798

-44750GG

-3880523

'325

-5714137

'350

-7586838 -0326753 -1350477

7

-5909G08

-GR15Q32

'375

.7766G2!)

'400

-8902038 -0413934 -10GG045

-7422059

-8559210

'425

-9184491

-450 -9721G35 -0524376

G -0841519

-8355740

-9G35940

'-175

-9908730

'500

+-OGG4285 -OGG4282 -8G7I433 -1-0000000

-1-000000

middie of th rod, it is unneccssary to continue the table bcyond

~='5. Thc curve itself is shewa in Hg. 28.

by interpolation

~1G(i2530

178.]

229

distant from th Huarerend.

?~~A</<re

Vt&)Yt<MM

nodes. i = 2.

FI =s:n ( (450 2'40"-27) .B-4.5" +1' 20"-135)}

3'410604.c+4'438881G

log~=

log (- F,) = 3-410G04 +1-8494850.

iC

-000

-025

-050

-075

-100

-125

-150

-175

-200

-225

~M(0)

-l'OOOO

-8040

-G079

-4147

7

-2274

-0~87

+ -1175

-2G72

-3973

-5037

X

-250

0

-275

-3O

-325

-350

-375

-j00

-425

5

-450

-475

-500

M:-t(0)

+-5847

-6374=

-6620

-6569

-6245

-5653

-4830

-3805

-2627

7

-1340

-0000

In this table, as in th prcecding, th values of !( were calcu]:t.tcddirectiy for x = -000, '050, '100 &e., and intcrpotated for thc

ititcrmediate values. For th position of thc nodc tlie table gives

by ordinary ititerpolatioM a; ='132. C:T.lculatiugfrom th above

formul, wc fiud

~(-1321) =--000076,

M(-1322)=+-OOU88,

\vhen.cex = '132108, agreeiug with the result obta-inedby Strehike.

The place of maximum excursion may be found from the derived

function. We get

('3083)==+ -00~6077,

(.~081)= -0002227,

u' (-308373)= 0.

whence

Hcnce

is a maximum, when a; = -308373 it then attains

the value -6636,which, it should be observed, is mnch less than th

excursion at the end.

230

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BAHS.

[178.

Fig.Si).

7'~= sm [ (G30"+ G")2)

45" 3"-4G],

= 4-33~ .e + 5-0741.~7,

Io~7~ = 4-77.'i!~2 + I-S-~4850.

if~-

th uodcs are ruadi)y foumt by trial and crror. TIms

u (-3558) = -C()()037 M(-3-')59)= + -001047,

whcncc M(-35.~S03)= 0. Thc \t)ut; of :r ibr thc nodc nca.rthe (nid

is -09~ (Scebeck).

Thc position of the loop i.s he.st fuund from t!te dc'rived

function. It ~ppc~rs thut ~'=0, w)ju!i a;=':22UO, ard thc!i

M=34-9.

Tibre is a)so a tuop at thu centre, whcre I)o\vVt.;r

t!tc excursion is not so grc:t.tas at thu two uUters.

eqn:U. lu thc nci~hbom-hoodof t])c )))i<!([)c-,

7'~is L'vidcntlyvury

sni:)]!, if bc modurn.tciy~rc~t, fmd thus t))Cc~uation fur tbu njdcs

rcducus approximateiy to

If wu tr~tisf~nn thc ot'igiu to thc centre of

thc ru(.),~nd rcptacc 7?t

by its approximate vainc K2~+]) Tr wc

Hnd

178.]

GRAVEST

DAR.

231

shcwing tha.t ncM' thc middic of thc bar thc nodcs are uniformiy

spac~d, thc intm'vit.tbctwecn consceutivonodes bcing 2~ (2t+ 1).

Tins t))corct,icn.trusult lias bccu verifiud by tit mca.surcmcutsof

Strchtkc and Lissajous.

F(.'t' mutliods of n.pproxiin:(.tio)inpp)ic:)bic:to thc nudcs nc~r

thc cud.s,whcn i is gre~tur th:n) 3, thc l'cadcr is rcf'~rd to t)tc

mcinnir by Scubcck :di'eu.dytnoutioued 160, :uid to ]3on~in'!t

~tcu:cs (p. 194').

179. Thc ca.lculn.tionsn.rc vcry simitar for tho case of a. bar

a.u.d

clamped at onu end aud frcc n.t thc uthcr. If to:

~'=~+7~+7~ wc hve in gcncrui

Thse

givc

ou

ealcut.i.ti'ti

( 0) = -OOUOOO,

~(-2) =-10297(.-t)= -370G25,

frutn which fig. 31 was cot~tructcd.

~( -G)=-7-t3~2,

~( -8)=riCUO:32,

F(l-())=l-G1222-t,

232

LA.TEHALVtBRATIONS0F J3ARS.

[170.

rod clamped at the other eud are given by Secbcck aud

by Donkin.

2"tonc -22G1.

~'i.(Htu

-132<,

-4ij!')i).

4.to!tu -0!)-t-4.,-3-').')8,-04.3!).

~3

~hm~

4~

4~-7~)75

t,

meanincr

4/-3

that

may bc takcn as the distM)ccof thej)' uodc from th

froc (.'nd,cxecpt for t!tu first tin-ce aud thc last two nodes."

Wlmn buth ends are ft-ce,tlie distances of the uodes from the

ncarcr end are

1" tone '2242.

2'tonc-1321

-a.

'3.')58.

i"'

~tone't-<+2

~i~

~t'+2

4t+2 2

-3

4t'+2'

(corresponding to

thc nodcs of a chunpcd-dampcd rod) arc atso

givcn by SccLeck

1~ point.

l~tf)no

No inaecdon

2"tone.

-f)f)O

3'tone

-03

tl tone

i~"tone..

2"~ point.

i~

4t+2

S.9!)!)3

-in-2LI

t''point.

point,

4.+1 1

~+~

Exccpt in th case of th extrme nodes (\vh!chhave uo corresponding infieettou-point),th nodes :md InHection-poiutsalw~ys

uceur m close proximity.

180. Ttiu casewhcreonc eud of:). rod is ft-ceand the other

s~dous

u~t

ubcd

an

~o~eJ

indcpcndent investigation, as it may be

180.]

POSITION

0F NODES.

233

rufcrrcd to that of a rod with both ends free M'M~ in an e~?t wof~,

For attitc central node

that is, with anode in themiddie.

y aud v" vanish, winch are precisely thc conditions for a supportcd

end. In hkc nianner the vibrations of a clamped-supportcd rod

are the saine as tliose of one-haf uf a rod both wliosc ends are

c)amped, vibrating with a central nodc.

181. The last of tlic six combinations oi' tenninal conditions

occtu's whcn both ends arc supported. Refcrring to (1) 170, we

sec that tlie conditions at x = 0, give ~1= 0, -D= 0 so that

= (<7+ D) sin.e' + (C D) sinh

Since Mand M"vanish when a:' = C' D = 0, and sin Ht= 0.

Hencc the solution is

'J'TT.'r ~TT~X~

<

y=sin -cos~

(1),

course be prcnxcd, and a constant may be addcd to t.

It appcars that tlie normal curves arc tlie sanie as in thc case

of a string stretchcd bctwuen two fixed points, but the scqncncc of

toncs is altogcther dirt'crcnt, tlie frcqucncy varying as tlie square

cf i. Th uodes and InnccLton-points concide, and thu loops

(which arc also the points of maximum curvature) biscct thc distances between thc uodes.

182. Th theory of a vibrating rod mn.ybe appHcdto illtistrate

tlie gcnera.1principle that th natura] periods of a system fulfil the

maximuni-ininilnum condition, and that the greatest of th natural

periods exceeds any that can be obtained by a variation of

type. Suppose tliat th vibration curve of a clamped-free rod is

that in whieh thc rod would dispose itself if dcnected by a force

of

curve may be

appHcd at its free extrcrnity. The quation th

taken to bc

y=-3~+~,

and makes Jy and Jy vanish at

which satisfics << = 0 throughout,

b

Ttius, if thc configuration of th rod at time t be

0, and at

~= (-3~+~)

cos~

(1),

while th

234

LATERAL

J"

kinetic

~ow

VIBRATIONS

OFDARS.

[182.

9

33

n

40 7

2

I.s

l7

cncrgy

and

1] thas 2]

~sin'

~=~

(U)c truc v~tuc of ;) fur tlic gravest tonc) is cqual to

~(~~J.

suthat

shewing that thc i-cal pitch of tho gravest tonc is rather (but

coniparativcfy IitUc)!owerthan t)iatca!culated from the I)ypothetical type. Jt is to bc observed tbat thc

hypothctic:d type in

question violtes thc terminal condition y" = 0. This circumstancc,

however,(tocs not intcrfcro with (hu application of' ti)e pnncipi~

for the assumed typu niny bu

:my whicii wouid bu admissibie as an

unti:d couf~m-atiou but it tends to

provcnt a very dose ngrccJnent of pcriods.

Wc )nny cxpcct a bottur approxitnatiot), ifwc found our calcuI~tioa on thc cnrvc in whici)thu rod wou)d bc d~flectcd a force

by

actiug at somo litttc (ti.stancufrutn thu frcc c-nd,butwcen whicti

and the point of action of the force (.c = c) thc rod would bo

strai~ht, and tbcrcforc witiiout putential cncr~y. Thns

potential eno-gy = (Jy~M~ cos'

Ti)C kinetie cno-~y can bc rcadify found

by intgration from

t))c ~'atuuofy.

From

0 to c

y =

:}~

amt from c to L

y = (c 3.<'),

as may bc sccn frutn the

considration that yand y' nn)St not

sudd<jn)ychange at :c= c. Thrcmt)t. is

kinctic cnc.rgy=

sin'

\yhcncc

"12 70'3.1Ga

`~

(c2

e3Gt)

point of

application of thc force is ill thu ueighbour)tood of the nodc of tl)c

second nornud compuncnt vibration. If' wc takc

c =~, ~vo obtaini

a result wllich is tw fngh

o in the m~hicat scatc by thc intun-a)

182.]

235

LOADEDE~D.

t,hetrut)h This cxampio may givc un idca. how uciu'ty thc pci'iod

of a. vibr~tin~ systort may bu catcntittcd by simple rncans without

th solution uf diHurcMti:dor tra-uscuudenttdcqu:),tious.

Thc type of vibration just cousidered wout<tbe tliat actua.ily

~ssumcdby a. bar whicii is itscif dcvoid of inertie but can'ics :t

lu.tdJ/n.t its frec end, providcd that tbe rotatury inurtin ofJ/could

bu ]mg!ccted. Wc sliould h:n'c, in i'act,

si)i'

7' = 2~

F= Cf/~N~eus'

sothat

:<

V~

.(.<).

with jV,v'c may still tid~ titc saniu typu as tticbasi.sut'

eomp:u'isoM

:m appruxijaatu c'idcutation

thu )'od. Mincutitis rcsuk is accm'!).k!whcn is mfimt.e,atld dous

hot ([m'ur nmch (ruiu t!ic trnt)), cvun whcu~V=0, Itrn:).ybu rc~n.rdudas gutiuraHya.pplic:).b!u!).sa.u a.pj'roxhn~tiun. Th cn'or

will ahv~ysLe on tlie sidu of cstimatm~ ttiu pitch tuo liigL.

183. But thc ncglect of th rotatory Inortia of ~f could not

bcjustiiicd midd' thc ordi)i:u'ycouditi~us of cxpenmoYt. It is as

unsyto Im:)ginu,thou~h ~ot to construct,a.c:).scm whie!)tlic inertia

of translatioji s))un)(ibL;ncgligIDc in comparisou with thc iucrtia of

rotation, as t)~ opposite uxtrutne wtuch bas just bccn considcrcd.

If both kinds of incrtia. in thu !na.ss~f bp iuctudcd, cven thougli

that of t)ic l):ti'bc nc~jectcd ft!to~ctiicr, th systum possesscs two

distinct aud indupendoit po'iods of vibration.

Lct z and

~+

and

ut .B=

Then tLe

S3G

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F UARS.

[l83.

and

whileforthkIneUcctiu'gy

~=~+

L~

.(2),

t!)ep)an(;!ui'vibnLtioti.

Tbc equa.tionsof motiou are theruforc

whciicc, if z and

If wc negluct thc rotatory iucrtia by putting /e'=0, we fall

back on our prcvious rcsuit

oT 3f7~"M

~f

Tite ot!)cr value of~ is thon infinite.

If ?'

lectcd,

vcntud,

12<7A'~ or <~M

~=-77rth lattcr of which is vcry sma]]. It appc~rs thn.twhen rotation

is prcvc!'t.c<),tlie pitch is an octave iu~Itci'than if therc were no

rotatory inertia at a!). T))cse cundusions might also be derivcd

EFFECT

0FADDITIONS.

183.]

tlieii

butif/<=0,

~=~

237

0=0,a.nc

thatcase

of vibration is prohjnged. If tlie encl in question bc frce, suppose

nrst that thc pice addcd is wit)iout inertia. Since thcrc would bo

]t0 altration in eithcr tho potcntia! or kinetic nergies, th pitch

would be nncliangcd but in proportion as the a.dditiona.tpart a.cquires inertia, the pitcli Mis ( 8S).

In the sa.mo way :),smiULconthiun.tiun of a. har bcyond a

clumpcd end wonid hc wiLhout nu'ect, ns it wou)d ac()ui)'c no

motion. No change will cusue if tlie ncw end bc a.tso c):).mpcd

but as thc first chunpingis rc!a.xcd,thc pitch faits, In consquence

of th diminution in thc potential cucrgy of a givcn dutormation.

The case of a supportai od is not quitc so simptc. Lct tlie

and let tlie added piccu whieh is at

original tjn(Lof th rod bc

nrstsupposed to hve no incrtia., bc ~t/?. InitiaNy thc end ~1 is

fixed, or held, if we )ikc so to l'cgiu'dit, by a spring of inrinitc stin'ncss. Suppose tbat this spring, which )ias no ino'tia,, is graduaHy

rclaxod. During this proccss thc motion of thc ncw end

diminishcs, and at a certain point of relaxation, -Dcornesto rcst.

During this proccss tlie pitth falls. 7~,being now at rest, may bc

snpposed to become nxcd, and the abolition of th spring at ~1

cntails anothcr f:d!of pitcli, to Lefurther increased as ~J3 acqnircs

inertia.

18.5. Thc case of a rocl whieh is not quitc utufonn may bc

treated by the gencr:d method of 90, We ))ave in thc notation

thcre adoptcd

238

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

OF J!AHS.

[185.

value oi'

doubly frcu bar.

T)ie e~uct ofa. smaHlo~d (~V is thus

givctt Ly

who-c

dnotes tl.c mass of thc whoc har. If thu load bc at

t!iocn<],it,s cficct Jst])esa)nGnsa.iL-]igth('))i))g'ofthcb!U-mt~c

ratio ~+~J/:

(Compte 1U7.)

~8G. T!)c samc prineipte jnay hc

appticd to estimatc t!)C

corroctio)!duc to ti)c rotatory inertin of n. ~ttifoi-inrod. Wc havo

on!yto <md what additton to m;)kc to thGkineticcncrg'y, sup])osing

tha.t tho bur vibrtes accordin~ t.o thc samu !:twas wou]d

oblai)~

were Uierc no rotatory ioc'rtia.

Lctu.s take, far cxmnpic, thu case uf a L:uc!a)npc() at Oaud

frcc at a.nd assume tftat th vibration is of th

type,

.V= !<cus~

whcre Mis one of thc func-tions

invosti~atud in 170. Thu ].i))(-tic

f'no-gy cftttc rotation is

18C.]

FOR KOTATORY

CORRECTION

INERTIA.

23U

Tothismustbca.ddt.id

Thc atto'ed frcqnency Lcnrs to thi~t calcnh~tcdwithout allowanee for rotatury inertie n mlio '\v!uch is thc square root of th

rcctprociti ofthe! prcce~ing. Thus

?~/c' ,?</

M~\

1-(~,+~(1).

<'7r.t:).)t7~,

By use of thc retat.ionscosh?~ == suc M, sitilt ?~==cun

.-<;= ill thc furjn

wu m~y cxprcus K' A\'L<j~

7'= ~=

sin M

;t.

eus

?~

ces

a

/7r siu a'

~=~(2t-l)7r-(-l)'a.

In thc c~suof th ~ra.YCSttune, ot='3()43, or, in dL'grccsand

nunutcs, K==172C',wlicncu

Thus

which ~ivcs tlic corrcctitn) fur rotatory incrtin. in tlic case of thc

gt'avcst tonc.

WtK'u thc ordcr of th tone is modoratu, a is vcry small,

andtheti

'u=l

sc'nsibly,

atld

n

r=l-fl

/w\?)~

+

~-)

(3),

order of tlic component.

In a.ll ordina.ry bars K Is verysma.!), and thc tcnn dcpcnding

on its square ma.y be ncgluctcd wit))out sensible error.

240

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[187.

from point to point aJong it, t)ie nonna.1 functions cunn~t in

gnera.!be expresse) tumiyticaUy, but tticir nature tnay be invcstigated by tlie method.soi'St.ur<n and LiouviHe oxpituned in 14.2.

If, as in 1G2,7~<tcnotc thc vanahie flexunU rigidity at any

point of the bar, and pM~ the mass of the clment, whosc Ien"-th

is

wc nnd as tlie gcncral dUTo'entiiJ quation

If wcnssumc- t]):)t

c< cos! woot)tain as the quation to (]ctL')-i))C thc i'orm of' thu

nonnat fonctions

induite series ofdcnnitc quantitles

)~,

Let us suppose, for cxamp!c, that thc har is cliunpc'd at both

ends, so tliat th termina! values of and

v:mi.st). TI)c first

~.<;

normal function, for which

Las its lowest vatnc

Jms no

inturnal root, so that t)tc vibration-curvc lies cntirdy on nnc sidc

of the eqnilibrinm-po.sition. T)nj .secondnonnid function bas onc

intcrna.1 root, thu t))ird function has two interna) roots, an'),

gcncra!)y, t!ie )' function bas t- 1 internat roots.

Any two dincrent nor)n:d fnncti~)).sarc conju~a.tc,tliat is to

say, their product wiH vanish when mu)tip)icd by ~Mt7~, and

Intc'grated over tho Icngt,h of thc bar.

Let us uxn.)nineth nurnber of rf'ts uf a funetion /'(.)

th fonu

/M

=~M

M-t-

+~

(.).(3),

function of lowest ordor is ':<(.) and that of highest ordct- is

(-<"). If tl'c numbcr of internai roots of/(~) be so that thcro

arc ~+4 roots in all, thc dcrived functiou (.?')cannot hve )css

than + 1 Internai roots besides two roots at thu extremitles, and

thc second derived fonction c-annot hve Icssthan~+2

rots

187.]

24L

multiplicd by 7~,

and another double din'ercntiation with respect to x will ]cave at

least internal roots. Hcncc by (2) and (3) wc conclude that

M +

M, M +

< M M. (4<)

Since (4) is a function of the

same form as/(.), thc same argument in~ybe ropcated,a.nd{),a

series of functions obtaincd, every mcmber of whic)) lias at least

aa many roots as/(~) lias. When the operation by wliieh

(~) was

derivcd ft-otn(3) bas hccn rcpcatcd su<Rcient)yofteo, a function is

arrived at whose fo'm differsas !itt!c as wc picasc from that of thu

component normal function of highest order ?<(?');and we conIntcrual roots. In

cludothat/(;c) cannot have more than~-l

likc manncr wc may provo t);at/(.r) cannot hve less than w-1 1

internf).!roots.

The application of this thcorcm to deMonstrat th possibility

ofexpa.nfiinga.narbitraryfanctionin an infinit series of normal

functious would procecd cxact)y as in 14'2.

188. When.th bar, whoselatral vibrations are to bc considered,

is subject to longitudinal tension, thc potential energy of any configuration is composed of two parts, the nrst (ieputtding on the

stinness by which th bonding is directly opposcd, and the second

on th reaction against th extension, which is a neeessary accompaniment of tho bending, w])en th ends arc nodcs. Th second

partissimUa-r to the potential energy of a dcnectcd string; the

first is of thc same nature as that with wtuch \vc have becn

occupied hithcrto in this Chapter, thongh it is not entirely independent of th permanent tension.

Considerth extension of a filament of th bar of section f~u,

whosedistance from the axis projected on th plane of vibration

is

Since th sections, which were normal to the axis originally,

remain normal during th bending, th length of th niament

bears to th corresponding lment of th axis the ratio Tt*+ JT,

7~being tbe radius of curvature. Now th axis itself is ex tendcd

in th ratio q :y-~y, reckoning from thc unstretchcd state, if

7'j dnote the whole tension to which the bar is subjected.

Hence the actua! tension on thc filament is -~+~(7'+~)~M.

R.

J (j

from whieh we find for thc moment of t))c couple acting acrosstho

section

substitution ofy+7'fory.

Sincc is ttic tension ruquircd to strc-tch a har of unit arca to

twicc its natnmt loi~'th, it is cvidunt th~t m most pra.cticatcases

Y'would bc nc~tigibic iti comparisonwith

T!te expression (1) dnotes thc work th~t \vou!J ne ~iocd

dnring thc strai~htcning'oftLe bar, if th luugth of c:).chdment

ofthc axis W(.'['oprc'scrvcd constant dut'ing t])(; proccss. But

whcn a. strctchcd L~r or strin~ is attowcd to p:LSSfrotn iLdisp!a.ccd

to th nutura! position, thc to)~t]) uf t)tc axis is dccrcascd. Tho

and the

thu corrospol.lding

illllolll'Itof

amount

of th

tho dco'casc

clocrcasc Is

-cl.r,

<< and

corrcspoudinggain

gain

(

.")

is :~f

j\~t<

G?fY

cfworki.s

: T(

~(~.

cl,c

d.c.

Thus

r=< (~

&+

-~(~,)'(a).

.(~)'

T)ie Yariationof the first part duc to n. hypothc'ticfd dispiaccment is givon in 1G2. For thc second part, wc hve

icf/7

~c= f~Sy

~8 J V~

j

(~y~l

f~-Vc

7

/o\

r..

(3).

f<~

J

( ~y~

In aH <hccases that wc hve to consider, ~y vnnishcs at thc

limits. Thcgcncra) diircrentia) quation iHa.cconiingty

or, if ~Yc'put

-t-T =

~'= ~),

rlx<:t~

.vcl.~c

1.~+~

r!t .t.

'fc/</

p.

0.

.UcltfM..l..t.~

cl.ccAc

(4).

rcfcrrcd to th writings ofCtebsch' n.nd Don~i)i.

~'()r<t'~t'r7'<(ts<)'ct<</M<fr7~[ir/)<'r.

Leipxig, 16G2.

189.]

PERMANENT

TENSION.

24:3

= 0, !ind

tite tc)-)i)!)i:L)

conditionsfu-csaLisfied. ]f t])c nature of Lhe

support

be such that, wlutc th cxtrutnity is coii.stnuuudto he a, node, tiio'o

is no conp!c itctmg on thc b:u-,

rcprcscnt thc c:i.suofa. string strctchcd ovcr hritt~cs,a.s i)i

manytxu.sic:).!

but

it

is

cvidoit

that titc pfu't beyotid thc bridge

i)Lst)'nmcnts;

must pa.rt~kc ofthc vibration, !ui(l that thcrcforc its

lo~tit cannot

Le altogcther n ]n:).ttcrof Ijiditfcruncc.

n'in thc ancrai dif1b)'c:nti;t.l

cqu.Ltiou wc tit-ke~pi-oportional

to cos wc gct

whi<hiscvident)ysatiH(n'dhy

if

bc suit:d)ty dcto'mif~d. T)tc sanic solution a)sn makcs

yat)dy" vimisha.tthccxtt-etnitic.s.

By substitution wcnbtflin

for??,

n ~+~7!

(3),

"'=~'

-~+/W

which dtermines thcfrcquc~oy.

If we soppose t))CAviruinnnitt'Iy thin, ?r=~7r~

thc same

as wn.si'ound in OtaptcrVt., by startin~ from th supposition of

ns a vcry sma]) qnantity, thc

perfcct m-xibUity. ]f wc t)-e:tt

approximatc vah)c of?; is

<'7r</

rc

f

)

,rr

+' -;7T~

"=

2~ (rr-~}1'

For a.\vit'(.;of circult' scetion of radius r, ~=

and if w

rcpht.cc a)i([ f< hy thcir va)ups in tc'rtns of y, 7', an()

\vithin brackets invoivcs ?',It appc'ars that t])C harmonie rclatinti

of th componcnt tones is (Ust~rbed by thc stiitncss.

'Dont{in's.-frn)f.f'f~,Art.im.

]f!S

244

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[190.

ends ofthewirearc ctanipcd is not so simple, In consquence of

thc change of type which occnrs ncn.r tlie ends. In on)< to puss

from the cftsc of th preceding section to that now undcr consIdGrationau ~hiitional consti-:unt must be introduced, with the

eHcctof attti fm-ther raising the pitch. Die fu!tow!ng is, in the

ma.in,thc investigation of Scobcck and Donkin.

If the rotatory incrtia be neglected, th differential quation

becomes

Th solution must now be nm<!eto sattsfy tho four boundary

conditions, which, as therc are only three clisposable ratios, tca.d

to an equation connecting a, ~3, This may be put into th form

190.j

PERMANENT

TENSION.

245

the dincrential equation on which thcy are founded; but we sha.11

now ititroduce the supposition that tlie vibration considered is but

slightty aSected by tlie existence of rigidity. Tttis being th case,

t!te approximate expression for y is

uearty.

Th introduction of thse values into th second of equations

6~

is a stna]] quftntlty under th cir(G)proves that H' < ur

.j

cumstn-ncescontempiatud, a.ndthei'cforctli:tt a'~ is a l:u'gc(~tfnitity.

Siucc cosha~, sinha~ are both I~i'gc,('(~uation(5) rcduccs to

pitch by tlie same smaU interval, and thcrcforo the harmonie relation is not disturbed by th rigidity. It would probably be otherwise if terms involving

f were reta.incd it does not therefore

follow that thc harmonie relation is botter preserved in spite nf

rigidity when the ends are ctamped than when they are frec, but

only that tbcre is no additional disturbance in th former case,

though tlie absolute altration of pitch is much greater. It should

be remarked that b (t or ~/(<y

+ l') \/7', is a large quantity,

and that, if our rcsuit is to be correct, A: rnust. be small enough

to bear multiplication by b a and yct romain small.

346

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F BARS.

[190.

experimoit by Seebeck, who found a. s:d.infactoryagruemcnt. Thu

constant of stirfness \vasdmtuccd frum observations of tite rapidity

oi't)io \'ibr~tions uf n smaU piuco of thu \vii'C)wttcn one end was

(.'tutiipudlit tt.Vice.

191. It lias hcon shewnni t)ns c])apter tliat thc theory of bars,

cvcn whcn sh)]pUHudto thc utrnost by t)tc omission of uniniportant

quantifies, is (tceu~dty more cumpticated t!t:ut t.hat of po'ftjct!y

fiuxibtc stnugs. The ruasun of thu extrme snnpiicit.y of thc

vibrations of .stringsis to Le fcund in thc flet titat \),v(.'s oftho

luu-monictype arc propagated with a velecity.indcpL'nd(;)itof tho

wave Iun~t](,so tti~t an a.rbitnu'y wa.veis aHowcdto travut Avithout

dcomposition. But whcu wc pass from string's to b;u's,t!ic con`l

`l = Uisis no

stmt in

stant

iu thc

tlle din'crGntifd

(litlrential C(lliLtloll

~'1Z.

-Iquation, vix. ~t-/<=(),

longer cxprus.sihiu as a veh'city, and thcrufm-c t])(j V(.d"cityof

transmissionof a train of harmonie wavc.sc:mnot dpend on th

dif)'cr(;utialontution ,'dom',but must vary with tiiu wa-vclungth.

Indccd, if it bt.' admittud t])at t))e train uf harmonie wavcs can

bc propagatcda.t a)), titis considuration is sufHck'nt by itscif to

provc that thu velucity must vary inycrscly a.s thc wavc tcngt)).

Thu samo titing may bc scen front thu soJution npj)]ieab!cto

C)

wavcs propagatcd in onc direction, vlx.=cos". (H~),

which satisfiesthc diH'urcuti.dC(p(ationif

Let u.s suppose that titcrc tu'c two tminn of wavcs of equa.1

amp)itudL's, but. uf diftbruut w~vc ]c))gt)).s,trnv'L'HI))~m t.hc samc

directujn. Tiius

If T r~

bc .smn.1),

we ha.vea train of wavc-s,Avitosenmptitu()c s!(jw)yvancs from ouc:point to anothur IjctwGOlthc vatucs

0 amt 2, ft)!')ning-a so'ic.sof group.sS(-)):).r:).ted

from onc aufjther by

]'egiot]scojnparativ-clyfrcu ironi distm'baucc. In t)tc case of u.

stringor of a co]um!iofair, v:n-icsas T.and t!)cn thc gt'oups move

0FTWO

TRAINS

0FWAVES.347

~91.] RESULTANT

forw:u'dwith titc same velocity n.sthc compone~t trains, :t.ndt!ierc

is no change of type. It is ot.ttcrwisewhcn, as in tiic case ot' a bar

vibrating t.ransvcrse!y, th vdoctty of' propagation is a fmictton

ot'thc wave Icogth. Titc position at ti)nu t of thc middia of t)t0

grnup which was initiatty at thu origiii is givoi. hy

l,

gt'oup.sis <t'ce that ot' <,)njcompoount w.~ves*.

H)2. On account of tho (tt.'ppn<)cncc'

of thc! vclocity of propaga.tion on tho wave Icngth, tin.! cutHution of :ui infhnto bar at :u)y

time subsc'j'tcnt to an initm.t (tistnrbancc f'ontuu'tt tu a, lunitcd

purtiott, will h:tve n<jnc of t.hc simplicity wttich chanicteri.sGStho

Fouricr's

cort'cs~ondmg pt'obtt.'m ior a .sLriug';bt'.t ncvL'rLhutcHS

i)ivcstig:).tionofthis qncstton umy property <)ttd:t.p):).cuhci'c.

It I.s rcquircd to dutcrmmc a. function of :nid t, so us to

sfitisfv

A solution

of (1)

(~').

is

~/=cos~

whcrc

(.), ~='

cos~(.<x).

In tho c<in'csponJh)f} pr')1))om fur wfivcs 0)i th surfaco of Jcfp water, tho

\'dot;it.y of prf)p!ts'~t't"~ Yarit~ dh'(;Kt)y as tho square root nf tho W!t.vo Icut;) su

that M=A. Tho vetocity ( tt group of such Wftvcfiis tLcrefuro f~<;

of thttt of

tbe component trains.

248

[193.

!iowweput<=(),

be 27r (a), for then by

Founer's double intgre thcorcm ~j,=~(A'). Murccvcr, y=0;

lience

suppty t])e i-(;m:umngp:u-tof thc sulution, which I)nsto Ha.tisfytlie

(liU'ercutmlquation whilc Ib makcs initi:d)y = 0, = (.); it is

of (3) aud (4.).

Jn (3) thc intgration with respect to q may bc c~ected by

mctuis of thc formula.

formula

whcre !:=VI-l,

only th ren.1p:).rt of tho equation. TI)us

and rctain

193.]

FOURIER'S

SOLUTION.

249

whencc

ecma.tiou(3) may bc wi'tttc]i

CHAPTMR IX.

ViiHATtONS

0F MHMtiItANES.

pcrfcct]y f)cxib!c and innnitctythin Jnmina ofsotid )nattcr,of nnifoDn materiat and thickncss, whicb is strctcbcd in :dt directions by a tension so

grcat as to

rem~in scusibly unidtcre.t during th vibrations at)d

di.spfaccmonts

If

fui

eontcmpjated.

imagioary Une bc drawti across t!ie membrane in any direction, t))omut)):d action betwccn thc two

portions

separatcd byan eiemunt uf U !inc is proportionn! to thc len'rth of

thc dment and pcrpcndicutar to its direction.1. If t)ic for~c in

gestion bti l' ~.9,7', mnybo caifcd tbc <o<uMof ~e

??te~6~Heit i.s a quantity ofont: ditncn.siunin tnas.sand2 in time.

Ti)c principat probfon in conncction with tins

snbjoct is tlie

investigation uf tbc trau.svo-scvibrations of mcmbratic.sof dirbrcnt

shapc.s,whosc boumhu-iu.sarc nxcd. Otbcr questions ind~cd

rnay

bc proposcd, but thcy arc of

compat-ativutyHtt!(j intcrcst; and,

niorcovur, t))e tuutttod.s prop~'r for sulvin~ thcm wi)[ be 'suff~

cicnHy iitustratd in otticr parts of this work. Wc may titcrofor

procuudat unce to the con.sidcrationofa membrane strctchcd ovcr

thc arca inc!)tdcdwitbin a nxcd, closed,ptanc

bound:u-y.

10~. Taking t)tc phinc of tbc bonndary as t)iat of

a'y, let M

dnote th smail disp!aco;ncnt tbcret'roni of

any point 7~ of tho

monbranc. Round takc fi sma)t an~

amt consido- thc forces

acting upon it parattcl to z. T)~ roso)ved part of the tension is

cxprcsscd by

m f~

~'j~

wltero (~ dcnotc.s an ch-mont of tbc

and tf/t

r/~ tm

bound~yt/ of ) "m~

nn

cfomjnt ot thc normal to thc cnrvc drawn out\ar<).s. This is

balanccd by the reaction against accctcration mcasnred

by ~v

EQUATION

194.]

251

OF MOTION.

dcnotmg tlie supui'Hci:ddensity. Nuw by Grcen's theorem, if

;S' ukimatufy,

f).udthus th cf~un.tiottof motion is

~) J

.d).

Thc diU'orential quation ma.y a!so bc invcsti~atcd from thc

expression for thc putcntin.!cncrgy, winch is fouud by muttiplying

thc totisiou Ly th supediciid strctclimg. T)ic :dtcred a.rca.is

If wc writc ?~ /]=c' thun c is of t)ic nature of tt.vc!ocity,aud

tlie diH'cruutial con~tion is

!!)!'). We sha!l now suppose that tho boundary of th membrane is thu rcchuig!~ formcd by Lliccnordinatc axus and thc linc.s

for ovcry point withhi tlic arc:).(:}) 104 is satisiicd,

te = n, y =

fmd fur cvorypoint ou tnc boundary 'w=().

A particuttu' It~tegralis cvidcntiy

l 11C l'C

where

,7)~

?l-

2 /))Lz

C-7T'

?~\

+~(~'

)l21

CI)

dcrivcd. Thus

w=S

w=~ )<=~o

S

M=t siu

M-i

??;7TT'

);'77'

{:Imn COSI)~

sln-(~~cos~<+7?~sin~}.

252

VIBRATIONS

0F MEMBRANES.

F 19 5.

may be proved a posteriori,

by shcwu~ tliat it n~y be ad~p~.d to express

arbitrary initial

circumstanccs.

WI~tevcr fiiiietioii of thc co-ordinatos

may hc, it can bs expresscd for all vaines of bctwccn thc limits 0 and

by th sries

&c. are Indcpeudont of

Again

whatever function of~nnyoac ofthe coc~cicnts

YmayLe, it can

be expanded betwecu 0 and &iu t)ie series

that any

function of x and y can bc expressed within th limits of the

rectangle by th double series

(3) eau beadapted to

arbitrary initial values of wand

In fact

.(4.).

Thc dmmctcr of tlie normal functions of a

given rcctang!c,

as depending on and is

easily undcrstood. If and n be both

un.ty, w retains thc same sign over th whole of th

rectanclc

vamshing at th edge only but in any other case there are

nodal lines running parallel to the axM

of coordinates. Th

numberofthc nodal lines paraHetto

is n -1, their equations

being

RECTANGULAR

195.]

BOUNDARY.

253

n)'f.

divides th rectangle

being w 1 in number. The nodal system

is

into ??~ equal parts, in ea.chof which th numcnca.1value of w

repeated.

functions

106. Th expression for w in terms of th normal

1s

~q

to fonu

whcrc 6, &c.are the normal coordinatcs. We proceed

We hve

the expression for Fin terms of

we find

the products of th normal coordinates disappear, and

of wand ?!.

the summation being extcnded to <d!intgre vahtes

th sMne

The expression for th kinetic cncrgy is proved in

wr,v to be

254

VIBRATION 0F MEMBRANES.

[1()Q.

of resb undcr

t)tc opration uf a consent, force .s.ie], as

Le supposed to

ansu from gascons pressure. At thc tin.c nmy

<=0, tlic i.nj~d

force is rc.novcd, ~nd thc mo.nbmuc Jeft to

itsc)f. IniMativ thc

cquation ofcquiiibrium is

i"C('njunctinnwit,h(~.

In on]cr to cxpn.s.s

v.-Lh.c,n (..), or ,n t.).is case

si,nr]y to ren.uvc

J'iLpgr;d.s)gn. Thus

If tlie ,nen~r.n..

p,i.s)y

set

solution is

4

=~

W7TX M~S/Y

.sin

~< .(~).

197.]

CASES OF EQUAL

rERIODS.

255

ascribing diiTerent intgral values to M and in tho expression

Hido of ttie rectangle is incrca-scd. In th case of thc gravest

mode, when w=], ~=~ additions to thc shorter Hidciirc titc

more effective; n.nd whcn th iurni is very clo!)~ttcd, additions

tu th longer sidc {u'ca-tmostwlthout c~uct.

WitCH a~d are inconnnensur:ddc, uo two pairs ci values

of w and ); can gi\'c t))Csa-mc frcqncncy, and cach fuodamcntal

]t)cdc of vihratiuu bas ils own ch!Li'actc)'isticpcriod. Uni whctt

ft" a)Kl arc coonnmisurabtC)two or more fut)d:uncnt:d modes

may hve t)tu samc pcriodic ti)nc, and may tlien cocxist in any

proportions, w)fi)e thc motion sti)) rctains ils simpte harmonie

charaetcr. In suc)) casus thc sp~'incxtion of thc pc'riod docs

not co)np)ctc)y detenninc Lhc type. Thc fuM cnnsidcration of

thc prohion now prcscntin~ it~c]f n'nnircs thc aid of thc thcory

of numhbr.s; Lut it will bc sufUcicnt for thc purposes of this

work to considcr a few of thc sunpk'r cases, which arisc whcn

thc membrane is square. Th rcadcr will find fnHci' information

in Ricmann's lectures on partial diUbrential quations.

If f; =

which givcs only onc funda)ncn<d )nodc

the other to unit.y. In this way two (tistinct types of vibra-tion

are obtfuncd, '\v!fosc po'iod.s arc th s:unc. If Utc twr) vibrations

be synctironous in phase, thc wt)ole motion is exprc'sscd by

liarmomc motion, thc type of vibration is to somc cxtcnt arbitrary.

35G

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

f'197.

Sinailarly if C'=0, we have a node parallel to th other pair of

edges. Ncxt, howevcr, suppose that C' fuid D are nitc and

equal. Thon w is proportional to

or ngfun, \vhnn

The first two quations give the edges, which wcre originaHy

assumed to be nodal while the third gives ~+a*=a, representing

one diagona.1uf th square.

In th forn'th case, when C= D, we obtain for th nodal

lines, th cdgca of ttte square together with the diagonal ~=.r.

The figures represent t!]e four cases.

c+~=o.

is corvcd, but is always a.nalytica)]yexpressed by

and may he casily constructed with th help of~ table oflogfu'ithmic cosines.

197.J

257

Tiie values of M~and n being equal, no altration is caused by

their mtcrchangc, -\v]nlcno ottter pair of values givcs the samc

ft-equcncy of vibration.

Th oniy type to bo considered is

accordIn~Iv

T~)cnext case winch we shaH consider is obtained by ascribm"ta w, n th values 3, 1, and 1, 3 successively. Wc have

f~. 37ra; Try

Tra; 3~~

Usin

sin

D

sin

+ sin

cosM<.

M)=

a

a

o

o J

(

The nodes arc given by

which con'cspond to th cdges,

R.

17

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

258

Last)y, if C'=

[107.

Jn ca~c (4-)wlicn a: = a, y = ft, or

TL'usoue ha!f ofCtichof tlic lines julning

y = a, ? = , or

tlie xuddie points of opposite cd~cs is intcrccpted by th curve.

It should bc noticcd th~t in wha-tever !'n,tioto one another

Mid D may Le t~kcn, th nodfd eurvc always passes through

thc funr points of mtcrscctio!i of thc nod~I lines of tlie Ursttwo

cases, C'=0, D=0. If the vibrations of thse cases 'bc comtha.t in thc

pounded with correspon~ing phfmcs, it is vident

shaded compnrtmcuts of Fig. (3.')) tlio directions of disph~cment

n.rc thc s~nc, und that thcrcfore no pM-t of the nocM curvc

ia to bc found thcrc; whn.tevcr thc ratio of amplitudes, thc

curvc Jnust bc drawn tlu-ough thc utish~dcd portions. When

on the othcr hand the phases ~]-Gopposcd, tlie nodal curvc will

p:uis Gxelusivclythrough thc shadcd portions.

When w =3, ?t=3, tlie nodcs M-e thc straight lines par:illct

tu th ed~cs shown in Fig. (3G).

0FSLIGIIT

197.] EFFHC'T

IRREGDLARITIES.

259

Thc iMt ca~c which we shd! consider is obtaincd

by putthi~

o 4cof:l

-1

-1 -0.(0).

(4

M

o

cos-.+Deos-ce

a

c(4co~l)cos~+Deos~~c~l)=0.(0) <x\4C08

If C or D vania!), wc feU!back on tl)e nodai

Systems of th

eomponent vibrations, consisting of straight lincs paraUel to titc

edgcs. If (7=~, our quation may bc written

diagonal ~-)-~=~ a,nd

the seconda hyperboHc curve.

If (7=-7),

diagonal'.

which is nearly, but not quite aniform, may be nn'estigatcd by

t hegeucra] method of 90.

We will suppose in. thc first place tha.t w a.nd ? M'c equal.

In. this case, when thc pitch of a umform membrane is givcn,

the mode of its vibration is comp!etc!ydetermiued. If we now

conecive a variation of dcnsity to eusue, the natural type of

vibration is in gnera! modincd, but thc period may be calcutated

approximatcly without aHowancofor th change of type,

Wc have

ifwoecos~ n.ndP dnote th v~lue cf~ previousiy to variation,

we have

9. 1T) s,,en=i1- 44ff"8p p ~H7T.T

.B~~V,

~~z~r,y 7

m~r_r.~in2

p~

~a

(1

nPO

=~ (1 o.rn

~y.(l).

a ~,r,rly. (1)~

~s'

'It()n)~,J')).<<tfrt'c~.<<'<<{?,p.l29.

17--2

2GO

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

[198.

the square,

1r

in which sin~~~Tr vanishes, if be cvcn, and is cqual to unity, if

bc odd. la th former case thc centre is on th nodal line of

th unloaded membrane, and thus th addition of th load produces no result.

When, however, M and n arc uncqnal, the problem, though remaining subject to the same gencral principles, presents a pccnliarity different from anything we have hithcrto met with. Ttie

raturai type for th unloaded membrane corresponding to a specified period is now to some extent arbitrary; bnt the introduction

ofthe load will in gnral removc the indeterminate lment. In

attempting to calculate th period on tlie assumption of th undisturbed type, the question will arise how the selection of tho undisturbed type is to be made, secing that there are an indefinite

number, which in th uniform condition of th membrane give

identical periods. Th answer is that those types must be chosen

which differ Innnitely little from th actual types assumed under

th operation of th load, and such a type will bo known by th

criterion of its making th period calculated from it a maximum

or minimum.

As a simple example, let us suppose that a small load Jt~is

and

attached to th membrane at a. point lying on the line x =

that we wish to know what periods are to be substituted for t!ic

two equal periods of tlie unloaded membrane, found by making

= 1, M==2, or ?~= 2, M= 1.

It is clear that the normal types to be chosen, arc those whose

nodes are represented in th first two ca~es of Fig. (32). In tlie

first case th incroase in th period due to tbe load is zero, which

is the least that it can bc; and in th second case the increase

is the grtes possible. If /3 be th ordinate of Jf, the kinetic

energy is altered in the ratio

198.]

whilo

e

SOLUTIONSAPPLICABLETO A TRIANGLE.

?)'=P'-

261

toucs of th loadcd membrane is thus approxnna.tcty

As another example, thc case, where th values of w and

are 3 and 1, considered in 197, may Le referred to. With a. !oad

in the middie, ttie two normal types to bc seleetcd are those

corresponding to thc last two cases of FIg. (3't), in th former

of winch the load has no efTecton tlie period.

The probleiii of determhung the vibration of a square membrane winch carries a relativcly heavy load is more dIiHcuIt,and

we shall not attempt its solution. But it may be worth while tu

rccali to metuory thc fact that the actual period is greater than

auy ttiat can hc calculatcd from a hypotlictica.1type, winch dinars

froui tlie actual one.

If

good dcal more than was at first iutcudcd. Wheuevcr in a vibrating systom certain parts remam at rest, t!iey may be supposcd to

be absohitelynxed, and \ve thus obtain solutions ofothcr questions

than t!)osc origmaUyproposed. For example, in th present case,

'whGrcvcra diagonal of th sqnaro is nodal, we obtain a sohttioti

apphcabte to a membrane whoso fixed boundary is an isoscelcs

right-angled triangle. Morcovcr, any mode of vibration possible to

tho triaugle corresponds to sotno natnnd mode of tlie square, as

may ho scen by supposing two triangles put togcther, tlie vibrations being equal and opposite at points which are th images of

each other lu thc common hypothcnu.se. Undor thcsc circumstances it is evident that th bypothenuse wou!dremain at rest

witttont constraint, aud tl~crcfbrctlie vibration in question is iucludcd among those of wttich a complte square is capable.

Thc frequency of thc gravcst tone of tlie triangle 1s found by

puttiug ?~==I, n= 2 in the formula

r/~

and is thercforc coud

'1 to 2ft

2G2

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[199.

into two, FIg. (37), whose sidca arc Icss than those of th whoc

triangle in the ratio \/2 1.

For tho tlicory of thc vibrations of a membrane whose boundary is in thc form of an cquilatend triangle, th reader is refcrrcd

to Lamd's 'Levons sur l'lasticit.' It is provcd that th frcquency

of thc gravest tone is c /t, wlicrc Ais tlie hcight of th trianghi,

which is thc same as thc frequeucy of tlie gravest tone of a square

whosc diagonal is A.

200. Whcn thc fixcJ boundary of thc membrane is circular,

th first step towards a solution of the probicm is thc expression

of thc gnral diHcrcntiaI cquation in polar co-ordinates. This

may be effected analytically but it is simpler to form the polar

cquation de novo by considering thc forces whicli act on th potar

etemcnt of arca ?' dOt~ As in 194-the force of restitution acLing

on a small arca of tho membrane is

w=0,whcn?'=f/.

In order to invcstigatc th normal component vibrations we

ha.vcnn\v to assume that

is n harmonie fonction of thc time.

't'hus, if ~cc cos(~<e), and for thc sakc of brcvity we writu

/) c = /< the rhf'crcntia! cquation appcars in the form

l'OLAR

200.]

In which

2G3

CO-ORDINATES.

it eau be cxpMiJed lu Fonrier's series

M = w. +

in which

&c.arc fuuctions of but not of

uf snbstitutiug froni (:;) In (2) may be written

The result

multiply this quation by ces M(~+ aj, and integrate witli respect

to betwuen th limits 0 and 27r, wc sce thttt each term must

as a

vanish separately, and we thus obtain to dotermmG

function of r

or not.

cosn (~ + a,,) bc supposcd to be includcd in

Th solution of (4) involvca two distinct functions of r,

cach multiplied by an arbitrary constant. But one of thse

functions becomes Infi nitewhen )' vanishes, and the corresponding

particular solution must be cxctuded as not satisfying the prcscnbed conditions at th origin of co-ordinates. This point may

bc illustratcd by a roforeiiceto the simpicr equation derived from

(4) by making K and ?!.vanish, when the solution in question

ruduccs to to=Iog?', which, however, does not at tlie origin

intesatisty \7~ = 0, as may bc scen from the value of

grated round a small circle with the origin for centre. In like

tna.uner the comptctc Intgral of (4) is too gencral for our

prsent purpose, since it covers th case in which th centre of

tlie membrane is subjected to an exteriial force.

Th othcr function of )', which satisfies (4), is the Bessel's

function ofthc border, dcnoted by (~?-),and may bc cxpressed

i)i several ways. Th asccnding sories (obtained nnmcdiately

from thc difrerential quation) is

264

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[200.

t!)at J,, and its differchtia! coe~eicnts with respect to z are aiwaya

less than umty.

Ttie aseending sries (.5),though InHnitc, ia convergent for all

values of~ aud z; but, -\vhen is grca,t, the couvergcncc does not

Lcgin forn. long time, and then th sries bccomesuseless as a basis

for nuincrical calculation. In such cases anot)terseries procecding

l)y desconding powcrs of may Le suLstituted with ttdvantagc.

This sries is

runs on to innnity, and becomesultimately divergent. Neverthelcaa

wlten z is grent, th convergent part may be employed in ca~culation for it can be proved that th smn of auy nuinber of term~

differsfrom the true value of thc function by less than th last

tnn inctuded. Wc sba,Uha.veoccasion later, in connection with

anothcr problem, to consider th drivation ofthis descending series.

As Besscl'sfunctiohs are of considrable importance in thcoretical acoustics, I have thougbt it advisahie to give a table for thc

functions J,, and

extracted from LommcI's' work, and due

&crclic/?M~'t-c';<)FtOtc~fn.Leipzig;,

Lommd,$<;<(~'<

1868.

2G5

DESSEL'S FUNCTIO~S.

200;]

Thc

Hansen.

to

functions

J,

originatly

thc rela-ticii

= J~.

~)

~(~

0.0000

0.0

1.0000

-0499

-9975

0-1

-0095

0-2

.9900

0-3

-977C

-1483

-I960

-9604

0-4

-2423

0.5

.93~5

-28G7

-9120

0-6

-88)2

-3290

0-7

-3(!88

U-8

-84C3

r)

-4000

-8075

0-9

-44011

1-0

-7~22

-4700

1-1

-71!)C

-C7)l1

-4983

1.3

-5220

-6~1

1.3

-541U

-MG9

9

1.4

-5579

-~118

1.5

-5C99

-4554

1.6

-980

-5778

1-7

-MOO

-5SI5

1.8

-5812

1.9

-~818

-57C7

-2239'

2-0

-5C83

-!66C

2-1

-5560

-1104

2-2

-0555

-5399

2-3

-5202

2-4 +-002;')

-4971

2-5 --0484

-09G8

-4708

2-6

-4416

-1424

2.7

-4097

-1850

2-8

-3754

-2~43

2-9

-3391

-2601

3-0

-3009

-2921

3-1

-2613

-3202

3-2

-32077

-3443

3-3

-M4:)

-1792

3-4

-3801

-1374

3-5

-0955

-3918

3-6

-0538

-3902

3-7

-402G +.0128

3-8

-4018 -.0272

3.9

-3973'~) -0660

4-0

-1033

-3887

4-1

-1386

-37GG

4.2

-1719

-3610

4-3

-2028

'3423

4-4

~(=)

~.(~

')

~(~_

-2453

-0903

9-0

.2311

4-5

-3205

-2324

-1142~)

f;

9-1

6

-2i)Gl1

4.G

-2174

9-2

-1367

-27911

9 3

4-7

-2004

9-3

-1577

-2985

4-8

-24044

-I81G

9-4

-17G8

-3147

-20!)7

4-9

-1G13

9-5

-1939

-3276(-)

5-0

.1776

-1395

9-G

-2000

-3371

-1443

5-11

-116G

-2218

-3432"~) 9-7

5-2

-1103

-09288

-2323

9-8

-34GO

5-3

-0758

-0684

-2403

9-9

-0412~? -3153

5-4

-2459

-0435

10-0

-3414

5-5 --OOG8

-2490 +-0184

10-1

-3343

.6 6 +.0270 0

-24% --OOGG

10-2

-3241

-0599

5-7

-0313

10-3

-24777

-3110

-0!)17

C-8

-0555

10-4

-24344

-2951

.1220

5.9

-23GG

6

-0789

10-5

-27G7

7

-150G

G.O

-1013

10-6

-22766

-2559

-1773

G-l

-1224

-2164

10-7

-2329

-2017i

G.2

'1422

-2032

10-8

-2081

6-3

-22388

-1604

10-9

-1881

-1816

6.4

-24333

-17~8

11-0

-1712

-1538

-2601

6-5

-1528

-1913

11-1

-1250

-2740

6.6

-2039

-1330

11-3

-0953

-2851

6.7

-3143

-1121

11-3

-0052

-2931

6-8

-3225

-0003

11-4

-0349

.2981

6.9

-2284

-OG77

11-5

-3001 --0047

7-0

-044G

-2320

11-C

-29911 +-0252

7-1

-2333

11-7 --0213

-0543

~), -2951

7-2

-2333

11-8 +.0020

-0826

-288~

7-3

-02500

-2290

11-9

-1096

-278<!

7-4

-2234

-0477

12-0

-1352

.2663

7-5

-31577

12-1

-OC97

-1592

-251G

7-6

-3060

12-2

-0908

-1813

-2346

7-7

-1943

-1108

12-3

-2014

-2154

7-8

6

-1807

-129G

12-4

-2192

-1944

7-9

-1655

-146U

-2346 12-5

8.0

-1717

-1626

-1487

12-6

-34766

-1475

8-1

-1307

-1766

-3.580

12-7

-12222

8-2

-1114

12-8

-1887

-3M77

-0960

8-3

-0913

-1988

12-9

-27088

-0692

8-4

-0703

13-0

-2069

-27311

-0419

8-5

-0489

-3129

13-1

-2728

8-6 +-014G

-31677

-0271

-2G97 13-3

8.7 --0135

-2183 --00.~2

13-3

-0392~), -2G41

8-8

-31777 +-01G6

-255913-4

-0653

8-9

266

VIBRATIONS

0F MEMBRANES.

[201.

the expression for a nurin:),!component vibration may thercfure bo

written

?(/=P~(/t)') cos~~+cf) cos(~+e).(1),

a.]ultlie boundary condition requircs that

~(~)=0.(2),

an quation -whose roots givu the admissible values of /c, am

tli reforeof~).

The complete expression for w is obta.ined by combitung th(

particular solutions embudicd in (1) wit)i all admissible values u:

und M, and is ncccsstn'Hygeneral enough to cove).'any initif),

circumstanccs that may be imagiucd. We conclude tliat an~

i'Huction of r and 0 may be exp:mdcd within tlic limita of thc

circle ?'= a in the series

(/er) (~ cos7~+-~sm~).(3).

~=S~~

For overy intgral -aluc of ? thcrc are a series of values of

arc

given by (2) and for cach of these tlic constants <~ and

arbitrary.

Thc dtermination of the constants is effected in thc usual

way. SInce tl energy of the motion is cqua.1to

only

involve their squares, it fullowstliat thc product of any two of tlie

terms in (3) vnnisbes, when integra.tcd over tlie area of tho circle.

Tims, if wc multiply (3) by ~(~')cos~

and integratc-, wc

find

-7r~[,7:.(~)r~(5),

by w)iich is dctermincd. Thc corrcsponding formula,for -~ris

obtaiMcd hy writing sin~ for cos?: A mctiiod of cvaluating

thc lutcgral on the right will be givoi prcscntly.

SiucG and

cacii contam two terms, one varying as eos~~ and thc other a~

sui~ it is now vident how t)ic solution may be ad~ptcd so as to

:'grec with arbitrary initial values of w and w.

202.]

BOUNDARY.

ORCULAR

267

th fondamental vibrations. If ?t=0, iv is a function ofrouly,

that is to say,the motion is synnnetrical with respect to th centre

of th membrane. Thc nodus,If any, are th concentric circlus,

wliose quation is

~(~-)=0.G).

Whcn has an integral value dinurcut froin zro, w is a function of 0 as well as of 7', and th quation of tlie nodal system

takes th form

J,(~?-) cosn (~-c<)=0.(2).

Th nodal system is thus divisible into two parts, th iirst eonsisting of tlie concentric circles represciited by

J,(~.)=0.(3),

and th second of tlie diameters

are ra.ngcd uniformly round tlie centre in other respects thcir

nodes will bc inposition is arbitrary. The mdn of tlie circular

vustiga.ted further on.

203. Thc important interal formula

~(~)=0.(2),

may be verified analytically by mcaus of th differential equations

s:Ltisned by <7,.(~), J,.(K')-); but it is both simpler and more

instructi-ve to begin with thc more gnerai probicm, whcre the

boundary of th membrane is not restricted to be circular.

Thc variational equation of motion is

where

2G8

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

[203.

and thcrcforc

to a hypotbctical dispiacetnent consistent with thc conditionsto which tlie

system is subjcct.cd. Let us now suppose that tlie system is executing one ofits uormal componentvibrations, so that w = Mand

while 8wis proportional to anottier normal function v.

Siucc

hve diQcrcnt penods,

assumption as to the

boundary conditions bcyoad w!~t is impjicd in th absence of ractions uga-inst a-ccelcration,which, if they existcd, would

appear

in th fundamental quation (3).

If in (8) we suppose /c' =A-,th equation is satisfied

identicallv,

and we cannot iufer thc value of

In ordcr to evaluatc

~i~cfZy.

this intgral wc must follow a ratlier diffrent course.

If u and v be functions sa-tisfyiugwithin a certain contour the

+ A: = 0, wc have

= 0,

equations \7"M+

2G9

YNTEGRATED

0F

VALUES

SQUARES.

203.]

from

is

d

erived

'U

that

Let

us

n

ow

thcorcm.

G

reen'a

suppose

by

sotliat

/C,

ubyslightiy

varying

=

=it ~tc.

v~=~+-,0~

~=~+0~;

8K,

a/< K bic;

substitutingm(10),wcHnd

or, if u vanish on the boundn.ry,

and thus from(10) on substitution of polar co-ordinatca and integration with respect to 6,

Accordingly,if

Again from (12)

97f)

and

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[20:}.

thus

0

witli fixed

s'hl~

as

to

bouu~laries,

~=~

tlie

to si111

1)lifytlic

Inrom

(~-)cos~+~7,

(~-)sm~j.

n)

wcfind

Md a suuihuequation for

The vn.).w.nf

the work ~loneby t]m

impressec]forc:escluring a ]iypothetic.vl

clisplacement8~~ so t],at

if

't t

~=-Z be thc nnpresscd for~ reckoucd

por unit of area,

lvhe" 0 aua

~.rs~

constant pressure Z; thus

,<,r.

that assllmed

n

influence

11

204. Jj

SPECIAL PROBLEMS.

2711

andthus

sti)t

As an example of/b?'ce~vibrations, wc maysuppnsc tnat

constant with respect to spacc, variGSa~a harmonie function of the

timc. Titis tnay bc takcn to reprosent roughiy th circumsta.ns

of a small mumbrane set in vibration by a train of aerial wavcs.

If Z= cos wc nnJ, ncarly as bef'ore,

It will bc scen

Th forced vibration is of course independcnt of

that, whilenone of th synunetrical normal componcntsare missiug,

thcir relative importance mny vary grca.tly,especially if there be :).

ncar a.pproach in value bctwccn y a.nd onc of th sries of quauti.

If thc approach be vcry close, tlie cScct of dissipativo

tics

forcesmust be included.

205. Th pitches of the various simple tones Mtd th radii or

th nodal circles depend on the roots of tlie quation

(~) = J,. (.) = 0.

If thse (exclusive of zero) ta~eu in order of magnitude be

ues 0of~

n118SIe values

then

1011th

10 aadmissible

ed zz", z"(~) w.

p

called

ca

2;

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

272

particular solution may thcn be writteu

=

~)

cos

[205.

by c a.

6,'4

Th.c

(1).

a.nd since in

does not vanish for any value of r less than a,

(~) ca

there is no interior nodal circle. If we put s = 2, <7,,will vanish,

when

<s)

")r

a

r=a

~n

which is the radius of th one interior !iodal circle. Simi!arJy

wc obtain a vibration witli

1 nodal

if we take tho root

circles (exclusive of the boundary) whosc radii are

possibtc, let Ka= X+ bc a root then ?'0 == t~ is also a root,

and thus by (14) 203,

Now

(~r), J~ (~) arc conjugate complex quantities, whose

product is necessarily positive so that theaboveequa-tion requircs

tha~t either X or /t vanish. That X cannot vanish appears from

the considration that if rcawere a pure ima.gmary, cach term of

th ascending series for .7,,would bc positive, and thcrefore t!~o

sum of th series incapable of vanishing. We conclude that

/n=0, or that /tis real'. Th same result might be arrived at

from th considration that only circular functions of tho time

ca.n enter into the analytical expression for a normal component

vibration.

The equation J" (z) = 0 bas no equal roots (exccpt zero). From

equations (7) and (8) 200 we get

205.]

ROOTS OF BESSEL'S

FUNCTIONS.

273

<7,/ vanished for thc same -va.hieof.s:,

would a.)sovanish for U~t ~atuc. Butin

v)i'tueof(8)

200

this wou)d rcquu'e tti;Lt H~ ttiu functions

vtmi.s)i fm' ttic va.lnc

uf iu (question'.

20G. Th actu:)! Yalucs of .3~m~y bc found by into'pola.tion

fron Hansen's t:).hl<j.ssu f:t.r a.s thse uxtou) ) or furmuRc ma.y be

catcutatcd froni t!tu duscunding sries by t)tc niettiod of suceuH.stve

a.pproximatiu[), cxprcHsiu~ th routs dirccLiy. For t!)c it~portant

case of thc sytiunctricat vibrations (~ = 0), t)[C values of J~ay bc

found frutn th fuliuwin~, ~iveti by Stokcn'~

Th

lutter

con'csponding

t.h:m

grcate;'

indepcndcntly.

Stokcs'

pa.pcr,

sries

tos==

is convergent

1.

'J'!tC series

but

unity;

Thc

with

thc

enough,

(1) will

firsb

root

even

sunice

must

for

ho

t!tb)e

is

:K'co]np~)ying

(A)

dittLit-ence of notation.

sti~ht

values

root,

of

cn.Icutn.tcd

t~cn

from

It wHI be secn cither frum tho fo)'mul:H,or t)ic t:iUe, that tho

tlifTcreocGof successive mots of )ngh erder i.s n.pproxinmtcly7r.

Tiu.sis truc fur all vaincs of ?~as is vident from t))e dcscending

series (10) 200.

M. Bourgct hn.s gtven in his tncmoir vcry claborate tab)c3 of

the frcqucncies of th diiTcrent sirnptc toncs and of tho rn.dii.of

the nodal circles. Table J3 i)t.cludestlie values ofz, whicii SH.tis(y

9.

J,.(.!),for~=0,l,5,s=].,2,

des mf'mbrMtfs eircu!Mrea,"

BourRet, "M~mnircsurIotnnnvGmcntYibrntoiro

~inn. de !fo~

onrwft~, t. tu., 1H(!(!. In ono j~nssnRo

DonrHet implifs t)int ho

1)M provod thnt nn two Hessefti functtons of intf~r'~ order cnn havo thf.' HMnnroot,

buticannotfmtithat

La hns donc ho. Tho thf'oron), howovcr, is pr<)t))t)))ytruc;

in thti cnso of functioxn, wlioso ordurs JiOur t'y 1 or 2, it mny bo easity provud frotn

t)tofnrtnn])nf'f2()f).

C'~Mt~.~t<7. 7'M); Vt)I. tx.

On th num'jno~ C)t!cu]&ti):t of ct~ss of dof!nitc intgrais and infinitc Rerics."

n.

18

VIBRATIONS 0F MEMBRANES.

274

[206.

TAI!LE A.

0

~fur.)=0.

7T

'7'S

r7~7L

C)

~1:

3'75;H

4 ' fi~7

7

~1~

(j'7fd!)

1

.)

7

-7516

~S

S

10

t~

12

J';rl3

S~

irt'i~

n'7~1

)df ~fM-(:)-0.

Difl:

(z) O.Di'.

DUF.

TTOI'.Ti

1'2~7

.n.

~0

'J!)~1

'!J!)!3

3

:R:3

4'21111

6

~!I!1!l

'!J!J~8

'!ln!i9

JJ''J

~~9

.139

8'2.I,j.1

3

1(1~`?.IG3

iin~~

12-2.1G!)

i;~3

l'()(lii:3

H)()~~

l

l'(I OU3

l'll(I():

lUU.1

,E

Iww~

1.0003

Wth'n

becomes troubicsono. Forvcry hig!) v:du(;s of

approxias xmy bc scL'nfrmn t])uconsittumtion

nia.tcsto ratio of o<~)f~it.y,

thut thc pitch of thc gm.vcst tonc ofn. very acutc sector tnust tend

to comcidu wit)i th:).tnf a. tong pamiiul strip, whoscwidth icic~ua.1

to tttC grcatcst 'idt)i of thc scctor.

ABLR B.

s

)t.=0

M==l

~~2

M=5r

~=3 3

M=4

1

2

3

4

5

C

7

8

9

2'40t

n'O

-1

8-G54

11-792

14~:il1

18-071

1

21-212

24-353

4

27-4U4

:~832

7'0!Gfi

3

10-173

3

13-323

lG-t70

19-G1C

22-7f:0

25-903

29-047

f''I3.')

8'4!7

11-G20

H-7UG

17-OGO

21-117

2t-270

27-421

1

3U-571

G'370

9'7M

13-017

4

1G-224

H)'.tl0

22-f!83

25-74!)

28-909

32-050

C)

7~SG

H-r'G.t

l-t-373

3

17-G1G

20-827

21-018

27-200

1

30-371

33-512

8'780

I2'{M

1;~70()

18-983

22-220

0

2~-431

1

28-~28

31-813

34-983

20G.~

NODAL FIGURES.

275

'vibnLtIon,ami the uumbci'safHxcd givc thu ft'cquenRyr(jfut')'cdto

182

27G

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[206.

cxpresscd as fractions of thc radius of thc mcmhra.nc. Iti the case

cf six noda.1diiuncters t!)Cfrcqucncy statcd is the rcsult of a. rough

calculation by myscif.

Th tones eoi'rc.spoldingto tlio varions fund:unental modes of

th circular monbr.mc (!o not bclong to a, htu'momc scale, but

therc are one or two n.pproxima.ietyImrmouic relations winch may

bc worth notice. Thus

x l-5!)t = 2-125 = 2-136 ne:u')y,

x 1-59.1.= 2-G57= 2-65:;nearly,

2x 1-59~=3-188=3-156

nearly;

Hothat thc four gra.vest modes with nodal diamctcrs oniy would

give a consonant chord.

Th arca. of tho membrane is (lividcd into serments by the

nodal systcm m snch a manncr that th siga of th vibration

changes whencver a. Ticdciscrosscd. In those modes of vibration

which hve nndal diameters thcre is Gvidcntlyno displaceme])t of

the centre ofinertia of th memitrane. In th case of symmfttrical vibrations t))c disp]aceinent of tbe centre of inertia is proportiona.!to

values of /c,sincc

(.?) ami '~(~) can)!ot vanish simuitancousiy.

In all thc aymmct.)'ic:).l

modes thcrc is thcreforc a. dispia.cctncu'tof

th centre of incrtia of thc membra.nc.

207. Hithcrto wc ha.vc supposcd thc ctrcu!ar a.rca of th

mcmbr.'me to hc complutc, and th circumfcrcncc on!y to he

nxcd but it is vident that our thcory virtually includcs th

solution of ther prohicms, fur exampicsome cases of a membrane boundcd by two conccntric circles. Thc cow/~e theory

for a. membrane in th form of a ring requircs tbc second Besscl's

fnnction.

Th probtem of thc membrane in the fonn of a scmi-circle

inay ht.' re~ardfd as ah'uady so]ved, since any mode of vibration

uf whkh thc soni-circlc is capable !nn.st be app!ieab]c to th

207.]

]

FIXED

377

RADIUS.

to attribute to any point in ttje conpicmenta.ry semi-circle ttic

opposite inotiou to th~t whic)i o!)tn.ins at its opti.ca.limage in

the bounding diameter. Dus line will ttien requu'e no constraint

to kccp it no(h).l. Simila.)' cotisidcrations apply to auy sector

whoso angle is an atiquot pru't of two right angles.

Whe]i th opening of th sector is arbitrary, the prohlem

may be soh'ed in terms of Bess~l's fonctions of fractional order.

= /3, th particular solution is

If the fixed radii are 0=0,

f7r /3 is integr:). :un.tth suJutiouis inctuded amoug those a.lready

used for tlie complte cirelc.

Au Intcre.stmg ca.suis when /3=27r, which corresponds to th

pl'oblum of cotti[)!(jtccircle, uf whici) th radius ~=0 is coustr:uned tu bo nodal.

Wc Lave

w = Pt7)(. (/f)') sui

eoa (~

e).

vibration possib]e without the coustraitit; but, -\vhen v is odd,

new modes make their appearance. lu fact, in tlie latter case

th dcscc~~di~)g

sries for V termintes, so tliat tl)e solution is

cxprcssibic in nni.tc ternis. Thus, whcn ~=1,

siu

/<<t = 0,

or

/M =7/t-n-.

278

VIBRATIONS

OFMEMBRANES.

[207.

Thusthc

circula)- nf)th;sdiv!(tc thc ~xcd radins into equat

hfn'mcnic scittu. Int~e

parts, tunithe MCt'ic'sot'tuntj'~ ~nn

e~suut'tho~r:LVust,tm)dc,thL!wt)()luoi'thn)u)nbrau'

is~ta~y

)nu)ncntdcHcctcdo)t

thus.uuc

sideof its c(~!i)ibriuta positon.

Ibis runuu'kubtcLh~t, t,)tc :Lpp[i(.Lt,i"n ut' L)m cuntit.t'aiuLtuthc

radins ~=0 innkcs Lhu probtetn casier t)t!Ui buturu.

2-n"='3'

'=~T'

and tlie possible toncs arc givcn by th cqun.ti.on

ta.n/ca=Kf!(4).

To caleulatc thc roots of tan = x wc may assume

a;=(m-)-~)7r-y=Jr-~

whcrc y is a positive quuntity, winch is smaU \v!ien is large.

Substitutiug this, we find cot = JV M,

wLcuce

V Sy" I7'/

1/1

J~x(~~+r~)-'3--ii~L

x x 2

-'3-15-31This cquatioti is to bc solved by successive approximation.

It will rcadity bu found tha.t

= ,rl + Al

X-5

J2/=Y-'+~~+~~+~~Y3

]ij

10~

i-~ +.

LOAD.

0FSMALL

EFFECT

207.]

279

whcro

J\"==(M+~)77-.

In thc Hrst quildrn-nttho-c is no root aftcr xcrosince tana; > a',

n.nd in thc sccottd <p)adnn)t thcrc is noue ))cc:m.scth signs of

a;:uitl L:ui.Ba)-eopp"si~. Th fii'stroot.iit'tc)-zro is thus in

Evcn m tins case

thut)nrdqu:u1)-:L))t, c(.rrcspondin~to~=l.

thu sft-ic.s convoies suHicicntty to ~ivc thc v:t)'tc of' Die root

wiMi nsitierahic :t.ccur:Lcy,whitu fur I)i~hcr va.lucs of' ?~ it is

a)i t)~ con)d )'e (h;sh-c'L Th ~-tn:~ vahtcs of~ 7r m'o l--t303,

&c.

2'-i.~0, 3'-t.70U,'t'-i74.7,5'4Mi~ C-4H-H-,

208. Thc cH'ccton thc pcriods of n. sU~))t incqnd~y in thc

th

dunsity of tlic circular tTtC-nthnmu))t~y hu invc.stig~tctt hy

h:w(j :Urca<)y

gcnut'a.)xictinxt !)0, <'f ~hich scvcrid ux!LU)ptt;s

Lcun '(.'n.

IL wtH hu snH'iciuntheru to considct-tlie case of a

s)n:dlio:Ld~:Ltt:).c)tcdto thc monhnuie at a, point wim.seradius

vector i.s)'

We wi)l t:d first the symmctncal types (-M=0), which n~y

Thc

sti)t hc supposai to :i.pp~ynotwit.hs~ndiog tlic prcseuec of

knictic cnergy 2'is (C) 20-t :dtcrcd from

p7T~J;' (~)

whcrc P,

t0 ~TT~J~ (~)

(~).

dctcrmhmtc for

Th unsymmctt-ic:U

nnrt~a.1 types are not ful)y

the unioadcd moubrane Lut foi-thc prsent purpd.se tttcy must

bo tfdn so as to nmko thc i-c.sultin~pcnods n. ma-xinunn or

load is th

minimum, tliat is to s:).y,so th.Lt thc cH'cct of the

!oad can ncvcr r~isc

greatest ~td lc:tst possible. Now, since a.

thc pitch, it is c)ca.r th:Lt th inthmnce of tho !oad is tlie lu~st

that a uod:d diamctcr (it

possible, viz. xcro,whcii tlic type is such

is mdiHcrcnt winch)passes t!n-oughthe point nt which t!)0 lo~d is

ahtachcd. Thc untoadcd mcmbmnc must bc supposud to h:ivu two

couLCidoitpcriods, of which o;~ is untdtcrud by tho addition of thc

280

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[208.

pcriud is os ~rca.t as possible, which will ovidoiHy be t))c case

whun t)ic r.t.dmsvecto!- )-' bisucts thc futg!c bctwcon two <uij:LCcnt

nud~l diatnutcrij. T)tus, if correspond to = 0, wc are tu take

'~=~~

(~)cosH~; i

Of course, if r' bc such t!mL titc lu~d tics on one of tbc tiodal

circles, ncithcr pcrio<tis af!'uct.cd.

For cxampic, lut ~VLe at thn contre of t)tc membrane. J,. (0)

vanishcs, cxpt whcn )t=0; ~ud

(<))=!. It is on)y th

symmctricai vibrations whosc pitc)) isin!)uc[]ccd by a central load,

aud furthclu by (1)

fil

ni

~(~)~

0 ( ~no) P

By(G)2()0

~(.)=-~(.),

so that the application of t)tc funrmJa

rc()uircsoniy a ktlowlo~c of

th va)ucs of' (2). whun (.2)

viuushes, 200. For thu gravcst

mndc thc value of J/(A-~) is -5190:}'. Whcn

~.0 is cousidorabic,

~~o~)=2-7r~

thc !oad in altcring t!tc pitcb incrua.scs.

Tbc it]f)uenceof a smaU

irreguiarity in disturbing the nodal

systcni may be ca!cutatcd fron th formula of 90. Tbe most

obviuus cn'ect is thc brcakin~ up of nod:).!diamutcrs into curves

of hypcrbolic form duc to tbe introduction of

suhsidiary symmctrical vibrations. In many ca.scs thc disturbance is favoured

by close agreerucut betweeu some ofthc natural puriods.

20!). We will next investi~ato how t])c natnral vibrations of

a unifonu metubrane are auected by a s)ight

departurc from th

exact circular form.

ThoBUfoeedingTa!nosnrc~proximnte]y

-341,-271,-23~,'20(!,-187,A'p.

209.]

281

DOUNDARY.

NEARLYCI&CULAR

cnuntion

By Fouricr's thcorcm M

inny bc cxpundcd in tlie series

sec that

must sa.tisfy

M.~

~.(~');

Tbe gnral expressionfor M may thus bc writton

~==J.J.(/<-r)+~(/<:r)(~,cos0+7?,sin0)

+ J.. (/~)

(.1,

cos

+.

(2).

In thc case of a nearly circulai' mombranc th radius vector is

nearly constant. Wc may ta~e r=ft+8?', ~)' bcing a small

function of

Hence thc boundary condition is

0=~[.7.,(~)+~(~)]+.

+ ['

(~t)

t/

(/<:ft)] [J~

+.

cos

sin

tt0]

(3),

Let us considcr first those modes of vibration wMcbare nearly

symmutrical, for which therefore approximately

~=~.J.(~-).

A)) tbc rcmaining coefficients arc small relativcly to j~, since

th type of vibration can only differ a little from w!iat it would

282

VIBRATIONS

0F MEMBRANES. [209.

th!'s)n:)H(jU:u)titn'"b'~)mittr.L,~)!jf'co!ri<

'~o'(~)] + 'A (~~) [~i cos <9+ .B,sin <9]

+.)(~) [. co.s?t<9

+ 7~.si n/~j +.=().

oL~.(~~) +

limits 0 aud ~7r,weubtf).i)i

(.t).

butwcc!) titc

or

which shcws that thc piidt of tlie vibration is n.pp)-nx!)natu]y

thc

s:unc as if th radius v~ctot-ha<! uui~rtnty its ~e~/t ~<e.

This t-csnit idiuwsus to f'm-m:i rou~h csLimatc of t)tc

pitch of

any mcnil.triutc whusc boundary iij nuL cxtmva~mUy cjon'ratud.

]f o- dnote thu fu'c:t,su t)t:).tpo- is t)tc )naHHof Ute whutc muniLraue, tho frcqucjtcy of t)ie gt~vost {.uneis approximatdy

2~

2-40.i.x~(6).~P

In ot~cr to invcst.tc the altcred type of vibration, wc

m~y

and thoi int~-m-atcas beforu

mnltilly (-t) by eusy~, or sm

Thu.s

symmctriciil, thc

question bocomes tuorc coinp)ic:).tcd. Tlie nor))i;d tn0()cs io;- t).

truly circuler mcmbrMGare to somc extcut Indetcnniuatc, but tin'

209.]

NEARLY

BOUNDARY.283

CIRCULAR.

irrc~Iarity in th bonndru'y will, in gnerai, rcmovc tlie indcterminatcn<'SH. T!tC position ufthc uudal difuncters nmst ))utukcn,

no that Ute resulLin~pct'io~s !n!Lyh:LV<!

maxinium or minimum

values. Lot us, howuvcr, snpposL-t!u).tthc approxiinato type is

w=~t~<7,,(/fr) cos ~(9),

a.nd aftcrw~rds invcsti~atc how th initia.! linc must bc ta~en in

ordcr that this form may )io)<!good.

A!l thc rcmaming coe~cients bo!ng ti'cated as small in companson withJt., wc gct froin (4)

or

Thc rn-tiosof ~t,, a.ud 7?,,to A,. mn.ybo found as before by insin )!0.

tcgraiin~ quation (10) a.ftar inulLiptic~tionby cos

But the point of~rcatcst intercst is th pitch. Tt~cinitial line

is to bc so t:).kun as to )ti:~ thc expression(11) a maximum or

minimum. If we refer ta a, lino fixed in spacc byputtin~a

instc:).dof

we liave to consider t)~c dcpeudencc on a of the

quanti ty

r~eos~(~-a)~,

cos' v (B u) clfl,

J o0 8r

which may aiso bc writtcn

284

VIBRATIONS

0FMEMBRANES. [209.

andisof th form

J. cos~fx + 2Z?cost/xsin va + (7sin'x,

2?, (7 buing indepundcnt of a. Thure are according]y two

admissible positions for tho nodal diamctci's, one ofwhich makes

thc period a. maximum, and tl)e othci' a minitnum. T!)c-dianietcrs

ofon set bisuct the angles bctween tlie diameters of thc other

set.

Thcr are, howcvcr, cases whcrc th nortna! modes remfunInJctC!'minatc;,witichhappcnswhcn thc expression (12) is mdcpendent

t'a. This is t!ie case whcn S/' is constant, or whoi

is pronortional to cos

For exa.mpic',if

wcrc proportional to cos 2~,

or in ot))erwor<]sthc hnund:u'y wcro s]ight)ye!liptica),thc uodal

system corrcspunding to )t=2 (that consisting of a pair of pcrpondicular dinmctcrs) would ho arhitrary in position, at Icast to

this onict' ufapproxunation. But th single diamctcr, con'csponding to !t=l, must coincide witit one of th principal axes of

thc ellipse, and tlic pcriod.swill be diircrcnt for thc two a.xes.

210. Wc hve SGGnthat tho gravcst tone of a membrane,

whose houndary is appruxhnately circular, is ncarly the samc as

that ofa mcchanicaHy simil.'t.rmembrane in the form of a.circle of

tlic samc mcan radius or area. Ii' thc arca of a membrane hc

givcn, thcre must evidenHy bu some furm of boundary for wltich

th pitch (of thc principal tonc) is thc gravest possible,and this

form can he no othcr than the circle. Ju th case of approximate

circuhu'ity an analytical demolistration may Le givcn,ofwhich thc

foUowlngis an outhnc.

The gnerai value of~ being

~~=~1,<(/<) +.

(1),

arcsmaM

rc]ativcty to J, we nud from thc condition that M vanishes

wltcn ?' =ft +8r,

J. (~) +

+S [(J,(~)+

J.' (~a)

~J,

(~). (~.)' +

(2).

Hence, if

~'= ~cos~+/3~in

~+

+ ~cos/+

/3~sin/i~+

(3).

210.]

FORM OF MAXIMUM

PERIOD.

285

(}uantitk's bc nc~1cct(~, <(/ca)=0, 01-that to tLis ordcr ofa.pproxima-tioti th )nc:i.n radius is :).]so thc L'Huctivuradius. In

ontur to obtailt :Lctoscr n,pp)'oxi)n;ttiun\ve <h'stdutcnniuc ~1~

and ~o

l'y multiplyin~ (2) by cus~ sin?;~ aud thoi intcgr~ting butween <hc limits 0 aud 277-. Thus

286

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[210.

sothat

muinbur.

T))C <-)))cst.icnis i~ow us to thc sign of thu i-hL-h:UKl

If M= 1, :L'~t- Le wnttcu fur A:<(,

and

vani.shcs approximatdy by (7), .since in gcncml ,~== 0, as shou)d

In the p~sc.nt case ,(~) = 0 n~u-)y. Tt'ns f~<'

cvidunUy b~ Lhc case,.sitjcc thc term iu fjuu.stionrcprcMcntsmcrcly

in th f~nu uf

disphtucmcnt of th cirdc wifLont an i~turatiun

t)~ buuudary. Whcu = 2, (M) ~UO,

For this purpnsu wn n):)y nvail ourseh'cs of a. thojron givcn in

to thc cft'cct th~t

Kiuma.nti's jf'r<~e D~rc;c/N~<~e/i,

ubithur "or< has a r<)"t (t)<hcr ttt:ni xo'(t) l(.'ssthan ?t. Thc

di~reuti~l c~u~Lujnfor may bc put lato thc furm

wcll as

whilu luitiaUy J, und J,'

.)

(~s

~~cpositive. Accord-

in'~v- "-Lc~ins

-log~

before .:=?:, from whieh it is cicar tliat within tlie range = 0 to

210.]

ELLIPTICAL

DOUNDARY.

287

can vanish. And siuco t/~and J' are

hothp'it~u:]tii~~M.itJ'('vsth~t,ii5anittt~gc'rgr('atcr

tha.n 2'4U~,

f~t is positive. \Ve ccmdude tha.t, nn!cns c' /9~

all va.ni.s)),f~ is gycn-tcrthan

winch shews tlmt in th

0,

c)t.scof nny mumbranc of appmxim:)tc)y ci)'cu)ar outHnc, tho circle

ofc~na.tat'cacxccedsthocu'cIcoi'ctjualpiLtdt.

Wc ttave seen that a good cstimatc of th pitch of an npproximatly circulai' monbranc may bc oLtaincd frutn its arca a!onc,

but by tucims of c~nat.iott (~) a stil) ctoscr approximation ntay Le

cn't-'etL'd.Wc will apply tilis method tu thu case uf an ellipse,

~hosc sciai-axis maj~r is Tt!anfl ucccntricity e.

'J'!mp(;)ar quation ofthubonndaryis

Thuresult may also bc expressed m tei'ms of c and the arca oWc have

and thua

from wLidi we sec how smal! is the influence of a moderato ecccntricity, whcn the arca,is givcn.

VIBRATIONS 0F MEMBRANES.

288

[211.

\iL)'.i<i~ prc.-cnts

j)or<'h\!dar, tbcpr~b~'i.'t ofdck't'i-'i'jh.~ir.

difficultics witich iM gnera! could not bc cvc'reotnc wltliont th

A

intro()uction of functions not hit!)crto discusscd or tabniatcd.

partiat exception mnst bc ma()c in faveur of an uttiptic bonndnry

but for thc purpoHcs of t))i.s trc'ittisG thc i)npm't)).ncu of t-bu probton

is scarc<)y sufHciunt to warrattt thc i))tr(j(hK;t.ioti of compHcatcd

invusdan;dy.sis. 'J'h(jr(':K)uri8thurnf"ru!'cfurrc<ltot)K'()ri~iu:d

gatx.n ufM. ~!athi(;u'.l, It will bH su~Hc'icnt to n)C))t,U))il'f't'o that

t))C txjdtd systetu is composcd of tl)0 confocal cUipscs a.nd hypcrho]as.

by meaus of thc gcncnd

solution

!o=~l.J.(A:r)+.t-

(.l..cos~+7?,.sin~).7,.(~-)

+.

?~ =

(~r)

X. J,

(/<-r) cos

bonnd:u'y to which thc solution will thcu app~y.

U.scfui infortnation ~ay sonictinics bc obtaincd from th

theoron of 88, whicb aDows us to provc that any contractioa of

thc iixcd bouudary ofa vibrating niembnmc tnu.st cause an lvation ofpitc!), because tbe ncw state of thin~s may bu conccivcd to

diffcr from the o)d mcrc)y by tbc introduction of an additional

constraint.

Springs, wlthout incrtia, arc s~ppnscd to urgc th

linc of th prnposcd boundary towards ils cquitibrimn position,

and graduaHy to bicorne stin'cr. At c:).cb stcp thc vibrations

becomc more rapid, until tbcy approach a linut, corrcHponding to

infinitc stiH'nuss "f thc nprings and abso1ut,c (ixity of thc-ir points

t)io p:n'tcntoffshou!d

of application.

Itisnotn(.'c~ssarythat

hve th H:unc dcnsity as thc l'est, or cvcn at~y dcnsity at a.)L

For instance, the pitch of a reg~dar polygon is intcrmcdiate

inscribcd and circmnscribcd circles. doser

bctwecn tboseofthe

Umits won!d bowcvcr bc obtained by substituting for the circuniscribed circle that ofequa~ arca according to ttic rcsult of 210.

In th case of thc hcxagon, th ratio of tbc radius of the circle of

crp)al arca to that oft!te circle Inscribcd Is l'OaO, so that the tnean

'I.intni)].]M8.

MEMBRANES

2UJ

AREA.

OFEQUAL

289

by so much as 2~ per

cent. Li t.he~iic w:ty we migh~conc)'dc(.h.').tthesect.<)rcfa

circle of G0is n graver form than tlic equilateral

triangle obtained

by substituting th chord for th arc of th circle.

Tho following table giving the relative frequency in certain

calculable cases for th gravest tone of membranes under similar

mecbanical coadifions and of equal cn-e~(o-),shews tho effect of a

greater or less departure from the circular form.

CIrcIc.

2-404.=4-261.

Square.

~2.-n-=4'443.

_1

f.

1

Quadrant of~circle.

Q

5'135./

45w1

f~?.~=4.~i~

~s

6-379 A/~=4'616.

/13

A/7r=4'G24.

Rectangle 3x2.

Equilatcral triangle.

Semicircic.

3832A/~=4'803.

Rectangle 2x1.1

isosceles tna-ngle.J

R~ctangle 2x,l.

Right-angled

/5

= 4'067.

~y~ =~'967.

'T'~2

,}

3Rectangle 33x1.

1

G u,

7!-A/~= -.) 5-736.

~r1/

For instance, if a square a.nd a. ch'c]c have thc same area, thc

former is th more acutc in th ratio 4-443 4'2C1.

For th circle th absolute frequency is

linear dimension.

212. The thcory of th frce vibrations of a membrane was

first succcssfut)y considered by Poisson'.

l, His thcory in th

case of th rectangle left little to be desired, but his treatmeut

1 Af~m.

(ler~e(!(MMt'<

t. vm. 1829.

R.

19

~0

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[~312.

i'c

-.ut -h

vibrations. Kirci-.h"~ ~~di.mortbc~'m~r,

in 1H;)0 aud

w~

circular

ofthc

publisbcd

plate

dimcult, problem

of tho

thc

thcory

gnerai

givcs

Ctebsch'a y/~op-yq/Y~

(18G2)

oi

circular memt)ranc induding thc efFectsof stiil-nessand rotatory

not much left

was

tticro

that

sccn

be

will

thercfore

It

incrtia.

to Le donc m 186G; ~evertheless tlie mcmon-of Bourget aircady

uscfui discus.sbn of thc problem accomrefon-ed to contains

thc whoc of which

Dumcricid

results,

complte

very

by

paHicd

howcver wcrc not nc\v.

uso

213. In his cxpcnntcnta! mvcsti~tions M. Bourget made

of various m~terials, of winch papcr proved to hu as good as any.

Tl)c papct-is immerscd in wato-, and aftcrTonova! ofti'c snperHuons

wbose

~noisturc by blotting papcr is piac~d upon a framc of woud

Thc contraction of th

with

coatcd

havo

bcGn

gtuc.

prcviau.sty

edges

but many faihu'cs

tension,

thc

in

ncssfu-y

papcr drying produccs

rcsult is cbtaincd. Evcn

wUlt

bufurc

a

met

be

satisfactory

mny

ui

a wcll strctchcd mcmbmne refiuircs cottsidci-abicpt-ecautions

in consc.tuencc of thc

in

variations

Uabic

to

pitch

use, bcing

grt

are cxeltcd

vibrations

'i~hc

of

tho

niuisturc

atmosphre,

varying

tiavc a scrics procecdiug

to

of

it

is

which

necessary

hy organ-pipcs,

vident to thc cyc

mado

arc

:uid

of

intcrvals

sma!!

they

pitch,

by

H'c mombranc. If tho

by means of a littic sand scattcrcd on

vibration be sufHcicntty vigorous, thc s!uut accumultes on th

less prcciston.

nodallincs, whosc fortn is thus dcHneJ wit)~more or

th cire-lesbeeoning

Any Ine'jUidity in thc tension shcws itsclf by

elhptic.

Th principal results of experiment arc the foUowing

A circult-membrane cannot vibratu in unison with cvcry sonnd.

than

It can ouly place itself in unison with sounds more acute

tliat Iicard whcn th membrane Is gcnt)y tapped.

As theory Indicates, thse possible sounds are separated by Icss

aud Icss intervais, tho highcr thcybceomc.

to

Th nodal lines are oniy formed distinctiy in rcsponse

certain deunite souuds. A littie above or Mow confusioncnsues,

and when d~e piteli ofthe pipe is decidcdly altcred, thc membrane

continuons

re.nains un.aoved. Thero is not, as Savart supposai, a

transition from one Systemof nodal Uncst') auother.

213.]

OBSERVATIONS

0F M. BOURGET.

291

cu'c~osan

~~Tn.tors,an ~ipory rcrju~-f~, ITo~'cvcr, tvh'ju thc

number of diamcters excecd.s two, thc s~nd tends to hea.? itself

eonfuscdly toward.s t!ic iniddie of the membrane, and the nodos

are not well dcfincd.

The sa.me gcncra.1 laws wcrc vcriHcd Ly MM. Bernard and

Bourgct in thc case of square membra.ncs'; a.ndthese authors considcr that the rcsn)ts of theory arc Elecisivelyestablished in opposition to th vicws of Savart, who hc!d that a membrane was

capable of i'<jspondin~to any sound, no matter what its pitch

might be. But 1 must tierc remark that the distinction between

forccdand free vibrations docs not secm to have been suniciently

borne in mind. Whcn a membrane is set in motion by aerial

wavcs having tLcir origin in an orgau-pipc, the vibration is

propcriy spcaking/(j;'ce~. Theory asscrts, not that th membrane

is only capable of vibrating with certain denned frcqueneieH,but

that it is on!y capable of so vibrating j~'e~y. When however th

period of th force is not approximately equal to one of th

natural periods, the rcsulting vibration mny be insensible.

In Savart's cxpcnmcnts the sound of th pipe was two or three

octaves higber than t)~e gravest tone of th membrane, and was

aceordin~y ncvcr fnr from unison with eue of th sries of over

tones. MM. Bourget and Bernard made th experiment under

more favourable conditions. Whcnthey sounded a. pipe somew!~a,t

lower in pitch than th gr~vest tone of th membrane, tlie sand

rema.inednt rest, but was thrown into vhment vibration as unison

was approached. So soon as the pipe was decidedly higher than th

membrane, titc ~and returncd again to rest. A modification of the

cxperimcnt wa.s madc by first tuning a pipe about a tliird higher

than th membrane whon in its natural condition. Th membrane

was then heatcd until its tension had increased sumciently to

bring tbc pitch above that of tlie pipe. During the process of

cooling th pitch gradually fe! and the point of coincidence

manifcstcd itself by th violent motion of th sand, which at the

bcghmiug and end of th experiment was scnsihiy at rest.

M. Bourget found a goodagreement between thcory and obscrv:).tionwith rcspuct to t)]Cradii of thc circuler nodcs, though the

test wns not very prccisG,in consquence of tlie scusibic width of

~n;.

C~tt'w.M. 44947f,

1860.

~:)3

S93

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[213.

the bands of sand; but thc relative pitch of thc various simple

tones deviated considerahly from th theoretica.1estimtes. Th

committee of tlie Frcnch Acadcmy appointed to report on

M. Bourgct's memoir suggcst as th explanation th want of

perfect fixity of th boundfu'y. It should also be remcmbered t))at

the thcory procccds on th supposition of perfect HcxibiHtya

condition of tbings not at ail closely approached by an ordinary

membrane sti-etchcd with a comparatively small force. But

perlaps th most important disturbing cause is tlie resistance of

thc air, which aets with much grcater force on a membi-a.nethan

on a string or bar in consquence of th large surface cxposcd.

The gravest mode of vibration, during which tlie dtsplacement is

at ail points in thc same direction, might bc affccted very

differcntiy from tlie highci- modes, which would not roquire so

grca.t a transference of air from one side to tlie other.

CHAPTER X.

VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

214. IN order to form according to Green's method th quations of eduilibrium and motion for a thin solid plate of uniform

isotropic material aud constant thickness, we require th expression

for th potential encr~y of bending. It is easy to sec that for each

unit of area the potential cjiergy

is a positive homogeneous

symmetrical quadmtic function of thc two principal curvatures.

Thus, if p~, bc tlie principal radii of curvaturc, the expression

for Vwill be

where A and

arc constants, of which J. must be positive, and

/n inust be numerically less than unity. Moreover if thc matcrial

be of such a character tha.t it undergoes no lateral contraction

when a bar is pulled out, the constant

must vanish. This

amount of information is almost ail that is recaured for our

purpose, aud wc may thcrcfut'c content ourselves with a mere

statcnicut of tlie relations of th constants in (1) with those by

mcans of ~hich t)io elastic properties of bodies are usually denncd.

From Thomson and Tait's -Mra~ Philosoplty, G30,642,

720, it appears that, if b be tlie thickness, y Young's modnius,

and thc ratio of latcral eoutraction to longitudinal elongation

when a bar is puited out, th expression for Vis

294

0FPLATES. F314.

VIBRATIONS

of tho plate at tlie point wliusc rectangular coordinates in tho

plane of tlie pta,tc arc ?, y,

plate.

215. We procccd to find the variation of F, but it should bc

tcrm in V,

prcviously noticed that tlie second

uame!yj< P,P~

of the p]:ttc, and is thereforc dereprsenta th <o~ cMruct~tp'e

thc edgc.

pendent only on th state of thinga at

iinvotrouble to thoso who wish to conault the oriH'H'Hmouuira.

'hx

Youae's moda!uB=F (Clcbseh)=~ (Thon)aon)=:~K+~t (TIiouison)

~"(~)

(Hirchhof).

=~ (Clobsehaud Douldu)=<r (Thomson)="~

Poiasou MiituaeJ this ratio to Lu

(Thomson)=~

and Werthuim

(Eircidtoff).

215.]

l'OTENTIAL

ENERGY

0F

BENDING.

295

dnotes

outwards.

Thc transformation of the second part is more difficult. Wo0

have

tlie furm

and tlie intgration on the right-ha.ud side extends round the

boundary. Using thse, wc (tnd

tZ~

If wc

ve substituto ior

~8w f/;<; ~8M; thcir values in terms

M~

<<y

from tlie quations (sce FI~. 40)

29G

VIBRATIONS

[215.

OF PLATES.

wc obtain

r~

-s-~

f~w..cfw

+(1-~)

cos8smO \,t/y'

(~

"'(7~\ jcos~sm~

<~M\

'TZ)\

(cos'8

+(eos~-sui~)

't~/y/J

~~M

.f~w

(

+

+

-icos'

d~' sin" a~

J~/i. f~- ('~'C7"M (1 ~)

y 1

the transverse

motion. If p bc the volume deusity, aud Z~

force acting on thc c!cment c?6',

215.]

CONDITIONS

FOR A FREE

EDf.E.

397

1

8F-ff~8w~+f~wSM~M=0.(7)'

is thc gcno-al v:u'iation!Uquation, which must bc true wha.tevur

mn.y

fmiction (consistent with tlie constitution of ttic system)

bo supposcd to be. Hcocu by tlie principles of thc Cidculus ot'

Variations

If thc cdgcs of thc pMe bo froc, therc is no restriction on th

a'id thei-cfore th

and

8w

va)ucs

of

bound~ry

hypothctic&l

for SFmustvanisIt.

cne~cicnt.softhcsoquautities in th expression

Th conditions tu Le:s~isncd at a, frcu cdgc arc tlms

and tlie satisfactiou of thc boundary conditions is already sccured.

Th

tn-bttrary.

If th cdge

bc

~=0,

'supportcd",

0

hut~ia

cl~a

sccoud of th cqua.tious (9) must m tins case bc s~tisfied by w.

216. The bound:n-y quations may be simplified by getting

rid of th extrinsic lment involved in tho use of Cartesian coordinates. 'l'aking the axis of a: pM~Iel to th normal of tlie

buuuding curve, wc sec that we may writo

Aiso

Tho rotatory inortia ial'cre uc~locted.

CoinpMe 1G2.

298

VIBRATIONS 0F PLATES.

[216.

axiscoincidiug

whcre

o-isa,fixcd

at t!t0point

withthctangent

(I"wToobtain

.1'

l '1 Ingenci'a.l-diH'ei'=ih'om

underconsideratiou.

d

C12w

M~*

<M' b

threlation

bctween

wemayproceed

thus.Expn.nd

wby

them,

inascouding

Ma.cta-unn's

thcorcni

ofthcsmaU

powcrs

qua.ntities

luterms

nando',andsubstituto

forMando-thcn.'

values

ofa,th

arcofthccurve.

ingnera).

Thus

fF~ ~"w

~<;

-r 0-'+

jj?~+ ~0-~

?:o-+ ~ow= +

+ o-+A(/)!~

ft

whUc

onthcurvco-=s +cubes,== s'"

+ whcrc

/?Isth

radius

ofcurvature.

forpoints

onthcurve,

Accordingly

andthcrcforc

whencefrom(l)

1~!00~~

2

~"W.

Io

v~"tc=-+-+.

p (~'

(3).

thsecond

Weconcludc

thn.t

condition

in(9) 215

bouoda.ry

beputiutotlicform

mn.y

In the sa.moway by putting

is quivalent to

wherc it is to be undcrstood that the axes

chtcl~

of Mnd cr a.rc Rxcd. Th (h'st boundary conditiou now becomes

216.1

CONJUGATEPKOPERTY.

200

299

to bo

pa.mllol to the coordinato axes, wc obtahi as th conditions

sutisncd :).longtho cdges pa.ra).ielto

radius of curvaturc, is inlinitely gt'ea.t. Th conditions for tlie

other pair of edges are found by mterchanging x aud y. Thse

rosults may be obtained cquaUy well from (0) 215 directly, without th prelilninary transformation.

Auy two values of w, K and

boumi:ny conditions, arc co~x~e, that is to say

to prove this

provided tha.t tlie periods bo diffrent. In order

from thc oi-Jiuat-y diU'erentia!.quation (3), we should ha.vc to

retrace thc stops by which (3) was obtaincd. Tins ia the method

it is much aimpicr

!~doptedby Kirclihoff for th ch-cular dise, but

Mid more direct to use th va.rin.tiondquation

SF'Isadisplacemcnt consistent with th nature of tlie system.

or

symmctrical funetiou of w and ~M,as may be seen from 215,

from thc general character of V ( 04'.)

VIBRATIONS0F PLATES.

300

hn.vc

[217'.

wc

~~=~~f:tu~;

and i)i Hkcnia.tuier if we put w = v, 8~ = u, which wc are equally

oitittcdtodu,

gr=~f~~s',

'\vbencc

in

boundary, and whcthcr th cdge be cla.mped,supportcd, or frec,

'\vltolcori!ipa.rt.

As for thc case of mcmbmnes in the la-st Chapter, equation

(7) may bu onpiuycd to prove that thc admissible v:duus of arc

ruai; but tins is vident from physieal cousidcrations.

For thc application to a circular dise, it is necessary to

express the quations by means of polar coordinates. Taking

titc ccnti-cuf tlie dise as polo, wc hve for the gcncral uquatiun to

bc satisnud at ail points ofthe arca

218.

()-=(t),we!m.vo

= radius

of curvatnre

M; and

thus

to.

218.]

301

POLAR CC-ORDINATES.

w = ?t~ +

+.

!~<xcos(M0a),

/r~

l~A

d1'

~~p+r~'r~

(l'zo"

~=0

3-~

US

,/2-~r~

Il\Q'

(3).

1 (_luu"

(2nt

(V'+~)(~)~=0,

which becomes for the general tei-m of th Fourier expansion

M'

.1

~_z'

)'f~' ?"

f +--T-i+~('n+''

~f~

.1~

7

?'~)'

n_'

-a

)-'

,Y, =

KM

shewing that tlie complete value of

of

togcther, with arbitrary constants preHxcd, th genera.1solutions

The equation with the npper sign is the samc as that which

obtains in th case of th vibrations of circular membranes, and

as in the last Chapter wc conclude that thc solution applicable

ceJ.. (/o-), the second function of r

to thc problem in hand is

bcing hre inadmissible.

In tlie same way the solution of tl)c quation with the lower

nigu is Wnx ,7,,(~r), whcre t ==s/ 1 as usual.

The simple vibration is thus

+ sin

{'yJ, (~-) + SJ,. (t/<?-)}.

M),= cos?t0{o(J,. (~-) + /3~, (~?-)}

Th two boundary quations will dtermine tl)e admissible

values of and the values which must bo given to the ratios

a ~3 and y 8. From the form of thcsc quations it is evident

a /3 = 'y 8,

that we must have

and thus ' may bc expressed in the form

(~)) cos (~ e).(5).

t., = P cos (~ a) (J, (~-) +

302

VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

[218.

diametcrs symmetric~Iy (UstribuLedround tlic centre, but

tlie

othenviso arbitrary, dcnoted by

.(~,

cos(~-a)=0

is

togethcr with tlie conccutric circles, -\vhosectiu~tion

J~-)+XJ,(~-)=0.(7).

219. In order to dctcrmiMC?La.nd we must ultrcduce th

we obtain from

bouudary conditions. Whcn tue edge is free,

(3) 218.

fractions on th right Hie dct)oth

e~chof

In

(/c-),J,.(~)').

by

minator ma,ybe dcrh'cd from tLc numcrator by writing in place

of BycHnunatioa ofXthc cquntiou is obtuiucd wlioseroots givc

tlic admissible vidues of /c.

Whon = 0, tlie rcsult assumes aj simple form, viz.

~(~'t) rt

/'9')

Jn('A:a)

2(l-~)+~~+~y~=0.(2).

This, of course, could ha.vebeGHmoro easilyobta.incd by neglecting

Mfrom ttic bcgiumng.

The calculation of the lowest root foreach value of is troublemust 'be cceted

some, and in the absence of uppropri~c tables

by menns of thc asccnding sries fur thefunctions ~(~'), .y,.(!).

lu the case of tho higher roots recunrsc ~n~yLe h~l to th semifunctions. Kirc))hoff

s~ne

fur

thc

sries

descending

convergent

finds

~L-+

8~(8~)"

(8m)"

tan (~Tr)

= T

~~8~~(8~t)~

whcrc

~=~=(1-~)-8,

~=ry(l-4~)

C ='V(1 4~') (9 4~) + 4.8(1 + 4~),

8 + 136~ + 30~).

7) =

((1 4~) (f) 4~) (13 4n')] + (9

219.]

KIRCMHOFF'S

303

THEORY.

where~isanintcger.

/t Is idcntical with

It appears by a numcrical comparison that

a, law discovei-cd

the uuinbcr of circulai' nodcs, n.nd (4.)cxprc.ssGH

to figurcs with a

by CIdadni, that tlie ft-e<tucncicseorrespouding

the exception of the

given number of nodal diameters arc, with

lowest, approximately proportional to tlie squares of conscutive

cven or uncvcn uumbers, according as thc number of the diamGtcrs

is itself cvcn or odd. 'Within th limits of application of (4), we

sec also that th pitch is approximately unaltercd, when any

number is subtracted froni A, provided twice that number be

addcd to ?:. This law,of which traces appear ill the followingtable,

th pitch nodal

that

towards

raising

be

saying

by

expressed

may

circles have twice t!ic eScct of nodal diameters. It is probable,

however, that, strictly spealtiug, no two normal components have

exactiy th same pitch.

Ct~

1

2

/t i

~=-11

?=0

/t

Gis

g:s'+

W.

Cn.

P.

W.

HiH+ A-tb'-(h'-

b

o"+

hf"+

cfts"+

P.

?t=3

'cnr*'p.~ w.

C C

0 C

1 g'

gis'+ a/-

~=33

Cil. P. w.

d

(tis- d)sd".dm"di8"+ c"-

ofthe more important overtones of a free circular plate, th gravest

three columns under tlie heads

The

C'

bc

to

assumed

being

refer respectivcly to tlic rcsults as observed by Odadui

Ch,

and as calculated frou theory with Poissou's and Werthenu's

little

A

values of

sign deMotesthat tlie actual pitch is a

is a little lowcr, than that written.

it

that

a

7)~)t!<s

aud

sign

higher,

notation,and~tto bnatural.

1 Giscorresponds

to (~ "t theEnK)ish

304

VIBRATIONS

0F

[219.

PLATES.

l)ut perhaps not greater than mny bc attributcd to jrrcgularity in

th plate.

220. Titc radil of the noda! cit'dus in tlie symmctric:d case

(t; = 0) were calcuiated by Poisson, and comparcd by him with

results obtait~edexpci'ime!)tf)J]yby Savart. The followingnumbers

arc taken from a papcr by Strehikc', whomade som careful measuremcnts. The radius oftho dise is taken as unity.

Onecircle

Two

Iwo

Obsorvnt.ion.CnIeuJation.

0-67815 0-68062.

fO-39133

0-39151.

~.g~~

cu-cles.

fO-256310'25679.

0-59147.

~0-893GO 0-89381.

would vary very little if Wert.Itcim'sv~luc were substituted.

but

()! not zro) with measuremcnts by Strebikc m~dc on less accurate

dises.

7?~~Mq/' ~'CM~ft)'2Vo<~<M.

Obser~tbu.

]cu!a<on.

~==nP.).

?t=l, A=l1

~=2, /t=l

~=3, ~=11

M-i, /t~

0-781

0-70

0-838

0-488

Q.g~

0-81 0-S3

0-843

0-493

Q.g~

0-7M136

0-82194

0-8.1523

0-40774

4

0-87057

~=~(W.).

0-78088

0-82274

0-84G8I

0-49715

0-87015

or not, theory indicntes, and exporiment veri~GS,th:).ttlie position

of the nod:U diameters is fu'bitnu'y, or ra.ther dcpcndcnt only on

thc manner in which tlie pl~tc is supportcd. By varying thc

place of support, any dcsircd (liamctcr mny be made nodal. It is

goncraUy othcrwise wlien t!)crc is a.ny sensible dcpartui'c from

exact symmctry. Ttic two modes of vibration, whicli originany,

1 Pc~e-/iH".xcv.p. 577. 185S.

221.]

305

any proportion without ceasing to be simple harmonie, are now

separated and anected with different periods. At the same time

tlie position of the nodal diameters becomes determinate, or rainer

limited to two alternatives. The one set is derived from the other

by rotation tlirough haf the angle included between two adjacent

diameters of th s:nncset. This supposes that th deviation from

uniformity is small otlierwise tlie nodal system will no longer be

composed of approximate circles and diameters at al!. Thc cause

of the deviation may be an irrcgularity either in thc material or in

the thickness or In the form of thc boundary. Th effectof a small

load at any point may be investigated as in the parallel problem

of th membrane 208. If thc place at which th load is attached

does not lie on a nodal circle, tho normal types are made determinate. Th diamtral system corresponding to one of the types

passes through the place in question, and for this type the period

is unaltered. Th period of th other type is Iiiereased.

The most gnerai motion of th uniform circular plate is

expressed by th superposition, with arbitrary amplitudes and

phases, of the normal components already investigated. Th

dtermination of the amplitude and phase to correspond to

arbitrary initial displacements and velocities is effected precisely

as in the corresponding problem for th membrane by th aid of

the characteristic property of th normal functions proved in 217.

Th two other cases of a circular plate in which the edge

would be easier than th preceding

is eit,her clamped or ~)o?'~

in their theoretical treatment, but are of less practical interest on

account of th difficulty of expcrimcntally realising the conditions

assumed. The gnral resuit that th nodal system is composed

of concentric circles, and diamctcrs symmetrically distributed, is

applica.bleto all thc tin'ee cases.

222. Wc have seen that in general Chiadni's ligures as traced

by sand agre very closcly with th circles and diameters of

theory but in certain cases dviations occur, which are usually

attributed to irregularities in tlie plate. It must however be remembered that the vibrations excited by a bow are not strictly

speaking free, and that their periods are therefore liable to a

certain modification. It may be that under the action of the bow

two or mnre normal component vibrations coexist. The whole

J!.

20

306

VIBRATIONS 0F PLATES.

[223.

althougli the natural periods would be a little diffrent. Such an

explanation is suggcsted by th rogular charactcr of th figures

obtained in certain cases.

Another cause of deviation may perhaps Le found in th

manner in which tho plates are supported. Tho rcquirements of

theory are often difficult to meet in actual cxperimcnt. WheM

this is so, we may have to be content with an imperfect comparison but we must remember that a discrepancy may bc thc f:~u!t

of the experiment as well as of th theory.

223. The first attempt to solve th problem with which we

have just been occupied is duc to Sophie Germain, who succccded

in obtainiag tho correct differential equation, but was led to

erroneous boundary conditions. For a frec plate tlie latter part of

thc problem is indeed of considrable dimculty. In Poisson's

mcmoir Sur l'quilibre et le mouvement des corps diastiques'

that eminent mathematician gave ~7'eeequations as necessary to be

satisfied at aU points of a free edge, but Kirchbon*bas proved tht~t

in gnral it would be impossible to satisfy thcm aU. It happons,

however, that an exception occurs in the case of tlie symmctrical

vibrations of a circular plate, whcn one of tlie quations is true

identically. Owing to this pcculiarity, Poissou's theory of tho

symmetrical vibrations is correct, notwithstanding the error in his

view as to the boundary conditions. In 1850 th subjcct was

resumed by Kirelihon' who first gave thc two quations appropriate

to a free edge, and completed the theory of thc vibrations of a circular dise.

22~. The correctness of Kirchho6''s boundary quations bas

bcen disputed hy Mathieu", who, without explaining whero lie

considers Kirchhoff's error to lie, bas substituted a dinEcrentset ui

quations. He provcs that if Mand u' be two normal functions, so

that w=~cos~, w='eos~'< arc possible vibrations, thcn

Crelle, t. XL.p. 51, Ucber dus CIcitihgowicht und die Bcwcgung cincr c]~tichenScttcibc.

~Z,~)f)-~t'.t.xtY.J8G9.

224.]

HISTORY

0F

307

PROBLEM.

satisfy respectively

the e<~uations

==~/V.

c" ~7~<t'

c* ~7~=~,

Since th left-hand member is zero, the same must be true of

the right-hand member; and this, according to Mathieu, cannot

bc thc case, uuless at ail points of th boundary Luth u a.ndu'

satisfy onc of t!ic four followingpairs of equa,tions

Thc second pair would seem the most likely for a free edge,but

it is found to lead to an impossibility. Since th first and third

pairs arc obviouelyinadmissible, Mathieu coneludesthat the fourth

pair of equations must be those which really express th condition

of a frec edge. In his belief in this result hc is not shaken by the

fact that th corresponding conditions for th free end'of a bar

would be

tlie vibration of a. large tuning fork.

The fact is that although any of the four pairs of quations

would secure th evancscence of the boundary integral in (1), it

does not follow converselythat the integral eau be made to vanish

in no other way; and such a conclusion is negatived by KirchhofPs

investigation. There are besides innumera/bla other cases in

which thc integral in question would vanish, a.11that is really

necessary being that the bounda.ry appliaBCCssbould be either at

l'est, or devoid of inertia.

225. Thc vibrations of a rectangular plate, whose edge is

the normal

.suMWteJ, mny bc casily investigated theoretically,

functions being identical with those applicable to a membrane of

tbf same shapc, whoseboundary is fixed. If we assume

2D2

308

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[225.

~=0,

~-n

~-0,

~=0,

The value of p, found by substitution in c*o=~'M,

to th

sbewing that the anatogy to th membrane docs not cxtcnd

squence of toncs.

It is not necessary to repcat bero the discussion of the prnnary

and derivcd nodal systems given in Cbaptcr IX. It is enough to

observe that if two of tlie fondamental modes (1) hve th same

must ah-sohve thc same

period in tlie case of th membrane, thcy

nodal systems are

period in tlie case of tlie plate. The dcrived

accordingly idontica! i)i tlie two cases.

The freucratity of tlie value of w obtaincd by compounding

with arbitrary amplitudes and phases ail possible particular solutions of tlie form (1) i-cquircs no fres!t discussion.

Unless th contrary assertion I~ad bcen madc, it would bave

seemed unnccessary to say that the nodes of a ~M~w?' plate

bave nothing to do with the ordinary Cbladni's ng'n-es, which

belong to a plate whose cdges arc frec.

The realization of the conditions fur a snpportcd edge is

are required capable

scarcely attainabic in practice. Appliances

of holding t!)e boundary of tlie plate at l'est, and of sucba nature

that they give rise to no couples about tangential axes. Wc may

conceive the plate to be hc!d in its place by friction against thc

watts of a cylinder circumscribed closcly round it.

226. The problem of a rectangutar plate, whosc cdges are

rcsisted

frec, is onc of grt dimeulty, and bas for tbe most part

is independent

attack. If we suppose that tlie displaccment

with that

of?/, thc gnral differcntial quation bocomes identieal

with \vbich we werc concerned in Chapter Vin. If we take t)te

solution corresponding to the case of a bar whose ends are frec.

and tbci'cfore satisfying

<

<

22G.]

UECTANGULAR

PLATE.

30!)

when .c=U and when a;=~, we obtain a value of?o which sa~tisfies

t!fe getierai (liierenti~l cqua.tion, M well as th pair of boundat'y

cqua.tiou.s

boundary condition for thc ottior p:ur of edges,namely

~M

f~t?

(?)

~+~~=0.(2),

CI;C

will be violated, uniess ~.=0. This shews that, exccpt in the

case reserved, it is not possible for a frce rectangular plate to

vibrato after tlie manner of a bar; uuless indeed as a.n approximation, when the Jcngth paraHcl to one pair of edges is so grcat

that thc conditions to bo satisfied n-t thc second pair of edges

may be left out of account.

Although the cottstaut fk (which expresses thc ratio of lateral

contraction to longitudinal extension wbeti a, bar is drf).\vaout)

is positive for every known substance, in tlie case of a. few substancescork, for cxampicit is comparativelyvery smaIL Therc

is, so far as we know, nothing absnrd in the Iden of a substance

for which vanishcs. Thc investigation of the probtem undcr

this conditionis tilercforc not devoid of interest, though the results

will not be strictly applicable to ordinary glass or meta.1ptatcs,

for which tiie value of is about 1

If

&c.dnote the normal functions for a frce bar invcstigatcd in Chapter vin., corresponding to 2, 3,

tiodcs, th

vibrations of a rcctangular plate will be expressed by

wluch is not xero, vibrato m tho

mnuner of a bar, it would bo noecfiHfu'y

to apply conHtnutlingcouples to tLe edgea

pnraU! to the p)anp of bondinn to provent tlio aasumption of a contmry earvfttuTe.

Tho oficct of thcso couples wouH bo to rnise tho pitch, und thorofora tho calonintion founded on th type propnr to ~=0 would give )t rosutt fiomowhathigbcr in

pitch tlxm the truth.

310

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[236.

of straight lines parallel to one or other of tho cdges of th

recta.ng]c. Whc)i b = o~th rectangle becomes a squa-rc;aud the

vibrations

/a;\

1

Il a

~=~u'a

"=~

having nocessarily tlie same period, may be combined in any proportion, while th whole motion still remains simple harmonie.

Whatever th proportion may be, the rcsulting nodal curve will of

necessity pass through th points detcrmined by

consists

The nodal system of th primitive mode, w = M,

a[ ),

of a pair of straight lines parallel to y, whose distance from the

nearest cdge is '2242a. Th points in which thse lines arc met

a,rcthosc through wlticli

by the corresponding pair for w= u1

('),

th nodal curve of th compound vibration must iu a.ll cases pass.

It is vident that they are symmetrically disposed on th diagonals

of tho square. If tlie two primitive vibrations bc taken equal,

but in opposite phases (or, algebraically, with equal and opposite

amplitudes), we have

th diagonal which passes through tlic origin. That w will also

vanish along th other diagonal follows from thc symmetry of

th functions, and we conclude that tho nodal system of (3) comFiR.41.

vibration of a square plate.

326.]

CASE 0F SQUARE

311

PLATE.

their phases tlie sa.rne,so that

thc curves, for which M=const., is that employed by Maxwell

in similar cases. Tho two systems of eurves (in this instance

= const., a.rc

= const.,

straight

n Unes) represented by

a

)~J

a~j

first laid down, th values of th constants forming an arithmetical progression with th sa.me common diffrence in the two

cases, In this way a network is obtained which th required

eurves cross diagonaUy. The execution of tlie proposed plan

re<[uires an inversion of thc table given in Chapter yllL, 178,

expressing th march of t!ie function M~of which th result is as

follows

M~

a:: M

+1-00 '5000

-75 -3680

-50

-25

-00

-3106

'2647

-2342

M,

~:0

'25 -1871

-50 -1518

-75

1-00

1-25

-1-50

-1179

-0846

-0517

-0190

Th system of lines representcd by the above values of x (completed symmetrically on th further side of th central line) and

tlie corresponding system for y arc laid down in the figure (42).

From titcse thb curves of cqual displaeement are deduced. At the

centre of tlie square we h:Lvew a maximum and equal to 2 on th

side a-dopted. The first curve proceeding outwards is th locus of

points at which w= 1. Th ncxt is tlie nodal line, scparating th

regions of opposite disphcement. Th remaining curves taken in

order give thc displacements 1, 2, 3. The numericallygreatest ngative dispt~cement occurs at tlie corners of the square,

where it amounts to 2 x l'G-to= 3'290.'

Ontbonodatlinosof squnro plate, Phil.

Angust,1873.

312

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[226.

The nodal curve thus conatructed agrees pretty closely with t!]c

observationsof Strehike

Hia results, winch refcr to three carefully worked plates of glass, are embodied in tlie following polar

quations:

-40143 -017H

-00127)

r= -40143 + '0172 cos4<+ -00127~cos 8~,

'0013 1

-4019

-OJC8J

the centre of the square being pole. From these we obtain for tire

radius vector parallel to thc sidcs of the square (<=0) '4-1980,

-41981, -4.200,whilo the c:deulatcd rcsult is -4154!. Thc radius

vector mefmm'cdalong a diagona.1is '3S;')C,-3855, -38C4,and by

e~culation -3900.

Yol.CXLVt.

rf'g~.-hfM.

p. :<lf.

226.]

NODAL FIGURES.

313

obtain the

By crossing th network in th other direction wc

locus of points for which

ttmdcin wti!c)ithe (UagonalsM-enodal. Thc ~<c/t of thc vibratiou

is (accordi ngto theory) thc samc lu both cases.

/.K\

=

w

The primitive modes represented by

~ ~t or :t)= M,)~)

the noda.1curve

may be combined in likc manner. FIg. 43 shews

for thc vibration

.(~(~<.).

Th form of the curve is th same rciativcly to tlie othcr diagODa),

ii' th sign of the amhtgmty bc altcrcd.

314

VIBRATIONS

[227.

OF PLATES.

application ou any particular for)n of norma.1function. Whateverr

t!ie form may bc, th modo of vibra.t.Ion,winch wben = 0

passes into that jnst discussed, must have the same period,

whethcr thc approximately straight nodal lines arc par~nd to

x or to

If the two synchrouous vibrations bc superposed,

thc rcsultaut lias still Hjc sa.iuc ])criod, and the gnerai course

of its nodal system may bu tra.ced by mcans of thc considration tlmt no point of th plate ca.)i bc nodal at w)nch tho

primitive vibrations hve the sa.mc sign. To dotcrmiuc exact)y

thc line of compensation, a complete knowledge of th primitive

normal functions, and not mercly of th points at whicti thcy

vanish, would in gencra.1 be necessary. ])octor Young and th

brotllers Weber appear to have had thc idea of superposition as

capable of giving risc toncwvarleties of vibration, but it is to Sir

CharlesWheatstone' that weowetlie first systematic application,of

it to thc cxplanation of Chiadni'a figures. Thc results actually obtaincd by Wheatstonc arc however only very roughiy applicable to

a plate, in consquence of thc form of normal function implicitly

assumed. In place of Fig. 42 (itself, bc it remcmbcrcd, only an

approximation) WIieatstone nnds for the node of th compound

vibration th inscribcd square shcwn in Fig. 44.

Fig.44.

of rigidity, but to a. sti'ctched mctnbranc, so supported th~t cvery

pomt of th ch'cumfcrcncc is free to move n.lon~ li.ncs perpendicular to thc p!:uie of th membrane, Th boundary condition

ahplicable 1undci'

applica-bic

to

shew

tbat

tbo

circumstances is

Is ~h0

and ibit isis ca.sy

= 0,0 and

easy

thcsc

circumstfLnccs

~ln

normal

== cos

ordinale

ormate

a.rc 10=

arc

functious

=

or w

or

W=

whieb

ces

involve

(x ),

(

a.ta corner of th square. Thus thc vibration

7Mtt

??t

oniy

one

co-

tthclU ongm

orjgui

being

omg

22~.]

WHE,ATSTONE

)S FIGURES.

315

which dpends ouly on thc symmetry of the normal fonctions, is

strictly applicable to a square plate.

figure with rei'ercnec to tlie other diagonal.

316

VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

227.

Withthcothcrsign

wcobttun

a.

eouiposcd

systum

ruprcscnting

inscribcd square.

Thcsc foDns, which aro strictly appHcab)c to t)tc membrane,

rescinble th ngurcs obtained by mcans of sand 0)1a, square p1atu

more closu)y than might hve bccn expcctcd. Th squence of

toncs is howcvcrquite durrent. Frum 176 wc sce that, if /t were

thrcc

zo-o, thc interval bctwec!). thc furm (4.3) dcrivcd from

durived i'rom two, woutd bc

or

and

nodcs,

(41)

(42)

primitive

l-4-(i29octave and th interva.1between (41) or (42) a.ud (4M)or (47)

wou!d be 2-43.')8octa-vcs. Wbn.tcvcr may bc th value of tbc

furms (4!) !U)d(42) shouki have exacte tlie same pitcb, and tbn

samc sbould be true of (4(i) a.nd (47). Witb respect to tbeHrstmoitionod pair this resuit is not in a.grecmetit witb CbLidrit's

observa.tionH,wbo found a dirt'crencc of more than a whoc tone,

bc Icft: out of

(42) giving thc higbcr pitd). If bowcvcr (42)

account, thc cumparison Is more satisfactory. Aecording to thuory

fmd (4(i), (47)

(43) should givc

(~=0), if (41) gave

Cbhubu tuund for (43) ~)-, andfor(4G),

sbould give~"+.

and

+ respectively.

(47)

228. Thc gravest mode of a. square plate bas yet to bc considered. Tbc nodus in tbis case arc tbc two Huesdra.wnthrougb tbc

middio points of opposite sides. That thcre must Le sueh a mode

will 1)Gshewn prcscntly from considerations of symmctry, but

neither tbc fonn of Hic normal function, nor tbo pitch, bas yct

beeu dctcrnnucd, cveMfor tlie particidar case of = 0. A rongh

calcnlatioli howcvcr mny bc founded on an as.sumed type of

vibration.

228.]

PLATE.

317

If wc take tlie nodal lines for axes, thc form !o= a; satisfies

\7*M= 0, as wcll as the boundary couditions propor for a free edge

at ail points of the porimeter cxcept th actual corners. This is

in fact tlie foi'tnwhich thc plate wuuid assume if hold at l'est by

four forces uumericidiy equa!, acting at thc corners pcrpendicularly to tlie plane of thc plate, thosc at tlie ends of eue diagonal

beh)"'in one direction, and those at the ends ofthe other diagonal

in the opposite direction. From tins it follows that w=~cos~~

would bc a possible mode of -vibration,if thc mass of the plate

werc concentratcd equally lu tlie four corners. By (3) 214, we

sec that

:ulditionn.Im:tss at eacli corner,

whcrc

result tends to become accurate whcn~jf is re~tLvuiygrcut; otherwi.scby 8f) it is scusibly less than tlie truth. But even when

jtf=0, th error is probably not very grt. In this c~e we

should have

24

2-~q b~

~=p(l~

Th gra.vest mode

giving a. p'Lc!) which is somewha.t too high.

next a.fterthis is whcn tlie diagona.~ a.re nodes, of which the pitch,

if = 0, would Le given by

(sec174).

318

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[228.

if

thc

that

conclude

Wo may

thc two gravest tones would

,-(/themterv~bctwecn

l'SU;.

the ratio 1.1..

thc

that

by

than

express

-Pd

o

be somewlmt greater

tho intcrval t~Afth.

Chludni

makes

of vibratiou in which

modes

cxi.t

must

therc

2~9 That

bc infcrrcd from

~-o

ncdcs

may

.~cters

thc two shortcsb

that su~

lu

suppose

(~)

Fig.

thc

following.

~Lldcrations as

Pig.18.

and th

arc

CO

~or~,

the

Jf~,

which

cdgcs

is a plate of

T~~ P'

i s 6'C

of vibmting in certam

be

must

capable

of cqu~brium,

~t;on

our attention on one of thse, let us

modes.

Fixing

uuLhuncnt.1

the th~c rcmammg quadrants

conceive a distribution of over

values of .<;.u-c cqual aud

tl~c

that

two

adjoin,

in

any

such that

each other in th line

of

the

arc

which

inmges

opposite at points

vibrato accordmg to thc law

whulc

th

If

pl~tc

of sparation

in ordcr to kccp

be

~ill

eoustmiat

rcquircd

no

thus detcnnincd,

th ~hoh plate may be

thereforc

and

~cd,

the lines C~,

Thc samc argument may be uscd to prove that

free.

as

rc~rdcd

or in ~!uch botb the

arc

nodcs,

thc

~hich

in

diagonals

modes exi.t

diamctcrs just considered are togethcr nod~.

thc

and

Ji~onals

aiso be applicd to other forms

of

may

symmetry

Th principle

of nodal diameters

thc

iufcr

thus

possibility

Wo

might

of plate

Whcn tlie

in

an

axes

ellipse.

nodal

of

or

principal

in a eirele

it

i.s

e~y

a

is

hexagon,

rcgular

boan~ry

fonns.

(~0), (;) rcprc'scntpnssib!o

229.]

PRINCIPLE

0FSYMMETRY.

319

tho form of tlie plate is graduaDy altered. In the circ1e, for

cxa)nplc, whcn thcre are two perpendicular nodal diameters, it is a.

mattcr of indiifo'cncc as respects the pitch and th type of vibration, in what position thcy bo tnken. As the circlc develops into

a. square by throwing out corners, tlie position of thse diamctcm

becomesclefiuite. In the two alternatives tho pitch of tlie vibmtinn is dinercnt, for the projccting corners have not t))CSfunccficicncy i)i the two cases. TIis vibration of a square plate shcwn in

Fig. (42) corresponds to that of a circlc whcn thcrc is ouc circular

nodc. rite con'cspondcncc of tho graver modes of a hexagon or

an cHipscwitli tliose of a cirele may bc traced in likc manner.

230. For plates of uniform material and thiclcness and of

invariable shapc, thc period of the vibration in any fondamental

mode varies as tlie square of the linear dimension, providcd of

course ttiat tlie boundary conditions are thc same in aU tl~e cases

comparcd. Whcn th edges fn'e clamped, wc may go further

and assert that the removal of n~y external portion is attcnded

hy a risc of pitch, whethcr tho inatcrial and the thickncss bc uniform, or not.

Let ~4~ bo a part of a clamped edgc (it is of no consequence

whethcr the rcununder of thc boundary be clamped, or not), ami

let thc pice ~4C'J3Dbe remoYed, the ncw edgc ~173Bbeing also

cla.mpcd. TIie pitch of any fuad{nuenta.l vibration is sbarpcr

than beforc tlie change. This is evident, since th altered

vibra.tions might be obtained from the original system by thc

introduction of a constra.mt clamping thc edge ~4-DR The effect

of thc constt'Mut Is to raise ttio pitch of evcry componcnt, and

thc portion ~IC~Z) being plane and at rest throughout th motion,

may bc rcmovcd. In order to follow thc squence of changes

with greater security from error, it is best to suppose th Une

of clamping to advanee by stages betwcen the two positions

~1/)/ For pxampic, the pitch of a ~niform chmpcd ptuto

jr'

320

VIBRATIONS0F PLATES.

[230.

circle and higher tlian for tlie circurnscribed circle.

WIien a plate is free, it is not true that an addition to

tlie cdgc always incrcases the period. In proof of this it may

be sufncicnt to notice a particular case.

~7~ is a na.n-owthin plate, itscifwithoutinertin. but cn-rrylng

Ion.dsat A,

C. It is clear that thc addition to the hrcadth

bur, and tlierefore ~Ot thc period of vibration. Thc same

consideration shews that fur a uniform free plate of givcn area

therc is no lowcr limit of pitch for by a sufficicnt elongation

tho period of th gravest component may be made to excd

any astiignabic quantity. W!ten thc cdges are clamped, th

form ofgrn.vest pitch is doubtless the cirele.

If an tlie dimensions of a plate, including the thickness, be

altered in the same proportion, t!tc period is proportional to th

linear dimension, as in cvery case of a solid body vibrating in

virtue of its own elasticity.

The period also varies inversely as th square root of Young's

modulus, if be constant, and directiy as the square root of tlie

mass of unit of volume of th substance.

231. Experimenting with square plates of thin wood whose

grain ran parallcl to onc pair of sidcs, Wheatstone found thut

thc pitch of th vibrations was difforent according as the approximatcly straight nodal Unes were paraUel or pcrpendicular

to th fibre of th wood. This effect dopends on a variation

in th flexural rigidity in the two directions. Thc two sets of

vibrations having djfferent periods cannot hc combincd in tlie

usual manner, and conscquently it is not possible to mal~e such

a plate of wood vibrato with nodal diagonals, The inequality

of periods may however bc obviatcd hy altcring th ratio of the

sides, and tlien th ordinary mode of superposition giving nodal

diagnnals is again possible. This was verified by Wheatstonc.

'J~.T'r~j'.lHM.

231.]

CYLINDER

OR RING.

321

to Konig 1, In order that two modes of vibration may combine,

it is only neccssary that th periods agre. Now it is evident

that th sides of a rectangular plate may be taken in such a

ratio, that (for instance) the vibration with two nodes parallel

to one pair of sidcs may agrcc in pitch with th vibration having

thrce nodes paralhl to t!)e other pair of sides. In such a caso

new nodal figures arise by composition of th two primary modes

of vibration.

232. W!icu the plate whose vibrations are to be considered

is naturaUy curvcd, thc difficulties of tbe question are gcnerally

nmch incrcascd. But thcre is one case ia which thc complication

due to curvature is more than compcnsated by tho absence of

a free edge; aud this case happens to be of considrable interest,

as being th best reprsentative of a bell which at prsent admits

of analytical treatmcnt.

A long cylindrical sitell of circular section and uniform tlucknesa is evidently capable of vibrations of a flexural character

in winch th axis remains at rest and the surface cylindrical,

'while th motion of every part is perpendictilar to the generating

lines. The problem may thus be treated as one of two dimensions

only, and dpends upon the consideration of th potential and

kinetic energies of thc various deformations of which tho section

is capable. Tlie same analysis also applies to th corresponding

vibrations of a ring, formed by th revolution of a small closed

area about an external axis.

Thc cylindcr, or ring, is susceptible of two classes of vibrations

depcnding rcspectively on extensibility and flexural rigidity, and

analogous to th longitudinal and lateral vibrations of straight

bars. When, however, the cylinder is thin, the forces resisting

bcnding become small in comparison with those by which extension is opposed; and, as in the case of straight bars, th

vibrations depcnding on bcnding are graver and more important

than those which have their origin in longltudina.1rigidity,

In th limiting case of an ilifiiiitely thin shell (or ring), thc

flexural vibrations become independent of any extension of tho

circumfcrencc as a whole, and may be calculated on th supposition that each part of the cii'cumfcrence retains its natural

length throughout tho motion.

rnRt!)));).186i,cxxti.p. 238.

R.

21

322

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

~333.

analogous to th transverse vibrations of straight bars in respect

of depending on tlie rsistance to nexure, we must not fall into

th common mistake of supposing t)~at t)iey are exctusively

normal. It is indeed casy to sec that a motion of a. cylinder or

ring in which each pf).rtictcis displad in the direction of the

radius wou!d be incompatible with the condition of no extension.

In order to satisfy this condition it is neccssary to aseribe to

cach pa.rt of the circnmfcrence a ta.ngentia.1as wcU !ts a. normal

motion, whose relative inagnitudes must satisfy a certain di~'ercntial quation. Onr nrst stop wi)l be the investigation of this

quation.

233. The original radius of tlie circlc 'being a, let th equi)Ibrium position of any clment of the cireumfcrcncc be dcnncd

During the motion let the polar co-ordiby the vcctorlal angle

natcs of the cl meutbeeomc

?'=ft+8r,

~=6+M.

we have

+ (~ +f~)'

(~)"= (af~)'=(~8r)'

\vl)cncGwc nnd, by negiccting the squares of the small qnantitles

~?-,

.(1),

.(y,

as the required relation.

In whatcver manner the original circle may be deformed at

time t, 8r may be cxpandcd by Fourier's theorem in the sries

8r = ft {~1.cos + J9,su) <?+. cos2~ + 7?,sin 2~ +

+j4~cosM~+~sin~+.}.(2),

and the corresponding tangcntia! disptaccmcnt required by the

condition nfno extension will be

~=-~l,s:n~+73,cos~+.smM0+-"eos?t0?t

M.

.(3),

233.]

energy T of the whole motion will be

intgration.

323

the kinetic

disappea.nng ia tho

Lct be th ra.dms of curvaturc of any eletncnt f~, thcn for tho

1\"

clment

of

take

whero ~Is a

F~wc

coi-responding

may

~f~(8-j,

constant dcpcuding on tho materia,!and on the thickncss. Thus

Now

and

neglected.

and <?may bc

Hencc

aod

of~.

324

VIBRATIONS OF PLATES.

[333.

energy, as it corresponds to a. displaccmcnt of the circle as a whoc,

without dformation.

Wc sec that when th configuration of tlie system is defined as

above by th eo-ordinates J,, ~t, &c.,t]ic expressionsfor f7'a.nd V

involve only squares in otlier words, tlicso are tlie ))or)~ coordinates, whose Independent I)armo)ilc 'variation expresses thc

vibration of tlie system.

Ifwcconsidcr only thc terms invlving cos?:~ sin~

by taking the origiu of suitably,

'n

= a.A cos110, O

8r

8~=-~=~~cos?~,

r,"sin~(7),

siii ?td

n

wc have

(7),

This resuit was given by Huppe for ring in a mcmoir pubHshcdin CrcIIc, Bd. 03,1871. His mcthod, though more comptctc

than th preceding, is less simpJe, in consequence of his not rceognising cxplicitiy that the motion contempla.tcd corresponds to

complete inextensibility of thc circumfcrence.

According to Chiadni the frc(~icnclca of the toncs of a ring

arc as

3'

7' 0'

If we rcfcr cach touc to thu gravcst of thc series, wc Dnd for

the ratios chara.ctcristicof the iuturvaJs

2'778, 5-44.5, 9,

13-4.4, &c.

formula?,by making 7t succcssivclycqual to 2, 3, 4, are

2-828, 5-423, 8-771, 12-87, A'c.,

agrccing prctty nc:u'!y~'it.h titosc-fonnd cxpcrimcutaDy.

234.;]

POSITION 0F NODES.

325

anticipated. TIie principal mode of vibration corresponds to ?!= 2,

and Ims four nodcs, disant from each other by UO". Thse socalled nodes arc not, however, places of absolute rest, for the

tangentiat motion is ttiere a maximum. In fact tlie taugentia).

vibration at thse points is hali' thc maximum normal motion.

In gnerai for t)ic ?t"' turm the maximum tangcntial motion is

of t!ic maximum normal motion, and occurs at the nodes of

M

thclattcr.

Whcn a bu!I-s)tapcdbody is sounded by a blow, th point of

application of thu blow is a place of maximum normal motion

of thc resutting vibrations, and tlie same is truc when thc

vibrations are excitcd by a violin-bow, as gcneraHy in Iccturcroom cxperimcnts. Bu!!s of glass, such as nnger-glasscs, arc

howcvcr more casily thrown iuto j'cgular vibration by friction with

thc -wctted migci' carried round the circumfcrcncc. Ttic pitch of

the rcsulting sound is the same aa of that chcitcd by a tap with

tlie soft part of tho finger; but inasmuch as the tangential motion

of a vibrating beU bas been very gonerally ignorcd, th production

of sound in tliis manner bas been fc!t as a difficulty, It is now

scarccly necessaryto point out that the cffect of the friction is in

the first instance to excite tangential motion, and that the point

of application of th friction is the place wherc thc tangential

motion is grcatest, and therefore where the normal motion

vanishes.

235. The existence of tangential vibration in tlic case of a bell

was verified. in thc following manner. A so-called air-pump rccciver wassccureiyfastened to a table, opcn end uppermost, and set

into vibration with th molstencd nnger. A small chip in tlie rim,

reflecting the light of a. candie, gave a bright spot whose motion

could be observed with a Coddingtou lens suitably nxcd. As the

nngcr was cai'ricd round, the hne of vibration was scen to rcvolvc with an angu!:u' veloeity double that of the nnger; and

the amount of excursion (indicatcd by the length of th line of

light), though variable, was rinitc in cvery position. There was,

however, somc difficulty in observing th correspondence bctwccn

thc momcntary direction of vibration and thc situation of the point

of cxcitoncnt. To crfeet this satisfactoriiy it was found nocessary

to apply th friction in the ncighbourhood of one point. It thc'n

VIBRATIONS OP PLATES.

326

[235.

bccamc vident that the spot moved tangentially whonthc boll was

excited at points distant thcrefrom 0, 90,180, or 270 degrees and

norma.Iiywhen tho friction was a-ppliedai the intormediate points

corresponding to 45, 135, 225 and 315 dcgrecs. Carc is somctimes

required iu order to ma.ke the bell vibrato in its gravest mode

without sensible a.dmixtureof overtoncs.

If tliere be a smn.Uload at any point of tho c!rcumferencc,

a slight a.ugmcnta.tionof pcriod cns~cs, which is different according as the Ioa.ded point coincides with a node of the normal or

of the tangcntiai motion, being greater in thc latter ca.so than

in the former. Th sound produccd dpends therofore on the

p!a.ce of excitation in gcncral both tones arc hcard, and by

interfrence give rise to beats, whose frequency is equal to the

diffurence between tlie frc(~)encies of the two toncH. This phcuomeuon may often bc obscrvcdin th case of largo hells.

ENDOFVOL.I.

1

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!jY C. J,

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