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Rayleigh, John William Strutt (1842-1919 ; 3rd baron ). The theory of sound . Volume I. 1995.

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THE
THEORY OF SOUND.

MARS
~a~

THF
THEORY OF SOUND.

HY

JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT, BARON RAYLEIOH, M.A..F.R.8.


FORMEK.Y
FELMW
OFTRINITV
CAMH)UnOE.
COLLEGE,

VOLUME

1.

&onlton:+
MACMILLAN AND 00.
1877
[~~ ~t~~

r~trt'ed.]J

OEambtitgc:
r)t)M):Y'J'
ATT)tKUS)VRM)TV'')t'<H~.

PREFACE.
IN th work, of winch th
prsent volume is an installent, my endeavour bas been to lay before the reader
a connected exposition of the
theory of sound, which
should include ~he more
important of th adv~nces made
in modem times
y Matliematicians and Physicists.
The importance of the
object winch 1 have had in view
will not, I tinnk, be
disputed Ly those competent to
At th prsent time
judge.
many of th most valuable
contributions to science are to be found
onjy in scattered
penodicala and traiMactions of socletles,
pubMied in
vanous parts of th worid and in several
languies, and
arc often practically inaccessible to those vvho
do not
happen to hvc in th neighbourhood of large
public
hbraues.
In sucli a state of
things the mechanical
impedimonts to study entail an amount of unremunerative labour and
consquent hindrance to th advancoment of science which it would be
dimcult to overestimate.
Since the wcH-known Article on Sound in the
.E~c'~)~
~)~M~(~
by Sir John Herschel (1845),
no complte work lias been
publislied in wilich tlio
suhject is trcatcd jnatl-cmatically.
Ly th promature
death of Prof. Donkin tlie scientific worid was
deprived
of onc w!)oso mathcmatical attainments in
combmation
with a {n-ctic.-d
of mua:c quahned hifn in a
kr~Judge

VI

PREFACE.

special manner to write on Sound. The first part of his


Acoustics (1870), though little jnm~ tbsm a
fragment. is
sumcient to shew that my labours would l~ave been unnecessary had Prof Donkin lived to complte his work.
In tlie choice of
topics to be dealt with in a. work
on Sound, 1 have for th most
part foUoAvedth exemple
of my predecessors. To a
great extent th theory of
Sound, as commonly understood, covers th same
ground
as th theory of Vibrations in
gnral but, unless some
limitation were admitted, th consideration of such subjects as the Tides, not to speak of Optics, would have to
be included. As a gnral ruie we shall confine
ourselves
to those classes of vibrations for which our ears
afford a
ready made and wonderfully sensitive instrument of inWithout ears we should
vestigation.
hardiy care much
more about vibrations than without
eyes we should care
about light.
The present volume includes
chapters on th vibrations of systems in gnerai, in
which, 1 hope, will be
recognised some novelty of treatment and results, fol.
lowed by a more detailed consideration of
special systems,
such as stretclied strings, bars,
membranes, and plates.
The second volume, of which a considrable
portion is
already written, will commence with acrial vibrations.
My best thanks are due to Mr H. M.
Taylor of
Trinity Collge, Cambridge, who bas been good
enough
to read th proofs.
By his kind assistance several errors
and obscurities have been
eliminated, and th volume
generally has been rendered less imperfect than it would
otherwise have been.
Any corrections, or suggestions for improvements, witli
which my rcaders
may faveur me will be highly apprcciated.
TEttUNO

PLACE,
.~n7,

1877.

WmiAi.,

CONTENTS.

C'HAPTER I.
MOE
i

1-27
Sound duo to Vibrations. Finite volocity of Propagatiou. Yelooity indopondent of Pitcb. Depmult'a oxporimonts. Sound propagated in water.
'Witoatatono'aexperiment. Enfoeblomontof Sound by distance. Notes
and Noisos. Musicalmoteaduo to poriodiovibrations. Siren of Cagniard
do la Tour. Pitch dopendont upon Poriod. Eelationahip between
musical notes. Tho samo ratio of perioda corresponds to the samo
intorval in all parts of tho scale. Harmonie sca-tes. Diatonio soaloa.
Absolute Pitoh. Neoossity of Temperament. Equal Tomperament.
Table of FroqnonoioB. Analyais of Notes. Notes and Tones. Quality
depandont upon harmonie overtonos. Resolution of Notes by efu;un.
certain. Simple tcnoa correspond to aimpla pondidona vibra.tiona.

CHAPTER

II.

28-4.2
Composition of harmonio motions of like period. Harmonie Curvo. Com.
position of two vibrations of nearly equal period. Bats. Fourier'a
Theorem. Vibrations in porpendionlar directions. Lissajous' Cylindor.
Lissajous' Figures, Bin.ckburu's poudulum. Kaieidophone. Optical
methods of composition and analysis. Th vibration microscope. In.
termittont Illuminntion.

18

viil

CONTENTS.

<HAPTER IH.
TA<!t:
t.
~-c.s
Systumswithon~d~rouoffrt~dom.
Indopcndottcu of ampiitudu~nd
pfriod.
l''))t'cnd\i)))'ati<n)s.
Frictiomdfurccpruportimudtovotouit.y.
J;L'at.S(]uoto H)tpLTp()sitionoff.,rcud~nd
)'riuci)do~fSnpurpositiun.
fn~vibrutions.
M~
Yan<'UHd(~n.c.sofdmnpin(;Stri))Kwit)tL<Hn).
thodofDimcnsionH.
Id<~dTtminn-furk.
I''('r)iSKivon(.-ar)yp)tr(iio])()M.
.f)!-kn<~ standards ofpiich.
Suh~ibScbcibicr'snjutb~dsoftuni;
Itir'sTonomutM's.
Cofnpnnndi'cndtdmn.
l''()rhsdnvuubycluctru.
t)mK"ft"u.
Itcsonfmuo. Guuurftimtlutionforohc
!or]tIntt!rn)ptM-.
deHt~ooffrueJott).
TM-mHofthotiMondur~orj.;ivcrisetctterivod
toucu.

C'frAPTER IV.
~

(,7

(icnorniixedco-ortiitmtcs.
Expression for jMjLontudcncrKy.
StftticaithcorMua. Itiitml motions.
Hxprcsnionforkinet!<:(!)~ur~y.
Hcciprocat
thoornm. ThM))Ho))'sthcorc:r)i. L~'n))HO't!('qutttionn.
ThodiH.si~ftti~n
funetion.
Couxi.stt'ncoofHnMtUinotioxH.
l''t'cc\-i).mtion.swt.])out.fri<
tion. Nnrmnico-nrdinntos.
condiThch'eoponodHfuXtt~Htttt.ioj~u'y
tion. AnncccHsiottofinertijtmcrottsc.sthefrucpoiods.
ArctttKfttif'~
('fHprmf;i))()rL'!Lsc~ti~fM)"i[)dH.
n)t
Tim(;<tt''stfroopcrindi.s
ttbtiotntu maximum.
Ifypcthut.n'fd types nfvntmtinn.
Hx)unj))ofr<))u
ntrinn. Approximntoty simpto Hy~touM. StrioK of vn!-itth)o dcnsity.
Normal fnnctions.
Conju~to propnrty.
]')ctcrnn)Mtion of cf.nstnotM tu
nuit M'hitrary initit conditions.
Stotios' thcurom.

CHAPTER V.
~17
CascH in wluch tho thrce funetiotM Y',
r aro Hunu[t!U)oous)y rcjucibio tu
nmus of fiquarLi.s. Ut;noM)i.tion
of Y'uun~'H thcorcut ou tho undft)
pointu of Htrin~H. H(iui)ibriu)u titeoi-y. SyatomH tit.n'tcd fruin rest as
denectcd by n fora appiied at ono point. 8yntbtUH Ht~rtud froui tho
equinbrium confjgumtiun by an impniHu applicd nt ono point.
Syatcma
startod from rcst na dcftocted by n. force
JuUuuuifonuiy distributed.
oico of sw< frictiona) forcoNon tit vibr~tious of ft
yntom. Solution of
t)m ancrai oqn~tioDH for freo vibMtiotM.
Impres.~d Forces, rrinciptc
"f tho porsititonco of poriods. Inoxontbto motions.
MceiprocttI TJ)uo.
ru)!]. Applicution to freo vibmtiouB. Stutemcnt of
Mciprooa) t)tcnrcm
for itttnnonic forcos. AppHcationH. Extension to cases in wbich
thu
constitution ofthu systcm
isn.functionuftLpuriud.
Equations for
two dcgrcus of fruedom. HoutH of dctornnmmttti
cquittiun. lutct-niittcntvibmtiomj.
Marchofporiods
incro~od.
ttHim.rtin.is~mdu~Hy
Heaction of n dcpunduut f.vHtun).

<~

CONTENTS.

Ix

CHAPTER VI.
pAnx
127

11814S.
Solution of tho pro.
Lnw of extension of n, titritig. Transvurso vihrntiona.
bJcm for n string whoso masH is concontrutcd in cquidistant points. Drivation of no)ution for continuouo string. Pfu'tittI diffcrentitti quation.
Hxpt't.'snious for nnd y. Hoat gonorat form of simpio harmonie moGcnoDt) motion of n stnng pcrition. StritiRS with xoJ extronitios.
Kurtnn.1 ntotlua of vibration.
odio. Mcrsonuc'H L)tws. Sonomotur.
Dctunninat.ion of eonattuits to suit nrbitt'M'y initit ciroumfitttncus. Ca.Mo
of pluoknd HtrinR. Expression.-) for ' and y in torms of noriun] co-ordin<tte!i. Nonntd cqutttionH of motion.
Strin(; oxcitod by plucMn~.
Htiing cxcitud l)y tm impulso. rroblem of pifuioYoHug'a thoorou.
forto strinH. Friction j~'oport.ionni tu vulooity. CoBtptn'ison with oquiIibritttn tLeory. l'oriodic force uppliud nt onu point. Modificationa duu
EGuets
to yiuldiu~ of tho cxtremit.iea. Proof uf Fouriur't) thcorcm.
Correction for rigidity.
of a nnitu loud.
ProUm of violin strin~.
Striuss stretchod on curved (iurfaeca. Solution for tho caso of tho
iiphoro. Correction fur irrcguJaritioa of donsity. TheoMinH of Sturm
of Wt).vcs
and LiouYiDo for n strin(~ of vtu'inbio donsity. rropng~ioa
tdonj~ an uniimitod Htring. Positivo fmd nc~~tivo wavos. Stn.tiona.ry
Hcnootion at )L uxod point.
Dduction of solution for
Vibrations.
friction.
tinito strit)R. Grn.phiod mothod. Progressivowawwitli

CHAPTEK Vif.
188

1491~
Ciftsxincttt.ion of tho vibrations of Bars. DiuM'cntin! quation for longitu.
dimd vibt'jttiottH. Numorieal valuos of tho constunta for stel. Solution for a Lar frco at both uodH. Dduction of tilution fur a Lar with
ona end fret), nnd onc lixod. l!oth ends iixcd. InUuoncu of Mniull Inad.
Solution of problom for Ltu- with ItH'gu Joad n.ttMued. Corrcctiou for
Differentini quation fortorSavM't'H "Hou rauqno."
In.tcft.I motion.
Hioniti vibrations.
Comp~risou uf vclocities of longitudinal a.nd tortiiomd wa.'vos.

CHAPTER Vni.
IGO1U2
PotcutiftI energy of bcndhtg.
Expression for kinctio energy. Drivation
Termimtl conditions.
G encrt solution for
of diSercutitd equ)ttion.
tt hnrmouic vibrittiou. Conjuguto property of tho normal functiona.
YatucB ufintrKratcd sq~n'CH. ExprcsHi).]) of r in tcrms of not'nml cu-

201

CONTENTS.
ordinatos. Normal equatious of motion. Dtermination of
constant))
to suit initial conditions. Caso of rod etartod
bv a b)ow. I~od start~
from rest as dofloctodby ~t~I
~~c. lu CL.~m ~os tho BorioHof
normal funoticus coanostu coj.vcro. Form of H~ norma!
hmettons
li(:u-fiue bur. Lfnv9of Jopotj.Icuooof
frofjuoucyou )ongt)i und tLioknoM. Caso whou both oudH ~rc clampod. Normal fuuctions
for ,)
clampod.Ireo bar. Caleulaticu o puriud.s. CompnrinonHof pitch. Disoussiou of tho gravost modo of vibration of a freo-freo
bar. Threu
nodos. Four ~oJoa. Gravost mojo for
clampod-froobar. Position ut
nodos. Supportcd bar. Calculation of
poriod for clamped-froobar from
Lypothetleal typo. Solution of problom for n bar with a loaded ond.
Euuct. uf adtUtious to a bar. lufluonco of
irrogularitios of donsity.
CorreottOMfor rotatory iuortia. L:ootsof functioua dorived
from
normaJ fuuetioM. Formation of ~uatiou of motiou ~heuiinoarly
thoro is por.
Mauout tousiou. Spoeial trmiual couditioua. Itosultaut of two
trains
of wavcs of iic-iirlycqua) poriod. Fourior'Hsolution of
problom for ini.
nito har.

CHAPTER

IX.

1~213.
Tension of a motubrano. Equation of motion. Fixod
reotangular lonudary. Expression for ~aud
iu tenus of normal co-ordiuatos. Normal
ouations of vibratiou. Examplos of improssed forces.
Frequoncy for
an olongatod rectangle dpends
maitiJy ou tho shortor sido. Casoo iu
whiohdifTerout modes of vibration havo tho samo
poriod. Dorivod
modes thence arising. Effeet of
6li(;ht irrcgulanties. An irregu!arity
rontovo
may
nidoturmiuatonosa of normal modoa. Solutions applicable
to a triaugle. Espro~ion of tho Honoraidiilorontml
eqnation by polar
co-ordm~tes. Of tho two functions, w),idt oceur in tho
solution, ono ia
cxcluded by tho condition at tlio polo.
Expressions for Bossel'a functions. Formutm rdating theroto. Tublo of tho first two
functions
Fixod eiroilar boundary.
Conjugato proporty of tho normal functions
without restriction of boandary. Values of
integrntod squares. ExproHMounfor T nnd F in tcnua of normal functions. Normal
oquations of vibration for ciroular mombraue.
easo
of
froo vibraSpoci.d
tions. Yibratioua duo to a harmonie force
Utohos of tho varions shnpto tonoH. Tabio of tliouniformty distributed
rootsof Bosscl'o functions. Nodal Fiur~.
Circular mombrano with ono radius fixed.
Bessel's Bonctionsof frnctional ordcr. Ejloct of
sma'I lond. Vibrations
of a mombrano whoso boundary is
approximatoiy ciroutar. In many
casos th pitch of a mombrano
mny bu calculated from tlio aroa alono
Of aU .nombraues of equal aroa t)Mt of oireular
form l.M tlio gravost
l'itch
of
pitch.
a mcmbrano whoso boundary ia au
eDipso of smalt
ceeHntricity. Motliodof obtai)iii)g limits in casos that oumot bo dealt
witli rigorouf3ly. Comp~rison of
fruqueucioa iu varions ca.sc.sof mcmbraues of eqna) arc.a.
Histury of tho probion.. Bourh'ot'8 oxperi.
aonta) invostigfttiouB.

l'AUI~

CONTEN-TS.

XI

CHAPTER
X.
RAOP
214-235
Vibrations of PIatos. Potontial Enorgy of Bending. Transformation of 5~.
Superuoial diiorontial equation. Dou.ndary conditions. Conjugato
proporty of normal functions. Transformation to polar co-ordinates.
Form of gonorni solution continuons
through polo, Eqnations dotertho
mining
poriods for a froo ciroular p!nto. EirohhoC'a catouhtions.
Comparison with observation, mdii of nodal cirolos. Irreguln.nties
Kivo riso to boats. Gonoralizution of solution. Cnso of
cJampod, or
Hupportod,cdgo. Disturbn.uceof Chiadni's figures. Hifitory of proUom.
Mn.tl.iou's critieiamo. DoetfmguiM phtto with
aupportoJ edgo. Itoctwith
freo edgo. Boundary couditionH. Ono Hpocialcnso
nnguhn- plato
(~ = 0) iHfunonabluto mfttttomaticfdtro~tmont. Investigation of codai
figures. WItcntatoue'H application of tho mothod of
Hnporposition
CompariMU of Whoat~tono'f. liguros wit]. thoso reaUy n.pp)io~!o to n
pMo in tho cnso = 0. Gravost modo of a squnroplate. Caiouhttion
of poriod on hypothotica! type. Nodal
~igurcHinferrod from considor.
atlona of symmetry. Hoxngon. Comparison hotweoncircle nnd
squnre.
Lnw connooting pitch and thicknoas. In tho cnso of a
elfunpod odgo
nny contraction of tho boundary raisos tLo pitch. No gravest form for
a free plato of givon aron. In similar plates tho
poriod is as tho linoar
dimension. Whoat.stono'a exprimenta on wooden
plates. Knig'a
oxperimontN. Vibrations of cylindor, or ring. Motion
tangentinl as
woll as normal. Bolation betwoon
tangoitial and normal motiona. Exfor
Mnetio
prossinna
and potontial nergies. Estions
of vibration.
of
L'requoncios tonos. Comparison with Chiadni. Tangential friction
excites tanguntiat motion. Exprimental vrification. Bats
duo to
irregularities.

CIIAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION.
1. Tim sensation of sound is a thing s:M ~e~eW~,not comparab]e with any of our other sensations. No one can express
th relation between a sound and a colour or a smcil. Directly
or indirectiy, ail questions connected with this subject must
comc for decision to thc car, as t!tG organ of hcaring; and
from it thct'c can be no appea!. But wc are not thcrefore to
infci' that ail acoustical investigations arc conducted with thc
unassistcd car. Whcn once wc have discovercd thc physical
phenomena which constitute th foundation of sound, our explorations arc in great mcasurc transferred to another nc!d lying
within thc dominion of th pi-mciples of Mcchanics. ImportMit
laws arc in this way ai'rivcd at, to which the sensations of th car
canuot but conform.
2. Very cursory obscrvatioo. often succs to shew that
sounding bodics arc in a statc of vibration, and tha.t thc p)icnomena of sound and vibration are closcly connected. WIicn a,
vibrating bell or string is touched by the finger, th sound cea~cs
at th same moment tha.t thc vibration is damped. But, in order
to affect th sens of hearing, it is not enough to have a vibrating
instrument t!icre must also be an uninterrupted communication
between thc instrument and thc car. A bcll rung in ~ac!<o,with
proper prcautions to prevent th communication of motion,
rcmains inaudible. In th air of th atmosphre, howevcr;
sounds have a univcrsal vehicic, capable of conveying thcin
without break from th most var)ous~y constituted sources to
th rccesses of the ear.
3. Thc passage of sound is net instantancous. Whcn a g)in
is jn'cd at a distance, a very perceptible interval spartes th
1
y

INTRODUCTION.

[3.

report from the flash. This rcpresents the time occupied by


souud in traveUIng from th gun to th observer, the rotardatinn
of the nash duo to th finite
velocity of light bcing altogether
negligible. Th first accuratc experiments wero mado by somo
members of the French Academy, in 1738. Cannons were
nrc-d,
and th rctardationof th reports at different distances ohscrvcd.
Th principal prcaution -necessary is to revo-se
alternatcdy tlie
direction along which the sound travels, in order to cllminatc tho
influence of tlie motion of th air in mass. Down t!ic
wind, for
instance, sound travels reJativeJy to th carth faster than its
proper rate, for the velocity of thc wind is added to that proper
to the propagation of sound in still air. For still
dry air n.t a
temprature of 0"0., thc French observerafound a velocity of 337
metres per second. Observations of tho samo character werc
made by Arago and others in 1822 by th Dutch
physicists Moll,
van Beek and Kuytcnbrouwer at
Amsterdam by Bravais and
Martins between thc top of the Faulhorn and a station
bclow
and by others. Th gnerai result bas been to
give a somcwhat
lower value for tbc velocity of sound-about 332 mtres
per
second. Thc effect of altration of temprature and
pressure on the
propagation of sound will be best consideredin connectiou with
th mechanical theory.
4. It is a direct consequence of
observation, that within wide
limits, th velocity of sound is independent, or at least very
ncarly
of
its
independent,
intensity, and also of its pitel). Wcre this
otherwiso, a quick piece of music would be hcard at a little
distance hopelessly confused and discordant. But when the disturbances are vcry violent and abrupt, so that th altrations of
density concerned arc comparable with th whole density of the
air, the simplicity of this law may be departed from.
5. An claborate sries of experiments on tlic
propagation of
sound in long tubes (watcr-pipes) has been madc
by Rcgnault\
He adopted an automatic
arrangement similar in principle to that
used for me~suring th speed of
projectiles. At thc moment when
a ptstol is fired at one end of tlie tube a wire
conveying an electric
current is ruptnrcd by thc sliock. Tins causes th withdrawai of
a
tracing point which was previonsly marking a line on a revolving
drum. At tho furthcr end of thc
pipe is a stretched membrano so
arranged that whcn on th arrivai of the sound it yields to th
~MofrM<?<:
rjca(~;);.~e~-/tc<t. xxxvn.

5.]

t,

VELOCITY OF SOUND.

impulse, the circuit, which was ruptured during tho passage of th


soun< i3 rccumpietfd. At thc sa.mcmoment tho tracing point
faits back on tlic drum. Tho blank space loft uumarked corresponds to thc thuc occupied by th Sound in t~aking the joumcy,
and, wltcn th motion of th drum is known, givcs the means of
dctcrmining it. Tho length ofthe journoy hctwccn th first wiro
and the membrane is fouud by direct mcasurcmcnt. In thcsa
cxperimcnts the velocity of sound appcarcd to hc not quitc indcpendent of th dl~meter of the pipe, whieh vn.)'Icdfrom 0'108
to 1'100.
Tho diso'cpancy is perhftps duo to friction, whose
innucuco would hc greater in smaller pipes.
G. AIthough, in practice, air is usually the vehicio of sound,
otiicr gases, liquids and solids are equally capable of conveying
it. In most cases,I)owever,th means of making a direct mcasurement of the velocityof sound are wanting, and woM'enot yet in
a position to consider tlie indirect methods. But in thc caso of
water tho same diniculty does not occur. In th year 182G,
Colladon ami Sturm investigated th propagation of sound in thc
Lake of Geneva. Tlie striking of a bell at one station was
simultaneous with a nash of gunpowder. The observer at a.
second station mcasured the interval between tho flash and the
arriva! of th sound, applying Itis car to a tube carried beneath
th surface. At a temprature of 8C., th velocity of sound In
water was thus found to bo 14-35metres per second.
7. Thc conveyanccof sound by solids may bc IHnstrated by a
pretty experiment due to Wheatstone. One end of a metallic wiro
is connecteclwith tho sound-board of a pianoforte, and th other
taken through th partitions or floors into anothcr part of th
building, where naturally nothing would be audible. If a resonancc-board (such as a violin) bc now placcd in contact with the
wire, a tune p]ayed on th piano is easily heard, and th sound
seems to cmanatc from th resonance-board.
8. In an open space thc intensity of sound falls off with grcat
rapidity as tho distance from th source increases. Th saine
amuunt of motion bas to do duty oversurfaces ever Increa~ingas the
squares of the distance. Anything that confines the sound will
tend to dimini.sh ttte falling off of intensity. Thus over th flat
surface of still watcr, a sound can'Ies furthcr than over broken
ground thc corner between a smoothpavement and a vertical wall
is still botter; but the most crtcctive ofaU is a tubc-likc enclosure,
1S

INTRODUCTION.

[8.

which prevents spreading altogether, Tlie use of


speaking tubes
to faciMtatecommunication between thc dirent
parts of abuHdir)<r
is wcll known. If It were not for certain crfects
(fnctionat and
.other) due to th sides of th tube, sound might
CD be thus conveycd
with little loss to vcry great distances.
9. Bcfore procecding furUicr wc must consider a
distinction,
w!uc!t is of grcat unportance, though not frce from
dimculty.
Sounds may bc ciassed as musicn.!a)jd unmusica] thc former for
convcaicnco may bc caHed notes and titc lattur noises. Tho
(,,
extreme cases will raiso uo dispute;
every one rccngniscs thc
diffrence betwecn th note of a pianoforte and t)ic
ereaidng of n
shoo. But It is not so casy to draw t]ic line of
sparation. Li the
first place few notes arc frcc from a!i unmus:c:d
accompanimcnt.
Wit)i organ pipes especially, thc hissing of th wind as it
escapes
at thc mouth may bc Iteard beside the
proper note of tlie pipe.
And, second]y,many noises so far partage of a musical character as
to hve a definite pitcb. T!tls is more
easily recognised in a
sequence, giving, forexampJe, tite common chord, than by continued
attention to an individual instance. Th
experiment may Le made
by drawing corks from bottles, previously tuned by pouring water
into them, or by throwing do\vnon a table sticks of woodof suitable
dimensions. But, although noises are somctimes not
entirely
and
notes
arc
unmusical,
usually not quite free from noise, thcre Is
no diniculty in recognising which of th two is th
simpler phenomcnon. Titerc is a certain smoothness and
continuity about tho
musical note. Moreover bysounding together a
variety of notesfor example, by striking simultaneousiy a number of conscutive
keys on a pianoforte-we obtain an approximation to a noise;
while no combination of noisescould evcr bicnd into a musical note.
10. We arc thus led to give our attention, in ttic first instance
mainly to musical sounds. Thse an'angc themselves naturall
in a certain order
according to pitch-a quality which ail can
appreciate to some extent. Tralned ears can recognise an enormons
.numher of gradationsmore than a thousand,
probably, within
the compassof the humanvoice. Thse gradations of pitch are
not, like the degrees of a thermometric scale, without
special
mutual relations. Taking any given note as a
starting
musicians can single out certain others, which bear a point,
definite
relation to thc first, and are known as its
octave, fifth, &c. The
corresponding di~i-ences of pitch arc cal!ed intervals, and arc

10.]

piTcn.

spokcn of as always th samc for th same relationship. Thus,


"horov.'r th~yMn.ynccm' lli th Hcale,a. note '~d ita. octave arc
sep~u'atedby </tc~~o'uf~ of ~te oc~~e. It will be our object later
to cxplain, so far as it can be donc, tho origin and nature of the
consonant intervals, but we must now turn to considerth physical
aspect of tlie question.
Since sounds are produced by vibrations, it is naturel to suppose
that tho simpler sounds, viz. musical notes, correspond to ~e/~o~'c
vibrations, that is to sa.y,vibrations which after a certain interval
of timc, called th per~~ repcat themselves with perfect regularity.
And this, with a limita-tioMprcseutly to bo notioed, is true.
11. Many contrivances may bo proposed to illustrate tlic
gencratln of a musical note. One of th simplest is a revolving
w)icol whoso milled cdge is presscd against a card. Each
projection as it strikes the card gives a slight tap, whose regniar
rcurrence, as the whee! turns, produces a note of definite pitch,
7't'A-t'yt~the scale, fMvelocityof p't~b?!. MM?-casea.But th most
uppropriatc instrument for the fundamcntal experiments on notes
is undouhtediy tlie Siren, inventcd by Cagniard de la Tour. It
cousists essentially of a stiff dise, capable of'
revolving about its
centre, and pierced with one or more sots of holes, arranged at
cqual intcrvals round th circumfcrcnce of circles conccntric with
th dise. A windpipe in conncction with bellows is
presented
perpendicularly to th dise, its open end bcing opposite to one of
th circles,which contains a set of holes. When th bellows are
worked, the strcam of air escapes frcely, if a hole is opposite to tlie
end of tlie pipe but othenvise it is obstructed. As th dise
turns,
a. succession of puffs of air escape throngh it, until, when the
vclocity is sufncicnt, they btond into a note, whoso pitch rises
continually with the rapidity of th pun's. \Vc shall have occasion
later to describe more claborate forms of th Siren, but for our
immdiate purpose th prsent simple arrangement will sunice.
12. One of th most important facts in th whole science is
cxemplincd by tlie Sirennamciy, that th pitch of a note dpends
upon th pcriod of its vibration. Tho size and shape of th holes,
the forceof tlie wind, and other. lments of tlie problem may be
varicd but if th number of puffs in a given time, such as one
second, romains unchanged, so also does the pitch. We may even
dispense with wind altogethcr, and produce a note by allowing th
corner of a card to t~p against the cdges of the holes, as they

INTRODUCTION,

[12.

revolvc tho pitch will still be th same. Observation of othcr


sources of sound, such as vibrating solids, leads to the samo conclusions, though th difficulties arc often such as to render
necessary rather rcnned exprimental mothods.
But in saying that pitch depends upon. period, there
lurks an ambiguity, which dcscrves attentive consideration,
as it will lead us to a point of grt importance.
If a
variable quantity is periodic in any time -r, it is also periodic
in the timos 27-,3, &c. Conversely,a recurrence within a given
period r, docs not exclude a moro rapid reourrence within
periods which are tho aliquot parts of r. It would appear
according!y that a vibration really recurring in th time ~r (for
example) may be regarded as having the pcriod -r, and therefore by
tlie lawjust laid down as produciog a note of the pitch defined by
T. Thc force of this consideration cannot be entircty evaded by
defining as tho pcriod th least time rcquired to bring about a
rptition. In tlie first place, th necessity of such a restriction is
in itsc!f almost sufHcient to shcw that we have not got to th root
of the matter fur although a right to th period r may be dcuicd
to a vibration rcpeating itself rigorousiy within a time ~T, yet it
must bc auowcd to a vibration that may differ indefinitely little
thcrcfrom. In thc Siren cxperimcnt, suppose that in one of thc
ch'cles of holes containing an cvcn number, every alternate hole is
disp]accd along th arc of the circle by the same amount. The
dplacement may bo made sosmall that no change can be detected
in tlie resulting note but the periodic time on whieh th pitch
dpends lias bccn doubled. And secoudly it is vident from th
nature of pl'iodicity,tliat th superposition on a vibration of period
T,ofothurs having pcriods ~T,~T.&c., docs not disturb the period r,
while yet it caniiot be supposed that th addition of th new clments bas left thcqualityofthe sound unchangcd. Moreover.sinco
thc pitch is not affectcd hy their prsence, how do we kuow that
clcmcnts of the sliorter periodswere not tbercfromt)ie beginnin"'?
13. Thse considrationslead us to expectrcmarkable rcJations
between th notes whose periods are as th reciprocals of th
natural numbers. Nothing can bc easicr than to invcstigate th
<tucstionby meaus of tlie Sirot). Imagine two circles of holes, the
inner containing any convcnicnt number, and th outer twice as
many. TIien at. wfiatcvcr specd th dise may turn, th period of
the vibration engendcred by blowing the first set will necessarily

13.]

MUSICAL INTERVALS.

be th double of that belonging to th second. On making the


experiment the two notes are found to stand to cach other in
th relation of octaves; and we conclude that in passing fromany
?M<e its octave,the~'c~c~/ of vibration is doubled. A similar
method of experimenting shews, that to th ratio of periods 3 1
made
corresponds the interval known to musicians asthe<we~
up of an octave and a fifth to th ratio of 4 1, th double
octave; and to th ratio 5 1, th interval mado up of two octaves
and a major </Mr~. In order to obtain tho intervals of the fifth
and third thcmselves, the ratios must be made 3 2 and 5 4
respectively.
14. From those experiments it appears that if two notes
stand to one another in a fixed relation, then, no matter at what
part of th scale they may bo situated, their periods are in a
certain constant ratio characteristic of th relation. The same
may be said of thcir /?'e~Me?tc~ or tho number of vibrations
winch they excute in a given time. Th ratio 2 1 is thus
characteristic of tho octave intcrval. If wo wish to combine
two Intcrvals,for instance, starting from a given note, to take
a step of an octave and then another of a fifth in th same
direction, the corrcspondine ratios must be compounded

Tlie twelfth part of an octave is represented by the ratio !V2':1,


for tins is th stcp which repeated twelve times leads to an
octave abovo the starting point. If we wish to have a measure
of intervals in th proper sense, we must take not the characteristic ratio itself, but th logarithm of tliat ratio. Then, and then
only, will the mcMuro of a compound intcrval bc the SM~of th
ucasurcs of th compouonts.
15. From the intervals of th octave, fifth, and third considered above, othcrs known to musicians may be derived. Th
difference of an octave and a fifth is called a fourth, and ha~the
3
ratio
This process of subtracting an interval from
2~=~.
th octave is called ~uer~M:~it. By inverting the major third
Asinglewordto donotothonumborofvibrations
oxccuted
inthounitoftimo
is indi~ensabio:I knownobutterthan froquoncy,'
whichwasnsodin thissonso
byYoung.ThosMtowordis omployod
byProf.Everottin bisexcellentodition
ofDoscbanol'a
~atw<t!
P/(t'!osop/t~

INTRODUCTION.

[15.

we obtain th minor sixth. Again, by subtraction of a major


third from a fifth we obtain th minor third; aud from this by
inversion tho major sixth. The following table exhibits side by
side th names of the intervals and the corrcsponding ratios of
frcqucncies
Octave
2
Fifth.
3
4
Fourth.
5
M~jorThird.
MiuorSixth.
8
Miner Third.
G
5
M~jorSixth.
Thcfjo are ail thc consonant intervals comprised witttin thc
limits of th octave. It willbe remarked tliat tite corresponding
ratios are ail expressed hy means of ~M~t~whole numhers, and
t!tat tliis is more particularly th case for th moro consonant
intervals.
The notes whosc frequencics arc multiples of that of a given
une, are called its AM~M~M, and the whole scries constitutes
a /M'7/io?!cscctle. As is well known to violinists, they may ail
bo obtaiued from the samc string by touching it lightiy with the
imgcr at certain points, whiloth bow is drawn.
Tlie establishment of th conncction between musical intervals
and dfunte ratios of frequcncya fuudamcutal point in Acoustics
-is duo to Mersennc (J63C). It was indeed known to th
Grceks iu what ratios tlie Iougtlis of strings must bc chaagcd
in ordcr to obtain tlie octave and rifth; but Mcrsenne duntoustrated tlie Jaw connecting thc length of a string with the ponod
of its vibration, and madc thc first dtermination of the actual
rate of vibration of a known musical note.
16. On any note takcn as a kcy-notc, or <o?n'c,a d!'M<omtc
scale may bc foundcd, whoso drivation wc now proceed to explain. If th key-note, whatevr may bc its absolute pitch, be
called Do, thc fifth above or dominant is Sol, and th fifth helow
orsuhdominantisFa.
TIie common cliord on any note is produced hy combining it with its major third, and fifth, giving th
5
ratios of frequency
or 4 5 6. Now if wo take th
1
common chord on titc tonic, on thc dominant, and on the subdominant, and transpose thcm whcn neccssary into the octave

16.]

NOTATION.

lying immediately above th tonic, wo obtain notes whose frequenciesarranged in order of magnitude are
Do Re
Mi
Fa
Sol La.
SI
Do
5
5
9
4
3
la
2.
1,
8'
4'
3'
2'
3'
8' 9
with thc
Hcro the common cbord on Do is Do-Mi-Sol,
5 3
th chord on Sol is SolSiRe, with th ratios
ratios 1
T~
thc cchord
tlie
101' on Fa 18
is iFa-LaDo,
a- a- 0,
~2x~=l:and
T
X
0 0
still with tlie samc ratios. Thc scale is completed by rcpeating
thcsc notes above and bebw at intervals of octaves.
If we take as our Do, or key-note, the lower c of a tcnor
voice, th diatonic scale will be
c
d
e
f
a
h
c'.
g
Usage diffcrs slight~y p.s to th mode of distinguishing the
different octaves; iu wllat followsI adopt th notation of Helmhoitz. TIic octave below th one just referred to is written with
capital letters-C, D, <&c.;th next below tliat with a sufHx
C,, D,, &c.; and th onc beyond that with a double su~xC, &c.
On th other side acceuts dnote lvation by an octavec', c",
&.c. The notes of thc four strings of a violin are written in this
The iniddie c of th pianoforte is c'.
notation, gd~a'e'\
17. With respect to an absoluto standard of pitch therc bas
bcen no uniform practice. At th Stuttgard confrence in 183-1',
c' =2G4complte vibrations per second was recommended. Tilis
correspondsto a.' =440. Tlie French pitch makes a' =4-35. In
Handc!l'stime the pitch was inuch lower. If e' were taken at 256
or 2",ail th c's would have frequencies represented by powers
of 2. This pitch is usually adopted by physicists and acoustical
instrument makers, and t)as th advantagc of simplicity.
Thc dtermination ft!)tMt~oof the frequency of a given note is
an opration requiring somo care. The simplest method in principle is by means of th Siren, which is driven at such a rate as to
givo a note In nnison 'with th given onc. Th number of turns
cncctcd hythe dise in one second is given by a counting apparatus,
which can be thrown la and out of gear at th bcginning and end
of a mcasured interval of time. This multiplied by th number of
cn'ectiveholes gives th required frotuency. Th consideration of
othcr methods admitting ofgreater accuracy must be deferred.

10

INTRODUCTION,

f~g.

18. So long as we keep to th diatonic scale


ofc, th notes above
written are ail that are required in a musical
composition. But it
is frequentiy desired to
change th key-note. Under thse circumstances a singer with a good natural
car, accustomed to perform
witliout accompanimcnt, takes an
entirely fresh departure, constructing a new diatonic scale on th new key-note. In tbis
way
after a few changes of key, tho
original scale will be quite departed
from.and an immense varicty of notes he used. On an
instrument
with fixed notes like tho
piano and organ such a multiplication is
impracticahle, and some compromiseis necessary in order to allow
th same note to perform different
functions. This is not th
to
place discuss the question at any length, wc will thcrefore
take
as an illustration th
simplest, as wcn as th commonest casemodulation into th key of th dominant.
By donation, th diatonic scale of c consists of th common
chords foundcd on c, g and f. Jn like manner th
scale of g consists of tlie chords founded on d and c.
Th chords of c and g
g,
arc then commn'to th two
sca!cs; but th third and fifth of d
introdnce new notes. Th thu-d of d written
has a frcquency
t
f#
J
3 5 4a
removed from any note in th scale of c.
8 4 32
But th fifth of d, with a
frequc.cy
little from a, whose
frcqucncy

is

differs but

In ordinary keyed instruments

th interval betwecn the


two, represented by
and called a
is ncglectcd and th two note.
c~
by a suitable compromise
or ~?~-Hwc~ M-eidentined.
19. Various systems of
tomperament have been used th
simplest and tliat now most generally used, or at least aimed
at, is
th equal temprament. On
referring to the table of frequencies for
tlie diatonic sealc, it will be secn that the
intervals from Do to Re
from Re to Mi, from Fa to
Sol, from Sol to La, and from La to
Si,
are nearly th same,
being rcpresented
or
while tjj
by
intervals from Mi to Fa and from Si to
Do, represented by
are
la
~1~'
?~
equal ~mperament treats ~cs~'ap.
relations
proximate
as exact,
dividing the octave into twelve eqnal

11

EQUAL TEMPERAMENT.

19.]

parts called mean semitones. From thse twelvonotes th diatonic


scalc belonging to any key may be selected according to tho following rule. Taking the key-note as the first, fill up the series
with th third, fifth, sixth, eighth, tcnth, twelfth and thirteenth
.notes, counting upwards. In this wayail dKScultIesof modulation
arc avoided, as th twolve notes serve as weUfor one key as for
anothcr. But this advantagc is obtained at a sacrifice of true intonation. Th equal temprament third, being th third part of
an octave, is rcprescnted by th ratio ~2 :1, or approximately
].'2a99, wliile th true third is 1-25. The tempercd third is thus
higher than th truc by th interval 126 125. The ratio of th
tempered fifth may be obtained from th consideration that seven
ficmitoncsmakc a fifth, wliile twelve go to an octave. Th ratio is
thcrforc 2
1, which = 1-4.983. The tempered fifth is thus too
]ow in th ratio 1'4!)83 1-5, or approximately 881 883. This
cn'or is msignificaut; and even th error of th third is not of
much conse<~uencein quick music on instruments like the pianoforte. But whcn th notes arc /teM, as in th harmonium and
organ, th consonanceof chordsis materially impaired.
20. The foltowlng Table, giving the twelve notes of the chromatic scale according to th system of equal temprament, will be
convenient for reference'. Th standard employed is a' =440 in
order to adapt th Table to any other absolute pitch, it is only
necessary to multiply throughout by th proper constant.
C,
0
C~
D
D~
E
F
F~
G
0~
A
A~
B

0,

10-35 32-70
17-32 34-G5
18-35 3G-71
19-41 38-89
20-GO 41-20
21-82 43-G5
23-12L) 4G-25
24-50 49-00
25-95 51-91
27-50 55-00
29-13 58-27
30-86 61-73

C
C5-41
C9-30
73-43
77-79
82-41
87-31
92-50
98-00
103-8
110-0
11G-5
123-5

c"

c
l30'8
138'6
14G-8
155-6
1G4-8
174-G
185'
19G-0
207'G
220-0
333-1
346-9

261-7
277'2
293-7
311-2
329-7
349-2
370-0
392-0
415-3
440-0
4CG-2
493-9

5233
544'4
587"i
G23'3
G59'3
C98'5
740'0
784-0
830-C
880-0
933'3
9877

c~

c""

104G-6 2093-2
1108-8 2217-7
1174-8 2349-G'
1244-G 2480-3
1318-G 2G37'3
1397-0 2794-0
1480-0 29GO-1
15G8'0 313G-0
1GG1-2 3322-5
17CO-0 3520-0
1864'G 3729-2
1975-5 3951-0

DutnottCHte. Giessen, 18CS.


Zammiuor, Die J/tMf'~tx! <!<cMtMtA'<t<t<cyfc?t

INTRODUCTION.

[20.

Th ratios of tho intcrvals of the


equal teinpra.ment scale are
gtvcn bclow (Zaunuluer)
Note. Froquoucy.
c
=1-00000

Noto.
f~

c# 2~'=I-0594G
d

g 2'~=1-49831
Ii

2 ~=1-122-1G

d# 3'~

# 2'~= 1-58740
Il
2~=1-68179
100
2~~=1-78180
11
L 2~~=1-88775

1-18921

2~=1-25992

2~=1-3348.1

Froqnonoy.
Il
2~'=1-41421 1

c' = 2-000
21. Rcturning now for a moment to thc pbysical aspect of t!ie
question, we will assume, what wc shall af'terwards prove to bc
truc within wide lim its,that, whcu two or more sources of
sound
agitate th air sunultaneousiy, th resulting disturbance at
any
point ni the external air, or In th car-passage, is th
simple sum
the
extendeJ gcomotncal scuse) of what would be caused
(ni
by
cach source acd~g- separately. Lot us consider the
disturbanco
duc to a simultancous sounding of a note and
any or ail of its
]iarmouis. By durmition, th eompiex wholo forms a note
having
t)ic same pcriod (and thcrefore pitch) as its
gravcst element. Wc0
Iiavo at present no criterion hy which th two can bc
distmguishcd
or thc prsence of th highcr harmonies
recognised. And'yetin
th case, at any rate, where th
componcnt sounds have ail independent origin-it is usually not difncult to detect them
hy th
so
as
to
cnect an analysis of the mixture. This is as much as
car,
to say tliat a strictly periodic vibration
may give risc to a sensation which is not simple, but
susceptible offurthcranalysis
In
of
it
Ims
point
fact,
lon~ been hnowu to musicians that under
certain circumstancus the harmonies cf a note
may Le heard along
w.t!t it, uven w!~n thc note is due to a
single source, such as a
vibrato strier, but tl.e sig.lincancc of th fact was not undcrstood. Since attention ]~asbccn <1rawnto the
subject, it bas becn
proved (.nainly by th labours of Ohm and
Hchnho~) that almost
a)t musical notes are
higtdy compound,
in fact of thc
notes of a harmonie scale, from which inconsisting
particular cases onc or
more members may be
missing. Th rcason of the unccrtainty
and di~culty of th aualysis will bc touchod
upon prcsontiy

22.]

NOTES AND TONES.

13

22. That kind of note which th car cannot furthcr resolve is


c:i))ed hv Hehnhoitz in Ccrmn.n a ')!o?t.' Tyndall and other recent
writcrs on Acoustics have adoptcd 'tone' as an Enghsh quivalent,
a practice which will bc followed in th prsent work. Thc
thing is so important, that a. convenient word is almost a matter
of nccessity. ~<~ thcn are in gnral made up of tones, th
pitch of the note being that of th graves! tone which it contains.
23. lu strictness th quality of pitch must bc attachecl m the
ih'st instance to simple toncs only; otherwise th diflcult.yof discontinuity before referred to presents itself. Tlie slightcst change
in th nature of a note may lower its pitch by a wholo octave, as
was oxcmplined in the case of th Sircn. We should now rathcr
say that th effect of th slight displacement of thu alternate
hules in that experiment was to Introduce a, ncw fceble tone an
octave Jowcr than any previousiy present. This is surHcIentto
altcr tho pcriod of th wholej but th great mass of tlic souud
remains vcry nearly as before.
In most musical notes, howcvcr, thc fundamental or gravent
tone is prsent in sunicient intensity to impress its cliamctcr on
th whole. Tho eect of th harmonie overtones is then to
1 of th note, iudcpendently of piteli.
modifythc ~ua~~ or c/t(M'ac<er
Tliat such a distinction exists is wcll known. Th notesof a violin,
tuning fork, or of th hufnan voice with its dincrent vowel sounds,
&c.,may aU hve th sanie pitch and yet differ indepcndent~y of
ioudness; and though a part of this ditl'erellceis due to accompanying noises, which are cxtraneous to thcir nature as notes, still there
is a part winch is not thus to be accounted fur. Musical notes may
thus be classifiedas variable in threc ways First, ~t'<c/t. This we
have already sumcicutly considered. Secondly, c/tHrf(c<e)',
depending on the proportions in which the harmonie ovcrtones are combined with the fundamcntal: and thirdly,~oMc~eM.Tins lias to bc
taken last, because th car is not capable of comparing ('with any
precision) tlie loudness of two notes which differ much in pitch or
character. We shall indeed in a future chapter give a mechanical
measure of th intensity of sound, including in onc system ail
gradations of pitch; but tins is nothingto th point. We are hre
concerned witli th intensity of. th sensation of sound, not with a
mcasure of its physical cause. Th dinerence of loudness is,
howcvcr, at once recognised as one of more or less so that wc
iHnscd
iHt!)is
'timbre.'Thoword'chfu-Mter'
Gcrnmn,'Klaugfarbo'Frcnch,
MosobyEvcrett.

14

INTRODUCTION,

f'23.

have hardly any choice but to regard it as dpendent ccc~?'~


on the magnitude of th vibrations concerned.
~a.rt'&M~
24;. Wu Luve seoi that a musical note, as such, is due to a
vibration which is necessarily pcriodic but thc converse, it is
evident, cannot be truc without limitation. A periodic repetitioM
of a noise at intervals of a secondfor instance, tlie
ticking of fi.
clock-would not result in a musical note, be th repetition ever
so perfect. In such a case we may say tliat th fundamentai tone
lies outside the.limits of hcaring, and although some of th
harmonie overtoues would fall within them, thse would not
~ive
riso to a musical note or ovcn to a chord, but to a
noisy mass of
sound likc that produced by striking simultaneousiy tbe twelve
notes of thc chromatic scale. The experiment may be jnadc witit
th Siren by distributing tho holes quite
irregularly round the
circumferenco of a circle, and turning tho dise with a moJcrato
velocity. By tho construction of tho instrument, everything recurs after each complote revolution,
25. The principal remaining dimculty in tlie theory of notes
and tones, is to explain why notes are sometimes analysed
by thc
ear into toncs, and sometimes not. If a note is reallv
comulcx
why is not the fact immediately and certainly perccived, and t)te
componontsdisentang!ed? The feebleness of th harmonie overtones is not th reason, for, as ~veshall sec at a later staf-c of our
inquiry, titcy are often of surprisiug loudness,an(.1 play a promiucntt
part in music. On th other hand, if a note is sometimes perccived
as a wholo, why does not this happen always? Thse
questions
hve been carefully considered by Hcimboitz', with a
tolcrabiy
result.
The
satisfactory
difHculty,such as it is, is not peculiar to
Acoustics, but may be paralleled in tlie cognate science of Pitysiological Optics.
Th knowledgo of external things which wo derivo from th
indications of our sensos,is for th most part thc result of inference.
When an object is beforc us, certain nerves in our rctin arc
excited, and certain sensations arc produced, which wo are
accustomcd to associate with th objcct, and we forthwith infer its
presence. In the case of an unknown object th process is much
the samc. We interpret th sensations to which we
arc subjcct so
as to form a pretty good idea of their exciting cause. From th
sliglitly dincrcnt perspective views reccived by titc two cycs we
infer, oftcn by a liglily claboratc process, th actual relief and
3rj oditioH,
~<'m~;t(!)ty)yctf,
p. 98.

25.]

ANALYSIS

0F

NOTES.

15

distance of th object, to which we might otherwise have had no


~np. Thcse inferences are madc with extrme rapidity a.~dquite
UitCunsciousiy. Tbu 'it~l& life ui' bacii ono of us is a continued
lusson in intcrpreting tho signa presented to us, and in drawing
conclusionsas to the actualitics outside. Oulyso far as we succeed
in doing tins, arc our sensations of any use to us in th ordinary
affairsof hfe. TI)is being so, it is no wonderthat the study of our
sensationsthemselvesfalls into th background,andthat subjective
phenomena, as they are called, becomc exceedingly difficult of
observation. As an instance of this, it is suNdeiil to mention the.
'blifid spot' on thc retina, which might a ~'K))-~ have been
expectcd to manifest itself as a conspicuous phenomenon, though
as a fact prohahly-not one person in a hundred million would nnd
it out for themselvcs. Th application of these i-emar'ksto thc
question in hand is tolerably obvious. In tho daily use of our ears
our object is to disentangle from the whole mass of sound that
may rfach us, thc parts c&mlngfrom sourceswhich may interest
us at th moment. 'Whcn welisten to th conversationof a friend,
wc fix our attention on th sound procecding from him and
cndcavour to grasp that as a whole, while wc ignore, as far as
possible, any other sounds, regarding them as an interruption.
Therc arc usually sufilcient indications to assist us in making this
partial analysis. Whcn a man spcaks, th whoJe sound of his
voice rises and falls together, and wc have no dirnculty in recognlsiug its uoity. It would bc no avantage, but on thc eontrary
a grcat source of confusion,if we werc to carry the analysis furthcr,
and rsolve thc whole mass of sound prsent into its component
tones. A] though, as regards sensation, a resolution into toncs
might be expectcd, tho necessities of our position and th practico
of our lives lead us to stop tho analysis at thc point, beyond
which it would ccase to bc of service in deciphering our sensations, considcrcd as sigus of extcrnal objccts\
But it may sometimes liappcn. that however much wc may
wish to form ajudgment, th materials for doing so arc absolutely
wanting. When a note and its octave are sounding close together
and with perfect uniformity, there is nothing in our sensations to
cnahic us.to distinguish, whctiicr th notes have a double or a
single origin. In thc mixture stop of tlie organ,the pressing down
of each keyadmits th wind to a group of pipes, giving a note and
Matprohubtytho poworof nttondingto tho inipt-tant
nnd ignoringtho
is to ft greatoxtontiuhcntodtQhowgreatair
nnimportant
partofourseusationa
oxtontwoshftt)perha.pa
Bovcrknow.

1C

INTRODUCTION.

[25.

its first three or four harmonies. Tho


pipes of each group aiways
sound together, and th result is usually
pei-ceived as a single
notfj n!though .h~'H<ujt pt'oecuj fron a cingle sourco.
26. Th resolution of n. note into its
componcnt toncs is n.
matter of very din'crent dimculty with diffrent individuals. A
considrable effort of attention is
rcquired,particu!a~yt).t first;
and, until a h~bit bas been formcd, somc cxtcrn:d aid in the
slia.pc
of a. suggestion of what is to bc Jistoned for, is
very dsirable.
Th difliculty is altogethcr vcry similar to that of
Icarning to
draw. From tlic macitinery of vision it might have hcen
expectcd
that nothing would bc easicr than to
make, ou a plane surface, a
reprsentation of surrounding solid objccts; but exprience shows
that much practicc is gencrally requircd.
We s!ia)I rcturn to the question of tlie
analysis of notes at a
later stage, after we hve treated of th vibrations of
strings, with
th aid of which it is bcst elucidated but a
very instructive
expcnment, duc originaHy to Ohm and improved by Helmholtx,
may bc givcn hre. Helmitohz' toolc two bottles of th sliapc
reprcsented in the figure, onc about twice as )argc as thc other.
ihcsewcrc blownby strcams ofair dirccted acro.ss
th moutti an<t issuing from gutta-pcrd)a. tubes,
whosc ends had been softcnud and prcsscd flat,
so as to rcducc thc bore to the form of a narrow
slit, th tubes bchig in conncction with th samc
bellows. By pouring in wn-terwhen th note is too
low and by pa.rtin.Hyobstructmg tlie mouth whcn
thc note is too high, th bottJcs may bo made to
give notes with thc exact interval of an octave,
such as b and b'. fhe larger bottic, blown a!onc,
gives a somcwhat
munlod sound similar in character to tlie vowclU; but, when bot]i
bottles are blown, th character of thc
resulting sound is sharpcr,
rcsemb)ing rathci- th vowel 0. For a short time after th notes
had bcen heM-dseparately Hchnhoitz was able to
distinguish them
in thc mixture; but as the mcmory of thcir
scparatc impressions
ff)dcd,<thc Itighcr note scemod by degrecs to amaJgamatc with
thc lowcr, which at th same time bccamo budcr and
acquired
a sharper charactcr. This bicnding of the two notes
may takc
place cvcn whcn th t)igh note is th louder.
27. SeGing now that notes are
usuaDycontpound, and that
or~y a particular sort caUcd toncs arc nicapabic of further analysis,
7'r'?~M)~/?))~t)yf);,
p, tf);).

I
27.]

PENDULOUS

VIBRATIONS.

17

we are led to inquirc what is thc physical characteristic of tones,


to winch they owetheir pecuHarity? What sort of periodic vibratton
it, whicii prod~ces a. simple tone ? According to wha.t
matl)cmatical function of t)ic time does tlie pressure vary in
th passage of thc car ? No cluestion in Acoustics can be more
important.
The simpicst periodicfunctions with which mathcmaticians arc
acquainted are the circular functions, expressed by a sine or
cosine; indecd t!)cre are no otJiers at aU approaclung them ia
.simphcity. TIiey may bc of any penod, aud a<tmitt!ng of no
other variation (except magnitude), secm well
adaptcd to producc
simple toncs. Morcovcrit lias been proved by Fouricr, tha.t tho
most gnerai singic-vit.hicdpcnodic function can bo rcsolvcd into
a soriesof circular functions, Lavingperiods winch arc
submu!tipies
')f that of tho givcn function. Again, it is a
consquence of thc
guttural thcory of vibration that the particular type, now suggcstcd
as corrcsponding to a simple tone, is t!te omy one capabjc of
pt-cscrving its intcgrity among th vicissitudes which it may
Itaveto undcrgo. Any othcr kind is iiabic to a sort of physieat
analysis, ono part being di~crontly an'ected from anothcr. If th
analysis within the car procceded on a dinercnt principle from that
cnucted according to thc laws of dead mattor outside the car,
tho consequence would Le that a sound
originally simple mi~ht
becomocompound on its way to th observer. Thcrc is no i-caMn
to suppose that anything of this sort actually
happons. When it
is added thataccording to ail th ideas we can form on the
subject,
t)tc analysis within t!tc car must takc place by means of a
physical
machinery, subject to tlie same laws as prcvail outside, it will bo
scen tliat a strong case has Lccn madc out for
rega.rdingtones as
duc to vibrations exprcsscd by circular functions. We arc not
ttowevcrleft eutirely to thc guidance of gnera! considrations like
thse. lu tho chapter on th vibration of strings, we shall sec
that in many cases theory informs us beforehand of the nature of
the vibration executcd by a string, and in particular wliether
any
specined simple vibration is a. component or not. Hre we have
a dcisivetest. It is found hy experiment that, whcncvcr
accordIng
to thcory any simple vibration is prsent, th
correspondingtone
can bc hcard, but, whcnever tho simple vibration is
absent, thcn
the tonc cannot be heard. \Ve arc thercforc
justined in asscrtinnthat simple toncs and vibrations of a circular
type are indissoluh)y
conncctcd. This law was discovcrcd by Ohm.
n.

CHAPTER II.
IIARMONIC MOTIONS.

28. TllE vibrations expressed by a circular function of the


time and variously designated as simple,~w~t~M~OM~
or /mr?)M)n'c,
are so important in Acoustics thatwc cannot do botter thaii (levote
a cha.pter tu thcir consideration, Leforecntcring on tlic dynamical
part of our subject. Thc quantity, whose variation constitutcs
th 'vibration,' ma-ybc tlie displacement of a particle mcasured
in a given direction, th pressure at a fixed point in a iluid
mdium, and Buon. In any case denoting it by M,wo have

in which a dnotes tho MHp~<(i~,


or extreme value of u; r is
the periodic <M~e,or jperto~, after th lapso of which th values
of u recur; and e dtermines th phase of thc vibration at th
moment from which t is measured.
Any number of harmonie vibrations of ~e same ~j<M~ affecting a variable quantity, compound into anothcr of th same type,
wliose clements arc dctcrmined as follows

=rcos(~-A.(2),
if
i).ud

?'=(($acose)'+(SHsin6)~(3),
tau = 2 (t siu e~Mcese.(4).

38. j

COMPOSITION.

19

so tliat if K'=~, ~fvanishcs. In tliis case th vibrations arc often


s:ud to t'~cr/b-e, but the expression is rather
misleading. Two
sounds may vcry propeny bc said to interfre, when
thcytogethcr
cause silence; but th mere superposition of two vibrations
(whcthcr rest is the consequence, or not) cannot properly bc so
called. At Icast if tbis bc Iiitei-furence,it is difficult to
say what
non-intcrforenco can bc. It will appcar in th course of this
work that whcn vibrations exccetl a, certain intensity
tucy no
longer compound by more addition; <AMmutual action might
more properly bc called Interfrence, but it is a
pbenomcnon
of a totally diiTorent nature from that with which we are now
dcaling.
Again, if tho phases dner by a quartor or by tbree-quarters of
a pcriod, cos (e e') = 0, and
~=~"+~.
Harmonie vibrations of given pcriod may be reprosented
by linos drawn from a pole, tlie lengths of tlio lincs being proportional to tho amplitudes, and tlie inclinations to tlie phases
oi' th vibrations. Tbc rsultant of any number of harmonie
vibrations is then represented by the geomutrlcn.1rsultant of
th corresponding Unes. For cxample, if
they arc disposcd
synuuctricaHy round thc polo, tlie rsultant of the Unes, or
vibrations, is zro.
2!). If we mcasure off along an axis of x distances
proportional to tlie timc, and takc u for an ordinale, we obtain tlic
Iiarmonic curve, or curvc of sincs~
2-2

20

HARMONICMOTIONS

[29.

whcre
called the wavc-!cngt]i, is written in place of r, both
quantities dcnoting tho range of tlic indcpendcnt varia.biccorresponding to a complte rcurrence of thc fonction. The harmonie
curvc is tlius thc locus of a, point subject at once to a uniform motion, and to a ha-rmonic vibration in a perpcndicuta.r
direction. In th next chapter we shall sec tha.t the vibration
ofn. tuning fork is simple harmonie; so that if an excited tuning
fork is movcd with uniform velocity parallcl to th lino of its
handio, fLtracing point attached to th end of onc of its prongs
dcscribesa harmonie curve, which ma.ybc obtained in a permanent
fonn by allowing the tracing point to bcar gently on a piece of
smokcd paper. In Fig. 2 the continuons linos arc two harmonie
curves of thc same wavc-lcngth a,nd amplitude, but of diSercnt

phases th dotted curve represents haf thcir rcsu~tant, bcing


<he locus of points midway bctween those in which tlie two
curves are met by any ordinate.
30. If two harmonie vibrations of diffrent periods cocxist,

Th rsultant cannot here be reprosented as a simple harmonie


motion with oti~crclments. If r and r' bc inccmmcnRurabIc,tho
value of ?t never recurs but, if r and T be in th ratio of two
who!cnumbers, M recurs after the lapse of a. time equa.1to tbo
least common multiple of T and r'; but tbe vibration is not
simph harmonie. For exampic, whcn a note and its fifth are
sounding together, tho vibration recurs after a time eqnat to
twicc the period of tho graver.

30. J

OF NEARLY

EQUAL PERIOD.

21 1.

One case of the composition of harmonie vibrations of dinereut


periods is worth special discussion, na.me!y, when the dinerenco
ci' the periods is small. Ii' we nx our attention on the course
of thiugs during an interval of time including mcrcly a fcw
poriods, wc sec that the two vibrations are nearly t!ie same as
if their periods were absolutely equa!, in whic]t case they would,
as wc know, bc cquiva!cnt to another simple harmonie vibration
01 tho samc poriod. For a fcw periods thcu tho rsultant
mution is approximatcly simple harmonie, but tho samc harmonie will not continue to rcprescnt it for long. Th vibration
having th stiorter period continuaDy gains on its icilow
thm'cby altering th dittcrcncc of phase on which th lments
of th rsultant dpend. For simplicity of statement let us
suppose that tho two components Iiave oqual amplitudes, frequencies rcpresentcd by ??~and ?!, wlicre ??t?!. is small, and
that when first obsorvod their pitases agre. At this moment
thuir cn'ccts conspire, and th rsultant ha.s an amplitude double
of that of the components. But after a time 12 (M~) thc
vibration ?~ will hve gaincd ha)f a period rclatively to th
othcr; and thc two, boing now in comptete disagreemcnt, ncutrahze cach other. After a furtiicr intcrval of time equal to
that abuve named, Mtwill hve gained altogether a who!e vibration, and complte aceordancc is once more rc-establishod. T!)e
rsultant motion is thcrcfore approximately simple harmonie,
wiLhan amplitude not constant, but varying from zero to twicc
that of thc componcuts, thc frcqnency of thse altrations being
M-M. If two tuniug f<;rkswith frequcnelcs 500 amI 501 bc
cqu~ty excited, tho'e is every second a risc and faU of sound
corrcspnnding tu t)m coincidenceor opposition of their vibrations.
Tins phcnontenon is ca))ed bats. We dn not hbre f~dtydiscuss
th question how t)tc ear behaves in th prsence of vibrations
butit is obvions tiiat If thc motion
having )icar]yetjual fre'~K-ncie.s,
ni th nelg)ibonr!)oodof th car almost ccascs for a considrable
fractiu)! of a second,thc sound must appcar to fall. For rcasons
that will afterwards appear, bats are best hcard wl)en th intcrfcring sounds are simple toncs. Conscutive notes of th
stoppcd diapason of th organ shc\v th phcnomcnon very
wcii, at least in th lower parts of th scale. A permanent Interfrence of two notes may be obtained by mounting two stopped
crgari pipes of similar construction and identical pitch sitic
Ly sido on thc same wiud clicat. Th vibrations uf th two

22

HARMONIC MOTIONS.

[30.

pipes adjust thcmselvcs to complete opposition, so tliat at a


little distance nothing can be heard, except th hissing of thc
wind. If by a rigid w:dt bctwecn th two pip~s one souud
could bc eut off, th othcr would bc Instautly restored. Or tbo
balance, on which silence dpends, may bc upscb by connecting
th car with a tube, whose other end lies close to tlie mouth of
eue of the pipes.
By meaus of bats two notes may be tuned to unison with
grt cxactncss. Tlie object is to make th bats as slow as
possible, siuce th numbor of be~ts in a second is oqual to th
diScrcnce of t]te frcqucnei.os of thc notes. Under favourable
circumstanccs bats so slow a.3 onc in 30 seconds mn,y be recognised, and would indica.te th~t th highcr note gains only
two vibrations a ?~M:M<0
on th lower. Or it mighb Le dcsited
mercly to ascertain th diiTcl'enceof thc froqucncios of two notes
nearly in unison, in which case nothing more is necessary than
to count the number of bca,ts. It wili be rcmcmLcred that t)iG
Jifcrcuco of frcqncncics docs uot determine tite tM~erua~
bctwccn
tlie two notes; tliat df'pcnds on th ?'(t<Mof frequoncics. T!tU3
th rapidity of th bca,ts given by two notes ncariy in unison
is doubicd, when both arc takcn an exact octave highcr.
AnalyticaUy
M= a cos (27r~< e) + a' cos (2?!
e'),
wlicre Mt is small.
Now cos (27r?~ e') may bc writtcn
aud wc hve

cos 2?~

27r()?

~) t

e },

M=r cos(2-7rw<0) .(1),


= + a." + 2aat'cos [Spr(~ ?~)t + e e]
whcre
(2),
ft sin e + a' sin {Spr('~ M) + e'{
,n.
tan ec =
.(3).
a cos + (t COS
{27T(~ ~) t +)1
Thc rsultant vibration may tLua bc considcred as harmonie
with clements r and which arc not constant but slowly varying
functions of the time, having th frequency w M. Th amplitude
r is at its maximum when
cos {2-7r
(?n. ?~ t + ' e}= + 1,
and at its minimum whcn
cos {2-n-(w n)
e' e}== 1,
thc corrospondingvalues beiDg a + a' and a <t'respectively.

31.]

FOURIER'STHEOREM.

23

31. Anothcr case of grt importance is the composition of


vibrations correspondingto a tone and its harmonies. It is known
that thc most gericml single-valued nuito periodic function can
bc expressed by a sries of simple harmonics-

a theorem usually quotcd as Fourier's. Analytical proofs will be


fouud in Todhuuter's J~~e~ra~Calculus aud Thomsou and Tait's
~~M)Y~r/~7oso~/ty and a line of argument almost if not quite
amounting to a dmonstration will bo given later in this work.
A fcw remarks arc ail tliat will bo required bore.
Fourier's thoorem is not obvious. A vague notion is not uncommon that tlie innnitudc of arbitrary constants in tho sries
of necessity endows it witli the capacity of ropresenting an arbitrary pcriodic function. Tha,t tbis is an error will be apparent,
wlicn it is observed tliat the samo argument would apply equally,
if one term of tbe series were omitted in which case th expansion would not in general be possible.
Another point worth notice is that simple harmonies are not
thc orily functions, in a series of which it is possible to expand
one arbitrarily given. Instead of the simple elementary tcrm

formed by adding a similar one in th samc phase of half the


amplitude and period. It is vident that thse terms would
serve as wcUas tlie others for

a~t?!
so that eacli term in Fourier's sories, and thereforc the sum of
tho sries, can be expressed by means of the double elementary

';,t.t:r.v.

24

HARMONIC

MOTIONS

~31.

terms now auggcstcd. This is mentioncd hero, becausc students,


not, b~in? nc't"aintcd wit~' ~thf) expansions, m~y imagine that
nature tiio only oncs (tu:;Jitied
simpic h~rmoniofunctions arc 1by
to bo thc clements in t!ic dcvclopmont of a periodic function.
Thc rcason of th prccmincnt iinport.a.nceof youncr's scries in
Acoustics is thc mccha.uic:Uonc rcfcrrcd to in thc proceding
ch~pter, and to bc cxp~incd more fuHy))cre:U'tcr,namciy, th:).t,
in guncrfd, simple harmonie vibrations are th oniy kind titat arc
without sun'ering decoma
vibrating
systcm
through
propagatcd
position.
32. As in other cases of a similar character, c.g. Tay~or's
thcorcm, if th possibility of thc expansion be known, th cocfncicnts may bc determined by a. comparativcty simpio process.
\Vc may writc (1) of 31

and Intcgratmg over


or sin
Multip)ying by ces
;).complte period from <=C to t = T, wc find

indicating thn.t ~to is th wcaMvalue of 1tthroughout the period.


Thc degrec of convcrgency in tho expansion of u dpends in
~cnerfd on thc continuity of th function a.nd its derivatives.
Thc scries formcd hy successive diiercutiations of (1) converge
k'ss and lossra.pidty,but still remniMcouvergcut, and arithnietical
reprsentatives of the diH'erential coefficients of it, so long as
thse lutter arc cvcrywhcrc finite. Thus (T)iomson and Tait,
77), if aM thc dcrivativcs up to th M'" inclusive arc frue
from innnitc values, tlic sories for u is more convergent than
onc with

]~< ();))'
for coc(ncic)tts.

nm)

ni )'

&c

IN PERPENDICULAR

33.]

DIRECTIONS.

25

from
intcresting
~MS of compotin(led vibrations,
observatlic facility with which they Icnd themsel-~cs to optical
U."
harino~c vib~doi~
bion, ~cur wt~i
r~more
cspecialty
~rcc~ons,
ticlc arc exccutcd
~e;~e;~tCM~r
but in the ratio
whcn th pcriods are not oniy commensur~bic,
Th motiorL is thcn complter
oi' two SM~tM whoc uumbcrs.
timcs grcatcr th~u tliosc cf th
not
with
many
pcnod
pcriudic,
If M and v
curve dcscribcd is re-cutrant.
thc
and
co.nponents,
ho thc co-oi-dmatcs, wc may takc
33.

Another

and dimensions
whose
an
position
in
ellipse,
gnral
reprcscnting
vibrations and upon
th
of
tlie
original
amplitudes
upon
dpend
tlie dincrcncc of thcir ph~es. If th phases ~er by a quarter

poriod, co3=0, and th quation becomes,

In this CMCthe axes of th ellipse coinci'dc with't~osc of


co-ordinatcs. If furthcr th two cfjmpMieuts ha.vc ecju~!amplitudes, th locus (JcgenGmtcsinto thc cirete..
which is described with uniform velocity. This shows how a
uniform circuiM' motion may bo analyscd into two rcctilmca.r
whosc directions arc pori~enJicula.r.
hn-monic motions,
If thc phases of thc components agre, E=0, and the cl!Ipsc
"r"j
dc"'cncrates iuto the coiticident stmight liucs

When the unison of the two vibrations is exact, thc cUiptic


in practicc it will ahnnst
but
remains
stcady,
pcrfeetly
path
bctwocu thc
ditTo-cnec
n
is
th:i.t
there
sli~it
:dways happcn
periods. TI~oconsequeucc ie timt though a f~xcJ eHipsercprcscnts

26

IIARMONIC MOTIONS.

[33.

thc curve described with sufHcient accuracy for a fcw


perlods,
tho ellipse! itsc)f iyradually cttangos in -jon'cspondencewith t)io
'cr,noB m t,hujua~uiLudoof e. It becomcs thcroiorc a matter
of interest to cojisider thc system of ellipses
rcprescntcd by (2),
supposing a and b constants, but j variable.
SInec tho extreme values of u and are i a, t b
respcctivcly,
thc cHipse is iti all cases insct-ibcd in thc
rectangle whose sidcs
arc 2(, 26. Sterling with tlio pitascs in agrcemcnt, or
6=0, wc
havo tlic cHipsc concident with tlie
= 0 As

dia"'ona.l
emcrcascs from C to ~-n-,thc ellipse opcns out until its
equation
Leon)es

From tins point it closesup ngam, ultimutely

comcidingwith thc

other

= 0, eon-cspondingto thc incrcMcofefrom


~Tr
+
diagonal
to 7r. Aftcr t!iis, as e mngcs from vr to 2~ th
dHpsc retraces
Its course untU it again coincidcs with t!ie first
diagonal. TIio
sequoice of changes is exhihitcd in Fig. 3.

Thc ellipse, having a,lrca.dyfour given


tangents, is compictcly
dctcrmiucd by its point of contact P (Fig. 4) with thc linc ~=&.

33.] ]

LISSAJOTJS'

CYLINDER.

27

In order to connect this with e, it is Ruflcient to observe tha.t


Now if th
when ~=6. cos27r?:<==l;and thercfore !t=acos.
of tvvohn.rmc:nc
uf
th
~tittl~
bc
BUpcrposHion
GJIipticpaLhs
vibrations of ncarly coincidont pitch, e va.ries uniformiy with the
vibration a.lorg ~J.'
timc, so that 7~itself cxccutcs a. l)n.rmo)uc
witit' a fi-cqucneyequal to th differenco uf thc twu givcn frcqucncics.
34. Lissn.]ous'bas shown that this systcm of ellipses may be
of onc and tlic Sfimc enipso
rcr'-arded as thc diffrent aspects
d~cnbcd ou thc surface of a. transparent cylinder. In Fig. 5

~Z~T! represents thc cylinder, of which ~1J3'is a plane section.


Seen from n.u infiultc distance in th direction of tlie common
is
into a
tangent at J. to tlie plane sections, tlie cylinder projcctcd
now that thc
into
its
thc
Suppose
and
diagonal.
ellipse
rectangle,
thc plane section with it.
cylindcr turns upon its axis, cai-rying
Its own projection romains a constant rectangle in which th pro-

6 represents the posiis


inscribcd.
of
thc
Fig.
ellipse
jcction
tion of tlic cylindcr after a rotation through a right angle. It
tlio cylinder round we obtain in
uppcars thereforc that by turning
succession ail th ellipses corrcsponding to thc pa-thsdescribed by
iixcd
a point subjcct to two harmonie vibrations of equal pcriod and
be turned continuously
amplitudes. Moreovcr if tho cylinder
1 ~tHM~s de CAtM~ (3) LI, 147.

28

HARMONIC

MOTIONS.

[34.

with uniform velocity, which insurcs a harmonie motion for .P,


wc obtain a complte rcprcsuutation of thc varying orbit
dcscribcd by thc point wh~n Lhc periods uf thc two compunents
differ slightiy, eacli complte revolution answoring to a gain or
loss of a single vibration'. Th rvolutions of th cyliuder arc
thus synchrouous vlt)i th bats which woutd rcsult f)'om thc
composition of thc two vibru-tious,if they wcrc to act in thc s.uuc
direction.
35. Vibrations of thc Mnd hre considercd arc very easily
rcn.Hxt'dexpcrimeutn.))y. A Ii(j:Lvypondulum-bob, hung from a
iixud point by a long wirc or string, descrihes cliipscHundcr t))c
action of gravity, which may in particular cases, according to th
circumstunc'e.sof projection, pass into straight lincs or circles.
But in order to sec th orhits to thc best advantagc, it is necessary
that thcy sliould be described so quic)dy tl~at th 'Itnprcssio!i
ou th retina madc by th moving point at any part of its course
bas not time tofade materially, heforc tl)e point cornes round again
to its
action. This condition is fulfilled by th vibration
of a silvered bead (giving by reflection a luminous point), winch is
att~ched to a straight mctaUic wire (such as a knitting-necdie),
firmiy clamped in a vice at the lower end. When tiie system is set
into vibration, the luminous point dcseribcs ellipses, which appear
as fine lines of light. Thse ellipses would gradually contract in
dimensions under th influence of friction until t!iey subsidcd
into a stationary bright point, without undergoing any othcr
change, wcre it not that in ail probability, owing to somc want
of symmetry, the wire lias s)ightly ditiering puriods according to
thc plane in which th vibration is cxceutcd. Undcr thse circumstances th orbit is sceu to undcrgo t!io cycle of changes
already cxplaincd.
3G. So far we Itavc supposcd tho periods of th component
vibrations to be equal, or nearly cqual; thc next case in ordcr of
sitnpiicity is when one is the double of tho othcr. Wc have
M=acos(4~7!-<e), ~=Z'cos2?!7~.
Tlie locus resulting from thc limination of t may bc written

1 Dy a vibration will
oyclo of
aiwaya ho mcaut iu this work a comj)~<<!
chfUtgOB.

3G.]

CONSONANT INTERVALS.

29

the rectwhich for ~1 values of e reprsenta a curvc inscribed in


angle 2ct, 2&. If e = 0, or 7r, wo ha.vc

shcws thc various curves for U~c


FIg.
7
reprsenta p~bolas.
iutcrvals of tLc octave, twuifth, aud fth.

To aU thse systems Lissajous' method of represontation by


relative
th transparent cylinder is applicable, and whcn the
th diffrent circ~mstanccs of
from
whctber
is
altcrcd,
phase
or continuously owing to a sbght din
diiferent
cases,
projection
will
viatior. from exMtness in tho ratio of tbe poriods, th cylinder
of th
digrent
to
the
aspects
as
to
so
eye
to
turn,
prsent
app~r
line traced on its surface.
sa.DiO
so
37. There is no dinicutty in arranging a vibrating system
vibrations
that th motion of a point shall consist of two harmonie
in any assigued ratio.
in perpendicular planes, with their periods
A wire
The simplest is that known as Blackhurn's pendnlum.
two nxcd points at tbe samc Icvel.
~t C-Bis fastcncd at ~1 and
CP.
Tbe bob P is attached to its middle point by another wirc
For vibrations in th plane ofthe diagram, thc point of suspension
iH practically C, provided that th wires are sunIcicQtIystretched

30

IIARMONIC

MOTIONS.

J37.

but for a motion porpendiculin-to this plane, th bob turns about


D, can-ying tho wire ~O'j9 witli it. TIic pc.ri~s of vibration in

thc principal planes arc in the ratio of t!.c


square roots of CPand
DP. Thus if ~C=36'~
the bob describc.s th figures of thc
octave. To obtain tito squence of curvc.s
correspondin~ to
~pproxnnatc unison, Y~ must bc so ncarly tight, tiiat
is
rdativeJy small.
3S. Another contriv~ncocalled thc
kalcidophonc was originally invented by Whcatstoiie. Astraight tllin bar of steel
carry'i~
a bcad at its uppcr crid is fastcncd in
vice, as cxpMncd in a
previous p~ragraph. If the section of th bar is
square, or circuleth poriod of vibration is
indepeudcnt of thc plane in which it is
pcrformcd. But let us suppose that the section is a rectale
with unequal sidcs. Tlie stress of tl.c
bar-tho force with
which it rcsists Lcndin~-is thcu grcater in t!te
plane of mc.ater
Huc~nc.ss,aud tlie vibrations in this phuie have th shortcr
pcriod
By a suitable adjustmcnt of tho thickncsses, the two
poriods of
vibration may bc brought into any
required ratio, aud th eorresponding curve cx]iibitd.
Thc defeet in this arrangement is that thc samc
bar will r.Ivc
only one set of figures. In ordcr to ovurcome tins
objection
th fullowlng modification lias bccn
deviscd. A slip of steci is
takcn whosc rectangular section is
very ciongated, so tliat as
regards bcnding in onc plane the stiHhcssis so gr~t as to amount
practically to rigidity. Thc bar is divided into two parts, and the

38.]

OPTIOAL METIIODS.

31

broken ends reunited, the two pices bcing turned oa one another
throush a rigtit angle, so that tho plane, which contains th small
thc gi'L'utthujkMt~ i' tho ti~i-. W:
oi' ojf:, ~<j.,tt'.inK
LitickucfiM
tlie compound rod is clamped in a vice at a point bolow the junction, th period of th vibration in one direction, dpending alinost
cntircly on th Icngth of tho uppcr pice, is nearly constant; but
that in t)]C second direction may be controlled by varying th
point at which th lowcr pice is clamped.
39. In this arrangement th luminous point itself excutes
thc vibrations which are to bc obscrvcd but in Lissajous' form of
the experimont, the point of light remains rcaiy fixed, while its
M~Mf/eis thrown into apparent motion by means of successive
reflection from two vibrating mirrors. A smaUhole in an opaque
scrcen placed close to the iiame of a lamp giycs a point of light,
which is observed after reneetion in th mirrors by means of a
small tlescope. The mirrors, usually of polished steel, arc attMhcd
to th prongs of stout tuning forks, and th whole is so disposed
that wlieu th forks are thrown into vibration th luminous point
appears to describe harmonie motions in pcrpendicuhn' directions,
owing to tho angular motions of the renccting surfaces. Th
amplitudes and periods of these harmonie motions dpend upon
thoso of tho corrcspnnding forks, and may bo made sucli as to give
witli cnhanced brill.ianey any of th figures possible witli tlic
kalcidophonc. By a similar arrangement it is possible to project
tho ri~ures on a scrcen. In cither case they gradually contra.ctas
the vibrations of the forks die away.
40. Th principles of this cliapter Itavc reccived an important
application in the investigation of rectilinear periodic motions.
Whcn a point, fur instance a particio of a sounding string, is
vibratiug with such a period as to give a note within thc limits of
hearing, its motion is much too rapid to be followed by tl~ecyc
so that, if it be required to know tlie character of th vibration,
somo indirect mcthod must be adopted. Th simplest, thcoretically, is to compound th vibration undcr examination with a
uniform motion of translation in a perpcndicuhu'direction, as when
a tuning fork dra-wsa harmonie curve on smoked paper. Instead
of moving tlio vibrating body itself, we may make use of a revolving mirror, w!iich provides us with an M~K~ein motion. In tins
way we obtain a. reprsentation of tlic function charactcristic of
tiLe vibration, with thc abscissa proportional to timc.

33

UARMONICMOTIONS,

[40.

But it often happons that the application of this mcthod would


ho dimcult or inconvnient. Jn such cases we may substituts for
thc

uniform

n'<u

a.~tDu~ui~

vibnt.t'ofi
i

'fbU~i'bL'

))nri.).1

in

i.h<'

same direction. To fix our ideas, let us suppose that th point,


whose motion we wish to invcstigatc, vibratos vertically with a
period T, and let us examine th result of combining witli ttus a
horizontal harmonie motion, whose period is somc mu]tip)o of 7-,
say, M/r. Take a rectangutar pice of paper, and with axes parallcl
to itsedgcsdraw th curve rcprescnting th vertical motion
(hy
sctting off abscissa3 proportional to th timc) on such a scale that
tLc papcr jnst contains ?~repctitions or waves, and then bend tlic
paper round so as to form a cylinder, with a re-entrant curve running round it. A point dcscribing this curve in sucli a manno'
that it revolves uniformly about th axis of th cylinder will
appear from a distance to combine th given vertical motion of
punod T, with a horizontal harmonie motion of pcriod ~T. Conversely thcrofore, in order to obtain tho reprsentative curve of
tho vertical vibrations, the cylinder containing t]ic apparent path
must bc imagincd to he dividcd along a gencrating Une, and
developcd into a piano. Thcre is less difnculty iu couceiviug thc
cylmdcr and th situation uf thc curve upon it, \vitcn thc adjustment of tho periods is not quite exact, for thon tLe cylinder
appears to turn, and the contrary motions serve to distinguisb
those parts of th curve which lie on its nearer aud further face.
41. Th auxiliary harmonie motion is generally obtained
optically, by means of an instrument called a vibration-microsc-opc
invented by LIssajoua. One prong of a large tuning fork carries
a lens, whose axis is perpendicular to th direction of vibration
and which may be used cithcr by itself, or aa t!tc object-glass of
a compound microscope formed by tho addition of an eye-pieco
independently supported. In either case a stationnry point is
thrown into apparent harmonie motion along a lino parallcl to
that of tho fork's vibration.
The vibration-microscope may be appHcd to test th rigour
and universality of the law connecting pitch and ~ep't'o~. TIms
it will bc found that any point of a vibrating body -\v)uc!)gives
a pure musical note will appear to describe a rc-entrant curve,
when examincd witb a vibration-microscope \\hosc note is in
strict unison with its own. By th same means thc ratios of
frequeucies characteristic of the consonant intervals may be

41.]

INTERMITTENT

ILLUMINATION.

33

verified; though for this latter purpose a more thoroughly


acoustical mthode to be described in a future chapter, may be
prcfcncd.
42. Another method of examining thc motion of a vibrating
body dpendsupon thc use of intermittent illumination. Suppose,
for exampic, that by mcans of suitable apparatus a series of
cleetric sparks are obtained at regnfar intcrvals T. A vibrating
body, whose period is also T, cxamined by thc light of thc sparks
must appear at l'est, because it can be sccn only in one position.
If, Itowcvcr, th period of th vibration differ from T cvcr so
little, the iHuminatcd position varies, and the body will appear
to vibrato slowly ~ith a frequcncy which is thc diffcrcncc of that
of the spark and tliat of the body. Th type of vibration can
thon be observed with facility.
The sries of sparks can bc obtained from an Induction-coih
whose primnry circuit is periodicauy broken by a vibrating fork,
or by somc othcr intcrruptcr of snrRcient regularity. But a bette)'
rcsult is afforcledby sunlight rendered intermittent with tlie aid of
a fork, whosc prongs carry two small plates of meta], parallel to
the plane of vibration and close togethcr. In each plate is a slit
pM'aIIclto thc prongs of th fork, and so placed as to aAbrd a
fj'cc passagethroug)i th plates whcn th fork is at rcst, or passing
through th middte point of its vibrations. On th opening so
formed,a beam ofsunHght is concentrated by means of a burningglass, and thc object undcr examination is placed in th cne of
rays diverging on thc furthcr sidc'. When tlic fork is made to
vibrato by an cicetro-magnetic arrangement, thc illumination is eut
off exccpt when the fork is passing through Us position of equilibrium, or nearly so. The nashcs of light obtained by this method
arc not so instn.nta.nouusas clectric sparks (especially when a
jar is connected with thc sccondary wire of th coil), but in my
exprience th rcguhu'ity is more perfect. Carc shoultl bc takcn
to eut on' extrancous ]ight as far as possible, and thu cnect is thon
very striking.
A similar result may bc arrived at by looking at th vibrating
hodythrough a sries of holes arranged in a circlc on a-revolving
(tisc. Several sries of holes ma.y be providcd on the same
<tisc,but th observation is not satisfactory without some provisionfor sceuring uniform rotation.
Ti~ier,2'/ti/Vn~. Jtm.1807.
H.
3

34

HARMONIC

MOTIONS.

[43.

Except with respect to the sharpness of definition, the result is


the samf when the pcriod of th light is any multiple of tt~t of.
th vibmtin~ ~c'y. Tiiis pouit. ~HHt bu att,ciided tu ~i)eu th
revolving wheel is used to determine an unknown frequency..
When the frequency of intermittence is an exact multiple of
that of th vibration, t!te object is seen without apparent motion,
but generally in more than one position. Titis condition of things
is sometimes advautageous.
Similar effects arisc when th frcquencies of th vibrations
and of th flashes are in th ratio of two smaU whole numbers. If,
for example, th number of vibrations in a given time be half
as grt again as the number of flashes, th body will appear
stationary, and in general double.

CHAPTER Iir.
IIAVINGONEDEGREE0F FREEDOM.
SYSTEMS
43. THE matcrial systems, with whosc vibrations Acoustics is
concerned, are usually of considrable complication, and are susccptible of very varions modes of vibration, any or a!l of which
may cocxist at any particular moment. Indeed in some of th
most important musical instruments, aa strings and organ-pipes,
th number of independent modes is theoretically infinite, and
the consideration of several of tliem is essential to the most practical questions relating to the nature of tho consonant chords.
Cases, however, often present thcmselvcs, in which one mode is
of paramount importance and cvcn if this were not so, it would
still be proper to commence th consideration of thc general problem with th simplest case-that of one degrce of frcedom. It
need not be supposed that th mode treated of is th only one
possible,because so long as vibrations of other modes do not occur
their possibility under other circumstances is of no moment.
44, TIte condition of a system possessing one degree of frecdom is denncd by th value of a single co-ordinate M,whose origin
may be taken to correspond to thc position of cquilibrium. TIie
Mnetic and potential nergies ofthc system for any given position
arc proportional respectively to and
r=~~

F=~(i),
whcre w and are in general functions of M. But if we Hmit ourselves to tlie consideration of positions M!.the ?'y~:e~'<~e?:eK/Au is a small quantity,
&~u)7iOOfZ
o/</Mt<
con'M~on~t')~ e~x~t~,
and m and are sensibly constant. On this understanding wo
3-2

36

ONE DEGREEOF FREEDOM.

[4~.

now proceed. If there he no forces,cither rcaulting frominternai


friction or viscosity,or imprcss'~don the systcm from without, the
\vhole energy remains constant. Thus
y+ 1~=constant.
Substituting for T and V their values, and differentiating with
respect to tho time, wc obtain tlie e~ua-tionof motion
~m + /tW= 0
(2)
of which th complte integral is
~=(tcos(?)<

a)

(3),

vibration. It will bo
whcrc ?~=/7):,
rcprcscnti))~ a ~Muc
scc that thc pcriod alone is detemuned by th nature of the
system itself; the amplitude and phnse dpend on cothttcral circumstances. If tlie difrercutial equation wcrc exact, that is to
and F to thon, without
say, if T werc strictly proportional to
any restriction, th vibrations of th system ahont its conDguration
of equilibrium would bc accuratc)y harmonie. But in th majority
of cases tlic propoi'tionaHtyis only approximate, dcpending on an
assumption that tlie displacemeut ?<is always smallhow small
depends on th nature of the particular system and tlie degree of
approximation required and thon of course we must be careful
not to push th application of th intgral beyond its proper
limits.
But, although not to be stated without a limitation, the prineipic that th vibrations of a system about a configuration of
cquilibrium have a period dcpending on th structure of th
system and not on the particular circumstances of tlie vibration,
is of suprme importance, whcthcr regarded from th theoretical
or th practical sidc. If thc pitch and th loudness of th note
givcn by a musical Instrument wcre not within wide limits indepcndcnt, thc art of th pcrformer on many instruments, such
as th violin a.ndpianofortc, wouldbc revolutionized.
Th periodic time

so that an increase in w, or a decrease in /t, protracts thc Juration


of a vibration. By a generalization of the kuguage employed in
th case of a matcrial particle urged towards a position of eqnHibrium by a spring, ?~ may be called th inertia of th system, and

44.]

DISSIPATIVEFORCES.

37

of
u. th force of th quivalent spring. Thus an augmentation
mass, or a rc!f).xationof spring, incrcas<?sth perK'dic t.imc. By
means of this principlc wc may somctimes obtain limits for
the value of a,period, which cannot, or cannot easily, he calculated
cxact)y.
415. Th absence of atl forces of a frictioual character is an
idal case, never reahzcd but only approximatcd to in practice.
Tho original cnergy of a vibration is aiways dissipated sooner or
latcr by conversioninto leat. But there is another source of loss,
which though not, properly speaking, dissipative, yet produces
results of much thc same nature. Consider the case of a tuningfork vibrating in ~fMMO.TIic internai friction will in time stop
th motion, and th original energy will bc transformed into
heat. But now suppose that th fork is transferred to au open
space. In strietness tlie fork and the air surrounding it constitute a single system, whose parts cannot be ti'catcd separately.
In attempting, Ilowcver, tlie exact solution of so complicated a
prohicm, wc sliould gencrally bc stopped by mathematical dinicultics, and in any case an approximate solution would be desirable. Thc crfect of thc air during a few periods is quite insignincant, and hecomes important only by accumulation. We are
tbus led to considcr its effect as a ~s~<r~?:ce of the motion which
would take place t'~ ~acKO. Ttie disturbing force is periodic (to
th same approximation that th vibrations are so), and may he
dividcd into two parts, one proportional to tite acclration, and
the other to the velocity. Th former produces th same offectas
an altcration in th mass of th fork, and we have nothing more
to do with it at present. Th latter is a force arithinetica.Hyproportional to thc velocity, and aiways acts in opposition to the
motion, and thcrefore produccs enccts of thc same character as
those duc to friction. In many similar cases th loss of motion by
communication may bc trcatcd undcr th same head as that duo
to dissipation proper, and is reprosentecl in th diScrential quation with a degrce of approximation sumcicnt for acoustical purposes by a tenn proportional to th velocity. Thus
0.
M-TXM+H"M==(1)
is tlie quation of vibration for a system with one dcgreo of
frcedom subject to frictional forces. The solution is
M=~e'~ cos (~i~.

<(}.(2).

38

ONE DEGREE0F FREEDOM.

[45.

If thc friction be so grt that


> thc solution changes its
fonn, and no lorger f'orrRsp.nds to nn os<-Hiatnrymotion; but In
.di acousticai applications A:is a small
qu~ntit'y. 'Under Dicso
circumstances (2) mny bc r~u'ded as cxprcssinga harmonie vibratton, whosc Mnpiitudc is not constant, but dimiuishcs m
gcomett-ical progrc.SHio]),
wlicn consi~o-cd aft-cr cqu~l iutcrv~Is of
time. Thc difercncc of th logarithms of successive
cxtronu
excursions Is nc:u-)yconsent, :md is ca)!edt]tc
Logar:t!imlc Ducremfut. It is cxpresscd by ~r, if T bc thu puriodie timc.
Titc frcquotcy.dcpcnding on ?~- ~~Invo!vG.s
on]y tite sccotd
powcr of A:;so that to thc rir.storder of approximation ~e/c~'o~
/t(M?!0e~ec~o~ ~c y)en'o~a principe
ofvo-y gnera! appiicatiun.
Tho vibra~on iicrc consided is ca!]ed
thc/y-ce vibration. It
is tbat cxccutcd hy thc System,when disturbcd from
cquiHbrium,
and tbcn
to itself.
4G. Wc must now turn oui-attoition to anothcr
problem, not
Jcss Important,th bchaviour ofthc systcm, whan
subjuctud to a
ibrcc varying as a harmonie funetion of thc timc. In ordcr tu savc
rcpctition, wc may takc at once the more gcncral case ijicludinnfriction. If tho-c be no friction, wc bave
on)y tu put in oui- rcsults
/<= 0. Th dincrential quation is

['
This is caDeda./M-c<~vibration; it is thc
responsc of thc System
to a force Imposbdupon it from wititout, and in mainta.iued tho
by
coutinued opcratioa of that force. T]ic
amplitude is proportional

46.]

FORCED
VIBRATIONS.

39

to ~thc magnitude of tlie force, and the period is the same


as that ofthe force.
Let us now supp<jHu gi~uu, ahd trace tLe effuuton a given
system of a variation in tlie period of th force. The effects
produced in dinfcrent cases are not strictly similar; hecause tlie
frequency of th vibrations produced is always the samoas that of
t)ie force, and thcrefore variable in th comparison which we are
about to institute. Wc n~ay,however, compare th cncrgy of the
system in different cases at th moment of passing through the
position of equilibrium. It is necessary thus to specifyth moment
at which the energy is to be computcd in each case, because the
total energy is not invariablo througitout tlie vibration. During
one part of the period tho systcm reoives energy from the
impressed force, and during th remainder of th period yields it
back again.
From (4), if u = 0,
cncrgy ce ceshi~c,
and is thcrefore a maximum, when suie==l, or, from (5), p=n. If
th maximum kinetic energy bc denoted by
wc bave
T=~sm~(6).
The kinctic encrgy of the motion is therefore the grcatest possible,
when the period of the force is tliat in which th system would
vibrato fruciy undcr the influence of its own ela-sticity(or othcr
internai forces), ~t0i<t ~h'c~'o?! Th vibration is then by (4)
and (5),

and, if bo small, its amplitude is very grcat. Its phase is &


quarter of a period bohind that of tlie force.
Thc case, where = ?!, may also be treated IndGpendentIy.
Since tho period of tlio actual vibration is the same as that
natural to thc system,

40

ONE DEGREE

0F FREEDOM.

[46.

If p bc Jcss tha.n ?;,the rctardation of


phase relatively to tho
force lies betwech xeru and a qu:u-te!pcriod, aud whcn is ~reater
tit:m}.[.,butwcchi(.~U!u'~t'~(.'i:m!n.i,.bntfuut~d.
In t!)c cuscof a systcln devoid of i'riction, tlie solution is

When is amaller ttian ?~thc pl.ase uf tiiu vibration agres with


tliat of thc force, but whcn~ Is th
grever, the sign of th vibration is clianged. Th change of phase from
complte agreement
to complote disagrcemeut, which is
graduai wlien friction acts,
hre take~ place abruptty as pa.sses
through t!ic value 7t. At th
samc tune thc expression for th
amplitude bccomes inanit. Of
course this oniy means that, iu thc case of
cqual periods, friction
7~<~he taken into account, Ijoweversmali it
may be, aud liowevcr
insigniricaht its rcsult wben and ?t are not approximatc!y cqua).
Thc limitation as to th magnitude of thc
vibration, to which we
are all along subject, must a)so bc borne in mind.
That th excursion shouid bc at its maximum in one
direction
whi!e th generating force is at its maximum in tho
opposite
as
for
du-eetion, happons, cxampic.in the canal theory oft!ic tiftc.s,
is somcti.ncs considcred a paradox.
Any dimculty that may be
fc)t will bu ronovcd by considering the extrme
case, in which th
".spring vanishes,so t!.at thc natural period is Innnitety lono-. In
fact we nced ody consider the force
acting on the bob of a'common pendutum swinging
frecly. in which case t]ic excursion on one
sicle is greatest w)tcn the action of
gravity is at its maximum
m thc opposite direction. When on thc other
hand the inertia of
th system is very sma)I,we hve the otticr extrme
case in which
th so-c.Ued equiHbrium
theory bccomes applicable, tlie force and
excursjou being in tlie samc phase.
Wi~en t]te pcrioJ of thc force is
longer than the nature period,
thc cncet of an increasing friction is to
introduee a retardation
in th ph:Lscoft)tc
dispiacementvaryingfrom zero up to nquarter
penod. If, ),owever,the period of th natural vibration bc tho
longer, th original retardation of haf a period is diminished
by
short
ofa
somethmg
quarter period; or th cn'eet of friction is to
Mc~e
tlie phase of thc disphccment cstimatcd from that eon-cspond.ng to thc absence of friction. In cither case th influence
of fr.ct~oni to cause an
approximation to thc state of things that
wou!d prcva)I tffrictioTi wcre paramount.

46.]

PRINCIPLE 0F SUPERPOSITION.

41

If a force of nearly equal period with th free vibrations


vnry s1o\v1yto a maximum and then slowly dcrte, thc dispjacement docs not rcach its maximum untd aftcr th force lias
bcgun to diminish. Under thc opration of the force at its
maximum, thc vibration continues to increasountil a certain limit
is approachcd,and this incrcase continues for a time cven att))ouglt
tlie force, having passed its maximum, begin.s to diminis)). Ou
ttds principic tlie t'utardation of spring tidcs bchiud tlie da.ysof
ucw and full luooulias bccn cxp]ained'.1.
47. From tlie linearity of the cquations it follows that the
motion rcsulting from thc simuItanGOusaction of any numbcr of
forces is thc simple sum of tlie motions duc to the forcesta~en
scparate!y. Each force c:uises tlie vibration proper to itself,
wthout regard to tlie presoicc or absence of any othos. Thc
peculia-ritiesof a force arc thus in a manner transmitted into th
motion of tho system. For example, if thc force be periodic in
timc T, so will be th resulting vibraLion. Each ])armonic element of tlie force will call forth a corresponding harmonie vibration
in tl system. But since tlie rctardation of phase e, and the ratio
is not the samc for th different components,
of amplitudes M
the resulting vibration, though periodic in th same time, is diffrom the force. It may happcn, for instance,
frent in c/t<t7'KC<c?'
that one of thc components is isocbronons, or ncurly so, wit)i th
frce vibration, in whicli case it will mauifcst itself in thc motion
out of al] proportion to its original importance. As another
example we may consider the case of a System actcd on by two
forcesof nearly cqual period. Th resulting vibration, bcing compounded of two ncarly in unison, is intermittent, accordiug to the
pt'inciples cxphuned in thc last chapter.
To the motions, which arc tlie Immdiate effects of t])c impressed forces, must always be added thc tcrm expressing frec
vibrations, if it be desired to obtain the most gencral solution.
Thus in thc case of one impressed force,

48.

Thc distinction betweenybrce~and~'ee 'vlbra.tioQSis very


~Airy'B2'(~t'<n))~n'at'f~Art.328.

42

ONEDEGREEOF FREHDOM.

[48.

important, and must bu olearly understood. Thc pcrioJ of t))c


former is detenniucd solcly by thc force whicli is supposed to act
.u Umh~
lic-ni ~rdiQut:, ~hHu Lii:t ut' thc htttcr dpends
un)y
on the constitution ofthe system itself. Anothcr point of din'ercnce is that so long as the extcrnal influence continues to opcratc,
a forced vibration is permanent, being rcpresentcd strictly by a
harmnic function; buta frec vibration graduallydies away, becoming ncghgibic aftcr a timo. Suppose, fur cxample, that the
systcniis :),trcst when thc force 7~cos~j{bcgins to operate. Su.ch
rinitc vaincs must bc givcn to th constants jd and a iti
(1) of 47,
that buth and ii arc initiatty zro. At first tllen tiiere is a
frec vibration not less important than its rival, but after a time
friction rednces it to insignificanee, and the forced vibration is left
ill complte possessionof the nc!d. Tins condition of
things will
continue so long as the force oprtes. Wlien thc force is removed,
thcrc is, of course, no discontimuty in the valucs of Mor !<,but
tho forced vibration is at once convcrtcd into a frce vibration
and the poriod of thc force is cxchangcd for that natural to the
system.
Dm'ing thc coexistence of the two vibrations lu thc earlier part
of thc motion, tho curious phc'nomcnon of beats
may occu)', in
case the two periods diiicr but siight)y. For, ?!
and being nearly
equa), and smali, tlie initial conditions arc approximately satisfied by
!<= a cos (~< e)

e'

cos ~1-

ej.

Thcrc is thus a risc and faU in the motion, so long as e' remains
sensible. TI)is intermittence Is vcry conspicuous in the earlier
stages of thc motion of forks driven by cicctro-magnetism ( G3).
49. Vibrating Systems of one degree of freedom
may vary in
two ways according to t)tc values of the constants Mand K. Th
distinction ofpitch is sumcIe)tt!yIntG!!igibic; but it is worth w]nle
to examine more closcly the con'sefjncnccs of a
grcatcr or less
dcgree of damping. Titc most obvions is the more or less rapid
extinction of a fi-cevibration. The enbct in this direction
may be
mcasurcd by the numbcr of vibrations wliich must
e)apsc bcfore
the amp)Itudc is reduced in a given ratio.
Initit )y tho amplitude
may be takcn as unity; after a time <, lot it be 0. Then 6 = c'

VARIOUS

40.]

If = ~T, wc have a;=


nnjucru-Lu

du~reu

DEGREES OF DAMPING.
2

xT log

ut' dampmg,

\vc

43

la a, system subject to on)y a


tua.y

tn.kc

upprox.UTmtcly,

Thi.sgives thc number of vibrations which arc performed,heforc


thea.)nplituduf!iih)to0.
Thc inuucncc of damping is aiso powcrfu~y Mt in a, forccd
'Ibra.tion, wlicu thcre is a. :uear approach to isochronism. In the
case ci' an exact equality betwcen a.nd ?~ it is thc damping alone
witich prcvcnts thc motion becommg m~nite. We might casily
auticipate thatwheu tUc damping is small, a. compara.tivelyslight
dcvia-tion from perfect isoein'onismwuld cause a large fa.Hmgoff
in thc Magnitude of thc vibration, but that with a larger damping,
thc s:uuc precision of adjustmcut would not bc rcquired. From
tlie enuatious

so that if bc sm~l!, must bc very nearly equa.1to 7)jlu. ordcr to


producc a, motion ]iot grea.tly Icssthan th maximum.
Th two principal eScets of damping may be compared by
climijiating betwecu (1) and (2). Th result is

where th sign of tlie square root must be so cliosenas to make


the right-hand sidc ngative.
If, when a system vibrtes frcely, tlie ampUtude be reduced in
the ratio after x vibrations then, wben it is acted on by a force
(p), thc energy of the resulting motion will bc less than in th
case of perfect isochronism in the ratio T T~. It is a mattcr of
mdiifcreucc whcthcr th forced or tlie free vibration bc th higher;
all dpends on the M/erua~.
In most casesof interest thc intcrval is small; and then, putting
p = ~+8~ tlie formula may be written,

44

ONE DEGREE 0F FREEDOM.

['49.

The following table c~culatcd from thcso formulte haa been


givcn by Hcimlioltx'
Ijttcrvfd con-cspon.Ung to a rduction
of Uto ruM.ttauco to ouc-touth.
y
y
~Q

v'Lmtif.nM nfter whiuh tho


i'itcnHity of a frco vibrntiou is roducudtoono.tunth.
~=A.

tonc.

~.oo'~
19'00
9-50

?
Whuif! tonc.

G-33
4-75

tuno.

3.~0

y tono = minor thu-d.


7 toile.
Twu whuit'

tonea~

g. jy
2-71

major third.

Formula (4) shcws that, w!ien

~'37

i.s small, it varies c~~M

as
'1.
Mtt)~~
a:
50. From observations of forced vibrations due to known
forces, tlie natural period and dampiug of a system may Le detertniGd. TIio formuhuare

If tlie equilibrium thcory Le


known, tlie comparison of amplitudes tells us tlie value of
sav

~ifH~/ntJf~fyc~

p. 221.

50.]]

STRINGWITH LOAD.

45

and e is also kuown, whence

51. As bas been ah-cady stated, the distinction of forccd and


frcc vibra.tionsis important but it may be remarked that most of
th forced vibrations which we shall Lave to consider as affecting
a system, take tbcir origin ultimately in the motion of a second
system, which influences thc first, and is innuenccd by it. A
vibration may thus have to be reekoned as forced in its relation
to a system whose limits are fixed arbitrarity, cvcn when that
pystem lias a share in dctcrmining thc period of the force which
acts upon it. On a wider view of thc matter embracing both th
as
An
Systems,thc vibration in. question will be recognizcd free.
example ma.y ma~c tliis clca.rer. A tuning-fork vibrating in air
is part of a compound system including th air and itself, and
in respect of this compound system the vibration is free. But
although thc fork is influenccd by thc raction of th air, yet thc
amount of such innuence is smaU. For practical purposes it is
convenieat to eonsidcr the motion of the fork as givcn, and Lhat of
motion
th air as forced. No crror will be committed if th f<c<:ta~
of the fork (as innucnccd by its sun'oundings) be takcn as tbe
basis of eaicutation. But th peculiar adva.ntagcof tlils mode of
conception is manifcstcd in thc case of an approximatc solution
bcing rcquired. It may then sumce to suhstitute for th actual
motion, what would bc tbc motion of th fork in the absence of
air, and afterwards introduce a correction, if uecessary.
52. Illustrations of the principles of this chapter may bc
drawn from ait parts of Acoustics. Wo will give bc're a few
applications which deserve an early place on accouut of their
simplicity or importance.
A string or wire J.CJ3 is stretched bctwccn two nxed points
~1 and
and at its centre carries a mass J~ which is supposed to
bc so considrable as to rcndcr th mass of the string itself ncgliis pulled asidc from its position of equilibrium,
gibic. WIten
and thcn Ict go, it excutes along th lino C~ vibrations, whicb
C= 6'~ = M. C'.V=x. Th tension
are the subject of inquiry.
of thc string in the position of equIHhriumdpends on the amount
of the stretchiug to which it has been subjected. In any othcr

4G

ONE DEGREE0F FREEDOM.

[52.

position the tension is ~reatcr but we limit ourscivcs to the case


of vibrations so small that tt~e additiona!
strotching is a ncgJigibJe
fraction of the who)c. On th~ (~ncHii~n thc ~<i)i rn:~ bc
treated as con&tant. We dnote it by y

Thus, Idnetic cncrgy = ~;

Th amplitude and phase dpend of course on th initial circumstances, being arbitrary so far as th dinforcntial quation is
conccrned.
Equation (2) expresses th nanner in which 7-varies with each
ofthe Independent quantities V.~a:
resultswhich mayall bc
outained by considration of the (~MCHs~~ the tcchnica!
(in
sensc)
of the quantitics involved. T!~G
argument from dimensions is so
often of importance hi Acoustics tliat it
may bc wcll to consider
this first instance at Icngtit.
In the first place wc must assure ourselvcs tliat of all
th
quandties on which T may dpend, th only oues
involving a

53.J

METHOD 0F

DIMENSIONS.

47

rfrence to thc three fundamental unitsof length, time, and


mnssure a,
and T. Let th solution of the problem bo
wnLLeuThis equation must rcta.in its form unchanged, whatever may
l)ethe fundamcntal units by means of which th four quantities
arc nnmerically expressed, as is vident, when. it is considered
that in deriving it no assumptions would be made as to th magnitudes of those units. New of all tlie quantities on which f
dpends, Tis the oniy onc involving time and since its dimensions arc (Mass)(Length) (Ti.me)' it follows tl~at whe!i ? and ~f
arc constant, oc.T'
otherwise a change in th unit of time
would necessarily disturb the equation (3). Tins being admittcd,
it is ca~y to see that in order that (3) may be independent of the
unit of Icngth, we must Imver ce T"~ n~,when Is constant and
finally, in order to secure indcpcndence of the unit of mass,

Therc must be no mistake as to what this argument does and


docs not prove. Wc Iiave nMKMte~that thcrc is a deHnitc
periodic time dcpeuding on no other quantities, having climensions in spacc, time, and mass, t!ia.nthosc aLove mcntioncd. For
example, we hve not proved that r is indpendant of thc amplitude of vibration. That, so far as it is truc at ail, is a consquence cf thc linearity ofthe approximate dinercntial quation.
From the neccssity of a complte cnumeration of all the
quantifies on which th required rcsult may dpend, thc method
of dimensions is somewhat dangerous but when used with
proper
Ct~reit is unqucstionably of great power and value.

ONE L.MCREE 0F

FREHDOM.

F~.

.'3 1 lie solution of th


prsent problem might bo made thc
foun~tion of a ,nethcd for Lhe absolute
n~asurerncnt of pitch.
pnncip~J impedunc-nt to accuracy would
prubabjy.be t!to
oi
difBculty u~ku~
iu relation to th m~ of
suf!ictcutfy
tlie ~u.c, without at tlie samc timc i~
th note too much in
lo~crin~
th musical scalc.

T)ic wirc may bo strctc)ied


by wcight
fur hcr en<) beyo~i
bndgo or pulfey at
wouidbcc:dcu);),tcdfrom

~t~chcd te its
Th pcnodic time

T).c ratio of
= ~i,
t).e balance. If r. be ,no..sured
in fect, aud~= ~.2. tl~c
pcriodic timc is exprcs.sedin seconds.
musical
the .vcight, Instead of
~n~
an
being
concentratcdin th centre, is
uniformtydistnbuted over its !cn~
t)ic prsent problem gives some ide~ of th
n~tu.'coi~evertiK.Icss
the gr~vest vibration of snch
string. Let t.. compare th two
more c osoJy,
supposingthc amplitudes of vibration t)te same
c~cs
at th jmddie point.

-When th uniform
string is .straight, th moment of passin~
tLro~h th position of cquilibruua, its dirent
parts are a~

54.]

COMPARISON

WITH

UNIFORM

STRING.

49

mated with a. variable velocity, increasing from either end towards


thc centre. If we attribute to th whole mass tho vclocity of tho
centre, it la vident that th kinetic cnergy will bG cousidcrab!y
ovcr-estimated. Again, at the moment ci' maximum excursion,
th uniform string i.s more stretched than its suhstitutc, winch
foltows thc straight courses ~1~
and accordingly the poteutial cncrgy is dumnished y t)to substitution. TIiG concentration
"i th mass at the middie point at once increascs tho kinctic
cncrgy whcn a;= 0, and decreascs ttte potential energy when ~-= 0,
and thercforc, according to the principle explained m 44, prolon'~
the pcriodic timo. For a string thon the period is less than that
catcuiatud from the formula of the last section, on the supposition
that ~1/ dnotes th mass of the string. It will afterwards
appear
t)jat in order to obtain a correct result we should !)avc to takc in4
4
Of
stcadof.Von!y-~V.
thefactor-~TT hy far thc more importTT
ant part, viz.

is duc tu (,hedifTcrcnceof tlie kinetic nergies.

55. As another example of a Systempossessing practicu.Hybut


one dcgree of freeclom,let us considcr tlie vibration of a
spring, one
end of which is clamped in a vice or otherwise held
fast, wliile thc
otiter carries a heavy mass.
In strictncss, this System !iko tho last lias
an innnite numbcr of Indcpcndent modes of vibration but, whcn thc mass of t!tc spi'mg is
)-e!ativc!y sn-i:d),ttiat vibration which is ncarly
indcpcndont of its inci'tla. buconics so much th
most important t!)at tho othcrs may bo ignored.
Pusinng this idca, to it.s limit, we may regard the
spring merety as tite origin of a force urging th
attaehed mass towards th position of equilibrium,
and, if a certain point be not excecded, in simple
proportion to thc disp!acement. Thc result is a
harmonie vibration, with a period dpendent on
th stinhess of tho spring and the mass of the
toad.
56. In consquence of tho oscillation oi' the centre of
inertia,
H~ci-eis a, constant tendency towards the communication of motion
to tlie supports, to resist which
a.dequate!y th latter must be
very ni'm and massive. In ordcr to obviate this inconvenience,
R.
4

~0

ONE DEGREE0F FREEDOM.

[5G.

two prccisely similn-r springs and lo~ds


m~y bc mountcd ou
tlie same frame-work in a symmctrical manncr.
If thc two loads pcrform vibrations of
cqual amp)itude in such a, manner that the motions arc
a.Iwn.ys
{m
opposite, or, it may otherwise bc e.xprcsscd,with
a phasc-tiiHcrcucc of !m]f a period, thc centre of
inertia of thc whole system rcmains at rcst, and
thcro is no tendency to set thc fra.mc-workinto
vibra.tion. We shaU sec in a future chapter that
this peculiar relation of phases will
quiddy estab)ish itself, wt~tever may be tho original disturba.nce. In fact, any part of tho motion winch does
not conform to the condition of
Icaving thc centre
of inertia unmoved is soon extinguished
by damping, unless indccd thc supports of tbe system arc
more than usually nrm.
57. As in our first exemple wc found a
rough illustration of
tho fundamental vibration of a musical
string, so hre with tlie
spring and attachcd load wc may compare a uniform slip, or bar,
of elastic material, one end of which is
securejy fastencd, such for
instance as the ~:<e of a )~e~ instrument. It is truc of course
that tlie mass is not coucentmtcd at onc end, but distnbutcd
over th whole Icngth; yet on account of tlie smallness of
thc motion ncar the point of
support, th inertia of that part
ofthe bar is of but little account. ~einfer that thc fundamental
vibration of a uniform rod cannot be
very dincrcnt in cbaractcr
from that which we ])ave bcen
considering. Of course for purposes rcquiring prcise calculation, the two Systemsarc sufnciently
distinct but where t!ie object is to form clear idcas, precision
may
often be advantagcously cxchanged for
simplicity.
In the same spirit we may
regard tlie combination of two
springs and loads shcwn in Fig. 13 as a reprsentation of a
tuning fork. This instrument, which bas been much improvcd
of late years, is indispensable to the acoustical
investigator. On
a large scale and for rough
purposcs it may bc made by wciding
a cross piece on the middle of a bar of steel, so as to form a and
T,
then bending the bar into t!io
shape of a horse shoe. On th
handle a acrew should be eut. But for th botter class of
tunmg
forks it is prfrable to slape th whole out of one
piece of stecL
A division running from one end down the middic of a bar is first

S~J

TUNJXGFORKS.

5jI

madc, thctwo parts opcned ont to form the prongs of the fork,
and th whole workcd by tho iiammer and n!u into thc
rcquircd
T)ic
two
shape.
prongs must bc cxactiy symmctricat with respect
to a plane passing through the axis of thc
liandie, in ordcr that
during t!ie vibration th centre of incrtia may remain unmoved
unmoved, tiiat is, in thc direction in which thc prongs
vibrato.
Thc tuning is cnected t)ms. To make th note
higher, th
quivalent incrtia of thc System must bc rcduccd. This is donc
hy nling away t)ie ends of thc prongs, cithor diminishing their
thickncss, or actuaiy sliortening thcm. On the other hand, to
Jowcrthe pitch, tlic substance of the
prongs ncar thc bcnd may
be rcduced, the effect of which is to diminish th
force of the
.spring,Icaving t)te inertia pmctically unchangcd or the inertia
may be increased (a mcthod which would be prfrable for tcmporary pm-poscs) by loading thc ends of thc prongs with wax, or
material. Large forks arc somctimus
othcr
provided with movcable weights, which slide
along thc prongs, and can be nxcd in
any position by screws. As thse approach thc ends (whcro thc
vetoeity is greatcst) the quivalent incrtia of thc System incrcascs.
In this way a considrable range of pitch may bo obtained from
one fork. TJ)c number of vibrations
per second for any position
the weights may be markcd on th
prongs.
of
Tite relation bctwcen the
pitch and thc''size of tnnin~ forks is
In a future chapter it will be
rcmarkably simple.
provcd that
the
material remains thc samc and tho
provided
shape constant'
tt.c period of vibration varies,
dircctty as t)te linear dimension
TIrns, if t!ic linear dimensions of a tuning fork be
doubicd, its
note falls an octave.
58. Thc note of a
tuning fork is a ncarly pure tone. ImmediateJy after a fork is struck, high tones may indccd be hcard,
to modes of vibration, whosc nature will bc subsecon-esponding
qucnHy considered; but thse rapidiy die away, and cven whilc
s they exist, they do not b!cnd with th propcr tone of the fork
part~y on account of thcir very high pitch, and partly bccause
ihey do not bchng to its harmonie scale. In the forks examincd
~.byHelmhoitz the first of thse overtoneshad a frequcncy from 5-8
to n-G timcs titat of the
proper tone.
Tunmg forks are now generaUysupplied with rsonance cases,
whosc effect is greatly tu
augment the volume and pnrity of the
42

53

ONE DECREEOF FREEDOM.

[58.

In
sound, according to principles to be hcreaftcr dcve!opcd.
oiJer to excite thon, a -viotin or ccHo bow, wcll supp)icd with
:~dr~t.t .Cr~~ rh< prongs'u ~'u dit'<<t)uuof\'b''ai.u)r'.
')~
Thc souud so prothccd wIUlast n minute or more.
T)~
R~. As standards of pitch tuningforksarcinvaluabic.
and with th
pitclt of organ-pipcs varies with tlic temprature
with th tension, wltio])cnn
pressure of t!ic wind; th~t of strings
nuvcr be rctaincd constant for long; but n. tuning fork kcpt ctc.m
and not subjccted to violent changes of temprature or magnctixation, prcscrvcs its pitch with grt fideUty.
with
bc
By means of bcats a.standard tuning forl. may copicd
a second is
of
!)card
iu
bats
Th
nnmbcr
very grt prcision.
t))u dinurencc cf th frc()uencicsof thc twu tcncs which produce
hah'
thcm; so that if thc bcats can 1)0madc so s)ow as to occupy
a minute cach, ti)C frequcncics diH'cr hy on)y l-3()th of a vibration. Still grcatcr precision might be obtaincd by Lissajous
(~ptic:tlincthod.
In
Very sh)\vbcats bcing dimcult of observation, consc<)ucnc
uf tho unccrtainLy whcthcr a faHing ofi in thu sonnd is duc to
interfrence or tu thc gradut dying away of tho vibrations,
Schcib)cr adoptcd a sonicwbat modihcd plan. Ho took a fork
standardwbcther highci- or
~ightiy diffrent in pitch from tho
lo~cr is not materia!, but wc will say, tower,and countcd tbc
'Tmmberof bcats, when they were soundcd togctbcr. About fuur
bats a second is th most suitab)c, and thse may be countcd for
is then made sligbt]y
perbaps a minute. Th fork to bc adjustcd
tuncd to givc wit)t it prccisdy
higbcr than the auxiuary fork, and
tlie samc numbcr of beats, as did th standard. lu tins way ft
To facilitate Ute counting
copy as exact a~ possible is secured.
of thc bats Scbcibk'r cmployed pendulums, whose periods of
vibration could bc adjusted.
60. T)ie mcthcd of bcats was aiso employed by Scheibler to
dtermine tbe al)so]ute pitch of lus standards. Two forks were
tuned 'to an octave, and a number of others prcparcd to bridge
ovc-r thc lotcrval by stcps so smaU tliat cacii fork gave with its
immdiate ncighbours hi t! sries a numbcr ofbcats that could
be casily couutcd. T!tC din'urencc of frcqucncy con'csponding to
each stcp was observcd with aU possible accuracy. Thuir sum,
of th octave,
being tlie din'crencc of fi'cquencies for the intcrval
was 'quai to thc frcqnencyof that fork which formcd th starting

(;0.'j

SCHEIBLER'STONOMETER.

53

Th pitch of th other forks


point at th bottom of tho sries.
couldbc dcduccd.
If conscutive forks givc four bats per second, C.5in a.ll will
bc rnquirod to bridge over thc intcrval frora c' (2.')G)to c' (5L2).
Un thisaceountthc mctitod is laborious; but it is probably th
most accm-atcfor tl)C original dctcrmina.tion of pitch, as it Is liabtc
to no ct-rors but such as care and repetitioti will clhninatc. It
is tho mcasurcmcnt of
mn.ybc obscrvcd tliat thc cssctYtiatthing
t)tc ~er~ce of frcqucncics for two notes, whosc ~o of frcqucncics is UKlcpcndcnt]yknown. If wo could be sure of its accm-a-cy,
thc Intci-v:dof th nfth, fourt)i, or cvcn.major third, might bc suhstitutcd for th octave, with th advantagc of rcducmgttie number
of th ncccssary interpolations. It is proba.b!c tttat with thc aid
of optic!d mcthods t))i.s course might bc succcs.s(ut!yadoptcd, as
thc con'csponding Lissajous' ngurcs a.rc casily rccognised, and
thcit- stcadinoss is a vcry sovcrc test of t!ie accm'acy with whicb
tt'e ratio isattainud.
Thc frcqnency of large tuning forks may bc detcrmincd by
which
aHowiugthem to trace a harmonie curve on smokud papcr,
of a rcvo)ving
tnny couvcnicnHybc mountcd on thc circumicrenco
drmn. Thu muubci' of wavcs cxccutcd in a second of thnu givcs
thcfrcqucncy.
In many cases tbc nsc of Ittterniittcnt Hturnination duscribcd
an nnknown
in 4-2givcs a convcniunt )net))odof dctcrmining
frcqucncy.
(il. A scrics of forks ranging at snndi int.crv:usover an octave
is vcry uscf\d for th dcturtnination of thc frcqucncy of any
)nusic:d note, and is caUcd Schuibtcr's Tonomctur. It may a~o
bc nscd for tnuing a note tu any desirct).pitch. In cilber case
of th note is dctermincd hy tl)e nuinher of beats
thu f')-u(Utcncy
\vhic)i it givcs with thc i'orks, which lie aearest to it (on cach
sidu) in pitch.
For tuning pianofortcs or organs, a. set of twelvc forks may be
uscd giving thc notes of thc cbromatic sealc 0)1tho equal temprament, or any dcsircd system. Tbc corrcsponding notes are
is
adjusted to unison, and t])C otbcrs tuned hy octaves. It betto-,
I~owevcr,to prpare th forks so as to givc four vibrations per
second k-ss than is above proposed. Eacli note is thcn tuncd
little higher than tlie corresponding fork, until thcy givc when
sounded togcthor cxactiy four bats in thc second. It will be

54

C~K

DEGREE 0F

FREEDOM.

[61.

ubservcd that tho addition (or subtraction) of a constant number


to thc frcfptencics is not the samc thing as a more displaccnicut
ofthescatcinabsolutcpitch.
In th ordinary practicc of tuners a' is takcn from a fork, and
tlie other notes dctermiued by cstinm.tion of (Iftt)s. It will bc
rcmcmbcrcd that twefve truc ~fths arc slightiy in excess of seven
uct.ivcs, so thitt on tho equal tcmpcranicut System cn.chf)ft)~is :).
little fit. Thc tuner procccds upw:irds from
Ly succci-isivu
fifths, coining down au octave aftcr about every altet'ttate stop, m
ordor tu reimutt in nearly the same part of the scfdo. Twcivc
Hfths should britig ])itn back to . If this Le not thc case, the
wurk must bc ruadjustud,unt,iJ all the twe)vc ftfths arc too fhtt by,
as nearly as can bcjndgcd, thu samo sma!) amount. Thu incvitabiu o-ror is thcn hnpartiaUy di.stributed, an<t rotdcrcd as little
sensible as possible. Tt)c octaves, of course, arc all taned truc.
Th fo!Iowii]gnumbers indicatc thc order in whic)t the ilutes may
bc takcn:
JJ
c' c'~
e'
a'
b'
c"
c"
y'
c~
M~
13 51G 81911 314 6 17 9 1 12 415 7 18 10 3
In practicc thc cqual temprament is only approximatcly attaincd but this is pcrhaps not of muc)t consquence, cousidering
titat the systcm ainied at is itself by no mcatis pcri'uction.
Violins and other Instruments of that class arc tuncd by truc
nfthsfrom'.
G2. In illustration of/o;'C6(Zvibration let us consider the case
of n. pendutum whosc point ci support is subjoct to n small hurixouta! harmotuc jnution.
is
thcboba.ttachedbya.fincwu'c
to a movcn.btcpoint 7~. 07'*=
7'() = and .r is th honxoltal co-ordiniitcof (). SIncotlie
vibrations arc supposed sina.)!,
thc vertical motion !n:).y Le
~cgiccted, and tho tension of
thc wlrc Cfjuatcdto thc wcight
of (,). Hunce for t))c Itorizonta!
motion

;e+~+.(.t;J=0.

C2."]

COMPOUND PENDTJLUM.

oe cos~<; so that p)itting~=)~,


New
tlie form ah'cady trea-tcd of, viz.
.v+ A:~+ )~ = cos~

55

our quation takes

If~) l)e equa.1to ')!,thc motiou is limited o!i1yby the friction.


Thc a~sumed horizontalharmonie motion forP maybe rcajized by
mc:ms of a,second pcndulum of massive construction,which can'Ies
.P witli it in its motion. An cfncicnt arrangement is shewa in
t)tc ngnrc. /t, .Harc iron rings scrowcd into a beam, or other nrm

support; C',D similar rings attachcd to a stout bar, which carrics


cqua! hcavy weights A', :tttac!K!dncar its ends, and is supportcd
in a hurizo)it,al position at riglit angles to th beiuri by a wirc
passing through thc fuur rittg.s in thc tnanner shcwn. Whcn tlie
pcndulutii i.s)nndc to vibratc, n.point m thc rud midway bctwcot
C' and D excutes a hiu'mouic motion ni a direction paridtcl to
6'D, and jnn.ybo nmdo th poitit of a.tta.chmcntof auother pcndutunt -Z~. If ttte wcights A~and
be vcry grcat in relation
to Q, t)jc uppur penduhun swings vury ncn.r)yin ils 0~1 propur
poriod, and induccs in () a. furccd vibr:<.tionof titc s!t.nicperiod.
\Vhcn thc ]c!)gth ~Q is so adjusted that thc nattu'id pc!'i<j(!s
oftite
two pcnduimns arc nearly t)ic s;unc, Q will bu tLrown into viuk'ttb
motion, evun t!)&u~hthc vibration ot' j! bc of but niconsidura.bln
ampHtudc. ln this case the diHcrenccof phase is about n (~)artcr

5G

ONH DEGREE

OF FRKEDOM.

[62.

of a. pcriod, by winch amount th uppcr pcndulum is in a.dvancc.


If the two pcriods hf vnry dHTo'cnt, thc vibrations ~either a.g)'ec
or arc compictcly opposed in p!)asc, accordin~ to quations (4)
and (5) of 4C.
63. A vo'y good cxa)np)c of {t furccd vihruttcn i~iabrdcd by
n. ibrk under thc iunucnec of tui intermittent ctcctric cui'rcnt,

~hoso period is ncarly cqual to its own. ~).CZ?is the fork; 7?a
sma!) c)ectro-magnct, formed by winding insula.tcdwire on nn iron
corc of tho shape shcwu ni E (simila.r to titat known as 'Sioncn.s'
armature'), ~nd supportcd betwccu tho prongs ofthc fork. Whcu
an intermittent current i.ssent through th wire, a periodic force
acts upon the fork. This force is not cxprcssibic by a simpic circular fonction; but mn-ybc cxpandcd by Fouricr'.s theorcm lu a
scrics of sucli functions, ha.vlngporiods T, T, T, &c. If nny of
thcsc, of not too small amplitude, bc ncarly isochronous with the
furk, thc latter will be canscd to vibrato othcrwisc t]tc effect is
insigninca.nt. In wbat follows wc will suppose that it is the complete pcrioclT whicb ncarly ngrcc.switlt tliat of the furk, and couscqucntly rega.rdthc sries expressing th pcriodic forceas reduccd
to its first term.
lu order to obtain t))C maxitnum vibration, thc fork must be
cai'cfuHytuncdhy a small siiding pice orby w:LX',uutit its j~turat
pcriod (without friction) is cfpud to that ot'th force. Dus is bcst
cloue by actual trial. Witen tho desired c~uidity is approacticd,
and th fork is a)!owcd to start from rc'st, thc ibrccd and comptctncntary frce -vibration arc of nearly cqual amplitudes a.nd
frequencics, and therefore ( 4-8) in thc bcginning of thc motion
produce~ef< whose stowncss is a measuro of the accm'acy of
y"r Uu~j'urposc\\nxmny<'onvp))ifnt]y
it wiU)a )itt)<i
Ly)nc'IUnK
Lofioftcncd
txrjK'ntino.

G3.]

RELATION

0F AMPLITUDE

AND PHASE.

57

tho adjustmcnt. It is not until a-ftertl)c froc vibration lias bad


time to subside, that th motion assumes its peru.anent ch~'acter.
T))Cvibrations ofa tuning fork properly constructed and inounted
arc subject to very little damping; consequcntly a vcry slight
dviation from perfect isoclironism occasionsa markcd falittig off
in th intcnsity of the rsonance.
The nmpHtudo of thc forccd vibration can bc obsci-vedwith
suficicnt accuracy by thc car or cyc but th exprimenta! verification of thc relations pointed out by thcory bctwccn its phase
and that of th force which ca.uscs it, re<~uresa modined at'rangcmcnt.
Two similar cicctro-magncts acting on similar forka, and included in thc samo circuit, arc excitcd by the same Intermittent
current. U])dcrthcsc circumstances It is ctear tha.t th Systems
will bo thrown intn sunDar vibrations, becausc thcy arc actcd on
both to phase
by cqual forces. Tliis similarity of vibrations rcfcrs
at)d amplitude, Lot us suppose now that the vibrations arc
effected iu pcrpendicula.r directions, and by mcans of one of
Lissnjous'mcthods arc opticallycomponndcd. The resulting ngure
is ncccssarity a. straight lino. Starting from tho case in which thc
of both
o.mpHtudesare a maximum, viz. whoi tbo natural pcriods
forks arc tbc same as that of thc force, lot onc of them bc put a
little out of tnnc. It must bc rcmonbercd that whatevcr their
natural periods may be, the two forks vibrato in perfect unison
with thc force, and thcrcfore with onc another. Tho principa.1
Ciffcctof thc dift'urcnce of tbc natural periods is to destroy the
synchrolism of phase. Thc straight hue, which prcviousiy rcprcscnted the compound vibration, bccomcs an ellipse, and this
i-cmaius perfccHy steady, so long as th forks arc not tonchcd.
Originally thc forks arc botb a quartcr period behind thc force.
~Vhcnthc pitch of one is slightiy ]owcred,it falls still more bchind
the force, and at thc samc timc its amplitude diminishcs. Let titc
diifcrcncc of phase betwccn thc two forks bc e', and tlie ratio of
amplitudes of vibration (t: (t.. Thcu by (H)of 4C
M= Mycose'.

58

ONE
DEGREE
0F FREEDOM.

The following
e table shows th simu1ta,neousvalues of a
a.nde'.

[C3.
c<
0

e
1-0
-!)
-8
.7
'C
-5
'4.
'3
-2
-1

0
2550'1
3C52'
4.T'3-t'
537'
GO"
66"25'
72 32'
78 27'
84.15"

It appears tbat a. considrable altration of phase ni either


direction may be obtaincd without very materialty reducin"' th
amplitude. Whcn one furk is vibrating at its maximum, thc
othcr may be made to dinfcrfrom it on either sido by as muc)t as
CO"in phase, without lo.singmoro than t)alf its amplitudu, or by as
much a.s-I<5",
without losing more tha)i Iiaf its e?M)'~y. By aHowing one fork to vibratc 45"in advance, and tbc othcr 45"in arrcar
of t)te phase corresponding to t]ic c:~c of maximum
rsonance,wo
obtain a phase diScrcncc of 90" in conjonction with an
cquality of
amplitudes. Lissajous' ngurc then bccomes a cir~e.
G4. Tbc intermittent current is best obtaincd Ly a forkinterrupter invented by Hchnbottz. T)tia may consist of a fork
and cicctro-magnet mountcd as before. TIie wires of thc
ma~nct
arc connected, ono witb ono po!c ofthcbattcry, and th othcr with
a mcrcury cup. Thc ot]ier ple of tbc battcry is connectod with
a second mcrcury cup. A U-shapcd rider of insulatcd wirc is
carried by t!)c lower prong just over thc cups, at sucb a
Iieigbt
tha.t during the vibration th circuit is altcrnatejy made and
brcken by titc passage of one end into and out of thc
mercury.
T)ie other end may bc kept pcrmancntiy immcrscd.
By mcans
of t!tc pcriodic force t)tus obtaincd, thc cnuct of friction is compensatcd, and thc vibrations of th fork pcrmancnciy maintamed.
In order to set anotbcr furk into forced vibration, its associatcd
ctcctro-magnct maybc includcd, either in tbe sanic drivix'Y-circuit
?'<)'))t;~?)t<~o~t't),
p. li)0.

G4.]

FODK

INTEBRUPTER.

59

or m a, second, whose periodic interruption is effected by another


rider dipping luto mci'cury cups'.
of tm.s kind ui seti'-act-inginstrument is
Tho ??~(~<&
~/
often imperfcctiy apprehcudcd. If the force acting on th fork
dependcd only on its positionon whetlier tlic circuit were open
or eloscdtb work donc in pressing ttirough any position wouid
bc undono on tlie return, so that aftcr a, complte period therc
wouldbe nothing outstanding by wliieh ttie effect of thc frictional
forces could bc compcnsa.tcd. Any explanatiol whic!i docs not
take accouut of'thc rctardation of thc currcnt is wholly bcside the
mark. Thc causes of retfM'datiouarc two irregular contact, and
scJf-mduction. Wltcn the point of th rider nrst touches th mercnry, thc cicctnc contact is imperfcet, probahly on account of
adhcring air. On thc other ha.ud, in leaving tlie mcrcury tho
contact is prolonged by the adhsion of tlie hquid in the cup to
thu amaigama.tcdwire. On botli accounts th currcnt is retarded
behiud wliat would correspond to thc mcrc position of the furk.
But, evcn if the resistance of the circuit dcpended only on the
position of th fork, thc current would still be rctarded by its selfhiduction. However perfect th contact may be, a finite current
efumot bo gencrated until aftcr the lapse of a finite time, any
more ttian in ordinary mechanics a finite vclocity eau be suddenly
impressed on an tuert body. From whatcvcr causes arising", the
effect of th rctardation is that more work is ga.iued by thc fork
during the retreat of tlie rider from tlie mcrcury, tlian is lost
durin<Tits entrancc, and thus a, balance remaitis to be set off
against friction.
If t!)Cmagnetic force depcuded onlyon t]tc position of the fork,
th phase of' its first harmonie component nught bc considcred to
be ISO"in advance of that of tlie fork's own vibration. Thc reun t)iocomponont
1 1 Lnvoarr<mgc<l
aoveraliutcrruptoraon tho nbovopJfH),
blucksmith.
beingofhomomanufacture.Thoforksworomadobythovilittgo
n)trtn
on onoomiuf copierslips,tho
of iron thimbloa,(ioldored
Thoeupnconxiat.od
downou tho bo.soboardof thoinstrument.Scmo
furtherentl beingticrowod
surfacoia necosMry.lu Hcimholtx'
tuomsofadjuatingthoIcYclof tho morciu-y
thoforkin adoptcd,but I nul
a horso-.shoo
embraemg
cloetro-magnot
intcrruptor
nt auyrate if tho pitchbo low. In
to profurthoprosentarranHcmcnt,
inctmod
magnotactingonn.
byn horffo-fihoo
somocasesa greatermotivepoworiHobtuinod
toit.
carriedhorizontally
iron Mmftturo
bythoupporprongaudporpoudicuhtr
Kuft
1h<wo
ususUyfounda singloSmcocullsuicieutbutterypuwor.
of thormcans,by
mightbo obttdued,in dcffmH
Anydesiredrctardtt.tion
tlio rider,not to tho prongitscJf,but to tho fnrthoroudof n liglit
attnching
Hirnight
spriugcnrriebytho prongandBetiutoforccdvibrationbythomotionof
its pointofnttttclnuent.

60

ONE DEGREE OF FREEDO~f.

[G4.

taxation apoken ofrcdnccs this advance. If th phasc-diu'crcnce


be rcdueed to 90", th force acts in th most favourable manner,
~tU.'t.x~t
p'-K-~bh.~Yibmuon.i.sptudtiL-cfJ.
It is important to notice t))at (cxccpt in thc case just, rcfcrrcd
to) the actual pitch of ttie mterruptcr dKFcrsto some cxtent from
tbat natur.'d to thc fork according to th hnv cxprcsscd in
(5) of
4G, e being in thc prsent case a. prescribcd pbase-difcrenco
depcnding on t!)c na.turo of thc contacts :ind <Lojnagnitudc of thc
selt'-uiducti.on. If thc Intermittent currcnt hc empioycd to drive
a, second ibr]<,thc maximum vibmtion i.s obiained, wlien thc fre'jucncy of thc fork coincides,not with thc natural, but with tbc
modHic-dfrcqn<jncyof t)te inten'ttptcr.
Thc dviation of a. tunmg-fork intcrrupter from its natur:d
pitch is practica.Hyvery smitt); but th fact that such a dviation
is possible, is a.t nrst sight rather surprising. Tho explanation (In
th case of a. sma,Hrctarda.tionof current) is, that
during t)u),t,iia-If
of th motion in whieb th pt'ongs tu-c th most scparatcd, th
eicctro-magnet acts in aid of thc proper recovering powcr duc to
rigidity, and so natnrally mises Hie pitc)). Wha.tc'vcr tlie relation
of phases may be, Hic force of thu magnct n):Lybe dividett into
t\vo parts rc.spectivc)yproportional to tho vclucity and
(tisn)acemcnt (or acculcration). To ti)c nrst exclusi-vetyis dnc t]ie sostaining powcr of th force, and to thc second the atteratioti of pitch.
G5. TI)e gnerai pbcnomenon of rsonance, thnugh it cannot
bc exhaustively considcrcd undcr tbc hcad of onc dcgrco of freedon), is in th main referab!e to the same goncral prineipic.s.
AVhen a forced vibration is cxcitcd in onc part of a. system, all
the other parts are aiso Innucnccd, a vibration of thc same pcriod
bcing cxcitcd, whose amplitudo dpends on thc constitution ofthe
systum eonsidercd as a whote. But it not unfrcquently happons
tliat intcrcst centres ou th vibration of an outiying part whose
conncctio)i with thc rest of th System is but Joosc. In such a case
the part in question, provided a certain limit of
amplitude bc
not exccedcd, is very inuch in thc position of a. systcm
possessinf
onc dcgrce of frccdoni and acted on by a force, \vhich
may bo
regarded as ~e~, indepcndcntty of thc natural pcriod. T)ic
vibration is accordingly governed by th ]a\vs we bave
ah'cady
investigated. In th case of approximatc cfpudiry of pcriods to
which t)ie name of rsonance is gencra))y restnctcd, th
amplitude may be very considcrahic, cvcn titough In other cases it
might bp so sma]! as to lie of !itt)c account; and thc prcision

C5.]

RESONANCE.

611

required in th adjustment of th pcriods in order to bring out


th effect. dpends un tlic degrcc of damping to winch th systcm
Is subjcctcd.
Among bodics winch resound without an extrme prcision of
tuning, may be mentioned strctched membranes, and strings associated with sounding-boards, as in tho pianoforte and thc violin.
\Vhcn th propcr note Is sounded in thcir neighbourhood, thcsc
bodies arc caused to vibrato in a very perceptible nianner. Thc
cxperimcnt may bo made by singing into a pianoforte tho note
giveu by any of ils ttrings, Iiaving nrst raised tlie con'csponding
dampcr. Or if onu of tbo Mtringsbeionging to any note bc plu.ckcd
()ikc a Itarp string) with tlie nnger, its feHowswill be set Into
vibration, as may immediatcly bc proved by stopping thc nrst.
T)tC piienotncnon of rsonance is, howover, mo.st striking in
cases ~'hero n. vo'y accm'ato c([uality of pcriods is nccessary in
order to cHeit t))c full cfrcct. Of tins class tuning forks, 'muuntcd
on rsonance boxes, are a. conspicucus example. Witen thc UMison
is perfect thc vibration of ono fork wIH be taJ~cn up by anothcr
across thc width of a room, but thc slightcst dviation of pitch
is sumcicnt to l'cnder thc phenomcnon almost insensible. Forks
of 25C vibrations pcr second arc commonly used for thc purposc,
and it is found that a dviation from unison giving oniy one bcat
in a. second makcs ail thc dincrencc. Whcn thc forks arc '\vcU
tuncd and ciose togcthcr, th vibration may be transferred backwards and furwards bctwcen thcm scvcral times, by damping thcm
a!ternatc!y, with a toucit of th nngcr.
IMustrutions of tho powerfui c~ccts of isochronism must bc
vitinn t))e exprience of every onc. Tticy are often of importance
in very dinerent neld.sfrom any with which acoustics isconccrned.
For cxample, few things are more dangerous to a ship than to lie
in th trough of th sea.undcr thc innucncc ofwavcs whose pcriod
is ncarly that of its own natural ro)Hng.
(iG. Th solution of thc quation for frcc vibration, viz.
M+/C!t+)'M =0
(1)
may be put into another form by cxprcssing tlie arbitrary constants of intgration J- and a in ternis of tlie initial values of !<
Wc obtain at once
and M,which we may dnote by and

ONE DEOREEOF FREEDOM.

Th cfTectof ~7i.sto gcncr~to in time f~' a


vdocit.y r<
rc8u!t a.Ltune <will thcrcforc be

[f!G.

w))o.sc

U bcing the force at time <


The lowcr limit of tlie
intgrais is so far arbitr.-uy,but it will
gencrally bc eonvunicnt to make it zero.
On this supposition u aud
as givcn by (G) vanish, wlien
=
t 0, and the complete solution is

Whcn t Is sumdently grcat, th


complementary tcrms tcnf] <o
Y~Ish on account oftl)c factor e-~ and
mny ti~en hc omittc<1.

C7.]

TERMS 0F THE SECONDORDER.

G3

G7. For most acoust.ical purposcs it is sufRcicut to consider


tho vibrations uf t)i0 systons, with which wc may ha.vc to deal,
:m m~nituly sm!).H,or i-iLthcras simil.n' to Infiuitcly srn:Jl vibrattons. This rust.nctiu]i is thc i'omuhttion of thc important lim's
oi' isoclu-ontsmfur t'r<jGvibrations, and (jf pc-rsistcucc of pcriod
fur forecd vibrations. Thcru arc, nowevcr,ph<jnunicn:t,of a subordina.tcbut not insigniricant charactcr, winch d<jpc!td csscutiidiy
on the s<trc and highcrptjwc'rs of thc motion. Wc will thcrcforc
dcvutc t]ic rcmaindur of this chuptcr to thu discussion of thc
motion of a syton of onc dcgrcc of freuttom,thc motion not bemg
so smaU that th souarcs atid Ilighor powcrs can be a~togcthcr
ueglefted.
The approximate expressions for the potcntlal and kinctic
nergies wIMbe of thc form

G4

ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM.

[G7.

shewing tha.t thc propcr tone (?;.)of thc system is accotnpauicd


by its octave (2y:), whosc ?'e~e importance lucrotses with tho
!'fti~Htud(.'uf Yibr:d.io!t. A t'tihc(! (.~rc~.iiguncr.diy pcrccuc th
octave111tho suu))()of a. tunitig fork causcd to vibrn.testrongty by
)H(;:t.ns
of a bow, imd wit)i thc :ud cf i).pp!i:).uccs,
to bo cxpl!uuc(t
):(,tu]',t))c cxist,uncoof the octave may bc niadc manifcst to any
onc. By foUowhtg thc same inethod the appmxnnatioa ca)t
hu ca)-)-iudfurthcr but wc pa,.sson now to the case of :).
syston
)n which thc recovo-mg power is
synmiotncal with respoct to
)hu position of cqmtibrmni. T])c
quation of motiou is t!tcn
app)'oxi)))n.tu!y
winch may be uuderstood to i-ufc-rto Miovibrations uf a hcavy
p'n(h)!un~ or oi'a )u:).<1
c:u-n<jdat tho end ofa, sti'iu~ht spring.
If wu t:tkc an a jh'st npj~'oxitnatmnM=-~ cos?~,
cotespondi)]g
to /9 = 0, a.ud substitatc in tttc tcnn
muhiplicd hy /3, we get

wc shonid
Corrcsponding to the last tcrmofthiscqnation,
obtain ni tho soh~tion a tcrm oftiie form <sin~,
becoming
without
Jnnit with t. Tt.is, as in a paraUd case in t]ic
grcatcr
Lun:n- Thcury, indicatcs that our assumcd iirst
approximation
is not rc!).]!yan approximation at a]), or at Icast docs not coH~e
to bc such. If, Ilowcvcr, wobikc as our
starting point u=~4 cosM~,
~ith a, suitaUc vaillo for M?,wc sita find that titc solution
tnay
be cotnplutc() with thc aid of perio(]ic tcnns
on!y. lu fact it is
evident buforchand that all wc are entiticd to assume is that thc
motion is approxinuttely simple harmonie, with a
pcriod ah~M'o.-n~n<<the sanic, as if /3=0. A very slight cxamination
is sn~cicnt to s)tcw that the terni
varying as M",not on!y may,
but ~~M<afcct tho period. At tlie saine time it is vident
tlmt a solution, in which thc
pcriod is assumed wrongly, no
n)!)ttcr by tiow little, must at Icngth ccascto rcprcsent thc motion
with any approach to accuracy.
Wc takc thun for the approximate cqnation

ofwilichthc solution wilibe

67.]

TERMS 0F THE

SECOND ORDER.

655

Th tcrm in /3 thus produces two cS'ccts. It altcrs thc pitch


of th fundamcntal vibration, a,ud it introduecs th <MeM!~as
a uccessary accomp~nimcnt. Thc altration of pitch is in most
ca~csexcccdiuglysmalldcpcuding on th square of the amplitude,
but it is uot altogether insensible. Tuning forks gencrally risc
a little, though very little, in pitch as th vibration dics away.
It may be remarkcd that thc samo slight dcpendence of pitch
on amplitude occurs wlien tlie force of restitution is of thc
form M'M+mM,
as may be seen by continuing the approximation
to th solution of (1) onc step furthcr than (3). Thc result in tbat
case is

Thc difference w"


is of the same order in J. in bot)i cases
but in one respect there is a distinction worth noting, namely,
that in (8) m" is always greatcr than
while in (7) it dcpcuda
on the sign of /3 whethcr its effect is to raiso or lowcr the pitch.
However, In most cases of the unsymmctricat class the change
of pitch would depend partly on a term of tho form M' and
partly on another of the form /3 and thcn

C8. We now pass to the considration of the vibrations


forced on an unsymmetrical system by two harmonie forces
Thc cq~a.tionof motion is

CG

ONE DEGREE0F FREEDOM.


Substit.uting this in tLc term muJtiplicd by

[68.

wc~ct

Thc addition~ tcrms rcprcscnt vibrations


frcqucncic~
which arc scvcndty thc d.u.bius ~.<I tl.c sum having
nud di~n-nec of
t)iose of thc prin~ncs. Of th two latter tlie
iUT.phtudcs~e
proportion~ to thc product of the origine ~nplitudcs,
s)icwing
th~t t!iu derivcd toncs incrcasc ni relative
impcrt:tuco with
tho intensity of their p:irunt toucs.
lu a future chitptL-rwc shidt have to consider thc
important
cousequeuecs which Hulmlioltz lias dcduced from this thcory.

CMAPTER

IV.

V1HRA.T1NU SYSTEMS IN Gi;NEl{.AL.

G!). WH ha.ve now cxamitied m some dctfn! the osciH:t,tions


of f),systcm posscssed of onc dcgrce of frccdom, nnd thc i'esu)ts,
at whicit wu have an'ivud, hve a vcry widc apphca.tion. But
m:Ltt.;ri:dSystems cnjoy iu guticnd more than ouc dL'grcc of
frcudoui. In o!'(!cr to (tufinc thcir cou(1gur:ttio)iat. any moment
scvcnd uxhipcmtott vin'mbic qn~tttidcs must bc spccificd, whici),
of ):u)gU!~c ori~hin.Hycm]))oyc<lfor a ponit,
by :t ~(.'))ut':dix:t,tif)t)
arc caUuttthu co-or~t'~f~eset' thc systcm, thc uumbcr of indcpcudcnt co-ordin:tt(jsbumg tho MK~ q/rce<?o?~. Strictiy spc:dting,
thc disphtccmuuts possibtc to {t n:).tm'a,lsystcm arc infmitcly
Viu'ious,and caunot hu l'cp~'cs~ltc(~as m:)d up of a finitc numbcr
of dplacements of sp<jcifiu(1.
type. To thc cicmcntary pru-ts of
a. so)Id body !uiy nrhiti~ry dispt~ccmcnts may bc givcn, subjcct
to coti()Itioi)sof cotitituuty. It is ody by a pt'ocL'ssof idjstraction
of t]tu kind so constiUtttypr.LctIsctt in N~tuml ThMosophy,th:it
so!i<)saru trc:t.tcd as )'i~'i.d,fluids n~ incompressible,n.nd othcr snn.
phdctitions mtroduecd so tli:).t th position of a, Systemcornes to
depoid on :), finite numbur of co-ordin:).teH.It is not, however,
our intentiou to cxcludc thc considration of Systems possessin<'f
infirntely various freedom oti thc contnu'y, somc of thc most
mtcresting appHcatius of t!ic results of this eh:mtc]' will lie in
that direction. But such Systems arc most conveuicutiy conccivcd
as limits of othcrs, wl)osc frcednm is of a, more rcstncted Mnd.
Wc sh:).ll accordi))g)y commence with systcm, wtiose position
is spccincd by a, finite uumber of independunt co-oi'diitatcs
-~r,
t~ &c.
70. Thc ma,In prohicm of Acoustics consists itt t!io investigation of th vibrations of a, system about a position of stable
cquihbrium, but it will bc eonvenient to commence with the
st.itica.1part of thc subjcct. By thc Frinciple of Virtual VcK_o

C8

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[70.

locities, if we rcckol th eo-oi'dmatcs


&c. from tho
configuration of equilibrium, tlie potentiel energy of any othcr
cuufigumLtuu will bu :(. h~~m'nc-ous qud.cr~i.ic function of t))C
co-ordiuatcs, provided t!~t the displacemcnt be sufHcicnDysmdt.
Tins quantity is ciUlcd and reprcseuts thc work thf~t
may bc
gfdncd in passing from the actuel to tlie equilibrium configuration.
We mny write
Since by supposition thc equilibrium is thoruughiy stable, tho
quantitics c,c~, c, &c. must bc such that V is positive for
all real values of th eo-ordiaa.tes.
71. If tlie system bc Jisplaccd from tho zero configuration
by thc action of given forces, thc new configuration may ho
found from thc Prineipic of Virtual Velocities. If th work done
hy thc given forces on th hypothetical dispkcement 8~, S~,
&c. be
this expression must bc cqu:vn,!cntto 8F, so thfttsmcc
8~, 8~,
&c. nro ludcpcudcnt, the new position of
cquilibrium is dotermincd by

-wherethere is no distinction in value bctwecn and


c,
c,,
From thse quations the co-ordinatcs
may bc dctermmcd in
terms of the forces. If ~7bc thc dctrmIuMt

71.]

RECIPROCALRELATION.

G9

Thcsc quations dtermine


~r,, &c. uniquely, slaco doca
] .'i~
~u t).ppcm. ~ont
t. ~h' Lh' 'f~f;{'.L'uh
ilot Y:in)Hh,
Mt
'iLb~til
t! co.~idi.'t'Htiuit
===
0. &c. could othcrwiso be s~tisficd by fmitc values of tha
co-ordina.t.cs,
provided oniy ttmt tho ?'(t~'oswcre suitable, winch ia
contnu'y to th hypothcsis timt t!ie systcni is tboroughiy stable
iu t)ie xct'o conHgura.tioa.

If thc forces~F,a.nd
be of the same Mnd, we may suppose
them equal, aud wu then recoguiso that a force of any type acting
alone produces :i displacetneut of f),second type cqual t.o tlie
displiicement of tlie first type duc to thc action of au cqnid force
and R 'be two points
of thc second type. For example, if
of n, rod snpported horlzont:dty in ~ny maunc! the vertical dericction at jl, whcn a wcight }F is ~ttachcd at
is tl)u s:t.meas
the dtection at 7?,wlien ~F is appiied at ~t\
73. Since F is a homogeueous qua.dra.ticfunction of thc coordinates,

If
+ ~~). ~+ ~~) ~c. rcprcscnt auniticr (Iisp!act'mcntfor
wbich thc neeessary forcus n.ro ~+/
~+A~,&c.,thecorOuthiBeubjoct.,
sco7~tt~.J/< Deo.,1874,nudMMeh,
1875.

70

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

f73.

ruspoudingpotentud cncrgy is givcu by

whL'rcA'FistiKi'n~n.'ncuojf'thupntcntI.dcnL'rgicsinttxjtwo
ciLScs,:unt wu must p:u'<.Icnl:n')yuoticu tIi:Lt by tlie i-eeinroc:~
rui~iuu, 72 (I),
From (~) and (~) wu may deduectwo nnport:u)t Dicorc'tns
rclating to t!ic vainc of fur a systeni subjeetcLt to <Ivcn disand tu given forces respect!ycty.
pitt.cement.s,
7~. Th first thcorem is to t!tc eNfuctt!):tt, if given ()isn]accmcnts (llot su~iclunt hy ttionscivos to dtcrmhio thc C())tti~u)':)tK)ii)
b(.'produd in a. systcm by f'urccsuf con'c'spundixgtyp~s, t)tc rcHulting vaJuc of ~for thc .sy.stcmso displaccd, :uid m u~uHi))rium,
is ns sin:dt as it can bc u))(icr th givcn di.spinccmoit couditiun.s'
and that the vainc of fur :Uty othcr couhgurattou excuc-dstins
by thc potcntia! uncrgy of thu cunHguratioRwincli is th (tiSurcnce
of t)m two. Thc on)y diHioLdtyIn thu abovc statcmcnt consists
in undurshuidit~gwhat is ntcant by 'fores of coi'r<spo]]di!)"'
types.'
Suppose, for cxampic, that thc systum is a. strutchcd stri))" of
which agivcn point jf-*is to bu subjcct to an cbligatory dispJacc!n(U)t; thu force of corrc.spondingtype is Itre a. force applicd
ut thc ])oint .P itself. And gun(.'r:dty, thc forces, by which th
proposcd displacumt.-ntis to bc tunde, must bc such as woul(i do
no work on Hic systum, proyidud on!y tiuLt thut disptuccmcut
wurctio~made.
By a suitabic choicc of co-ordinatcs, ttic givcn displaccmcnt
cotditicustnaybe cxpt-L-ssud
by ascribmggiven vaincs to thc first
?' co-ordinatcs
nud thu conditions fmto thc forces
wdl thcn bc rcpr<j.s(jntcdby inaking thc foroja of thc
rcmaini))~
&c.
vanish. f -+A-~ rcfur to any ot)~cr contypL's
hgnratiou of thc systum, and ~+A~ bc tho corrcsponding forces,
we are to suppose that A- A~, ~c-. as f:n' as
A~ aH vanisli.
TIiusfor tite first r suifixes
vauishcs.aud fur th remaimD~
0

STATICALTIIEOREMS.

74.]

sufHxcs ~Fvanishcs. AccordinglyST.A.P'r i.~aise xcro. Hon~c

71

is zero, n.nd therefore

2A~=~A~.A~(1),
which provcs that if thc givcn dplacements bo niadc in any
othur than tinj prc'scribcd way, thu potcntial cncrgy la incrcased
by t)ic encrgy of thc diffrence of the configurations.
By means of t!i!s t))corcm we may trace thc cH'ccton T'of any
l'cl~xationm t!)esttH'ucssofa. System,suhjcct to given displacemcnt
conditions. For, ifaftcr tlic altration m stitTnessthc original cquilibrium connguration Le considut'cd,thcvidnc of Vco)'ruspon()ing
t))crcto is by supposition Icss t)i:m bcforc; :md,as wc h~vc just
seoi, therc will be n. still furthcr dinunution in tbe value of F'
whctt tlio Hystcmpasses to cqnilibrimu undtjr the niterud conditions. Henco wc condudc titat a. diminution I)i as a functiou
of thc co-ordin:t.tcscntails also n diminution in the actual vatuo
of F' whcn a systcnt is subjcct to given disp!:).cemcnts. It will
bo undur.stoodtluit in pa.rticuhu.'cases thc dinunution spokcn of
l.
may vanish*.
For cxample, if a point J' of a bar dampcd at both ends be
disph~cudlatcndiy to a given small antount by a force tbm'c appiicd, thc potentiel cnurgy of thc dcfui'mation will be diminished
by :).nyrelaxation (howeverloc:d)in tite stiihess ofthe bar.
75. Tlic secondtheorem relates to f),system displaccd ~tM~
forces, and asscrts that in this case tho value of V in eqnilibriuni
is gi'cater than it would be in any other connguration in \vhich
thu syst~'mcoutd bc maintained at rest undur t))c givcn furecs, by
the opration of mcre constraints. We will shew that tho )'c?/MM~
ofconstt'aints increascs t!)c vainc of
TIio co-ordinatcs may bc so choscn that th conditions of constraint arc cxprcs.scd by
~=0,

~=0,=0.(1).
Wc hve thon to provc that whcn ~P~, ~P~ <c. arc givcn, tho
va)nc of V is Ica.st whun t!tc conditions (1) !~))d. Thu second
+ A~, &:c.,wc seo
configuration bcing dcnutud as bufot'u by
that fur snrRxcs up tu ')' inchtsive
vanishcs, and fur higinjr
sunixcs A~Fvanislics. Hunce
S~A~=SA~P=0,
Soon.imperonGoncrfit
aud luititdnt)d
Thcorcma
rchtingto Eqnilibrium
Motiouij.2'/7.Af~ Mure!1H7S.
Stuady

~2

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[75.

and therefore
shewing that thc incrcase in F duc to thc rcmoval of the constramts is cqual to tlic potcntial
encrgyof tlie din~rcnce ofihc two
configurations.
7G. We now pass to the
luvesti~tion of thc initial motion of
a systcm which starts from rcst undor thc
operation of givcn
impulses. The motion thus ~equired is
Indepcndcitt of any
potuutm encrgy .vhicl~ the system n~y possess .vhcu
actu~y
disptaccd, siueo by tho nature cf impulses we h.wc to do
only
with th mitml configuration itself Thc initial
motion Is also
mdependcnt of any forces of Huitc kind, whethcion
imprcsscd
tlie system from without, or of the nature
of viscosity.
If
Q, 7i'bc the component impulses, parallel to thc
axes, on
~partie e ~vhoso rcct.nguhr co-ordinates
h.vc by
are
DAlGmbei't'sPj-iucip!o

dnote th vclocities aequircd the


whcrc
by
particle in virtuc
of the impulses, aud
correspond to auy arbitrary displaccmcnt of thc system which docs not violate thc councction of its
parts. It is required to transform (1) iuto an cquatiou
cxprcsscd
by thc independerit gcncralizcd co-ordinn.tcs.
For th first side,

the kinetic cnergy of the


whcrc
system,is supposcd to be expresscd as a function of
&c.

IMPULSES.

76.]

73

On tlie second side,

whcrc 8~, S~, &c. arc now eompletely iudcpcudcut. Hcuco te


dtermine tlie motion wc ha.vo

whcrc
S

&c. may bc constJcrcd as tlie gGneraItzcdcomponcnts

ofi;i)putsc.
'77. Since y is a homogcncousquadratic fuuction of the generalized co-ordiuatcs, we may takc

whcrc there is no distinction in value between 0,, and


Again, by the nature of T,

The theory of initial motion is c!osc]yanalogous to that of th


displaccmcut of a. system froni a configurationof stable cquitibrinm
by steadily a,pp!Icdfores. lu th prsent tucm-yth initial kinetic
encrgy T bears to the vclocities aud impulses tho same relations
as in thc former F' bcars to th displacements and forces respcct-

74

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[77.

ively. In one respect the thcory of initi:d inot!ons is the more


L in gt'ncmt oniy
complet~ in!).s)nuc)i.as is cxactty, w)ti!c
approximatcty, a, itomogcuc'jus(~uadrnticfuuction of th variables.
dunotc nnc set of vclociticsand impulses
If'
for n. systuin st:u'tcd f'run)rcst, :utd
a. second
sct~wu iua,ypt'uvc,as in 72, th fuDuwingrecipt'uca.l
t'L'ta.tiun
This thcdn'm ndniits cfitttcresting' :)pplie:ttl<)!ito f)~)i<~
motion.
It is kuu\v)),:utd will bc provcd I~t'jr in thu coin'sf.!of tins work,
th:)t thu tnoti~n ui' !), inctiun!uss ineotnprcs.sibtuliquit), which
starts i'rota rc'.st,i.s cf such :t.kind t))!~tits cumpom'nt vutoeitics
~t nny point aru thc con'L'spondi)~dit'fu)'c'nLi:d
cocHicicntsuf n,
('(.')'t,:nufnncti"n, c~Hm]thc vctocity-potcntiid. Let t))c fh)i() bc
sut In )n(jt[onby :t prcso'ibu)! tn'bitt'in'y()L'fo)m:).tiu)i
of th(j surface
/S'of :t c)')SL'()
spucc describud within it. Tiiu rcsniti))~ mution is
(h.'tL'nnincdhy thc normid vctocitics of th cloucnts of winch,
bL-in~s)t:n'L'dby t!ie Hnid in contact witti thcm, m'c duuotcd by
if Mbe tho vc'ioeity-potcuti.t.],\vltich luto'prctcd phy.sica!)ydnotes tnc ijnputstvc pressure. Hunce by thc t]iC(H'cm,If bc t]io
VL'Iucity-potuntliduf u, secoud motio;), corruspuuding to unother
set uf arbitrary suifacc vclocitics

an quation immcdiatoly foiJowing from Grccn'a thcorcm, if


bcsi()<s~'thurc be ou)ytixcd soli<[sinunur.scd in tho ftuid. Th
prusunt ]m;t)n)dunabius us tu attributc to it a much Itighur gcnuruHty. yur (.x:unp)u,t)ic untm'rscd soHd.s,mstuad of buing Hxc<
m:i.yt)c irc-L',:dtogct))cr or ni part., to takc tho motion iinposcd
upo)j tl)u)n by thL!Huid prcssm'
78. A paTtk'ular cnsc nf t)ic gcticra! thcorem is wortl)y of
spcial notice. In thu nrst motion Jet

THOMSON'STIIEOREM.

78J

75

In words,if, by mcans of a suitabic impulse of the corresponding type, n givcn arbitrary vclocity of onc co-ordinatc bc imprcsscd
on a system, the imputse corresponding to Msecond co-ordinatc
nccessary in ordcr to prcvent it from changing, is t)ie samc M
would bc rc'ptircd for the first co-ordiuatc, If titc given velocity
\vo'c hnprMS.sud
on ttic second.
As :t simple uxampic, ted the eMC of two sphres
and J~
nmncrHcdin a liqnid, wliuscccntrca arc f)'L'ctu !)iovL;along ccrtiun
lines. Jf ~t bc sut in motion with
givcu vulf~'ity, -B will
natnndiy bL'gin to movc also, Thc thcorcm :LS.surtsth:Lt the
if) thc s:mic as if
i]))pt))su rctmin.'d to prcvent thc motion uf
thc functions of yt !md7? wo'c cxchimgcd :uul this cvcn thuug)i
thcrc Le ot])cr rigid bodius, C',D, &c.,in the ituid, citl~cr fixcd, or
frcc ill whulc or i)t part.
Thc case of cicctric cnrrcnts mutually i)iflnencing cach othcr by
induction is prccisciy simihu-. Lct thcru bc two circuits and
m titc ncig!ibour)toodof which thcrc maybe a.ny numbcr of othcr
wirc circuits or sohd condnctors. If a unit cnrrent bc snddcidy
duvulopeclin thc circuit J, tho clectromotive Impulse induced ill
is the slulc as there wouldhave bccii iu ~1,hn.dtlic currcnt been
furcibly dcvclopcd in
79. Thc motion of a system, on which given a.rbitraryvclocitios
are nnprcs.scdby mcans of thc ncecssfu'y Itnp)dscs of t)ic corrcsponding types, posscsscs a rcmarkabtc prnpcrty discovcrcd by
Tiiom.son. Thc conditions arc that
arc givcn,
vanish. Lct
&c. currcspoiid to
thc actu.d motion; and
~+A~,
~t.A~
~+A~, ~+A~
to anothcr motion satistying thc saine velocity conditions. For
cach snmx cithcr AT~u)' vailislics. New for t)iu kiuctic cnergy
of thc supposcd motion,
2(~+Ay)=~+A~)(~+A~)+.
=2~'+~A~+~+.

+ A~

+ A~. +.

+ A~A~
+ A~A~
+.

But by th rcciprocal rctatioa (4) of'77


~A~.+.
=A~+.
of \vbich tlic former by ItypoUtcsisis zro; so that
2A2'=A~A~+A~A~,+.

(1),J

7G

VIBRATFNG
SYSTEMS
INGENERAL.[79.

shewing that the encrgy of the snpposcd motion excceds that


off
th actual motion by th
energy of that motion winch would hve

bc

..ith

},t.

rc

p,.d.~

ihc

fbnner.
Th
motionc.nrlod
actualtymduced in thc System bas tf~.s Jcss
~y other s~. yn.g tho same velocity conditions. In aoucrgytlm,i
snbs~.cnt
ch. ptcr we shall make use of this propcrty to find a
supenor Jinut
to the cncrgy of a system set in motion
with prcscribcd vc-Iocitics
~ny dnnmutiou be made in th inertie of
any of t)je parts of
a system,t)ic motion
correspondingto prescribcd velocity conditions
wu iu genem undorgo a
change. Thc value of will nece.ss.riiy
be less than before for t)~ere wouM
be a decrease cven if tlie
motion rc.nained
unchangc<I,and tl.crcforc /b7~
w]~enth
niot.on ~ssuch as to make 7' an absoJute
mim.num. Converselv
any incre~c m tlie inertia increascs thc initia! value of T.
lu. thcorcm Is analogous to that
of 74. Th analogue for
initial mot.ons oi th thcorem
of 75, relating to t].c potential
~~gy of a.system d~.ced by given forces, is that of
Bertrand
and may be thus stated -If
start
from rest under th
,y,
of
opera.on givcn nnpu!scs, the kinetic
encrgy of tl.e actual motion
Lxccedsthat of any otlier motion which th
system might I~.ve
been gu.)ed to takc with the a.ssistance
ofmere
kinetic encrgy of the din-crenceof t)to motions' constrain~ by the
1.
80.
WcwiIluotdwcUatanygreaterIengthonthemcd.anics
of a system
subjcct to impulses, but pass on to
investie
equations for continuous nation. Wc .shalt
Langes
suppose
that
the connections bniding
togcthcr th parts of U.c..svstc.n
are not o.plicit functions of t).
tune; sucli ca~sof H
motion as we shall have te consider will bu
speciaily .shcwn to
ue wiHun th scope of the
investigation.
combination with that of Virtual
Ydot~
Vc10citics,
(~~ + y8~ + ~~) = S (.Y~ + F~ +
~)
dnote a d:sp!acemont ofthe
system of th most
~herc
8~
t~ -nection.
of":f
~r
Sn.cc r'~
parts.
th d,sp)acemcnt.s of th individu.-d
partides of
t system arc ~nutuaHy
relatcd,
are not indcpen~t.
T)
ohjec .ow is to transfonn tu other variahJc.s
which
s!tatl bc indcpcndent. We hve

ThomBou auj 'fuit. ~il.

~,7..V.y.

Mareh, 1875.

80.]

LAGRANGE'S

EQUATIONS.

77

so tha,t

if T ho cxprcsscd as n. quadmtic function of


cocfHcicntsorc ni gcuerfil functions of

whose
AIso

Since ~F8~ denotes Hie work donc on tho system during a


disp~cemcnt
ma.y bo recoarded as thc gcncralized component of force.
In th case of a, conscrvativc system it is convnient to
thosc parts which dpend only on thc connTurfiseparate from
tion of tho system. Thus, if V dnote thc potential encrgy, wc
may write

whcre ~P is now limited to tlie forces acting on thc system which


~F'
are not aIrGadytaken account of in thc tcrm
a~

78

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[81.

81. Tilcrc is also another group of forces whoso existence


it is ofton a~/fmt~gcous to rccngnizc
spccifdty, namoty thosc
if y~ .pp~o
?;r..s)r~ 'n.i fn.-n~t
yip.Hy.
L),)H c~h
piu'ticlc of thc syston is rctiu'dcd by forces proportion~ to its
eomponbnt velocitics, t)ie cH'ectwill bc sitown in thc fu)jd:uncnt:U
quation (1) 80 by t!tc addition to tl)c Jcft-Jtiuu! mcnibur of
thc terms
whcrc
A-y, nrc cocfHcicnts indpOKicnt of t))o ve!(jcit.Ics,
but pos.stbiydcpcudcitt on t)tc configuration of thc
syston. T))c
tr:msibr)n:itn)u to thc indc'pcndunt co-ordinutus
&c. is
cHucted iu a. sirnihu' manner to tJKttof

7~ it will bu obscn'ed, is hl.c


a honngcncons quadratic
fucetiou of t!tc vuioctLies, po.siUvu for :dl rL-:d v.ducs of tho
v:u-)ab)cH.It !~pruscnt.shait thu r~tu ~t whidt
cncrgy i.s(hs.sij~~cd.
Thc abovc itivcsti~tiua i-ufcrtito
t~tarding iornus propordonat
to thc absolute vclucitics but it is
equaUy important tu cuusidur
sucb as dupend ou tho p-e~~c vulocitics of thc
parts ci' titc
system, and furtuuately tins eau bc done witiiout auy incrcaso
01 complication. For cxampic, if a furcc aet ou the
partielc xi
thc-rc will bo at thc samo momont an
proportiona! to
cqu~I and opposite force acting ou th partide a- T!ie additioual
terins in the faudamental eqoatioti wi)l hc of the furm

and so on for any numbcr of


pairs of mutually ]nfhtctic;ng
pfirticics. TIic only effect is th addition of ncw tcrms to 7~
whicli still appears iu the form (2)'. We silall secprcscntly t)iat
Thodifforecoes
rferredto iu tho toxt mayof coursepassiutodjilcrcntia!
eoefUcients
in thocaseof a bodyoontiuuouBly
deformed.

81.]

THE DISSIPATION

FUNCTION.

7!)

thc existence of tho fonction 7~ which may bc cailed th Dissipation Funetion, implics certiLin rctations among thc coenicicnts
ut' tho gcncralizcd cqn:t.tio!]sof vibration, which ctu'rywith Utem
l,
Iniportaut couscqucnecs'.
But althougli In an important c]~ss of c~ses thc cffccts of
th question romains
viscosityarc l'ept'cscutedby thc function
opcn whctitcr snch a method of rcprcsGntation is apptic:).b)cin aU
cases. 1 think it pTobableth~t it is so; but it is cvidcnt that wc
cannot cxpect to provc any gncmt proprty of viscous forces
!) t'hc absence of n strict (L'nnition \v!ncbwill cnable us to duterminc wit)).certainty wha.tforcus are viscous !H)dwhat n.rcnot. In
sono CMCScons!dc;['!Ltio)is
of symmetry arc sun~'Icnt to shcw
tbat th retardmg forces ma.y bu rcprcsoitcd as dunvcd from a
disHipatiotifnnction. At any rate whuucvcr tbc rctarding forces
arc proportional to thc absolute or relative vcloeittcs of thc
parts uf tlic systuia, wc slutti liavc quations of motiun of tlic form

82. Wc mny now mtroduce tho condition that t))0 motion


takcs place iu tho nn)nc()i:).tcneigh'b(n)i'hoo(Lof a. conH~u'tt.tIon
of t)iorou~I)lystable cquHibnum 7' and F' arc then homogcncous
qmuh'atic functions of ti~c vclocitics witli coufHciuntswinch aro
to bc tatcd as constant, !ui(l
i.s a snnUar fuucttou of th
co-ordina.tcs tticnisdves, provided that (as we suppose to bo
t!io case) the origin of CMh co-ordmatc is taken to con'esponj
with the couhgura.t.ion of cquilibrium.
Moreovcr all threo
~V
fuuctious arc ossentiaUy positive. Since ternis of tho form
f/
:n-cofthc second ordcr ofstnMilquantities, the equations of motion
heconic h)iear, assumiug the form

whcrc under ~P arc to bc mciudcd ail forces


n.cting on thc System
not alady provided for by tlie diffcrcutial
coefficients of Faud
Tho Dissipation Funetion ttppoMs for tho Rrat timo, so far as 1 am nwnrc, iu
a pnpor on GonoralTItooroma retatmg to Vibratious, publishod m tlio
2~ocfe~HM<
the
~~tCMNttca!
for
o/'
Soete~
Juno, 1873.

80

VIBRATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[82.

Thc threo quadra.ticfunctions will be


expressed as foUows

1
whcrc thc cocfHeicnts
c are constants.
From quation (1) wc may of course fait back on
prcvious
results by supposing ~and F; or .Fand T, to vanisii.
A thin! set of thcorcms of intcrcst in tlie
appHcation to E)~tnc.tymayboobtaiucd byomittlng~and
F; wliile ~isrctaincd,
but it is uuneccssai-yto pursue the
subject hcrc.
If we substitute thc values of T, F and
F; and write D for 1
dt
we obtain a system of equations which
may bc put into tlie forni

83. Before proccoding further, we


may draw an important
inference from th
of our equations. If
correspondinc
to tho two sots of forces
respectivoly
H\0
i
l't~tt"'
\P
motions dcnoted
by
be possible, thon must
also be possible thc motion
in conjunet:on
~,+~
~+~
with hc forces ~+~
a p.rticuL case,
~+~
Or,
when there arc no impressed forces, th
superposition of any two
natural vibrations constitutes also a natural
vibration This is thc
ccJcbrated principle of thc Coexistence of SmaU
Motions, first
clcar)y cnunciatcd by Daniel Bernoutli. It will be uuderstoo.!
that its truth dpends in gnerai on tlie
justice of th a.s.sumption
that the motion is so small that its
square may be neglectcd

84.]

COEXISTENCE

0F

8MALL

MOTIONS.

81

84-. To invcstig~tc th free vibrations, wo must put


l~qu:J

toI' lui'~1~

.n:d

we

4Yjjl P-01H11IPl!e

~jt.l!

Il f.:ytt~.m On which

n0

are
for which
therefore thc coefRcienta &c.are
frictioual forces-n!~
equ;)Jt.~
~ct, v-'c
wiHcotmttt'ttce~'itLany'ttf'mouwhic]).
We havo
M)~ functioDSof th symbol

From those quations, of which thcrc arc as many (??t)as th


system possessesdegt'ces of liberty, lot all but onc of thc variaMes
bc climin~tcd. Thc result, wliieh is of the samc form whichcvcr bc
the co-ordinateret<uucd,may bc writton
~=0.(2),
where \7 denotca th determinant

and is (if there bc uo friction) an even function of D of degrec 2M.


roots of V=0 coueidered as au
\t
\
Let i\
quation in D. Then by the theory of dliferential equations th
most genera.1va,!ucof is
whcrc the 2w quantities ~4,J/, J?,J~, &c. are a.rbitrn.ryconstants.
This fonn hoids good for eMh of the co-ordinatcs,but tlie consta-nts
in the diffrent expressions arc not indcpendcnt. In fMt if a
particular solution bo
&c.,
~=~
~=~'
the ?'a~M ~t~
-~a. M'c complete]y determined by th
quations

is substituted for D.
where in each of the coefficientssuch as
Equations (5) arc necessarilycc~upa,tible,by the condition that
is a. root of \7=0. Th ratios ~1/
=-~3' correspouding to
but for
th root
arc tho samc as the ratios ~1~ ~1,
th othcr pairs of roots X~,
&c. titcrc are distinct Systems of
ratios.
G
R.

82

VIBRATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

fgg.

85. Tho nature of th


system with which wo arc doalinrr
imposes an importt restriction on the possible values of
If
wcro .6a}, elthciwoutd bc re~I and positive, and wo
or
sho-Jd obtain a particular solution for which tho
co-ordinatos, aud
with them th kinetic energy denoted bv
incrc~c without limit. Such a. motion is
obviousiy Impossible fdr
a conscrvative system, wbose whoJc
energy can uever di~cr from
the sum of tho poteutial and kinotic
energies with which it was
Mimatcd at starting. This conclusion is not cv~cd
by takmg
ngative, beeausc we arc as much at liberty to trace th motiou
bMkwards as forwards. It is as certain that t!te motion ncvcr
~s
as
tliat
infinite,
it nover will
The same argument excludcs t).c
possibility of a complex value ofX.
Wc infer that aU ttie vaincs of are
purely imacrniary corto
rcspondmg
values of
~a~e
Ana)yt:caHy,t)ie tact that
thc roots of = 0, considered as an
are at! real and
quation iu
negative, must bc a consquenceof thc relations
subsisting bctwecn
th coefficients
virtuo of
fact
for
all real values of the variables 2' and F arc
positive. Thc ca~eof
two degrees of liberty will be afterwards
worked out in full.
86. Tho form of tlic solution
may now be ~IvMta~cousIy
changcd by wnting
for
&c. (wherc .=~1),
~d ~dng
new arbitrary constants. TIius

where
&c. are th
roots of th equation of
decrec
111n' found by
for
writing -M"
in = 0. For each value of
th ratios
~1, ~1, are dctcrminatc and real.
This is thc complte solution of the
problem of tho frce vibrations of a conscrvative system. We sec that th
whole motion
may be resolved mto normal harmonie vibrations of
(in gnral)
difforent priode each of which is
entirely indepeDdcnt of tbc
others. If tbe motion,
depending on thc original disturbance, bc
such as to reducu itsdfto onc of thse
~.), wc hve

NORMAL

COORDINATES.

83

t'

where th ratios AI
dpend on the constitution of th
system, and only thc absoluto amplitude and phase arc arbitrary.
Th several co-ordinatcs arc always in similar (or
opposite) phases
of vibration, aud the whole system is to be found m the
configuration of equilibrium at th same moment.
We peroive hre the mechanica.1foundation of tlie
suprcmacy
harmonie
vibrations. If the motion be sufHcientIysmall, tho
pf
diffcrential quations becomc Iluear with constant
coefficients
~hi]e circular (and exponentia)) functions arc th ouly oncs which
reta-intheir type on diffcrentiation.
87. Th 7~ pcriods of vibration, determined by t!ic
quation
= 0, are quantities Intriusic to th system, and must corne out
t.he same whatever co-ordinatcs may be choscn to define the conn~uratton. But there is one system of co-ordinatcs, which is
especially suitable, that namely in which the normal types of
vibration arc defiued by th vanisbing of aU tlie co-ordinates but
onc. In the first type the original co-ordinatcs
&c. Iiave
given ratios let the quantity nxing thc absolute values be < so
that in tliis type each co-ordinate is a known
So
multiple of <
in thc second type each co-ordinate
may be regarded as a known
and so on. By a suitable determultiple of a second quantity
mination of th quantities
&c.. ~y configaration of tite
system may bu rcpresentcd as compoundcd ofthc ~t configurations
of these types, and thus tlie quantifies <~thcmselvcs
may b'c Jookcd
upon as co-ordinates denning tite configuration of th system.
Titcy are called tlie ttor~a~ co-ordinatcs.
When expressed in terms of thc normal co-ordinates, ?' and V
arc reduced to sums of squares; for it is
easily sccn that if the
products also appcarcd, the resulting quations of vibration would
not be satisned by putting any ~-1 of the co-ordiuates
cqual to
zero, whilc thc rcmaining one was finite.
We might
ZD hve commenced with this transformation,
assumin~
1
0
from AJgebra that any two homogcncous
quadratic functions can
bo reduced by linear transformations to sums of
squares. Ttms

whcrc thc cocnicicuts (in which th double sufHxe.sarc no


tono-cr
are
required)
ncccssarilypositive,
G2

84

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[87.

88. The interprtation of thc quations of motion leads to a


tlleorem of considcrabio importance, which
may bc thus statcd'.t.
Th period of cousorvittivusystem vibrating i)i a,const)-!nned
type
about a position of st<).h)ccquiHbrium is stationary in v:Uuc when
th type is norm:
We might provc this from the
ori~inid cqua.tions of vibmtion, but it will bc more convcnicnt to
cmploy the
normal co-ordinatcs. Thc constnunt, w]nc)i
may bo snpposcd to
bc of such a cha.racter as to ic:ws only onc
dcgrc'e of fj-cedom,is
represcuted by taking th quantittes in givcn rutios.
If

wc

put

This gives thc period of th vibration of tlie constrained


type
and it is vident tliat thc period is
stationary, when a!l but one of
th cocfncients ~l,, ~1,
vanish, that is to say, -when th type
coincideswith one of those natural to the system, and no constraint
is necdcd.
By means of this tlicorem wc may provc that an iucrease in
the mass of nny part of a vibrating
system is attendcd by a prolongation of all tho natural periods, or at auy rate that no pcriod
can be diminished. Suppose tlie incrernent of mass to
bc infinitesimal. Aftcr th altration, the types of free vibration will in
gnral be changed; but, by a suitable constraint, th system may
r~~c~t')).?)!
of ~;f;~~<fma()ra!
,9of'~)/,Juno JH73.

88.]

PERIODS

OF FREE VIBRATIONS.

85

bo made to rctain any one of tlio fonner types. If this be donc,


it is certain thnt any vibration which involves a motion of th part
whosu inass lias been increased will I)ave its period prolonged.
Only as a particula.1'case(as, for exampic, whcn a load is placed at
the nodc oi' a vibrating string) eau th period romain unchangod.
Tlic tlicorem now allows us to assert that tho removal of tlie constraint, and tlie consquent change of type, can only aScet th
period by a quantity of thc second order; and that therefore in th
limit the free period cannot bc Icss than before the change. By
intgration wc infcr that a imite incrcasc ofinass must proloiig the
period of' every vibration which Involvcs a motion of th part
aliected, and that in no case can tlie period bc diminishcd but in
order to sec the corrcspondcnce of th two sets of periods, it may
be necessary to suppose the altcrations madu by stcps.
Couvcrsely,th efect of a rcmoval of part of thc mass of a
vibrating system must bo to shorten the pcriods of all th froc
vibrations.
In iike manner we may prove that if the system undergo sucli
a change that the potential energy of a given configuration is
diminislied, whileth kinctic energy of a given motion is unaltered,
the periods of th free vibrations arc aU increased, and convcrscly.
This propositionmay sometimes be used for tracing the effects 6f
a constraint for if we suppose that th potential energy of
any configuration violating the condition of constraint gradually
incrcases, we shall approach a state of things in which tl]e
condition is observed with any desirod degree of completeness.
During each stop of th process every free vibration becomes
(in gnral) more rapid, and a number of th free pcriods (equal
to thc degrees of liberty lost) become infinitely small. Th
same practical result may be rcached without altcring th potential energy by supposing the kinetic energy of any woftOM
violating the condition to incrca~e without limit. In this case
one or more periods become infinitely large, but th finite
periods are ultimatcly th same as those arrivcd at whcn tlie
potential energy is increased, although in one case the pcriods
have been throughout increasing, and iu tlie other diminishing.
This example shews the nocessity of making th altrations by
steps; otherwise wc sliould not understand tl)C eorrespondcnce
of tlie two sets of pcriods. Furtlier illustrations will bc given
under th head of two degrees of frecdom.

86

VIBRATING
By me~s

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

of th
principe
wc n..y
ea.i!y
~h.

[88.

that

tho value of tho frec


periods
stationary
calculato eorrcctions
duo to any
J~
a<!cv~n hypothct~
type of yibr.tion
that prope~ to th
sl.nplu
th punod so found wiH
systc~
di~r from the truth
by quantit.es dcpcndmg
ou tho ~uares
of ti.e
Scvcral
u.rcguh.-Itic.s.
cf
suci~
exaiaplcs
c..dcu!atiuns
will Le gtvcn in th course of
tins work.

80. Anothcr po.nt of


unpor~ncc reJ.ting to thc period of
,n .n ~rbitrary
y.steiu
type rcn~ins io be noticed
vihr~ng
t .ppcars
from (2 88 that thc
p.riod of fhe vibration o
~c.sp n. u~ to ~ny hypothcti~I type is inciu.Icd bctwocn thc
and Ic~t of thosc n.tur.I tu t!~
system. In thc c~
~.tcst
o c ntuu~.s
deior.n.t~n, thcrc is no I~t uatu~
pericd;
~i
any hyh c.d"Ytype c.uinoL cxcccd that
puthet
bclo~l,~ to th Gr~est
typ. Whe. tLer.f..c ti. cLjecti.J~I~
of calculons
~cdr'
result
will como outt tao small,
~1
type jadgn~nt must bc
usc~h~
t)~
uscd
ohjcct ben,g to approach th truth as
nearly as can
he donc w~thout too grc.t
sacrinco of
.hnpHcity.
ypcor
~g
hc.vily ~i,ht.d
~ht
Le tdu froin thc extrme case of an
innnite Joad ~hen tho
two
of th st.~ .ould Le
As Je.~pl~
str~ht.
p~
cale..tion
of tins Jun~ of which the
rcsult is known, wo
~~h:d
will t~Tj~
w~th
tcusion 7 anj mquirc what the
period would be on
certam supposions as to th
type of vibration.
Taking the origin of .r at t)io ~idd!o of tho
string, lot the
curvc of vibration on thc
positive sidc bo

~ul on thc ncg~vc side the


Im~c of tins in the axis of y
bc~g not !c.ss than .nity. This form satires th
condid~
ihat y vanishes whcn ~.=1
Wc h~vo now to form the exprcs~.s for 2' aud
a.d it will Le su~icicut te
c~t~

89.]

PERIODS 0F FBEE VIBRATIONS.

87

positive lialf of tho string only. Thus, p being thc longitudinal


(tcuHtty,

and
Hcucc
If M==l, thc string vibratos as if tho mass were concentratcd
in its middie point, and

TT-T
Tho truc value of p" for the gravest type is
so that
,r,
plu
tho assumption of a para-boUcform gives a pcriod which is too
small in thc ratio 7r ~/10 or '993G 1. Tlie minimum of p",
VG+1
as givcn by (2), occurs when
and gives
~==l'72-t74,

It will he seen that there is considrable latitude in th


choicc of a type, even tho violent supposition that th string
vibratos as two straight pices giving a period less than ton
pcr cent. in error. And whatever type wc choose to take, tlie
period calculated from it cannot be greater than the truth.
90. The rigorous determination of thc periods and types of
vibration of a given system is usually a matter of grt di&culty,
arising from th fact that th functions necessary to express tho
modesof vibration of most continuons bodies are not as yet rccognised in analysis. It is therefore often ucccssa.ryto fait back on
methods of approximation, referring t!io proposed system to somo

88

VIBRATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[90.

other of a character more amende to


analysis, and calculatiug
corrections depending on the
supposition that the differerce between the tv.'o sy.ste~.s .aU.
Th. r~
~proxi.c!v
simple systems is thus one of great importance, more
especially
as it is impossible in practice
actually to realise tlio simple forn,s
about winch wc eau most
casily reason.
Let us suppose then that tho vibrations of
a simple System arc
thoroughly known, and that it is required to
investigate tho.sc
of a systcm derived from it
by introducing small variations in
thc mechanical factions. If
&c. bc the normal co-ordinates of tho original system,

and for th varicd system, rcferrcd to


the same co-ordinatcs
whicharc how only
approximtttciy normal,

in which

&,
small
In eert.m cases new co-ordinates
may appe~ but
quan
~cs. coe~cnts must bc
so t!.cir
small. From (1) ~c obtam for the
if
ijagrangian equa,tiousof motion,

.In the original systcm the


fondamental types of vibration
are thosc .h.ch
corrc.spondto the variation of but
a single coerd~na e.1 a timc. Let us fix our
attention on one of
them,
involving say
variation of
while a!I thc
remnining coordinates vanish. Thc
change in tlie system ,vi!l in ~1
cntail an altcration in tlie
iund~c.tatcr
normal types; but
under tlie cu.cumstanccs
contemplatcd tlie alteratio~
small.
ne normal type is
e.pre~cd by the synchronous variation
of h' other
in
to
but
ratio of any
small.
known, ~e normal
mode of the aftered systcm will be
dc-tei-mincd.

90.]

APPROXIMATELY

SIMPLE

SYSTEMS.

89

Since th wl)olc motion is simple harmonie, we may suppose


tha) cn.ch o~-ordinato va-ucs a~ cos~, a"<! f.~Lft.it.utu thc
occurs
for D' In th a"' quation
diff'erential quations
with tiio Snitc coefEcient

Th otlier tcrms a.rc to be neglected in a first approximation,


sincc both the co-ordma.te(rcla.tivcty to ~) and its coefficientarc
small quantities. Hcnce

Now
andthus
tlie required result.
If th kinetic energy alone undergo va.ria,tion,

The correctcd value of the period is determined by tlie ?'t!)


equation of (2), not hitberto used. We maywrite it,

Th first term gives tlie value of p/ calculated without allowance for th change of type, and is sufficient, as wc have aiready
proved, wheu thc square of thc altration in the system may
he neglectcd. The terms included under thc symbol S, in
which the summation extends to ail values of s other than r,
give thc correction due to th change of type and are of the
second order. Since ?, and a,, are positive, th sign of any term
> p~ that is, if the mode
depends upon that of
p~.2* If
s be more acute than the moder, the correction is ngative,
and makes tlie calculated note graver than beforc; but if the
mode s be thc graver, th correction ra-isesthe note. If t' refcr

90

VIBRATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[90.

to the gravest mode of th system, tho whole correction is


negative; and if r refer to th acutest mode, tho whole coiection
is positive, as we have aJrea.dyseen
by another method.

91. As an example of the use of these


formulae, we may
take th case of a stretched string, wliose
longitudinal
is not quite constant. If x ho measurcd from oue density p
end, and
hc tho transversc displaccmcnt, t!ie
configuration at any time t
will he exprssed by

being the longth of thc string.


arc tlie normal
co-ordiuatcs for p==constant, and t)iough hcre
p is not strictly
constant, tlie configuration of tbc systcni may still bo expressed
by means of the same quantits. Since the potential
cnergy
of any configuration is tlie samc aa
if/)= constant, 8~=0. For
tlie kinetic cncrgy we liave

If p wero constant, thc products of tho velocities would


dis&c. arc, on that supposition, the normal
appear, since
co-ordm~tcs. As it is, tlie mtcgml cocaicicnts,
thoug!i uot actually
evancscont, arc small quantities, Lot p=p.+~;
thcn in our
previous notation

Thus thc type of vibration M expressed


by

or, since

01.]

EXAMPLES.

91

Let us apply this result to calculato tho disp~cemcnt of th


nodu.1point of the second mode (?'=2), which would bc iu the
iniddte, if tlie string woro uniform. In the neighbourhood of
this point, if x == + &c,tho approximate value ofy is

Hcncc when~=0,

approximately, where

To show the n.ppUca.tiojiof these formula, wc may suppose


the Irrcgularlty to consist in a. small load of mMS p~ situatcd
at x =
though thc result might bc obtained much more easUy
JIrectIy. We have

from which the value of Sa; may bc calculated by approximation.


'l'lie rcal value of 8x is, however, very simple. Thc series within
bmckcts may bc written

The value of thc definitc intgral is

and thus

Todliunter'a f)t(. C'tt~c. 255.

92

VIBRATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[91.

as may also be rcadily proved by equ:ttin~ th


periods of vibration of the two parts of th string, tha.t of the loadcd
part buing
ca.Icutatcd:),pp!-oxim:ttc]y
on the assumption of' unchanged
type.
As ~u cx:unp)Gof tlie formu!:),((!) 90 fur th
pcriod, wo
may tn.ko tho case of a. striug c:u-rymg a, smaH lo~d
at its
middie point.. Wc havo

and t)ms, if P, bc th value corrcsponding to


?' is evcu, =7~ and wheu r is odd,

= 0, wc g'ct whcu

whcrc thc summation is to bo extendecl to all t!)e odd vducs


ofNot,herthan?'. If?'=],

g!vlng t~o pitch of the gravcst tone accuratcly as far as thc


square of th ratio .
In the gencml case the value of p, correct as fur as thc
rtrstorJcriu~p.wiIIbc

02. Thc thcory of vibrations throws grcat Hght on


expansions
of arbitrary functions in sries of other <\mctlo)is o('
spccif]cd
types. Th best known cxamptc of such cxpansioDs is th~t
gencrally callod after Fourier, in which an arbitrary periodic

92.]

NORMAL

FUNCTIONS.

93

function is rcsolved into a. sries of harmonies, whose periods


arc submultiples of that of the given function. It is well known
that th diniculty of thc question is confined to thc proof of tho
~OMtM~yof the expansion if this be assumcd, th dtermination
of thc cooHjcieutsis casy cnough. Wlia.t 1 wtsh now to draw
f~ttentio)).to is, that in this, aud au immense varicty of similar
cases, th possibility of the cxptuisioli may bc infcrred from
physica.1considerations.
To fix our ideas, let us consider the small vibrations of a
tmif'u)')astring strutc)~ed bctwceu rixc<tpoints. We know from
the gcncnd thcory that th wludc motion, wha-tever it may
hc, c:tn bc aua.)ysG(tiuto a. scries of componcnt motions, each
rcpresuntcd by a, harmonie function of tho time, and capable
of cxisting by itscif. If we can discover thcsc normal types,
wc sh:dl bc in a position to rcprcscnt thc most gnral vibration
possible by combinmg thcm, assiguing to cach an arbitrary
amplitude and phase.
Aasuming that a motion is Iiarmonic with respect to time,
wo gct to dtermine tlie type an equation of th form

We infer that tlie most gencral position which tho string can
assume is capable of rcprcseuta.tion by a scrics of tlie form

which is a particular case of Fourier's theorem. There would


bc Jio dirHculty in proving th tlicorem in its most general form.
So far the string has bcen supposed uniform. But we ha.ve
only to mtrojucc a variable density, or cven a single load at
any point of th string, in ordcr to altcr compictely the expansion wliose possibility may be inferred from th dy~amical
tlicory. It is unnecessary to dwc)l hre on this subject, as
wc stmil liave furtlier examples in th
chaptcrs on the vibrations
of pa.rticular Systems, such as bars, membranes, and connned
masses of air.

94

VIBBATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

f93.

93. The dtermination of the cncnicicnts to suit


arbitra
initial conditions may always hc
rcadily enfected bv the fundamental property ofthc normal functions, and
Itmay be convenicnt
to sketch the process Iicre for
systems like strings, bars, membranes, plates, &c. in which thcre is only one dpendent variable
~tobe considcred. If
tlie normal functions, and
~be
~t, ~j, th correspondtng co-ordinatcs,

and thc problem is to dctcnninc


so as to
correspond with arbitrary values of and
If p dx bc tite mass of the eicmcnt dx, wc have from
(1)

But the expression for T in tcrms


&c.cannot contain
of~,
tiie products of tlie normal
gcnGraI.zed velocities, and therefore
cvery iutcgra.1of tlie form

Hcnce to determine 7?, wc have


only to multiply thc first
of quations (4) by pu, and
intcgratc over tlie system. Wo thus
obtain

Similarly,

93.]

CONJUGATE
PROPERTY.

95

The process is just the saine whether tho lment dx be a line,


area, or volume.
The conjugate property, expressed by (5), depends upon the
fact that the functions are normal. As soon as this is known
by the solution of a diSercntia.1 quation or othcrwise, we may
infer the conjugate property without further proof, but th property itself is most intimntely connected with th fundamental
variational equation of motion 04'.
94. If
be the potential cnergy of dformation,
th
displacement, and p thc density of the (line, area, or volume)
clement dx, th equation of virtual velociticsgives immediatety

lu this quation ~F is a symmctnca.1 function of and 8~,


as may bc rca.dily provcd from the expression for V in terms
of gencralizud eo-or<U)ia.tcs.In fa.ctif

refera to tho motion corresponding to


Suppose now that
n. normal function
so tha.t ~+?:~=0, whilc 8~'is idontinod
with another normal function M, then

Agtuu, if wc suppose, as we arc cqudiy c~tit!cd to do, that


varies as M, fu)d 8~ as K~,we gct for th same quantlty ~V,

from which th conjugate property folln-ws,if th motions rcpresentcd rcspectively by a.d M,have diffrent pcriods.
A good example of tlie connection of the two methods of
treatment will be found in the chapter on the transverse vibrations
of bars.

9G

VIBRATINO

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[95.

95. Professor Stokes' lias drawn attention to a vcry gnral


law connecting thon. p:~t~ &f t!ie f.ue mut.iunwhich dpend
on the initial cKsp~ce~M?t<s
of a system not subject to fnction~l
forces, with titosc which depend on tlie initial velocities. If
a velocity of any type bo communicated to a system at rest,
and then after a small intcrvnl of time th opposite velocity
ho communicated, tlie effoct in t)ie limit will be to start th
system without velocity, but with a displacement of th corresponding type. We may rcadily prove from this that in order
to dcduce th motion depending on initial displacements from
tbat depending on tlie initial vclocities, it is only necessary to
diSerentiate with respect to th time, and to replace th arbitrary
constants (or functions) which express th initial velocitics by
thosc which express th corrcspouding initial displacements.
Thus, if ~) bc any normfti co-ordinatc satisfying the equation

of which thc first term may bc obtaincd from.tlic second by


Stokes' rule,
Dynamical
y/t<'or;/
ofDt~'racft'on,
Can~rtf~erraM.Vol.IX.

CHAPTER

V.

VIBRA.TINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL
CONTINUED.
<)C. WlfENdissipative forcesact upon a system, the charactcr
of the motion is iu gnral more complicated. If two only of th
functions 7', and be finite, we may by a suitable lincar transformation rid our.setvcsof the products of th co-ordinatcs, and
obtain t)te n<jrm:dtypes of motion. In the preceding chapter we
h:).vcconHidcrcdth ca.soof ~= 0. Tho same theory with obvious
modifications will apply whcn 7'=0, or F=0, but these ca.ses
thougb of impurtance in othcr parts of Physics, such as Heat and
Electricity, scarcolybelong to our prsent subject.
Thc'prcscjice uf friction will not interfuECwith the rduction of
T and
to sums of squares'; but th transformation proper for
The
them will not in general suit also the requirements of
gnral quation can thcn only he rcduccd to th form
&c.
(1),
+~=~.
~+~~+~+and not to t!te simpler form applicable to a system of ono dcgrce
of frecdom, viz.
uc.
(2).
~+~+cA=~i.
Wc may, howcver, choosc whieli pair of functions we shall
rcduce, though in Acousties tlie choicc would almost always fall on
l' and Y.
97. There is, however, a not unimportant class of cases I)i
which the rduction of ait thrce functions may be effccted and
tlie theory then assumes an exceptiona.1simplicity. Under this bead
U~emost important are probably those when j~is of th same form
as T or V. The first case occurs frequently, in books at any rate,
when thc motion of cach part of th system is rcsistcd by a retarding force, proportional both to the mass and velocity of th
7
R.

D8

VIURA.TINC6YSTHMSIN GENERAL.

[97.

part. Thc same cxccptioual rduction is possible whcn J~ is a


Iinear fun.)
of T'Mf'! K cr wbon 7' is itself oft~.r' ~mp form
K J.n any of tliese cases, t)io quations of motion are of thc samc
form as for a. system of onc degrcc of frccdfnn, and tlie theory
possGsscscertiua pccuHarities which m{tke it wortLy of scparato
cousidGra.tiou.
Thc quations of motion aro obta-incd at once froin
F
~nd

in which thc co'ordinatcs arc scpa.rated.


For the froc vibrations we Itavc oniy to put < = 0, &c., and
tlie solution is of the form

and

are thc initia! values of<~n.nd<


and
The whoc motion may thcreforc bo analysod into component
motions, each of wltich corresponds to thc variation of but one
normal co-ordinate at a tinis. And tlie vibration in eacb of thse
modes is altogcther similar to that of a systcm with only one
dcgt'cc of libcrty. After a certain thnc, grcatcr or less a.ceording
to the nmount of dissipation, tbc free vibrations become insignificant, and tlie system returns sensibly to rest.
Simuttn.ncous1ywith thc frce vibrations, but in pcrfcct indcpen<)enccof thon, thcre may exist forccdvibrations dcpending on
tho quantitics tl\ Precisuly as lu. tlie case of ouc dc-groc of frecdom, thc solution of

To obtain th cor)p!cte expression for (~ wc must n.Jd to th


right-hn.ud member of (4), which makes the initud values of
and (~vanish, th terms given in (2) which rcprcscnt th rcsidue

97.]

GENERALIZATION
0F YOUNG'STHEOREM.

at time t of tho initia,! values and


th<Y-<!(.i(.'of'~i.u(~)rcducc;,I.j

99

If there be no friction,

98. The complte indepcmlence of th normal co-ordinates


leads to au interusting theorcin concerning the relation of tho
subsequent motion to th initi.d disturhancc. For if tlie forces
whicii act upon th system bc of such a clmracter ttiat' thcy do no
work ou thc Jispiaeemunt indieatcd hy
tlicn
= 0. No such
forces, huwe~er long continucd, eau produce any cn'uct on tho
motion
If it cxist, thcy cannot destroy it; if' it do not cxist,
they cannot gcncratc it. TI)c most important application of th
theorcm is wt~cntlie forces apphcd to t!)G system act at a nodo of
tlie uormi],!component
tliat is, at a point which thc componcnt
vibration in question does not tend to set in motion. Two extrme
cases uf such forces may bc specially noted, (1) whcn tho force is
an impulse, starting tlie system i'rom rest, (2) \vhen it lias acted so
long that the systum is agai)i at rest under its influence in a disturbed position. So soon as tho force ceascs, natural vibrations
set in, and in tlie absence of friction would continue for an indennite time. We infer that whatevcr in other
respects their
charactcr may be, thcy contain no component of thc
Tliis
type
conclusionis limited to cases w!tcre T, F, F'admit of simultaneous
rduction, ineludmg of course tlie case of no friction.
99. The formutniquoted in 97 are applicable to any Mnd of
force, but it will oftcu Itappen that wo have to deal only witli the
cnccts of impressed forces of tlie harmonie type, aud we
may then
advantageous]yemp)oythe more spcial formu)u3applicable to such
forces. In using normal co-ordinates, we iiave first to calculate tlie
forces cl\, (1~,&c. corrcspondingto eacli period, aud thence deduce
thc values of the co-orclinates titcmselves. If
among tl)e natural
periods (calculated without allowance for friction) there be any
nearly agreeing in magnitude with the pcriod of an imprcsscd
force, tlie corresponding componcnt vibrations will be abnormaHy
large, ultless indecd tlie force itself bo grcat)y attenuatcd ni tlie
preliminary rsolution. Suppose, for example, that a transverse
force of harmonie type and given pcriod aets at a
single point of
a stretched string. Ail the normal modes of vibration
will, in
gnerai, be excited, not however in their own propcr periods, but
7-2

~0

VIBRATIN~

SYSTEMS IN (-.ENEKAI..

['~9.

in thc period of tbe Imprcssedforce but any normal component,


v.hich b:t~u.nojj aL the p!j:nt o!' n,pp!iu.tuu~wit! not bt; cxcited.
Thc magnitude of cach componcnt t)ms dpends on two tbings:
(1) on th situation of its notics with respect tn the point at which
thc forceis appHed, and (2) on th denre of agrccmcnt betwccn
its own proper period and that of th force. It is import.fuit to
remembor that in respousc to a simp]u h:u')nomcforce, thc syst.on
will vibra-tc in gcnera.) in ~ its modes, :dthong)i in pfn-tK'uhu'
cases it ma.ysomctimcs be snOicicnt to nttc-nd to only onc of thcm
as bcirig of paramount importance.
100. When tho pcriods of tho forces oporating a.rc vo'y long
rc)~tivc!yto th free pcriods of thc systcm, :n] cqui!ibriumthcory
is sometimes ad~uate, but in such n. ca.sc tlie solution could
gcnc!Lt!y Le fuund more casily without thc use of th nonnn)
co-ordina.tcs. BcrnoulH'.sDicory of thc Tides is of this class, :Lnd
proceeds on thc assumption that thc frcc pcriods of' thc masses of
watcr found on tbe globe are s!n:d) rdativdy <.othc pcriods of thc
operative forces, in whicli case thc incrtia, of thc water might bc
As a matter of fact this supuosition is on]y
Icftoutofaccount.
vcry rougidy and pa.rtialty applicable, and we arc conseqnc'ntiy
still in tbe dark on many important points relating to thc tides.
Thc principal forces have a scmi-diurnal pcriod, whicb is not sufnciently long in relation to tbe natural pcriods concerned, to a)!o\v
of th Incrtia of Ibc water buing ncgiccted. But if th rotation of
the cartb bad bccn much slower, tbe cquilibrium theory of the
tides migbt !)ave bccn adc(ptatc.
A con'cctcd cquDibrium t!)cory is sometimes uscfuL w])enthc
pcriod of tbe imprcsscd force is sumcicntiy long in compar!son
witb most of the natund poriods of a System, but not so in thc
case of onc or two of thom. It will bc sufDcient to ta){cthc case
\vherc tucre is no friction. In thc quation
f?~ + c~)= <~, or

+ ?t~ =

suppose tbat t)ic imprcssed force varies as cos

Theti

100.]

EQU1LIHHIUMTHHORV.

101

S)!ppo'.<)o\v <'))f~thi~t'u'c'sj~stif!;(,bk\f'xcfpti)(:p''ct
uf thu sin~te normal co-ontinatc ~),. Wc )):LVC
tho) only to :uid
to th rcsult uf thc cquitibrium thcary, the diircrcncc betwcou
the truc and thc tliere ;),snut)iedv~luc uf (& viz,

Thc other extrme case ought aiso to bo noticcd. If thc


ftu'ccf! vibrations bc cxtrcmciy rn.pid, they may becoino ne:u')y
iodupendunt of th potential enei-gy of the system. Instout
of ne~cctin~
in comparison with
wc ]i:wc thcu to ncg!cet
?; iu comparisofiwith
wlucti ~ivcs
If tbere Le onu or two co-ordinatcs to w)iic)i this trcatnicnt
is not i~pplic~bic,wc may suppicniott thc result, calcuintcd on
Lhc hypothu.sisth:).t is !t)t.ogct!tcrnc~tigibic, with con'cet.ious
fur thse particular co-ordinates.
101. Before passing on to t))c ~encml theory of thc vibrations
of .Systemssnbjcct to dissipation, it may bc well to point out
Home pcculiaritics uf thc free vibrations of onntinuons Systems,
startcd by a force applicJ at a single point. On thc suppositions
aud notations of ~8, tbe con6guration at any time is detcrjnincd bv

Suppose now that tho System is held n.trest by a, force applied


at thc poijtt (?. T))Cvalue of
is detjcrmincd by th considemtion tha,t <I\8< reprcsGnbsthc work donc upon th System hy tlie
itnprcssed forces d'n'ing a hypothetical disptaecmcnt S~=S6
that is

102

VIBRATINQSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[101.

If th system hc let go from this Cuiif!?ura.tionat<=0,vc


twe a.t any sub.uu't
t:nie <

and a.t the point P

neither converges, nor diverges, with r. Th series for ~thercfore


converges wltb t)~
Again, suppose that thc system is started by an impulse
from th configuration of equilibrium. In this case initially

Dus gives

shcwing that in Uns case the series converges with n,


is more slowly tha.u in thc prcvious case.

that

101.]

SPECIAL

INITIAL

CONDITIONS.

103

In both M3. it mnybr* nbsnrvcd thah tho value of is


symmctrical with respect to 2-'aud
proving tliat tho disptaccncnt n.ttime t for th point 7-*when the force or impulse is appitpd at < is the Sinneas it would bo at () if tlie forceor impulse
h:td bueu {),pplicdat -P. This is an example of a vcry general
reciprocal theorcm, which we shall consiclerat !eugt)i pt'csc!itly.
As a thit'jd case wc may supposa th body to start from rcst
as dcfur)ned by a force M)!bn~y f~M~M~c~, over its lcn~t.1),
arca, or vuluinc. \Ve rcadily Hud

The series for will hc more convergent than whcn thc force
is conccntratedi)i a siugtc point.
In exactly tlie sa.mc w~y wc may trcat th case of a continuous body whonc motion is Eubjcct to dissipn.tion,pruvidod
tliat th tlirce futictions 2~ J~
bc simulta.ncousiy reducible,
but it is not necessary to write dowu tlie formuJ.
102. If th three mccha.nica.Ifunctions T, -F'and V of any
system be not simultancousiy reducibic, tlie natural vibrations
(as has aiready bcen observed) arc moru complica.tcd in tlicir
charactcr. Whcn, lowever, th dissipa.tion is small, the mctttod
of rduction is still usofnl; and this class of casusbcsidcs being
of sonc importancu in Itscif will form a good introduction to
tlie more gcncrat theory. We suppose thcu. that 2' and V arcc
cxprcsscd as sums of squares

Thc quations of motion a.re accord!ng]y

&c. arc to be trcatcd as small.


in which the coefficients &
]f tlicrc were no friction, ttic abovc systcm of c(}uationswuuld

JU4

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

F 103.

bc satisfied by supposing onu co-ordinate


to vf~' suitahly,
while t,!ic other co-ordinatc-svanish. In the actual case thero
will be a corrusponding sohttion in which the value of
any ot)icr
co-ordi!mtc will busmall rclativcty to 6,
Hence, if wc omit tc'rm.sof the second ordc-r,thc ?' equation
bceomes,
from which wc infcr tliat
varies n-pproxim~tuly :LSif tliere
were no c!)angc duc to friction in thc type of vibration. If
(A
v:u'yase'wcubt:utitodct(;rmiuc~
Thc roots of this quation arc comptux, but tho real
part
is small in eomparison with tlie imaginary part.
From thc
quation, if wc introduce tlie supposition that
a-Mtho co-ordinates vary as e" we gut

This cquatinn dctcrmines


approxiniatdy thc altcrcd type
of vibration. Sincc thc chief part
la ima~hary, wo sco
of
tliat thc co-ordinn.tcs arc a.pproxi!natc!y in the sa.me
phMc,
~<~
</tC6<
~j~Me f~y'e~ ( ~MM?'/er
per~o~ /?'o!~ </<e~aM
Hcnec wttcn thc function F docs not rcduee to a sum
q/'
of squares, thc chamctcr of thc
c]cmentary modes of vibration
is ic.sssimp)u th~n othei-wisc,aud thc Y~rious
parts of tlie System
arc no longer simuttanconsly in thu samc phase.
We provcd abovu that, w)tC!ititc friction is small, the value
of y?, may bc calodatcd approximatuty without aUowancc for
thc change uf tyj)e but hy means of
(6) we may obtain a still
closur approximation, in winch thu squares of th small
quaritities
are i-ctahied. Thu ?- quation (3) givea

~e!u:uimg' part ofthc tenus mdudcdundcrS


thc con-uctiun lias no uifuct un Litc ruai
p.n-t uf
titc r:T.teuf dceay (lej)cnds.

bcingrcit),
oa w}dch

103.]

SMALL DISSIPA TIVE FORCES.

105

103.

Wc now returu to ihb cunsidratioti uf thc g.'n<t..J


cquations of 84.
If
&c. bc th co-ordinates an<I
&c. tlie forces,
wc !ia.vc

For thc free vibt'atiuus ~F,, &c. va.msh. If \7 bc thc dctcnninantt

thc result of elimiuating from (1) aU t!tc co-ordinates but onc, is


V~=0.
(4).
S~ncc \7 nnw co))taius odd powcrs of' D, t!)G2?~ roots of tho
= 0 no jouter uccur in equal positive :uht
cquahon
ncgativc
piurs, Lut cot)ti).in!). ruai as wu!! as an imagmary p~rt. TIte
compJutu intgra! may ]n)w<;vcrstil bc writtun
= ~c~ + J'g~~ + Z?e~+ 7/e' +.
(5),
where thc pairs uf cunjug-u.tcroots are
uc. CorruMpoiding to cach rot, thcro is a. particular solution such as
~=~~
~=~
&c.,
~,=~
in which thc ?Yt~'osj'l,
arc determined by thc equations of motion, and oniy thc absohjtc value ronains
arbitrary.
In t!te prsent case ]iowcvur (wlicre contains odd
powers of Z))
thse ratios aru not in gcncral i'c:d, and therefore th variations
oi thcco-oi'din:Ltes'&c.:u'c
not synchronous in phase. If
we put /~=a,+t/3,, ~=a,-t/3~,
&c., wc sec tha.t none of th
quantifies a can bc positive, since in that case thc energy of
thc motion would Incrcase with the time, as we know it cannot
do.
Enoug)i bas now beeti said on thc snbjcct of the froc vibrations of a System in general. Any further illustration that it
may rcqnirc will bc anorded hy t!)c discussion of the case of two
dugrees of frccdom, 112, and by the vibrations of strings and uthur
spcial bodics with whicli \vc shaU soon be occnpicd. We rsume
ti)e quations (1) with thc view of invcstigating further tbc
nature of forced ~m~to;

10G

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS

IN GENERAL.

[104.

104. In or~r to cnmu.atc from thc crjnnH~ns ~!Lt'~ .)ot-dinatcs but onc (~), oper~tc ou tilcm in succession with the
minor dctenuinimts

and a.dd the results togcthcr; and in IH manncr for thc othcr
co-ordinates. We ttius obtain as the cquivalcut of thc urigina.!
system of quations

in which the dincrentiations of ~7 are to be made without recognition of the cquaHty subsistmg botwecn e, and e
Thc forces
&c. arc any whatcver, subject, of course,
to tlie condition of not producing so grcat a displacement or
motion that tlie squa.res of th small quantities become sensible.
If, as is ofteu t!ie case, the forces opcrating he !nade up of two
parts, one constant with respect to timc, and tlie other periodic,
it is convenicnt to separatc in hn~ginn.tion tlic two classes of
cncets produced. T!ie effect duc to tlie constant forces is exactly
the same as if they acted alonc, and is found by th solution
of a statical problem. It will therefore gcneraHy bc sufficicnt
to suppose th forces pcriodic, tlie effects of any constant forces,
such as gravity, being mcrcly to altcr t!tG configuration about
which tlie vibrations proper arc exccutcd. Wo may thus without
any rcat loss of gcnera]ity confine ourscives to perlodic, and
therefore by Fourlor's thcorcm to harmonie forces.
Wc might thereforc assume as expressions for ~P,, &c. circular
functions of th tune but, as we sliidi have frquent occasion
to recognise in th course of this work, it is usualty more convenicnt to employ an imaginary exponential function, such as
~'c' where~Is a constant which may bc complex. When th
corrcsponding symbolical solution is obtained, its real and
Imaginary parts may be separated, and belong respectlvc!y to
tiie real and Imaginary parts of thc data. In thia
way tlie

104.]

FORCED VIBRATIONS.

107

gam.sconsider~biy iu brevity, Inn.smuch~s ditfcrpntmtton!!


~n!)Jy-t['!
anfl altrations of phnsc a.rc expresscd by mcrcly modifying
th compicx cofHcicntwithout chang-ingthc form of th functiou.
We therefore write

Th minor dctcrmmanta of the type

arc rational intgra.!


re

fonctions of the Bymbo!7), and operatc on


thelaw

&c. according to

&c.are certain complex constants. Aud thc symwhere


bolical solutious arc

wherc (~) dnotes the rcsult of substituting for D in


Considcr f!t'st the case of a System exempt from friction. ~7
and its (liHereutial coefHcieuts arc titen c~M functions of D,
so that ~7(~) is rca!. Tbrowiug a.way th imaginary part of
thc solution, writing ~' for ~t~ &c. wc hve

&c. (in thc case of more


If we suppose tliat the forces
than one goiera.Uzcd component) liave ail thc same pliasc, they
may be cxpressod by
and then, as is casily sccn, th co-ordiuatcs themsolvcs agrcc
in phase with tlic forces

Th amplitudes of tlie vibrations dpend among othcr tlungs


on the magnitude of \7(?'~). Now, if thc period of th forces
bc the same as one of those bctonging to tlie frce vibrations,
(ip) = 0, a.ud tlie amplitude becomcs iniiiiite. This is, of

J08

VIHRATINC:

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[104.

course, just thc casu iu which it js essential to introduce the


Ct'nHtdct'f~tiun
of friction, from wltich no natural system is ruaHy
exempt.
If thcrc bc friction, ~7(ip) is eompiex but it may bc dividcd
into two pa.rtsonc rca.1a)id thc otho' puruly Itn~ginary,ofw!iic)i
tlie latter dpends entirely on the friction. Thus, if wc put
V (~)=~ (~) +~ V.(~).
(7),1
and therefore real. If as bcforc
\7.~are eveu functions of
J,=Vt\e~ our solution takes thc form

Wc ha.vesaid that ~(~) dpends entircly on thc friction but


it is not truc, on the othur hand, th:).t 7,(~) is cxa.ctiythc s~me,
as ift)tcre had been no friction. Howcver, this is approximatciy
the ca~e,if the friction ho sma!]; bccausc any pn-rtcf ~(~), which
dpends on thc first power of th coe~cients of friction, is nocessari)y imaginary. W!)cncvcr there is n, coincidence between tho
period of thc force and tliat of onc of th frcc vibratious, \7~;))
thcrcforc
va.Dishcs,f~ndwe ha.ve tan y = ce :).u<~

indicating a vibration of large amplitude, only Hmitcd by the


friction.
On thc hypothesis ofsmai friction, is in general smaU, and
so also is T, except in case of approximatc (.-qnality of pcriods.
With certain exceptions, thereforc, the motion bas nearly th
samo (or opposite)phase with tlie force that excites it.
Wlicn a.force expressed by a harmonie term acts on a system,
the resulting motion is everywttcrc harmonie, and rcta.ins tlie
original period, providcd always that th squares of the displacements and velocitics may bc neg]cctc<1. This important principle
wa~ cnuuciatcd by Laphicc and a.pplicd by him to the theory of

INEXORABLE
MOTIONR.

104.]
J

lOf)

the tidus. Its.grcftt gcncratlty was atso rccogt)!scdhy Sir John


Hcrsche!, to witomwo owc a formai domonstr~tionof its truth*.
If th force bc not a. harmonie function of the time, thc types
of vibration 'ni dtfferent parts of the system are in.gnral diffrent
from each other and from that of th force. Thc harmonie
fonctions are thus th on!y oncs winch prserve their type nnchanged, wldcii, as was rcmn.rked in thc Introduction, is a strong
rcason for anticipating that thcy correspond to simple toncs.
105. We now tnrn to a. somewhat diffrent Idnd of forccd
vibration, where, instcad ofgiven forces as hitherto, given inexorable wo~t'o~sare prescribed.
arc givcn
If we suppose t)ta,t the co-ordinates
ftinctions of the thno, while th forces of thc rcmaiuing types
vanish, thc quations of motion divide theinselvcs Into two groups, viz.

In cach of the ~?' quations of thc latter group, thc first r


tcrms are known cxphcit fnnctions of thc time, and hve thc sa.tne
cH'ectas know)i furccs a.cti)ig on the system. Thc Ct~uationsof
this gronp are thcrcfore su~icicnt to (tt.'t.crmincthc uuknowu
quautities; after whic)i, If rct~uircd, thc forces ucccss:u'yto maLinta,m tlie pi'cscribcd motion may bc Jetermiucd from thc rirst
group. It is obvions tit~t thcrc is no esscutial diffrence betwciCti
the two classes of prohtcms of forecd vibnitions.
10G. The motion of a systcm dcvold of friction and cxccuting
slinpic harmonie vibrations in consquence of prescribed variations
of sorneof thc coordinat.es,posscsscs a pcculiarity paraUel to thosc
considcred in 74, 7~. Let
=

= J~ cos
in

whicit

thc
7~)cye.

quantitics
~<~ro~.

~l,.
art. 823.

arc

-j

eos ~<,

regarded

&c.
as

givcn,

AJHO 0)<f/t'))f.< < ~"<rf'))fMy,

whi)c

fino.

thc

110

VIDRATING

SYSTEMS

1~ GENERAL.

from tlie expressions for

l' and V, 82,


~~T
2(y+

[lOG.

=~(~+~,)~/+.+(~+~)j~+.,
+~(~u)~+.+(~J~~+.jcos2~

from whic)i we see that tlie


quations of motion express tlie condition th.t A', tlie variable part of
y+ r, ~i,ich is proportional to
Hc,J~+.
+(~)~~+,~
shall bc station~-y in v~uc, for
variations of tlie claautitics
~r.,
~I, Lcb bc ttie value of~ n~turat to thc
System wlieu
under
tlie
restraitit
vjbratiug
dcHned Ly tlic ratios

Krom this we sec that if


be ecrtainfy less than
tbat is,
if the prc.scr.bed pcriod be
grcatcr than any of tllose natural to
the system uuder the partial constraint
rcprescuted by
~t.J,
then is necessarlly positive, aud tl~e
.tationary val~e-t!~re can
bc but ouc-~ an absolute
minin~un. For a similar rea.so~ if the
prs nbed ponod be less tiuL.iany of tliose natural te thc
pa,-tia)iy
constraincd System is an absolute ~xhu~
but
a~braica!Iy,
an
arit)nuctieat!y absoluto rnini.num. But whcu lies witbin thc
range of possible vaines of~,
n.ay bc positive or ngative, and
th actual value is not th
greatest or least
natura! vibration is cor~sistentwith the possible, Wi~enevera
hnposed conditions that
will ue thc vibration assumed. Tj.e
y.,l.Uc part of ?'+
zero.
For convenience of treatment .ve
hve considered apart t),e
two grt cl~es <.fforced vibrations
and f~ vibrations; but hc c
of
is, course, noth.ng to prcvcnt their
coexistence. After tl.e lapseo
of a .sumc~nt interval of
time, the frce vibrations ahvays
appcar, howcver small thc friction
be. The case of abso.nay
lutely uo fnchon is purc!y idca!.
Ti.crc is onc caution,
lowever, ~Lich may not bc supGrrIuou.
in respect to thc case whcrc
givon ~Jare
forcj~

106.]

RECIPROCAL
THEOREM.

111

System. Suppose, as before, that the co-ordinates


arc
wh' '~L-n<x' or .non-cxistcnco
givou. Thf'u ~t); .frc't)\'ibt'it.{.iui')~
is a matter of indiffurencoso fur as th forced motion is concerned,
mnst Le understood to be such as th system is capable of, when
the co-ordinates
are not aKo~ <o MtryJ~'o~?~zero. In
order to preveut their varymg, forces of thc
corresponding types
must bc iutroduced; so that from one point of view th motion in
question may be regarded as forced. But tlie applied forces are
mercly of the natu.rc of a constraint; and their ct'ect is the same
as a limitation on the frecdom of thc motion.
107. Very rcmurkable reciprocal relations exist between tlio
forces aud motions of different types, which may be regarded as
extensions of th cerrespondi.ng theorems for systems in winch
only For T bas to be considered ( 72 and 77, 78). If we suppose that ail thc component forces, except twoF and ~F arc
zero, we obtain from 104,

We nowconsidcr two casesof motion for the same system first


whcn~ vanishes, Mtd secondiy (with da.shcd Ictters) whcn
va.nisitc.'i. Ii"~K=0,

In thse quations ~7and its dticrentia! coefficientsarc rational


Intgral functions of tlie symbol D; and sincc m cvury case
~r.= ~.r' V is a. symmetrical detcrminaut, and thercfurc

Hcucc wo sec that if a. force


act on the system, tlie coordinatc
is rclatcd to it in the same way as the co-ordinate
is retatcd to tlic force
whcn this latter foi-ceis supposed to act
a.Lone.
lu addition to thc motion hre contcmplated, thcre may be
frcc vibrations dpendent on a. disturbance ah-eadycxistin~ at th

112

VIBRATINO

SYSTEMS IN

GENERAL.

[107.

moment subsquent to which ai! new sources of disturbance are


included in ~F; but thse vibrations are thcmsc)ves tho e~-ct of
iorc~s \t'hicii acLed previousiy. However sinail th
dissipation
tliere
must
be
an
interval of time after which free vibramay be,
tions die out, and beyond winch it is
unnecessary to go in taking
account of the forces wbich hve acted on a
system. If therefore
we include undcr
forces of sumcicnt reinotcness, there are no
independcnt vibrations to be considered, and in this way tlie
theorem may be cxtendcd to cases which wouldnot at first
sigbt
appeM- to corne within its scope. Suppose, for example, that the
systcm is at rcst in its position of equilibrium, and then begins to
bc acted on by a force of the first type,
graduatty Increasing in
magnitude from zero to a finite value
at which point it ceases
to incrca.sc. If now at a given
epoc)i of timo the force be suddcn!y dcstroyed and reinain xcroc-vurafto-wards, frc vibrations of
tI)G systcm wIUset in, and continue until
destroyed by friction.
At any tirne t snbsc()ucnt to th given
cpoch, tlie co-ordinate
has a vatnc dpendent upun t proportional to
T))c tiicorem
allows us to assert that this value bears the same rcJation to
at t))c same mnmcnt hve borne
as~outd
to~ if thc original
cause of the vibrations bad been a force of th second
type increasing g.-aduai)yfrom xcro to
and thcn suddenly vanishing
at th given cpoch of timc. Wc ))avc
ah-cady had an example of
tins in 101, and a like result obtains wiien th cause of th
origin:).!disturbance is nn Impulse, or, as in the problem of the
pianofortc-string, a variable force of finite though short duration.
ln tljesc app)icationsof our theorem we obtain results
rclating to
h'ee vibrations, considercd as t]jc residual effect of forces whosc
actual opration may ]tavc becn long bcforc.
~08. In an important e)ass of cases th forces and
are
harmonie, a)td of th samc pcriod. We may rcprnscnt them
by
and
J,e~
wherc J,
J~ may be assumcd to bc ?- If tbc
forces be in thc same t-hase at the moments
compared. Tito
results may then be written

108.]

RECIPROCALTHEOREM-.

11~

SIncc tlie ratio


Y~ is by hypothesis real, th same is
true of th ratio
which signifies tha.t the motions
represcnted by those symbols are iu tlie same phase. Passing
to rcal quantifies wu tU~ystate the thcorem thus
= A~cos pt, c(c<t'H~
o~ ~e s~/s<e~ ~n'6 rise to
If a force
= A~ cos pt
<<?~to~t'o~ = 0A, cos (pt e) ~cn wt'~ (t force
~ro~t;cc </tC?~o<K)?t
'= ~A~'cos (pt c).
If thcre Le no friction, e will Le zero.
If J, =
thcn '=~.
But it must be remembcrcd that
thc forces ~F, and
are not nccessarily comparable, any more
than thc co-ordinates of corresponding types, one of wluch for
example may represent a linea-r and another an angula.r disp!accmcnt.
Thc reciprocal theorem may bc statcd in sever~l ways, but
before proceeding to thse we will give another investigation,
not requiring a knowlcdgc of dterminants.
If
and
be two sets
of forces and corrcspuuding disptacctnents, the quations of
motion, 103, give

New,
opcrator
multiply
?'/)for j9
regard to

if ai the forces vary as e' the cfFect of a symboUc


such an e~ ou any of thc quantttics
is mcrcly to
that quanti ty Ly thc constant found Ly substituting
iu
Supposing this substitution juade, and havicg
tlie rclationa e~ = e~, we may write

wltich is tlie expression oi'tlie reciprocal ruiatiuii.


~9. lu thc applications that we arc abuut to makc it
will be snpposcd throughout that the forces of ai types In:t
two (whicli wc mn.y as well take as the first and secoud) are
zero. Thus

114

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[109.

Th con'icquences of this equation may be cxhibited in thrce


dinerent ways. In tlie first we suppose that
whcnco

~=0,

~/=0,

~=~'
~(2),
shewing, as before, that the relation of
to
in th first
case when ~==0 is tlie same as th relation of
to
in
tlie second case, when
= 0, tlie identity of
relationship' extending to phase as well as amplitude.
A fe\v examples may promote the comprehension of a
law,
whose extrme generality is not unilkely to cuuvey an
impression
of vagnencss.
If .P and Q bc two points of a horizontal bar
supported in
any manner (c.g. with one end clamped and tlie other frce), a
givcn harmonie transverse force applied at P will give at any
moment the same vertical dencction at Q as would have been
found at
had the force acted at (~.
If we take angular instcn.d of lincar
displacements, the
theorcm will l'un :-A given harmonie
couple at P will give the
same ?'o~~o~ at as the couple at would
givc at P.
Or if one dispJacemcnt bc Jincar and the ot))er
angular, th
rcsult may be stated thu.s Suppose for thc first case that a
harmonie couple acts at .P, and for th second that a vertical
force of the same pcriod and phase acts at Q, thon th linear
displacement at Q in t!tc first case bas at cvcry moment tho
same phase as the rotatory displacement at
in th second,
and tbe amplitudes of th two dplacements are so related that
th maximum couple at P would do the same work in
acting
over th maximum rotation at P due to th force at
Q, as th
maximum force at <~would do in acting
through tlie maximum
displacemcnt at Q due to the couple at P. In this case th
statement is more compHcatcd, as the forces,being of different
kinds, cannot be taken equa!.
If we suppose thc period of th forces to be
excessivoly long,
tbe momentary position of the system tends to concide with
that in which it would be mamtained at rest
by th then acting
forces, and tlie equilibrium theory becomes applicable. Our
theorem thcn reduces to th statical one proved in 72.

As a second example, suppose that in a


space occupied by
air, and either whol]y, or partly, connncd by sotid boundaries,

109.J

APPLICATIONS.

115

thcre arc two sp)tercs and


whosc centres have one denre
of freeclom. Thoi a. periodic force acting on ~4 will
produco
tho same motion in j?, as if the parts werc
intcrdtangcd and
thi.s, wliatevcr mcmbra.ncs, strings, forks on rsonance cases, or
other bodie.scapable of bcing set into vibration, may be
present in
their neighbourhood.
dnote two points of a solid etastic
Or, if A and
body
of any shape, a force paraUcl to
acting at A, will producc
the same jnotion of the point parallcl to Oras an
cquaL force
would producc in the point ~1,
pn.ra!Iel to Oy acting at
pM'a!!clto ~J~.
Or aga,in, lot A a)nl Le two points of a
space occupied by
air, between which arc situatcd obstacles of any kind. Thcu a
sound originating- at Ais perccived at B with the samc
intensity
as that witit which an cqual sound originating at jS would be
perccived at ~i/ Thc obstacle, for instance, might consist of a
rigid
wall picrcecl witli one or' more holcs. This
example corresponds
to the optical law that if by any combination of renectin~ or re.
fracting surfaces one point can be seen from a second, the second
can also bc seen from thc first. Fn Acoustics the sound shadows
arc usually only partial in consquence of the not
insignificant
value of th wave-Iength in comparison with thc dimensions of
ordinary obstacles and tlie rcciprocal relation is of considerable
interest.
A further example may be taken from
electricity. Lct there
be two circuits of insulated wire /1 and B, and in their
neighbourifood any combination of wu'c-eircuits or solid conductors
in communication with condensers. A periodie electro-motive
force in th circuit A will give rise to th same currcnt in
as would be excited in il if the cicctro-motivc force
opcratet)
inR
Our last example will bc takcn from th
theory of conduction
and radiation of heat, Ncwtou's la,w of
cooling being assuvned
as a basis. Th temprature at any point ~t of a
conducting and
radiating system due to a steady (or harmonie) source of hcat
at is th same as th temprature a.t due to an
equal source
at
Moreover, if at any time tlie source at B be removed th
whole subsequent course of temprature at A will be the same
as it would be at B if th parts of.D and A were
interchanged.
1 Helmhoitz,
Bd.Lvn. ThoBonnesmustbe Rnchas iu the absenceof
C'r<~<
obstacles
woulddiffusethernselyos
directions.
eq~Iy in ~11
82

n~

VIBRATINH

SYSTEMS IN CHNKRAL.

[110.

HO. The second way of stating the reciproc~ theorcm is


fu'rivedat by t~king in (1) of 1()9,

to
ni th nrst case, wlien = 0,
shewing that thc relation of
in tlic second case,
to
is the samc as the relation of
wheit ~=0.
Tlius in tite cxampio of the rod, if thc point P be held at
rcst wliilc a givcu vibration is imposed upon (by a force thcrc
applicd), th reaction at jP is thc same hotli in amplitude and
if that point were beld at rest and
phase as it would bc at
thc givcn vibration were imposed upon 7~.
So if J- a.nd bc two electric circuits in th ncighbourhood
whether closed or terminating
of any uumber of othcrs, C, D,
in condensers, and a givcn periodic enrrcnt bo cxcitod in ~1 by
th necessary cicctro-motive force, th Induccd cicetro-motive
force ii) is thc saine as it wou!d be In ~t, if thc parts of ~1
and
wcre Intcrchangcd.
TItC tinrd form of statemcnt is obtaincd by putting in (1)
of 5 109.

nets
to
in tho first case, \vhpn
proving that th ratio of
in tlie second
to
abne, is tlie ngative of tlie ratio of
cqual to zero.
case, whentho forces arc so rclatcd as to kecp
Thus if th point P of the rod be held at rest while a
periodic force acts at Q, tho rcaction at P bears tho samc numerical ratio to the force at Q as thc disptaccment at Q would bcar
to th displa.ccmcut at P, if th rod wcre causcd to vibrate by
a force applied at .P.
111. Thc reciprocal theorem bas been proved for ait Systems
in which the frictional forces can be represented by tlie function F,
but it is susceptible of a further and an important generaHzation.
We have indeed proved th existence of the function F for
a large class of cases whcrc th motion is resisted by forcf's
proportional to thc absotut.u or relative velocities, but theru arc

11L]

TWO DECREESOF FREDOM.

117

oth~r sources of dissipation not to be brought under this hcad,


whoseeffects it is eqnally important to include for exemple, th
dissipation due to the con(htction or radiation of hcat. Now
f).tt))oughit bc truc that the forces in thse cases arc not for ~M
~)~6'~e ~huns in a constant ratio to the velocitics or displacements, yct in any actual case of pcriodic motion (T) tliey arc
ncccssarity periodic, and tttcrcforc, wliatevur tlicir phase, expressible by a sum of two tonns, one proportional to th displacement (absolute or relative) and tho other proportional to the
vulocity of th part of the system aneetcd. If th coemcicnts
bo thc same, not ncccs.sarity for ail motions whatever,
a~
&br
motions u/e~
T, the fmiction ~exists in thc only sonse
requirud for our prsent purposc. In fact since it is exclusively
with motions of pcriod T titat t)ie Dtcorcm is concerncd, it is
p):un!y a matter of indiiTcruncc whct)icr tlie fonctions Y; F
are dpendent upon T or not. Thus cxtendcd, tho theoi-em is
pct-hapssufliciently gnera) to covo.-tho wtiole ricld of dissipative

forces.

It is important to remember Hiat the


Prnicipio of Reciprocity
is ilmited to systems which vibratc about a
configuration of e~t~M~)t, and is therefore not to bo apptied wititont reservation to
such a problem as tliat presented by thc transmission of sonornus
wavcs through tbe atmosphre wi)C)i clisturbed
by wind. Thc
vibi-iLtionsmust also bc of such a charaeter that tlie
square of the
motion can bo ncglectcd througitout; ot))crwise our dmonstration wou!d not hotd good. Other
apparent exceptions dpend on
a misunderstanding of thc principle itsclf, Carc mnst be takcn
to observe a propcr corrcspoudcnce between the forces and displacements, the ruie being that th action of th force over tho
disphccmcnt is to represent wo~ ~ne. T)ms co!~)~ correspond
to )'oMw:s,~re~M?'Mto inercmcnts of ~'o~trne,aud so on.
112. In Chapter III. we considered th vibrations of a
system with onc degrec of frccdom. TIie remainder of the prsent Chapter will he devoted to sonic detaits of the case whcre the
degi'ccsof freedom arc two.
If and y dnote the two co-ordinatcs,t)ic
expressions for 2'
and F are of the form

118

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[112.

so that, m thc absence of friction, the cquations of motion arc

Thc constants L, J)f, -~V;~1,7~,C, arc not entu'ely arbitr~u'y.


Since l' and F arc essuutiallypositive, thc foHowing mequa)itics
juust be satis~icd

Zy>

~1C>~ .((!).

Moreovcr, L, N, ~t, C must thcmsdvcs be positive.


We procecd tu examine th ciTuctof tliese restrictions onthe
roots of (5).
Iti th first place t!)e tin'ec coefficients in the equation are
positive. For the first and third, this is obvions from (G). Tlie
cocMcicnt of
m winch, as is sccn from (6), ~/ZV~6~ is ncccssarily grcatcr than
J/7- Wu concludc thttt tlie vulucs of
if rca!, arc both ngative.
It rem:t.Insto provc that tlie roots are m ihct rcal. Dm eoito bc satisHcd is that thc i'olluwing quantity be not nga(.Uti<j)t
tive

whieh shows that thc condition is satisncd, since ~A~lC-Jt/~


is positive. This is titc au~ytica! proof th:tt thc vaincs uf are
hoth rca! and ngative a fact tlu~t might I~vc bccn
anticipatud
-iUtout :uiy an:dysis from titc pltysica.1constitution of thc
systum,
whosc vibrations thoy serve tu express.

113.]

ROOTS 0F

Thc two values of

DETERMINANTAL

EQUATION.

119

are different, uniess &o~

Th common spherical pcndulum is an example of this case.


By mcans of a suitable force F the co-ordinatc may be preveuted from varying. T]to systcm thon loses one dugrcc of frcc<!o:n,and thc purnjd eon'cspouding to thc rcmaining onc is i)i
general diUbrent from cither of thosc possible beforc thu introduction. of 3~. Suppose tliat tlie types of the motions obttUtiedby
titus preventing iu tuni the variation of and x are rcspectively
are thc roots of the quation
Tlien
e~
(L~ + A) (~V~-t. C) = 0,
and R Hclice
bcuig that obtained from (4') by supprcssing
(4) may itscif bc put into the form
B)'
(~ -~) = (~+
(8),
Zy(~)
wltich shews at once tliat ncitlicr of tlie roots of X"can be interA little fui'thcr examinaa.ud
modiatc in value betwoeu
tion will provc that onc of the routs is grciLtcrthan hoth the quan.tities
and the othcr loss tha!i both. For if wc put
(.V~ + ~)=,
/) (~ ~)
/(~) = L~(\'
when
wc sec tbttt whcn is vcry smati, f is positive (J~J~);
deercasca (id~cbr&icaDy)to
f dingos sign and bccomcs
there is thcreforc a root; imd :t.)so
ncgativc. Bctwcoi 0 a.nd
aud ce. Wc conchtdutha.t thc
by sintii:).)'rcasoning bctwccn
tones obt:t.iuedby subjecting t)ic systcm to tbe two kinds of constnuut in qnustio)i ar bot)) intunncdia.te In pitc)i bctwecn tbc
tonos giveu by t)~Gnntuml vibrations of tlic system. lu p:ii'ticu!a.r
cases /t
may bc cqua.1,and then

This propositionmn.ybc gcnerulixcd. ~h?y ~~ndof constr~mtt


wLidi Icuvcs thc System still in posscssiol of onc (tcgrcc of frcedom may be rcganicd ~s thc impositiou of n, fot'ccd relation
bctwccu t)ic co-ordiuates,such as

120

VIBRATINGSYSTEMSIN GENERAL.

[112.

a.nd any othcr homogeneous Hncar funcNow if Cta?+


tiult r.f .'s rmd .y,~o tfd!cn ~s n~w vnrinUcp~t.ijo eftinc argument
provcs tha.t tlic single pcriod possible to thc systc'm after t)io
introduction of tho constmint, ja intermc(U:Ltcin va.!nc bctweoi
thosc two in which tlic natural vibrations wcrc prcviousty pcribrmcd. Convcrs~Iy, t!)C two periods which bccomc possibJc
whcn constraint is rcmoved, lie ouc on cn.c!tsi()cof tho original
period.
If tlie values of ."be cquat, winch can on)y iMLppen
when
Z

~=.1

thc introduction uf :Lconstmint h~s no crrcet on t)~c pcriod fur


instanco, thc !imit~ti(jn of a sphcrical pundutum to one vertical
phme.
113. As a. simple cxampte of a sysLem wittt two (tegrecs of
wc may take a. strctehcd string of ]en~t)i itsdf withH'CL'doni)
out inortin, but cnrryiug two uqua.) nasses /?t nt distfuiccs a a.nd
6 froin onc end (Fig. 17). Tuusion =
rig. 17.

Sincc T and F are not of thc satne form, it fullows t)tat thc
two periods of vibration aru in cvcry case nncqua!.
If tl)e loftds be symmct.ricn.Hya.ttactio(~ thc cLa.mctcr of thc
two componcnt vibrations is vident. In the first, which wil! Itave
t)Lelonger period, titc two weights move togcthcr, se that a' and y
rcma.inequ:d throughout the vibration. In tho second x n.nd arc
nmncriea!Iy cqua!, but opposcd in sign. Th middie point of the
string thon rcmains at rest, and tlie two masses arc aiways to
bc found on a straight Une passing through it. In the first case
= 0, and in thc second x + = 0 so tliat x
and + y
arc thc ncw vanahies winch must he assmncd in rdcr to rcducc
the functions T and Fsimultancousty to a sum of squares.

113.']

INTERMITTENT

VIBRATIONS.

121

For example, if th masses bc so attaclied as to divide th


string into three equal parts,

fro.n which we obtain a.sth complete solution,

where, as usual, thc constants


the initial circumstances.

a, 7?,j8 arc to be dctcrmincd by

114. Whoi thc two Jiatural periods of a systcm are nearly


sometimes prcequal, the phe~omcnon of intermittent vibration
scnts itself in a very curions manuer. In order to ittustratc tins,
wo ma.yrecur to ttic string loadcd, we will now suppose, with two
of th
equal masses at distances from its ends cqun.1to one-fourth
length. If thc middte point of tlie string were absolutcly iixcd,
th two sinuhu' aystons on eitlicr side of it would hc compictcly
two
independent, or, if thc whole be considered as one system, the
periods of vibration would bc cqnal. Wc now suppose that
Instead of bcing absolutely nxed, tlie mid(Uc point Is a.ttachcd to
it is
sprints, or other machincry, dcstitute of mcrtia, so that
to incrtia is to
capable of yichling s~/t~y. The reservation us
avoid the introduction of a third dcgrce offrocdom.
From th symmctry it is vident that thc fundamcntal vibrations of tlic system arc thosc rcprcscnted by a;+y and a?-y.
Thcir periods arc shghUy diffrent, bccause, on account of the
yieldin~ of thc centre, thc potential energy of a dplacement
\vhcn and v are equal, is less than t)iat of a disp!acemcnt
whcn x and y are opposite; whcrcas ttie kinctic nergies arc
the samc for the two kinds of vibration. I)i th solution

wc arc theroforc to regard M'! as near)y, but not f~ntc, cqu:d.


Now let us suppose that initially a? aud n: vanisi). Thc conditions are

122

VIBRATING

SYSTEMS IN GENERAL.

[114.

wiuch give approximatcly


Thus

Thc va)uo of thc co-ordinatc .T?is berc


approxitoatL'iy cxprcsscd by I~u-rnouictcrm, whosc an.phtudc, being
proportiona!
to
t, is a slowly varying harmonie function of t!ic thne.
sinTIic vibrations of thc co-ordinates are tbcrcforc
and
so adjnstcd t]~t each iuuplitudu v~)ns)icsat tbe Intermittent
moment tl~at the
othcr is at its !uaximum.
T)us phenomenon may bc pret.Uiyshcwn
by a tunin~ fork of
vcry low pitcb, hcavUy wui~htud )Lttbc ends, i~d fh-m!y'hdd
by
t!ic
staik
iuto
a
screwing
massive support. W!tcn tLc fork vibrato
in thc normal nanncr, th
rigidity, or want 01 rigidity, ot' th
stalk ds not comc into p!ay; but if' tbc
di.spj~ccmcntsof'the two
Le
m
t)ic
prongs
samc direction, t~c .s!ig)it yidding of Hie sta!k
cntails a small change of pcriod. If t)ic furk be
excitcd by strikh~
oneprong,t)ic vibrattons are intermittent, and appcar to transfetl~emscivesback~-ard.sand forward.sbctwecu th
prongs. U.dc.sa,
howcvcr, t)ie suj~port bu vcry firm, Utc abnorm:d vibration, which
involvcs a .notion of th centre of Inertia, is soon
dissipated and
of
thon,
course, tbe vibration appcars to bccomc
stcady If thc
iork be mcrc)y hctd in thc hand, t!ic
p!ienomeuon of' mtennittenec
cannot bc obtaiucd at a!
115. TItc strctclicd string with two attaclt(jd
nasses May bc
uscd to ~lustrale somc gnerai
principies. For example, ths period
of t!tc vibmt.ou which remalus
pos~ibte wbcu onc mass i.s !te)d
at rcst, is Intermedi~te between th two frec
pericds. Any incrcase ni eithcr Joad
depresses t!ic pitcb of both th natural
vibrations, and co~vcrsciy. If t)ie new load be situated at a
point
ci th string not,
cuinciding witb tlic places whci-c t)ie other !oa()s
are attiiched, nor with tho uodc of one of' thc two
prcviousiy
possible frcc vibrations (thc othcr lias no nodc), th ef'cct is still
to prolong both thc periods
alrcady prc.scnt. With regard to the
third nnite period, w]iicli becomes
possible for thc first time after
the addition of the new load, it must be
rcgardcd as denvcd from

115.]

IMPRESSED
FORCES.

123

one of infinitely smalt magnitude, of which an iudennitc number


may be 8t)pposcd to form part of the system. It is instructive
to trace tlie enect of the introduction of a new load and its graduai
increase from zero to infinity, but for tins purpose it will be
simpler to take thc case where there is but one other. At the
connueiicejncnt thcre is one finite pcriod T~and another of innnitcsimal tuagnitudo T~. As t!)e load increascs T~bccomcs finite,
and both T. and T.. continually increase. Let us now considur
wliat happciis when th load becomes vcry grcat. Onc of thc
puriods is nccessarity largo and capable of growing bcyond ail
limit. The otiicr must approach a fixcd iinite Innit. T!ie first
bcloags to a motion in which thc largi- mass vibratos nearly as
if tlie other were absent th second is tlie period of th vibration
of tlie smiUlermass, taking place mucb as if the larber wercfixed.
must be aiways th
Now sincc ~ and T~can nover bc equaL
gruatcr a~d we infer, that as tlie load becomes cot~tinuallylarger,
it is ~ tliat met-casesiudennitcly, and T~ that approachcs a iiuite
limit.
Wc uov pass to tlie consideratio!i of forccd vibrations.
116. Th gnral quations for a system of two degrecs of
frecdom including friction arc

If thc conncction between x and bc of a loose character, th


constants Jt~,~3, are small, so that tlie tcrm (J9 ~W+1'/3~)"
in th denominator may in gnral bc ncglected. 'When this
is pcrmissiblc, thc co-oi-diiiatey is th same as if x had been prevented from varying, and a force V had bcen introduced whose
tna~itude is independent of N, y, and C. But if, in consquence
of an approximate isoclironism between the force and onc of the
motions which beeome possible whcn x or is constraincd to bc
be smaU, then tlie
zero, eitlier ~+~~orC'+~
term in the dcnominator coutaining tlie coefficients of mutual
innuencc must be retained, bcing no longer ?'e~~ue~ unimportant;
and thc solution is aecordingly of a more complicatcdcharactcr.

1~

VIBUATI~O

SYSTEMS IV GENERAL,

Hl~

~hcw.sthat If we had ~sumed


~'mmetry
A~=0 y=~" w.
~o.Id have fou..d the .ne va).c fur
..s no~v
Th
obtah.fur.
is
a
R~.p,
uc lurcncd to as .u

exiunpjo.
-suppose
th.tTi~
~<
~==~) ~t is p.-c.scnbcd,
v- 1 r 1=0,
<
and for g~ter
we .shalt coufinc ourscIvcJ
.ImpHcity
vhi~
to
t!.c case ~hcrc /3 = U. TI~ vaiuc
of~ is

.n.
''?'~
spcetivejy ~j

"7

P~
~~y

of t)'6 co.mcl.nt of

Le
~e icrc

and

It appears tlmt tlle effect


ffc'ctof
of tho reaction
and above
of (
(over -1
becauscd
~hat:
= is ~J~~scnted by
into
.4
chang.-ng
ci'
the
~~1"
to
~n
in
tho
tl. coefficients
~1
of spring and friction,
'l'liese a1tcmtiolls, howcver,
=~
of tlce peniod of tlee ~~aotioncoutenrylccted,whose cllaracter ive now
pl'occed to cousicler.
Por~
the value
corrcspondingto ~e n.tnnd frictiun!ess
of (., be~g n~u~aincd at
zro); so that ~V=o'
'l'jJ(3ll

JJ1 most cases with IVhich


we are lrvctically C0J1ccrno(1
'Y is
of y nut l11ucI.ditJer..
Wo sh.JI
?:?=~
acconhng!y Jeavc out of account ihc

0FADEPENDENT
SYSTEM.125
117.] REACTION
and in thc small tcrm
variations of thc positive factor (ZF- J!
Witcn p
uot
'y~, substitutc for~) its approximatc vainc ?!.
nearly equal to M,the tcrm lu question is of no importance.
As might be anticipatctt from th gnerai pnncipic of work,
&' is aiways positive. Its maximum. value occurs wlicu p =
ncarly, and is thcn proportiollal to

which varies ~e~e~/ with

'y. Tins might not hve bcen cxpected on a supernclal view of the
mattcr, for it sccms rather a paradox that, th grcatcr th friction,
hc its resn!t. But it must bc remonhci'cd tha.t 'y
th !c.ssHho)t)(!
is on]y tiie co~'c~e/!<of friction, and that whcn y is small t)io
maximum motion is so much incrcascd thf~t thc whoc work spent
against friction is gi'catcr tilan if'y were more considurahle.
But thc point of most Interest is the dcncndeiicc of ~1'on
If ~)bc less than x, ~1'is ngative. As p passes through th va.Iuc
?:,~1' vanisitos, am~ changes sign. WI)on J.' is ngative, th inHncncc ofy is to diminish th rccovcringpowcr of tbc vibration a?,
aud wc sec that this happons whcn thc furccd vibration is slowcr
Th tenduncy of th vibration y Is thus
tliau t)iat natural to
to retard th vibration x, if tho latter be ah'cady thc slower,but to
accelcratc it, If it bc ah'cady thc more rapid, ou!y vanistting in tbc
critical case of pcrfect isochronism. TI~c attempt to makc .B
vibrate at thu rate detcrmincd by n is beset with a peeuHar
difnculty, anaiogous to that met with in balancing a hcavy
body with th centre of gravity above th support. Ou whicbcvcr sido a shgtit departure from prcision of adjustmcnt may
occur th innucncc of th dpendent vibration is aJways to incrcasc
thc error. Hxatnph's of thc Instabihty of piteh accompanyinga
strong rsonance will comc across ns hercafter; but undoubtcdly
thc most intcrcsting application of thc results of this section is to
th explanation of the anomahius rfraction, by substances posscssing a, very markcd sclectivo absorption, of th two kinds of light
situated (in a normal spcctrum) Immetnatuty on citbcr sidc of tbc
absorption band*. It was obsc~'vc(~by Christianscn and Kundt,
thc discovcrcrsof this rcmarkalde phenomenon, that mdia of the
in a!coho)icsolution) rcfract
kind in question (for example,/MC/~MC
th ray immcdiatcly ~~o~ th absorption-band abnorma.UytM
e.CMs,and that above it in <e/ec<- If we suppose, as on othcr
grounds it would be natural to do, that th intense absorption is
r~y. /i)t)).t. cxliii.p. 272.
J'/u't..1~ M~y,1872. A)soSoUm~inr,

<
126

VIBH.ATING

SYSTEMS

IN GENERAL.

[LIT'.

the rcsult of an agreront bctwccn. the vibrations of thc kiml of


light affected, and somc vibration proper to tbc mo]eeu)es of thc
absorbing age~t,oui- theory would in(!ica.tctb~t for light of somew]t~t gi-(i:ttcrporiodt!ie cH'cctinust bc thc saine as a relaxation of
tho natural clasticity of the cthur, rnanifustuig itscif
by a slowcr
propagation aud incrasud rfraction. Oit t))c otitor sidc of tbc
absorptioM-bandits rnHucucc must bc iu thc opposite direction.
lu ordcr to trace tlie law of conncction hctwecn ~1'
and takc,
for brevity, 'y~ = f/, jV~
/r) = x, so t)t:Lt

Whcn.the sign of .<-is chan~'d, /t' is rcverscd with it, but prserves its muncricai value. Whun a;=0, or M, ~1' vanislies.

Hcnce thc origin is on thc reprsentative curvc (Fig. 18), and th


axis of x is an asymptote. Th maximum n.ndminimum vaincs of
~t' occur wtien x is respectively eclual to + ce, or a a.n(tthcn

Hencc, the smallcr th value of or 'y, th grcatcr will bc thc


maximum alteration of
tuni tlio corrcspohding vainc of will
approach uearcr a.nd nearer to n. It may be well to repeat, that in
tlie optical application a (liminishcd is attend cd
by an ~crpf<M~
maximum absorption. When the adjustment of
periods is such as
to faveur ~t' as much as possible, thc
corrcspondijig value of a' is
one hn.lfof its maximum.

CHAPTER

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

VI.

0F

STRINOS.

118. MONGvibrating bodies tliere are none tliat occupy a


more promineut position than Stretclied Strings. From tlic
earliest times thcy have bcen employed for musical purposes,
and in th prsent day thcy still form th essentiel parts of such
important instruments as tlie pianoforte and the vioHn. To tho
mathematician they must always possess a peculia.r interest as tho
battle-neld on which wcre fouglit out tlie controversics of D'A)cmbert Euler, Bcruoulli and Lagrange,relating to the nature of tho
solutions of partial difTerential quations. To tlie studcnt of
Acoustics thcy arc doubly important. In consquence of th comparative simplicity of their theory, they are the ground on which
difncult or doubtful questions, such as those rclating to the nature
of simple toncs, can bc most advantageousiy faccd while in t!]o
form of a Mouochord or Sonomcter, thcy afford tlie most gcncratty available means for thc comparison.of piteli.
Thc 'string' of Acoustics is a perfectly uniform and floxible
clament of solid matter stretched between two fixcd pointsin
fact Ml ideal body, never actually realizcd in practico, though
closelyapproxima.ted to by most of th strings emptoyeJ in music.
We shaUafterwards sec how to takc account of any small deviations from complete ncxibility and uniformity.
Th vibrations of a string may be dividcd into two distinct
classes, which are practically independcnt of one another, if the
amplitudes do not exceed certain limits. In th first class t!tc
so
displacements and motions of the particles are ~o~tf~
that th string always ret~ins its straightness. The potential
energy of a dplacement depends, not on the whole tension, but
on tho changes of tension which occur in th various parts of tho
string, due to thc increased or diminished extension. In order to

128

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[118.

calculate it we must know the relation between the extcn.slon


of
a strmg and tlic stretching force. Th
iipproxim~tc hw (giveti by
Rccku) may be exprcsscd by s~'ing tliat th extension varies
as thc tension, so that if aud
dnote tlie uatural and t!ic
stretched Jengths of a string, and 7'tlie
tension,

whcre is a constant,
dpendit on thc m~tcn:d and th action,
~ncti m~y bc intcrpreted to meaa tl.e
tension th.tt would bc
necess~y to strctcii t].e stnng to twice its natuml
!cngth, if t).c
law apphed to so grcat
cxteu.sions, whicl., in gcnem!, it is far
irom douig.
119. Th vibrations of U.e second kind arc
~YtH~~e; that is
to say, the particles of th
.string movo sensibly in planes perpendiclllar to the Ime of t), c
string. In tliis case t)~e potential ener.-y
of a dplacement
depends upon the genend tension, and th
variations of tcnsion accompanying t!.e additional
~aU
stretcl.iur.
duc to the dLsp]accmcnt
bu
Icft out of account. It is he~
.nay
as.suincJ ti.at the
.s~ching duc to ~c inotioa rnay 1~ nc~c.cted
in co.npar~on with tl.at to ~)uch tho
string is aircady subject il)
its position of e<tuilibrium. Once
assured of th futnimcntof t).is
condition, wc do not, iu th investigation of tmnsverse
vibrations
rcqnu-e to know anyt)ung further of the huv of
extensiou.
The most gnera! vibration of th
or latral, kind
transver.se,
.y bc resolvcd, a~ve shal! presently
prove, into two sets of comnor~
P .ent
v~rat.ons, executcd in perpcndicu)ar
pL~s.
b.nc. it is only ill tho initial
circumstances that there can be
any
d.st.n.tion, psent
to the question, bctw~ ono
plane and
e~c
? sufHc~nt for .nostpurposes to
regard the motion as
cntndy couhned to a single plane
passing tbrough th line of the
Mrin~
In treating of tlle
theory of strings it is usual to commence
with two particular solutions ofthe
partial di~rential quation
the
representing
transmission of waves in the positive and
ne~
tive directions, and to combine thc.se in
such a manner as to suit
w).ose ire
theeaseofannitestring,
maintained at rest;
ne~ther of the solutions taken
by itself' boing consistent with the
existence of
or places of permanent rest.
This aspect of tho
T'cst.on .svery emportant, and we shaU
fully consider it; but it

VIBRATIONS
0FSTRINOS.139
119.] TRANSVERSE
aecms scarcely dsirable to found thc solution in tlie first instance
on a property so pecu)iar to a MMt/b?'7H
string as the undisturb~d
transmission of waves. Wc will procced by thc more gencral
mcthod of assuming (in conformity with what was provcd in thc
last chapter) that the motion ma.ybc resolvcd into normal componcnts of thc harmonie type, and dutorminingthcir pcriods and
chajactcr by the special conditionsof th system.
Towards carrying out tliis design th nt'st stop would naturally
bo tlie investigation of thc partial din'ercntial equation, to which
thc motion of a continuons string is subjcct. But in order to
throw liglit on a point, which it is most important to understand
cicarly,tho connection bctwccn finite and Innnite freedom, and
the passage corrcsponding thereto between arbitrary constants
and arbitrary functions, we will commence by following a somewhat different course.
120. lu Chapter in. it was poiatcd out th~t thc fundamental
vibration of a string would not be entircty altered in charactcr,
if tho mass wcro concentratcd at th middic point. Followin~
out this idea, wu sec tbat if ttte whole string werc divided into a
uumbsi' of small parts and tho mass of cach concentrated at its
centre, we might by sufficicntly mulbip~yiu~tttc numbcr of parts
arrive'at a system, stii of finite frecdom, but capable ofreprcsentat
ing the continuous string with any dcsired accuracy, so far
lc:~t as tlie lower component vibrations arc conccrncd. If th
analytical solution for any numbcr of divisions can bc obtained,
its limit will givc thc result correspoudiug to a uniform string.
This is thc mcthod'followcd by Lagrange.
Lot be the Icugtb, pl tho whole mass of the string, so that
p dnotes the mass per unit Icngth, T, thc tension.
Fig. M.

Thc Icngth of tlie string is divulcd into w+1 equal parts (<t),
so that
R.

130

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STBINGS.

fiSO.

At th ?? points of division
equal in~sc.s
arc supposed concentratcd, which arc tl.e reprsentatives of' th mass of th
portions (~ of thc string, .vlucii
tl~cj ,.vur.y LLsect. TI~e mass of
cach
portiou of' lengLh
is suppose.! to be concoutratcd
term~I
at th flua.1pomts. On tlus
understand.in~ we hve

Wc procecd to invcstigatc tho


vibrions of a strin~, itself
o
but Icadcd at e.ch of
points ,ant
dcv~d
mcr~, aud from thc
(a) from thcmsolvc.
euds, witli a mass
If
<~notc thc ~tcral
displaccmcnts of thc
loadcd pon~t.s.mciud.ug tlic initial aud
~nal poin~ wo h.vc thc
fuUowmgexpressions fur F mid F

with the conditions tliat


~nd
y~ish.
Lugranges Mcthod the quations of motion

These givc by

whcrc
Supposing now t),at the vibrat:ou under consideration
is ono
ci normal type, wc assume that
&e. arc atl propor io a~
.c.uain.s to bc dctcnniu.d.
cos~-e).where
tlien bc rcgardcd constants, with a
.suL.titution of -7~ for
If for thc Rakc of brevity wc
put

tlie form

tLc ..iucs of

..uu~cs

120.]

MASS CONCENTRATED

IN POINTS.

131

From this quation tho values of the roots might bo found.


It may bc provcd th~t, if C= 2 cos t!ic dterminant is equivalcnt
to sin (?~+ 1)
sin but \ve shall attain our o1)]Gctwith grea.tcr
GfMC
dircctly from (5) by acting on a hint dcrivcd from the known
results rclating to a continuons string, and assuming for trial a
particular type of vibration. Titus lut a solution be

'wheres is an intoger. Substituting tho assumed values of ~r in the


uquations (5), we find that thcy arc satisfied, provided tliat

A normal vibration is thus roprcsented by

whcre
and P,, 6, dcnote arhitrary constants indcpcndcnt of the genernl
constitution of tlie systcm. Thc w a.dmissibtevalues of ?! arc
found from (14) by n-scribiugto N in successionthc vatucs 1, 2,
3.W, and arc all diHcrent. If wc tnlce .s'=Mt+l, ~vttnishcs,
so that this ()oesnot correspond to n, possible vibration. Grcatut'
values of s give only tbc same periods over a.ga.in. If ni + 1 bc
evcn~ one of thc values of Mthat~ uame)y, con'cspondiug to
93

132

TRANSVERSE

vmRATJONS

0F

STRT~GS.

[1~0.

a=~ (~ + l),is thc same as woutd bo found in thc case of un)y


n.single load (~ ==1). Thc interprtation is obvions. Jn tho kmd
of vibration considcred every n-lterruitepartictc rona.ins nt rcst, so
that the intermediate oncs rca.Hy movo as titough thcy wo'u
a.tta.ched to tlie centres of struigs of Icngth 2c< fMtcncd at
the ends.
Th most general solution is funnd hy putting togcthor a,Iitlie
possible particular solutions of norinul type

and, by ascribing suitabic values to tbc ar1.)Itrarycn~~iants, can bn


identificd with thc vibration resulting from arbitrary Initit circumstanccs.
Let a; dnote tbc distance of the partic~o f from thc cn(~of the
then hy substituting fur~. unda
striug, so that ()'l)ct=x;;
from (1) and (2), oursolution may he written,

In order to p:ms to the case of n. continuous strittg, we hve


oniyt') put ?~ induite. Th fn'st Qqnn.t.iourctains its form,)') 1
RpcciHesth disptacumcitt at any point a*. ThL: tiMiitingfurm oi
ttie second is simply

The periods of tlie compnncnt toncs arc thus alicpiot parts uf


that of tiie gravcst of the series, fuund by puttin~ N=1. Thc
whole motion is in a.Ucases periodic; and th pcriod is 2~t/
This statement, however, must not bc undcrsiuod as cxcludi!)~
a shorter pcriod for in particular cases any uumber of tl~
Jower compoueutsmay bc n.bsciit. Ail that is asscrtcd is that, ti)u

MASSCONUENTRATED
IN POINTS.

120.J

13~

above-mentioncd interval of timc is 6'M~tCte~


tobring aboutacontp!(.'tcr(:cu!<)~?'\ W';t!<f")'.))'th prusentanyfurthpr discussion
oftttc import:t.~tformuJn,(1!)), but it is ititerusting to observethe
approach to a limit iti (17), as ?~ is madc Hucccssivelygrca.ter and
~rcuttjr. For tins pm'poso it will bu suHiciuntto takc thc gr~vest
tuuc for w))ich s=l, f).nd according)y to trace the variation of
?!2(w+1)
n/'
,1~'
TT
2(M;+1)
Thc fuilowing arc a sries of simnitancoua values of tho function aud variable
?~
~)
-T

19

39

sni
.9003 .9549 .9745 -983C
-9997
~(~t.+l)
.995U .9990

It will bc sccu that for very inodcrate values of m th limit is


closelyapproachcd. Sinco ?~ is tlie rnnuber of (!novca.ble)loads,
the case ?;= 1 corresponds to thc probbiti uive.sti~ated in Chapter 111.,but in comparing th results wu must rememher thn.t we
tliere supposedthe w/~e m~ssof tlie string to bc concentrated at thc
centre. In th prcscnttCasc thc h):).dn.t thcuntre is oniy haf as
grca.t; thc reina.indcr bcing supposed couecutrated at tlie ends,
wbere it is witliout cf~ct.
Froni th fn.ct that our solution is general, it follows that any
initial form of the string c:ULbu niprcscntcd hy

And,su)co auy furm pos.-ilbiofur thc stringataU


mn,ybc
rc-g~rdmlas initud, we infur thut any iini.t.esinglu valued functioti
at ~=0 ~nd a;=~, c:ni be exp~nded withiu
uf te, wltich v:).)M.s)ies
those Ihnits in n. scries of sincs of

a.nd its mu)tiplcs,whtc)i

is a.Citscof Fouriur's t)icorum. Vcsliall prcscutly sitcw how the


more gcncml furm cnn bc duducud.
121. We might now dtermine the constants fora. continuous
string by Intcgrntio!i a~ lu !)3, but it is instructive to solve the
probicm first in tho gcnct':d c:tso (~ finitc), aud afterwards to
procecd to the limit. TIic iuitial conditions are

134

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

[121.

where, for Lrevity, ~~=~cosf,,


and~-(r~), '(2a)
i~(mM)
arc tlic iuitial displaccments of th w p:u'tictcs.
To dotcrnano a.ny constant
muttiply t!tc first quation by
sin

thc second by sin 2s

&c., aud <t.ddtlie results. Thcn,

s~,
byTrigojiomctry, thc coefficients of a!l the constants, cxcept J,,
vanisli, wliile tliat of = (~~+ 1) Henco

'Wc ncc'd not stay !)orc to write down the values of 7?, (cqu~l
to jf~,sin e,)ibsdeponding on the initial vcincitics. W!tcn becomes
I)i~nite]y smaU, )'~ under tho sign of sutumation ranges by in<i= ai
At tlie same time
nitcsinial stcps from zero to
'??t+ i t
we Iiavc u!tima.tc!y
so tliat writing ?'M= x, f = (1,,v,

cxpressing d, lu tcrms of thc iultial displaccmcnts.


122. Wc wi)tnow invcstigatc indcpcndently the partial difFercnti:i] quation govcrnin~thctt'ansvo'.sumotiottofa.po'fcctiy HcxiLfc
strin~, on th suppositions (t) thatthe jnagnitudc ofthe tension
mny bo cunsiucrcd constant, (2) t!)at thc square of H)cinclination
of any part of thc string to Its itntial diruction may bc ticgicctcd.
As befure, dcnotusthc lincar dcnsity at any point, and y'~is the
constant tension. Let rcctat~nlar co-ordinatcs bc takcn pandie!,
and pcrpcm~cuhtr to thu stril~, su t))at x: givcs tite cquilibnum
and .c, y, z thc disptacud p<jsiti<'nuf any partictu at tinic t. Thc
forces acting on thu clment (/.c :u-oth tensions at its two cuds,
und any impresscd forces .)~
~p<
ByD'AIcmbcrt's PnnToJhuutor'H
J)t<.C;c.,p. 267.

122.]

DIFFEBENTIAL

EQUATIONS.

135

cipin thse form an equilibrating system with th ractions


against acclration,

p CLu p MC At tlie point x thu com-

ponents of tension arc

If thc squares of
Le
so that ttic forces acting
(a; c~x ncgiccted
on thc clment
arising out of tlie tension arc

IIonco for tho equations of motion,

from winch it appo~rs that th dpendent variables y and z arc


attogethcr indupundont of onc another.
Tho student should compare tlicso quations with the corrcspoudmg cquations ofHuitc diM'crcncGs
in 120. Thc latter may
be written

which nmy :).!subc provcddircctiy.

13G

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

CF STRINGS.

[123.

Th nrst is obvicuiifrom thc deHnition of 2~ To prove the


second, it is sufHcipnt ~o notice tha.t thc potcnti~ cncrgy in a.!iy
configuration is the work requiro~ to producc tlic nceessary
stretching against th tension T,. Ruckoning from tlie conHgura.tion of equihbrium, wc ha.ve

and, so far tta tlic third power of

123. In most of thc applications that we sha.Hhave to mako,


tho dctiatty p Is constant, there arc no imprcssed forces, and the
motion may bu supposed to take pheu in onc plane. We may
thon convenicBtIywrite

n.nd tlie difrerentia.!cqua.tionis expressed by

If we now assume t]iat y varies as cos ?)M~ our equation


bccomcs

of which the most gcnera.1solution is


This, howcvcr, is uot thc most goieral ha-rmonic motion of
thc period in question. lu ordcr to obta,in the lattcr, ws must
assume
M'c fuuctiotis of a*, not ucccssarUy thc samc. On
\vhcro ;?/
substitution in (2) it appca.rsthn.t y~ a.ud arc subjuct to cqua.tions uf th fut'm (3), so tlia.t Hnally

:ut expression conta-himgfour a.rbitra.ry constants. For any contiuuous tcu~tL of string sa.tisfyiug without iutcrruptiou the differ-

123.]

PIXED

EXTR.EMITIES.

137

ential cquaticn, this is tlie most gcnera.1 solutioR possible, under


th condition, th~t th motion at every point shaH be simple harmonie. But whenever thc string forms part of a. system vibrating
frccty n.nd withoub dissipation, wo know from former chaptcrs
t,)):it :).I1parts aru simuit~neousty in thc same phase, which
t'cfjuircs that
r\
and then thc most goncra.1vibration of simple harmonie type is

12-t. Thc most simple as wcH as t)ic most nnpo-tant problem


connected with our prsent subjccb is the investigation of th free
vH))-~tionsof a fnntc sti-iug of Icngth held fast at both its ends.
If we takc thc origiti ufa.- at ono und, tlie tcrmirnd conditions a,rc
vanishes for ~11values of t.
that when a:=0, Mid wheM a!=~
T)ie nrst i-cquit-estha.t in (G)of 123
and th second that
or that ~==.S7r, wlicre s I.s ~n intcger. We IcM-nthat thc only
hM-mouicvibrations possible are such as mnkc

iUtdthuu

Now wc know M./)Worzth:tt whn.tcvcr th motion may bc, it


CMtbe rcprusoitcd as a suni of simi'ic htu-mouievibrations, a.nd
wc thurcfurc coucludc th:tt th luost gcncra.1 solution for a string,

138

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

[124.

so that, as has bccn aiready statcd, the whoc motion is under ail
circumstanccs pcriodic in the t:mc r~. Th sound cmitted constitutes in gnerai a musical 7:0~, acconUng to our dennition of
that term, whose pitch is nxed by
the period of its gravest
component. It may happen, however, in special cases that the
gravest vibration is absent, and yct that the whoc motion is not
periodic in any shorter tune. This condition of things occurs, if
vatjish, while, for examp)c, ~l./+7?./ and ~t~+~ are
~/+~/
finite. lu such en.sesthe sound could hrn'dty be called a note;
but it usuiJIy h~ppcns in practicu that, w]tcn tho gravcst tone is
absent, .someothcr takcs its p)acc in the cbaractcr of fundamcntal,
and the sound still constitutes a note in the ordiltary sensc,
though, of course, of c!cvaLcd pitch. A simple case is wheu ail
the odd compollcnts beginning with thc first are missing. Tho
whote motion is thcn periodic in the tit-nc ~Tp and if the second
component bc prsent, th sound prsents nothing nnusual.
T]~cpitch of thc note yicidcd by a string (C),aud thc character
of the fundainenta! vibration, werc first invcstigatcd on meclianical
principics by Brook Taylor in 171-5 but it is to Daniel Bernouni
(175.')) tbat wc owe the gnrt solution containcd in (5). He
obtained it, as wc bave donc, by the syutbusis of particnlar solutions, pcrnussibic in accordancc with his Principtc of the Coexistence of Sniat! Motions. In bis time tbe gcncrality of the
result so arrived at was opcn to question; in tact, it was tlie
opinion of Eu!er, and aiso, strangdy cnough, ofL:t,grange',that
th scrics of sincs in (;"))was not capabte of rcprescnting an
the other side,
arbitrary function; and Bcrnouln's on
drawn from the iunnitc nuinber of thc disposabic constants,
was certaiu!y inadquate~
Most of the ]aws embodicd in Taylor's formula (C) had been
discovcred experinientaHy longbefore (1G3L!)by Mersennc. Thcy
may bc stated tbus
SoQRiGmfU)D'ajPr<<f~<;D~/c'rctXtn! O/t'tc/tftN~c~, 78.
DrYounK, iti Lia momou' of 1800, HC-iHH
to liave understood this matter quito
<orrcct)y. Ho s~'H, "At tlio samo timo, ns M. DernfXtUi tma ]HHtIy obsorvod, Rinoo
nvory ligure may bo iu~uitoty approxinxited, by ctt.sidunnt; its ortiinutofj as
<'u)nposoJ of tho ot'dinfttos of au iniinitc mnuber of tmcix'id.s of (liFfcrcnt tun~nitUticH, it may bo demonstrntod thttt aU tbcs cunstitnont ou'ves woulJ revert to
tLicir initia) Htato, in tho samo timo tbat a Rimiln.r choni bcnt into a trochoida!
curvc wouhi purforn) a sinn)o 'vibration aud this is in ttoinc retipecta a couvomoat
oud eumyoudious mothod of consideriug tho problom."

124.]

MERSENNE'SLAWS.

139

(1) For a, givcn string and a givcn tension, the time varies as
the length.
This is the fundamcntal principle of th monocbord, and appears to hve bccn understood by th anciects*.
(2) Whcn tho length of the string is given, the time varies
inverseiy as thc square rout et' tho tension.
(3) Strings of th same length and tension vibrato in timcs,
w~~icharc proportiona) to t)tc Stmare roots of thc lincar dcnsity.
Thcse important rcsults may aH bc obtained by the mcthod of
dimensions, if it be assumud tha.t T dpends on]y on p, and 2'
Fur, if thc units of length, time and mass be denoted rcspectivcly by [Z], [2'J, [~j, th dimensions of thse symbols are
givcn hy
~=M,
p=[~Z-'],
~=[~L~],
and thus (see 52) the onty combination of thcm capable of reTh oniy thing left uudetermined
prcscnting a time is T,
is Uic numeriea.1factor.
125. Merscnnc's laws are cxcmphfied in a!l stringed instruments. In playin~ th violiu din'ercnt notes are ubtaincd from
thc same string hy shortening its cnicient Icngth. la tuning tho
vioun or the pifmuforte, an adjustment uf pitch is cectcd witli
a constant !engt.h by varylng t!ic tension but it must ho remcmbercd tliat /) Is not quite invariable.
To secure a prescrihcd pitch with a string' ofgivcn materiaL it is
rcquisitc that onc rctation only bc satisficd bctwccn the Icngth, tiie
thickness, and th tension; but in practice thcrc is usuaUyno grcat
latitude. Th length is often limited by consi<turations of conVnicncc,and its curtaiimcut cannot idways be compensatcd by
an incrcase of thickness, bccausc, if thc tension he not increascd
proportionaDy to thc section, thcro is a loss of HcxihiHty,
whUcif'thc tension bc so incrcascd, nothing is cH'cctcd towards
lowering the pitch. T!ic dirricuity is avoidcd in t!tc )owcr strings
ofUic pianofortc and violin by thc addition of a coil of fine wirc,
whose cU'ect is to Impart Inc'rtia' wiLhout too much impairing
ncxibility.
Aristono "hncw t.tmt a pipo or (t ohnrd of dnohi Jen~th pt'oduco'l )t ftonud of
which tbovibmt.iousoccupitid
a JuuH timo; [md timt tho propcrtics of coiteords
JopeudoJ on tho pmport.muH of tho thnes occnpiod by tl)0 vibrations of tho
Lcetu~M o)t Ntt<xnft~/tt<uM~y, Vol. i. p. ~01.
soparftto sounds.Youu's

140

TRANSVERSEVJBRATJONS0F STRINGS.

[125.

For quantitative investigations into the laws of strings, the


aononcter is emphjycd. Hy mcans of a, weight lianging over a
puUey, a catgut, or a mctaHic wire, is stretcijed across two bridf-cs
tnounted on a rsonance case. A moveable bridge, whose position
is cstimated by a sca!c running parahel to thc \vire, i-ivos thc
means of shortcning tite cfHcicnt portiott of tlie wire to
any
dcsit'cd extunt. TIie vibrations may bc cxcitcd by p!uckin" as
in thc harp, or witli a. bow (well suppiicd with rosin), as in tit
violiu.
If the moveable bridge be placed ha!f-waybGtwecn the Dxcd
nnes, thc note is raiscd an octave; whcn thc string is reduced to
one-third, th note obtained is tt)C twclfth.
By means of the law of lengths, Mcrscnnc determined for thc
nrst time thc frequencics of knowu nmsicul notes. He adjusted the
Icngtil of a string until its note was one of assurcd positiuu in th
musical scale, and then prolonged it under t!)e same tension until
th vibrations were slow enough to bc couuted.
For exprimental purposes it is convenient to hve two, or
more, strings mounted side hy sidc, and to vary in turn thehJcngt!i3,their masses,and tlie tensions to winch they are subjucted.
Thus In order that two strings of equa! length may yle!d t))c intcrva! of t)te octave, their tensinns mnst be In thc ratio of 1 4.
if th masses be tlie samc; or, if thc tensions be the same, th
masses must bc in thc reciprocal ratio.
Thc sonomctcr is very uscfut for thc nmnerleal dtermination
ofpitch. By varyiug the tension, tlie string is tuned to unison
with a fork, or other standard of known frcf~ucncy,and thcu
by
of
th
moveable bridge, thu Icngttt of the strin"' is
adjustment
determined, whieh vibrtes in unison with any note proposed for
mcasuremcnt. Tito ]aw of Icngths tticn givcs th mcans of
cn'eeting t]ic dL-siredcomparison of frequcncies.
Anotiicr application by Scheib)er to tho dtermination of
absente pitch is Important. Th priucipiu is tlie samc as that
cxptainud in CIiapter ni., and thc mcthod dpends on deduchifr
tiiu absulute pitcii of two notes from a knowlcdge of both t)ie
?'a~o and th (/~(;7-e7ice
of their frequencies. Th Icngths of t)ie
souometerstrmgwhen in unison with a fot'k.andwhengivin~with
it four bats p'u- sucond,are cafuUymcasured. Th ratio of th
lungths is th iuversc ratio of th frcqueucies, aud thc difierence

125.]

NORMAL MODES.

141

ofthe frcquoncies isfour. From tbcsc data thc absolute pitclt of


th fork can bc ea.leula.ted.
Thc pit.ch of a string may be calcnlatcd a!so by Taylor's formu]a from tlie mcchamcal eicmcuts of tlie system, but grcat prcautions are necessary to secure a.ccuracy. Thc tonsio))is producc<)
by a.welght,whosemass (cxprcsscdwith tl)o samc unitasp) m:t.ybo
called P; so that y, =
whGi-e = 32'2,if th units oficngth a-nd
timc bc the foot aud th second. In orderto securc that tho who)e
tension acts on t!tc vibrating segment, no bridge must bc intf.;]-poscd, a condition only to bc Siltisfied by suspending tlie string
vcrtiea.lly. After thc weight is !Lttachcd,a portion of th string
is isola.tedby dumping it nrmiy at two poitits, and tlic length is
mea~urcd. The mass of the unit of longth refers to tbc strctchcd
statc of the string, and may bo found in<Urcct!yby obscrviug thc
as
elongation due to a tension of the same order of magnitude
and calculating what -\vou!dbe produced by T, a-ccording to
Hooke's law, and byweighing a. known length of th string in its
normal stato. After the clamps hve bccn sccurcd grca.t carc
is rcqnircd to avoid fluctuations of' tonpcra.turc, which wotdd
scriousty inftucnce th tension. In tliis way Sccbcck obtaiued very
~cenratc resttits.
126. Whcn a string vibrtes in its gravcst normal mode, tlie
'7T.7;
to
excursion 13 at any moment proporttouf).i stn
incrc~smg
nurnerically from eithor end towards the centre; no intcrmcdiato
point ofthu string rcina.tnspcrmaucntly nt rest. But it is othcrwiso in tlie case of thc ingher normn.l componcnts. Thus, if the
vibration bc of thc mode cxprossed by

1.' l
l
1
whichvanishesat~1
S7rX to
excursion is proportional
sin.
points, dividing thc string into s cquat parts. Thse points of no
motion arc caticd nodes, and rna-ycvidcntiy Le touci~cd or Iield
fast without in any way disturbinp; the vibration. T)tC production of harmonies' by iightty toucliing thc string at thc points of
Ail
aliquot division is a well-known rGsourceof thc violinist.
at thc
component modes are excludcd which hve not a node
point touched; so that, as regards pitch, tlic cuuct is the same as
if tho string werc securely fastened thcrc.
t]
le

142

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[127.

127. Tho constants, which occnr h) the gnerai value ofv, 124,
dpend on thc epcci.i!cii'cn)nnt:mcesof t~ \)i.t.t!ot), ~))~:~t;y b'
exprcsscd in tcrms ofthc initial valuus of~ a.ud

Putting t = 0, we fmd

Multiplying hy sin

and intcgrating from 0 to

wo obtain

Thcsc rcsults cx(jmr!i(y Stokes' ifiw, 95, for tha.t part


of~,which
dpends on thc mitia-! vctocities, is

and from tl)is thc part dcpcnding on initial


displaccmcnts may bc
infcrref!, by diH'ci-eutiatingwit!i respect to the tirne, and substitutmg~for~.
Witcn thc conditiou of the string at some one moment la
thoronghiy known, thcsc formu!:L!allow us to c{dcula.te the
inotiou ibr ait subsquent timc. For exemple, ]ct tho
strLng bo
initiany at rest, aud so displaced that it forms two sidcs of a
triangle. Then = 0, and

on intgration.
Wc sec that

vanishes, if' sin~

if thcre be a
=0, that
nodc of thc componcnt iu question situatcd at j~. A more comprefensive view of tlie subjcct will bo aitbrdcd by another mode
of solution to bc given prcsently.

128.]

POTENTIAL

AND KINETIC

ENERGY.

143

128. In tlie expression fer thc coemdcnts of sin


arc
tiio normal co-orfimatcs of Chn-piers iv. M]d v. We wi)I
denote thcm thcrcfofGby
so thfit the conjuration an<] motion
of tho Systemat any instant arc dcfined
by the values of d~ tmd
according to the quations

Wc procced to form thc expressions for


to dcducc thu no)'ma.Ieqnatious of vibration.

aud 1~aud Lhcneo

For thc kinctic ciiergy,

th product of cvory pair of tcrms


vanishing
0 by the bgcnend
proporty of normal co-ordiua.tcs. Hence

Thcse expressions do not presuppose


any paj-ticular jnotion, either
or
natural,
othcrwisc but we may apply thcm to calculate tho
wi)o!e energy of string vibr~ting
nattirally, as follows:If j)~'
bc tlie whoc mass of tlic string (pl), and its
cquiv~cnt (n~) bu
substituted for
we find for the smu of th cuergies,

144

TRANSVERSHVIURATIONS0F STUINCS.

[128.

If the motion bc not connncd to the p):u)c of


wc havn
nK'rc'Iyto add th cno'gy of thc vibrations in tbc pcrpcndicuiai'
plane.
Lagra,nge's metbod givos immcdia.tcly thc quation of motion

which hn~ihecn ah'cn.dyconsidcrctl in GC. If <~)a.ud


initial values of 6 and tlie guncral solution is

bc tho

By dc~nitio!i <I~is such that <I~5~ ]'cprcsc!)ts tit work do])c


by thc imprcssud forces on thc dispI.Lcemcnt 8~. Hcncc, if thu
fut'ccacting at tirnc ou an cioneut of tlie strmg p
bc p 1~

In theso quations is a. tincar qnaatity, as \ve scefrom (1); and


<I~is thct'cfore a force of th ordinary kind.
129. In tlie a.pplica.tiousthat wc Ii~vc to make, the only
unprcsscd force will be supposcd to act in the immediate neighhourilood of one point .K=6, and may usually be rcckoned as
a whoc, so that

If th point of application of thc force eoincidc witli a. node of


tbc mode (~), <I~,=<),and wc Icarn that the force is aRogether
without influence on tho componcnt. in question. Tins principle
is of grcat importance it shcws, for exarupic, that if a string bc
at l'est in its position of cquilibrium, no force applied at its centre,
whether in th form of plucking, striking', or bowitig, can generate
auy of th even normal componcnts'.1. If aftcr tlie opration of
the force, its point of application be datuped, as by touehiug it
1 The obaBrvation
that a.harmonie!s uot gencratcd,whtionoof its uodnl
itiduoto Youug.
polutaia plucked,

129.]

YOUNG'S

TIIEOREM.

145

with th finger, aH motion must forthwith cease for those components which have not a. node at t! point, ht q~stion a.re
stopped Lyttie dumping, and tl~oso wbich hve, are absent from
thc bcginumg'. More gencraHy, by damping any point of a
sounding string, wc stop :dl the composent vibrations which have
not, aud Jeave cntirely unaifueted those which ha.ve a nodu at tlie
point touched.
The case of a string puticd aside at one point and afterwards
let go from rest may Le regardcd as includcd in th preceding
statements. Th complete solution may be obtained thus. Let
the motion commence at th time <=0; from which moment
= 0. Th value of at time t is

where (<~), (~)~ dnote tlie iuitial values of the qua-ntities


affected with th suiBx N. Now in tlie problem in ha.nd (~ = 0~
and (~). is determined by

if y dnote th force with which the string is he!d aside at the


point b. Hclice at time t

..(5),
where

= s~ra

The symmetry of the expression (5) in x and b is an examplo


of th principle of 107.
The problem of determining the subsequent motion of a string
set into vibration by an impulse acting at thc point b,
may be
treated in a similar manner. Integrathig (6) of 128 over tlie
duration of thc impulse, we find ultimately, with th same notation as bcforc,

Alikorosuttensuoswhonthpointwhichia dampodi.-iat thosamodistance


romonoeudofthostringas the poiutof excitation
iafromthoothoron!.
R.
10

146

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONSOP STRINGS.

[139.

Le denoted by 3~. At the samc time (~). = 0, so that hy


if~y~
(2)atHme< t

The sries ofcomponcnt vibrations is less


convergent for a, struck
than for a plucked string, M the
prcceding expressions shcw.
The reason is that in thc lattcr case t!ic initial value
of y is
continuous, and only
IV cliscontinuous,wlu!e in tlie former it is
y itself that makes a sudden spring. Sce 32, 101.
The problem of~ string set in motion hy an
impulse may also
be solved by tho gnera! formuJ(7) and
(8) of 128. Tlie force
<mdstLc string at rest at < = 0, and acts for an
infinitely short
time from ~=0 to ~=T. Thus
(~.). and (~). va~ulsh,and (7)
of 128 reduces to

Hithcrto we hve supposcd tho disturbing force to be concentrated a.t a. single poi)it. If it be distributcd over a distance
on citlier side of we l)avc only to iutcgratc th expressions (C)
aud (~) with respect to
substituting, for cxample, in (7) in
r tT-sin
of
place .1,
-y,

Tho principal effect of th distribution of t])Cforce is to render


tbe series for y more convergent.

130.]

PIANOFORTESTRING.

147

130. Th problem which will next engage our attention is


that of th~ p!ancfnrtc wit'. Thc causu of t!ic vibration la hcro
thc blow of a hammcr, wiiich is projeeted against tlie
string, and
after th impact rehounds. But we should not bc
justified in
assuming, as in th iast section, that the mutual action occupies
so short a time that its duration may be ncg)ccted. Mea.surcd
by
tlie standards of ordinary life tlie dnration ofthe contact is Indecd
very small, but hre thc propcr comparison is with tlie natural
periods of tlie string. Now tlie hammcrs used to strike th wires
of a pianofoi-toarc covcrcd with svcral layers of eloth for tho
express purposc of making them more yielding,with the effect of
prolonging the contact. The rigorous treatment of th problem
would bc difficult, and th solution, when obtained, probably too
complicated to be of use; but by introducing a certain simplification Helmholtz has obtained a solution representing all the
essential features of the case. He remarks that since th actual
yielding of the string must bc slight in comparison with that of
the coveringof tlie hammer, tlie law of tlie force called into
play
during the contact must be ncarly thc samc as if th string wero
absolutely nxcd, in which case th force would vary very noarly as
a circulai' function. We sliall tlicrcforc suppose that at the time
t = 0, whcnthere are neither velocities nor displacements,a force
.Fsin~ betiins to act on th string at a:=~ and continues through
half a period of the circuiar function, tliat is, nntil <="7r-jp, after
which th string is once more frce. Th magnitude of ~) will
dpend on thc mass and clasticity of the hammcr, but not to any
grcat extcnt on th vulocity with which it strikes tlie string.
T)io i-cquiredsolution is at once obtamcd by substituting for
in thc gnerai formula (7) of 128 its value given by

148

TRANSVERSE

and th final sohttion for


their Ya.}nus,

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[130.

becomes,if we snbstitute for Mand p

We sec tha.t,a)! componcnts vanish w]uch ha.vc'n. nodc at the


point of excitctnent, but this cnnctusion does not dpend on a.ny
particu): !:(.wof force. Th Intcrest uf th prsent solution lies
in thc infortnationH)!).tmay be ctieitcd frnm it a.sto the depcndenco of th rcsulting vibrations un thc duration of contact. If
wo dnote the nitio of tliis q~antity to tlie fundamcnta! period of
tlie stnng by so tha.t = Tra 2~ th expression for th amplitude of the cumponcnt s is

Whcn in nnitc, those components disa-ppcar, wbosc perlons


t.~c duratinn of contact; and wltbn .s is vcry
'
?'
grcat, thc sries coivo-ges wit)i N' Some tUbwancc rnust at.so
bc ))i!idGfor tho (hnte breadt)~of thc btunnicr, thc cHect of which
will a!so bc to faveur th convergenceof thc sries.
Thc laws of tl)c vibration of strings Tnaybe veriHcd, at least
in their main featm'cs, by opticiil mcthods of observationcither
with thc vibration-tnicroscope,or by n.trn.cingpoint rccoi-ding tlie
characteroftttc vibration on a revolvmg drum. This character
dpends on two tbings,thc mode of cxcitement, a,nd the point
whose motion is se)eetcd for observation. Titosc components do
not appear winch bti.'venodes either at the point of cxcit.cmcnt, or
at tbc point of observation. Th former are not gcno-atcd, and
t!)Clatter do ])ot mfmifust.thcmselvcs. Thus t!ic himpicst motion
is obtaincd by ptucking thc string at the centre, and
obscrving
une of tbc points of trisection, or vice w?'M. In this case t!te
first harmonie wbich contamintes th purity of thc
principal
vibration is thc nf'Lh cornponcnt, wbose intcnsity is usuaUy insunictcnt t.o prudnco nmch disturhancc. In a future chaptcr wc
shall compare t)ic results of tiic dynamica.! tlicory with aurai

130. j

FRICTION

PROPORTIONAL

TO VELOCITY.

14S

observation, but rathcr with tlie view of disc~vcring and tcsting


thu [awsof iimm~, LiuUiuf confirming' Lhutheury Itseli'.
131. Th case of a. penodic force is Included in t!) general
solution of 12!S,but we prter to foUowa somcwha-tdirEcrent
jnethod, lu ordcr to m:Lkcfui cxtcusion in anc'thcr dircetion. We
have hithcrto takoi no account ofdissipativc forces, but wc will
now suppose that th motionofca.ch lment of th string is resistcd
by a force proportional to its velocity. TIte partial dinercntia!
quation becomes

by means of whieh the suhjcct may bc trea.tcd. But it is still


simptor to avail oursetves of th rcsults uf th last chiipter, rema.rkmg that in tho prsent case the fnctiun-function
is of
the s:unc formas T. In fact

wherc < <


are thc normal co-ordinates, by means of which
y fmd
are reduccd to sums of sq)t:u'o.'j. Tho equntiot)s of
motion are thei'cfore simpfy
~+~.+~.=~(3),
of thc samc form as obta.ins for Systems with but one
dcgrcc of
frcc<)o)n. It is only ncccss:u'yto add to what was said Iti Citapter ni., that sincu K is indupcndunt of thc jmtural vibnt.tions
subside in suc!) a manuer that t!tc amplit.udcs manitidu thcir rclative values.
If a periodic force .Fcos~ act at a single point, wc liave

If among thc natural vibrations thcrc bc


any one ncarly
isochronous with cos~< tLcn a large vibmtio)i of th:ht
ty})o will
bc forcer, unless Indecd thc point of Gxcitcment s)iould
happcn to

150

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[131.

fall nea.r a node. In the case of exact


coincidence, thc componcnt
v:brn'-) ~n .i'j<<)~ VMmshc.s; n< fo app]id !tt a.nu'-iuca.u
gcneratc it, under thc prsent law of friction, whieh howcvcr, it
may be rcmarkc(), is very special in character. If tliere be no
friction, /<:= 0, and

132. The preceding solution is an


example of the use of
normal co-ordinatcs in a probicm of forced vibrations. It is of
course to free vibra.tions that titcy are more
cspcciaHyapplicable,
and they may gcncrally bo uscd witli
advantagc throughout,
whcncvcr the system after th operation of various forces is
ultimately left to itself. Of this application we have already had
examples.
In tlie case of vibrations due to
periodic forces, one advantagc
of the use of normal co-ordinates is the
facility of comparisonwith
th efir:<(?~ ~<?o?-~
which it will Le remcmbercd is the theory
of th motion on the supposition that th inertia of the
system
may bc left out of account. If the value of thc normal co-oron thc cquilibrium theory bc A,
dinate
cos~, then thc actual
value-wiH bc given by the quation

so that, whcn thc result of th equilibrium


theory is known and
can rcfidiiy bc cxprcssed in terms of thc normal
co-ordinatcs, the
true solution with thc effects of inertia included cn.u ~t once bc
written down.
In the prsent instance, if a force
.Fcos~ of vcry long period
act at tlie point b of thc string, tho result of the
equilibrium
in
aecordacc
with
theory,
whieh the string would a.t any moment
consist of two straight portions, will bo

132.]

COMPARISON

WITH

EQUILIBRIUM

THEORY.

151

from which the actual result for all values of p i~ derivcd


bysimply
in place of
writing
Thc value of in tins and similar cases ma.y Itowcver be
cxprcsscd in finito tcrms, and th difHculty of 0'btaltnng tlie
funte expression is usua.IIy no greater than that of findin"- th
forni of the normal functions wlien tlie systein is frec. Thus in
tlic quation of motion

and a subsequent dtermination of ?~ to suit thc boundary conditions. In thc probicm of forced vibrations ??tis given, and we
havo only to supplemont any particular solution of (3) with' th
compicmentary function co~taining two arbitrary constants. This
function, apart from tlie value of and th ratio of tho constants
is of the same form as thc normal functions; and a.11that remains to
be enected is the dtermination of the two constants in accordanco
with th prcscribcd bounda-ry conditions whicli tlie
complete
solution must satisfy. Similar considrations apply in the case
of any continuous system.
133. If a periodic forcebe applied at a single point, there are
two distinct problems to be considcred; the first, whcn at th
point =&, a given periodic force acts; tlie second, when It is th
actual motion of tho point that is obligatory. But it will bc
convenient to treat theni together.
Thc usual differentia.1equation

is satisfied over both thc parts into which thc string is (UvIJcJat
b, but is viola.tcdin crossingfrom one to th othcr.

152

TRANSVERSE
VfDBATIONS
0F STRINGS.

[133.

In order to allow for a change in thc arbitrary constants, wo


must thcrofore assume distinct expressions for
and a,ftcrwa.rd8
introduce tlie two conditions whidi must bc satisfied at thc point
of junction. Thse arc
(1) Tha.t there is no discontinuons change in thc value of
(2) That thc rsultant of the tensions acting at b balances the
imprcsscd force.
Thus, IfFcos~ bo tho force, th second condition gives

where A

dnotes the altration in the value of

Incurrcd
\.a~/
(")
f~'
in crossing the point x = in th positive direction.
We sha! however, Hnd it advantagcous to replace cos?~ by
the complex exponential e" a.nd 6tia!Iy disc~rd tho imagiuary
part, when t!ie symhoHcalsolution is completed. On the assumption timt~ varies as e" thc differential quation becomes

The most genera.1solution of (3) consists of two tcrms, proportionn.irespcctively to 8ui\a;, and cosa;; Lut thc comlition to
be sa,tishcd a.t ~= 0, shcws tliat thc second ducs not occur here.
Hence if ye' be tlic value of at x = b,

is the solution n.pplying to the first part of tlie


string from a;=0
to x;=
In likc manner it is vident that for ttte second
part wc
sttaJtlia.vo

If y bc given, thse quations constitute the


symbolica.1solution
of thc problem, but if it be thc force that bc given, we
require
further to kuow thc rcla.tionbetwecn it and

133.J

PERIODIC

FORCE AT ONE POINT.

153

D~erentlution of (5) aud (G) and substitution in thc cquation


analogous to (2) givcs

Thus

Thcso quations excmplify th gnral law of reciprocity


proved in the last chaptor; for it appcars that tlie motion at x
duc to th force at &is th same as would have been found at
had thc force acted at x.
In discussing th sohition we will take first the case in which
there is no friction. Tfjc coenieicnt is then zero while
is
rca. aud equal to p a. Thc rca.1part of th solution, correspondinb to th force .Fcos~, is found by simply putting cos~)<for
in (8), but it sccms scarcelynccessary to write th quations again
for the sal of so small a change. Th same rcmark applies to
the forced motion given in terms of y.
It appears that thc motion beco'mcsinfinite in case the force
is isochronous with one of th natural vibrations of the entire
string, unicss th point of application be a node; but in practice
it is not easy to arrange that a string shall be subjcct to a force
of given magnitude. Perhaps th best method would be to attach
a. s)nall mass of iron, attractcd perIodicaUyby an elcctro-magnet,
whose coils are travcrscd by an intermittent currcnt. But unless
some means of compensation wcre deviscd,the mass would have to
bc vcry small in order to avoid its Iiiertia Introducing &new comphc:).tion.
A better approximation may he obtained to the imposition of
an obligatory motion. A massive fork of low pitch, cxcited by
a bow or sustained in permanent operation by electro-magnetism,
exccutcs its vibrations in approximate independcnce of the reactions of any light bodies which may be connecte(l with it. In
order tbei-cforc to subjcct any point of a string to an obligatory
Donlnu'3
~co)M<<M,
p. 121.

154

TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS.

[133.

traverse motion. it is only


necessary to attach it to th extremity
of one prong of sucha fork, whose
plane of vibration is perpendicular
to the length of th
string. This method of cxhihiting th forced
vibrations of a string appels to hve beou first used
by Meldc.
Another arrangement, hetter
adapted for aurai observation,
bas been employcd by Helmholtz. Tj~ end of
th stalk of a
powcrfui tuning-fork, set into vibration with a bow, or othenvise
is pressed against th string. It is advisable
to ~e the surface,
which cornes into contact ~ith t),e
string, into a suitable (.saddieshaped) form, tho botter to prevcut slipping and
jarring.
Referring to (5) we sec that, if sin X&vanished, th motion
(according to this quation) would hecome Infinit, which
may be
taken to prove that in thc case
eontempiated, the motion would
real!y become great-so grcat tl.at corrections,
insi~upreviousiy
rise
into
ficant,
importance. Now sin
vanishes, when the force
is isochronouswith one of thc natural
vibrations of th first part
of tho string, supposed to be )tdd
nxed at 0 and b.
When a fork is placed on th
string of a ~onochord, or other
instrument properly providcd with a
sound-board, it is casy to
find by tnal th
places of maximum rsonance. A very
slight
displacement on eitlier side entails a considerable
falling o~In~e
volume of tlie sound. Th
points thus determined~i~
the
string into a
of
parts, of
length that the
natural note of any one of them
~hen nxed at both ends) is
tlie same as th note of th
fcrk, as may readily be verified, The
important applications of resonance .vhieh Helmholtz lias
made to
a
tone
purify simple
from extraneous accompaniment will
occupy
our attention later,
134. Returning nowto the
case
complex,
o have to extract th real
from
parts
(5), (R), (~ of 133. For
~f~~T~
occur as
reduced to
the form Beie. Thus let

134.]

FRICTION PROPORTIONAL TO VELOCITY.

155

corresponding to thc obligatory motion =~ycos~ at


By a similar process from (8) 133, if

correspondmg to tho impresscd forco .Fcos~ at b. It remains to


obtaiu tlie forms of
ex,&c.
The values of a and /3 are dotorminecl by

while

This completes th solution.


If thc friction be very small, the expressions may be simpliHcd. For instance, in this case, to a sufEcicut approximation,

15G

TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS 0F STRINGS.

[L34.

so tha.t corrcsp~nding to tlie obligatory motion at & ?/


=-yeosp!; tLc
:uu!j~ bt'i~c~n
0 ;ut.t
nmphiudt'' of
is, )tpp~Xit)jft.tu!y

-which bccumcs grcat, but not inanit, wheu sin


= or thc
M 0,
point of application is a node.
If thc hnposed force, or motion, bo ])ot exprcsscd hy a single
harmonie term, it must first bc rcsolvcd into such. Thc preceding
solution may then be applicd to each componcnt separately, and
thc resuits addcd togcther. T!ic extension to th case of more than
one point of application of thc imprcssed forces is atso obvions.
To obtain tho most gcnera) solution s~tisf'ying the conditions thc
expression for the i)fitur:d vibrations must also Le addcd bnt
thse become reducecl to Insignincancc after tnc motion lias been
in progress for a suficiunt timc.
Th !n.wof friction !msumcd in the prcccding investigation is
th only one whoso resuits can bc ca.si)yfuilowed
doductivety, and
it is sunicient to givc a gnerai idca. of t))C effects of
dissipativc
forces on tlic motion of a string. But in other respects th conclusions drawn from It possossa nctitioua simplicity, dcpcndinr'-on
the fact that 7'tl)e frictinn functionis similar in form to 7'
which makcsthe normal co-ordinatcsindepcndent of cach other.
In ahnost any other case (for oxample, when but a sit)g)c
point of
the string is rctardcd by friction) tttcrcarc no nonnfd co-ordinates
propcriy so called. Tho-c exist itutocd ctcmcntary types of vibration into which the motion may bc rosolved, a)id which arc
perfectly indcpendcnt, but thse are essentially different in character from thosc with which wc have hecn conccrncd hithcrto for
the varions parts of the system (as affected by onc
dcnicntary
arc
not
in
thc
samc phase. Spcial cases
vibration)
simu!t!).neous!y
cxcepted, no lincar transformation of th eo-ordinatcs (with real
coefficients) can rcduce T, and F togcther to a sun) of squares.
If wc suppose that tho striug lias no itx.'rtia, so that ~==()
-~and F may tbcn be reduced to sums of squares. This
probfem
is of no acoustical importance, but it is
Intercsting as bcing
mathcmaticaMy analogous to that of thc conduction :utd radiation
of lipat in a bar whuse ends arc maintaiucd at a cojtstaut temprature.

135.]

EXTREMITIES

SUBJECT TO YIELDING.

157

135. Thus far wc have supposcd that at two fixcd points,


= 0 and .c = ttt string is hcld at rest. Since absolute Hxtty
c:),nnotbc fLttu-uibdm prit-cticc,it is ~ot without iuterest to inquire
in whut ma.nncr t))Civibrations nf a string are liable tu bo modiried
hy a yichHr)~ cf t.bc points of attactuncnt; and tlie prob!cm
wiU fm'tush occasion for onc or two remarks of importance.
For t))Csahc of simplicity wc shaU suppose that thc System is
synunctrical witti rcfurcncc to tho centre of thc string, a.rid that
cactt cxtrundty is a-ttachcd to a mass (trcatcd as uncxtendcd in
spacc), and is urgcd by a spring (~t)towards thc position of cqniiibrium. tf uo frictionat forces act, th motion is nccessa.rity
rcsolvabiciuto normal vibrations. Assume
cos (wa~ e).(l).
~= (~ sin )Ha;+~3cosMM'}
Tho conditions at th ends arc that

whiehgivc

two cquaitons, suficicnt to dtermine


E)inun:tt.i)tgtitc lattur ru.Lio,we Hud

and tlic ratio of~S to a.

Equation (3) has an infinite number of roots, which may ho


fnund by writing tan for so tliat tan ?/~= tan 2~, and the result
th corrcspoudingparticular sohttions, each
of adding togcthcr
with its two arbitrary constants et and c, is necGssfu'ityth most
guncralsoiution of winch th prublem is capable, and is thercforc
adquate to rcprcsunt th motion duc to an arbitrary initial distribution of dispiacemeut and velocity. Wc infcr tbn.t any function
of x may bc cxpanded bctwucn x = and a;=~ in a-scrics of terms
~,(~,sin~)cos?)!) + ~~(~s!nm.c+cos~)
+
(5),
&c.thc coi'rcspouding
?~ H~,&c. bclug thc roots of (~) and

158

TRANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS.

values ~p~"
of' t] i syst.em,

arc

co-ordinates

From thc symmctry of thc


system it follows that in each
thc s.,nc at points
"y
distant
th
P~.
twoends,wherc~=0~d.
l. Hcncc ~sm.t-co~
=+1 1,
8
4
as may bc proved also from
(4-).
T!.e Mncdc energy y of thc ~I.ole
nation Is made up of thc
Mergy of thc string, and that of the masses
T!u~
r;
SUl + cos
y=~p) {S
f~
M!a-)~
+~+~+.r+~~(~sin~+cos~~+.
Buthy theenaracteristic property of normal
co-ordinates, terms
cannot ~lypr~eut
in t.. c.prc.ssion
for
~I~~tr'~ l' 80 that
1
.9ili9?bX
sin
cos?M~)
(~
(vr
+,coq
+
ili,x) (~ sin M~.t+ ces M,?;)
pf"
p~
+ + (~ sin m~ + cos7~) (~ sin M/ + ces M/) =0.
if 7' andg Le differcjit.

(G),

This
s~gcsts how to dtermine th
t~orem senc-s
arbitrary constMts sothatthe
(5) mayrcprcscnt au arbitraryfunction
y. Takc th expression
y(.sin ~~+cos~)~.+~+
sin
cos
p~
~(7)
.~d
in it th scrics (.)
Th rc.nit is a
exprc.ssi.,g
scries~titutc
of tcrms of thc type
(~ sin

p~~
+
+

+ cos~)

(~ sin ?x,~ cos ~~)

(., sin 7~?+ cos ,) (~ s;


+ eos
ail of
vanish hy (6), cxccpt thc onc for
whieh 7.=
whi~
to
js equal th expression (7), dividcd
by

Hencc

p~.sin~+cos~+~+~
and thus th
cftho series arc detcrnnnod.
coc~icnts
If ~=0
even
bo rinitc, thc p,
althc.g~
but thc
unrcstnctcd prob~ is Instn,ctive. So
nu,ch strc.~

135.]

FOURIER'S

THEOREM.

159

often laid on special proofs of Founer's and Lapiacc's sries, tliat


tho st~doit Mapt, <,o~cquirc' tor*contra<;tcda vic~vof thc na-torc
ofthosc important rcsults ofanaly~Is.
We shall now shew bow Fouricr's thcorom in its ~encrai form
can bc deducpd from our prsent investigation. Let ~=0; thcn
if /t= -X),the ends of th string arc fast, and th quation detcrniining ?~ becomcs tan M~= 0, or m~= ~Tr,as we k~ow It must
bu. lu this case t!)o sries for y becomes

which must bc gnerai cnongh to reprcscntn.ny arbitra-ryfunctions


of.K,vanisiting at 0 an'l ?, betwccnthosc Innits. But now suppose
th~t~ is zro, ~/8ti!l v!t,nishmg. Thc ends of thc string may be
supposedcapable of slidiug on two smaotit m:ls perpendicuiM-to
its length, Mid the tcrmina.l condition is the vanishing of
Thc cquf~tionin is th same OM~e/~rc; and wc Ic~rn.that any
fnnctiony' whose rates of variation vauish a.t a?=0 and a?= can
be expanded In a scriua

Tbis series remains unan'cctcd when th sign of a; is changcd,


and th first series mcrcly changes sign without altcring its
numcnc:il magnitude. If tlierofore y' ho an even function of x,
to +
And in the samc wa.y,if y bc
(10) represciits it n'om
au odd funetion of x, (9) roprescuts it betwecn thc samc limits.
Now, whatcvcr funetion of a; ~)(:r) may bo, it can bc divided
into two parts, one of w!iichis even, and the other odd, thus

so tha.t, if (x) be such tha,t (- = (+ Z)and < (- ?) = ~)' (+~),


it eau bc rcpresetitcd betwccn th limits by the inixed sries

This series is penodic, with tlie pcnod 2?. If thcrcforc (x)


possessthc samo property, no matter what in othcr respects its

160

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

OF STRINGS.

[135.

charactcr may be, the series is its complete quivalent. This is


Founcr's thcorcm*.
Wc now procccd to cxa.minc titc c~ccts of a slight yielding of
thc supports, in tlic cfu-:c
(.)f:).striog whosconds are approximat~'ty
~xcd. Titc quantity tnay Lu g)-(.),t,cit!)c;)-through or throngj)
Wc shn)l conHne oursulvos to thu two principal cases, (1)
-whcn is ~rea.Laud
is
vanishes, (2) wlicn vauishes and
grt.

and the quation in

is approxhnatdy

and
To this ordur of approximation thc tones do not cease to form
a harmonie scalc, lmt tlie pitch of tlie whule is
slightiy lowered
Tho effect oftftcyiciding is in fact thc same as that of an increase
in tlie length of th string in the ratio 1 1
+
have been anticipatcd.
Th rcsult is otherwisc if /t vanish, while Al is
great.

as might
Hcre

and
Hcnce

Th cfTcctis thus cquivfileut to a dccrcMc in l in tlie ratio

Tho ~t System' for provi~g Fonrier's t]iMrem


from dynamic~I considra.
tio~ is au cmUess chain ~tchod round s,u.~th
cyiiudcr (S M!)), or thiD
ro-outraut culumn of uir eucluecdiu a
nitH.sIfnpcd tube

135.]]

FINITELOAD.

l(j~1

and eonscqucntiy thcrc 1. a nso in


pitch, t]ie rise bcing th
grcatcr thc lowcr tho couiponcut tone. Tt nngl.b bc thought
tttfit any kind ofyiL-!di!)g wou)(t deprcss thc
ptieti of thc string,
but thc preceding uivestigation sficws that tins is not tiie case.
Whet))cr thc pitch will be raiscd or lowcrcd,
dcponds on thc
sign of and this agam dcpcnds on whcthcr tlic nn-tura.!note of
thc mas-s urgcd by t!)c
spriug I.slowcr or !iig]tcrth:ui th~t of
thc component vihra.tion In (question.
136. Thc proDcni of an ot))crwise unifonn
string c~n'ying
a nuite load ~at .;= ciui ho .sutvcd thc formut
by
InvcstigiLtett
!n 13:}. Fur, if thc force 7''cus~< be duc to the raction against
accuIcraHonof thc mass
which comhined with quation (7) of 13~
gives, to determine thc
possible vaincs of (or p r/),
Thc vfihtc of y for any normal vibration corrcsponding to

is

whcre P :uid e arc fu-bitrfu'yconstants.


It docs not rcfjuh-c anaiy.si.s tn
provc thn-t any normal cojnponents which have a, no.h at t!)C pnint of attachment are mi.ectcd hy tlie prsence of tlie load. For
Instance, if a stnng be
wei~hted at the centre, its componcnt vibrations of evcn orders
rcin~in unchanged, \vhi)c a)i thc odd
components arc dcpresscd in
pitch. Advantagc m!Lysomctitnc-s hc takcn of t)tis effect of a.
load, wi)cu it is desircd for anypurp~cto distnrb the harmonie
relation of thc comptjncnt tones.
If
bc voy g-reat, titG gravest component is
wideiy separatcd in pitc)i from !i]I t).u others. We will take thc case when
t)te !oad is at thc cfntrc, so t.hat =
b = U.l. Thc quation in
t])cn hceomos

where
3/, dcnnting th ratio of t)te masses nf the stritig and
th.' )oad, is a sma]) quantity which
Th<~<ir~
may bc caltud
K.
1

162

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

~:3G.

root corresponding to tlie tonc of lowest pitch occurs v'hcn ~~is


sma,!l,andsucht)i~t

Thc second term constitutes a correction to tho rcngh vn.luc


obLn.incdin a previous chn.ptcr ( 52), by ncglecting th(; Ino-tin. of
thc st.ring :dtogcthcr. Thit.t it won)d bc i~htitivc might. I)n.vc
hecn cxpcctm), at)d indecd th formuia.a.s it stands jua.y bc obta.incdfrorn thc considcra.tionthat in thc actutd vibration tlie two
~:u'ts of tlie string in-c ncn.riystr&ight,and may bc n.ssmncd to hc
<'xnct,Iyso in conipnting titc kitK'tic n.nd potcntifd nergies, -\v!th<'ut C!)t)ufi!)gfmy apprcci:d)Ic crror in t)tc cn.lcoh~tcdpcriod. On
<J)i.ss~ppu.sitionthc rctcntion of t))e incrti:t of thc string incrca.scs
thc kinctic cnf'rgy corresponding to {tgivcn vclocity of t))CJond in
thc mtio cf
whic)) icads to thc nhovc rcs)dt. This
~)7'+
mothod t):is indced thc a.dvantagc In onc rcspuct, aa it )ni'd)t bc
npplicd whcn is not nnifortn, or ncarly uniform. ~)] th:tt is
ncccss.iryis t.ha).),hc )oad -/)/shoufd he su(H(.-icnt)y
prcdouioant.

CORRECTION

13C.]

FOR RIGIDITY.

1G3

Thcrc is no othcr root of ('t), until sin~X~=0, which gives


thc second component of thc .string,a, vibration indcpcndent of
the load. T!ie roots aftcr thc first occur ni closely contiguous
pairs; for oue set is givcn hy ~X~==S7r,~nd tho other approxiin which tho second tcrm is sma.
mn.tc!yby ~=N7r+- &'7T./)/
Thc two types of vibration for N= 1 are shcwn in th Hgurc.
The goncral formula (2) may a)so be applicd to find the cifcct
of a small loadon thc pitch of the various components.
137. Actua.1 strings and wh'es arc not perfectly flexible.
Thcy oppose a.certain rsistance to bcnding, which may bc divided
into two pa.rts,p)'oducing two distinct enccts. Thefirst is called
viscosity, and shcws itself hy df~nping th vibrations. This part
produces no sensible efTcct on th poriods. The second is conservative Iti its chtu'a.ctcr,an<tcontributes to the potcntia.1cnorgy
of thc system, with thc effect of shortening thc pcriods. A eomphjte investigation cannot convcnioltiy bc givcn hcro, but thc
case 'which is most intcrcsti))g in its application to musical instmmcnts, adinits of a sufficicntly simple treatmeut.
Whcn rigifhty is takcn intn account, somctiling more must ho
specined with respect to thc terminal conditions tha.u that y
vanisties. Two cases may hc particularly noted
arc clamped, so that
tli~it q = 0 at
tt thc
tll("C.,n(ls.
ends.
Mrliciitii(,
t)ic ends
eiids are
(1) Whcn
=0
(2) Whcn thc termina) dircftions are pcrfcctiy free, in which
= 0.
case

f/.C'

Itis th laLLct'whichwc propose nowtocnnsxtcr.


Jf tho'c wo'c no ngi'tity, t)tc t.ypc of vibration wouht hc
,c~r,r,
y

p
x

si~L

f '1
satt.sfymg

t!ic

second

1,
1 cnn'Ution.

Thc cicctofthc ri~iditymight bc slighUyto distnrh the type;


hnt whethcr such a rcsult occur or not, thc priod calcntatud
from thc potcntiiU a!)d kinctic nergies on thc supposition that
the type rc)n:uns mudtcrcd Is nccc.ssarilycorr'-ct as f:n' ~s thc first
ot'dcr of.stna)) qu:)nLit.ic.s
( US).
N')\v Dit' potc))ti:d pocrgy duc to thc stiincs.sis expresse'! by

~64

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

OF STRINCS.

[137.

where /e is a quantity
dcpcnding on the nature of thc mntcrial
n.nd on t.he form ofthn ~cticu in a pir.infr thn.t.
nrc. nnt.ncw
prepai.;(i K, u.nh.j.
Ti.e/u. ur~' is vident, bcc-mscttic f~i-cc
required to bcnd any clment
Is proportion. to
and to thc
amount of bcuding a]rcady c-iTcctcd,t!)at is to
Thc whoic
work w))icli mu.st bo donc to
producc a curvaturc 1 p in ds
is thcrcforc proportional to
~-p'; whl)c to thc app)-o.ximatnmto
1
which we work =
and = 1
p M.<,

if T. dnote what tl)c


pcriod wouM bccomc if t])c st.nng wcrc
cndowcd with pc.rfect
fi~ibiHty. It nppears that t).c cffcct of thc
.st~ncss n.crc.ascsrapidiy wilh t].o ordcr of thc
couinent vibrattons, which cea.scto bc)o.~ to !LI~nnnnic scalc.
Ho\vcvu! i.t t!.c
Htrn~s cmpjuyc..) in niu.sic, t).c ton.si.m i.s usn~Dy suficicnt to
rcducc thu inHucnce ofrigi()it,y to
insignifiance.
T))G)neH)odoffhis section cannot hc
~ppjicd without inodinc.~ion to t).c ot).e.- case of t~nina)
comiition, n:unc)y,whcu t).c
cnd.s arc c-hunpcd. In thcir immudiatc
nci~hbuurhood t)ie type of
vibration must dm' from that a.ssuincd
by a po~cHy Hcxible
stnng byaquantity, w),.d. is no !o)~c.r s,n:dt, and w).osc
thcrcforc cannot be nog]~t~d. Wc sha)) rcturn to this square
suhject,
wttcn ti-cattog of thc transvcrsc vibrations of
rods.
J38. TLct-Gi.sonc p.-obicm
rdating <ot).u vihratiut.s of.strin.s
whtdi wc I.ave not yut considcrcd, but which 1~of
.s.~ncpracti~i
intcrcst, na.ndy, thc cluu-acterof th nation of a vioiin
(or ccHo)
undor
thc
stnng
action of thc bow. In this prob]e.n th ~o~s
~W!~ oft!)c bow is not .sufHcicntJyu).()c.stood to aUowus to
foHowcxeh.sivdy thc M;)~~ mcthod thc
indications of thoory
mo.st bc .supp)emuntL~
).y spccia) observation. By a dextc-rou.s
combitiationof cvidcncedrawn frorn both Kourcc.s!Id)nho!tz)tas
-snccccdcd m d.r.nining th
principe tcaturus of thc. cas~ but
somc of thc dtails arc .stii)obscure.

138.]

VIOLIN STRING.

165

Since thu note of a. ~ood Instrumr'.nt, well ha.ndlcd,is musicn],


wc infcr thaL Lh~yibraLiuurta.i'c stricHy pcriodiu,or at least that
strict periodieity is thc td'td. Morcoverand this is very importantt!ic note clicitcd by the bow lias nctu'Iy,or qnitc, tite sn.me
pitch a.stho n:itu)':d note of th string. TIic vibra.ttons,although
ibrccd, arc thus iti sutuc sens frcb. Thcy are whony dpendent
for tbcn' mn.intcnn.nccon th energy drf),wnfrom th bow, and yet
tho how doos not dctcrniine, or cvcn sensibjy mod)fy,their pcriods.
We arc rcmindcd of thc scif-aeting clectricaL intcrrnptcr, whosc
motion is Indcd furccd in thc tochnica.! sense, but haa t!ia.t kind
offrcedom which consi.stsin dcturjnitnng (who))y,orin part) undci'
what influences it sha,llcoinc.
But it docs not at once fullow from th fuct thn-t tho string
vibrtes witti its na.tura.1pcriods, that it confortns to its naturnl
types. If thc coefHcientsof tlie Fourier expansion

be takcn as tlie independcnt co-ordhiatcs by wlticbthc conngura.tion oftiie system is at any moment de~ned, we kuow that whcn
tliere is no friction, or friction such tliat oc titc na.tur:Uvibra.tiu)is arc cxpresscd by ma.king cach co-ordin:tten.s~e harmonie
(or quasi-harmonie) Hmction of th timc; while, for a.l).that h:m
hitticrto appeitred to t))e contrary, eacii co-ordin.~toin the prsent
c:mcnii~ht bc M?t~/
function of tim time periodic in time'T. But a
Httle examiua.tionwill show that tlic vibrations must hc sci)sib)y
natural in their typos as wcti as in thcir periods.
Tho force excrciscd by the bow at its point of application may
bc exprcsscd by

so tha.t tlie equation of motion for tlie co-ordin~tc

is

&being thc pouit of appHcn.tion. Each of the componcnt parts of


will give a corrcspondin~ tcrm of its own pci-todin th solution, but tbe ono whosc period is th same as tho natuml po-Iod
of~ will risc cnoi'tnousiyin relative importance. Pra.ctienUythen,
if tlic damping bo suialt, wc uccd only rctain tha,t p:~rt of

166

whicL
W
11(:"

TRANSVERSE

( 1.
d' j"!en!
pendsS 011
on J,
ij.

VIBRATIONS

c,
c.~
i"

e~
~

0F

thut
) tua!'

STRINGS.

I., tu ~y,
ci
s.ty,

[138.

w~ ~n.y
Wu
may regM'
rogm-d

the vibrations as natural in their types.


Anuther matent fact, supported by cvidnccdrawn both from
theory and aurai observation, is tins. AHcomponent vibrations
are absent which have a node at the
In
point of excitation.
ordcr, however, to extingui.sh thse tones, it is neccssfa-yt!)at the
coincidenceof the point of application of the bow with tho nndc
shonid bo vcry c.mc<. A very small dviation
rcproduces t)tc
jnis.si)igtones with considorabJc strcnf-tb'
Tlic rcm~inder of tho vidence on w)nch He!mboltx'
theory
rcsts, vas dcrived from direct observation with thc vibrationmicroscope. As explained in Chapter n., t)tis instrament affurds
aview oftbe curve rcprcscnting th motion of thc point undcr
observation, a~ it would e seen traced on tlic surface of a transparent cylinder. In ordcr to Jcduec t!te reprsentative curve in
its ordinary form, the imaginary cylinder must be conceivedtu
be uni-otiud,or developed, into a. p)anc.
The simp]cst results arc obtaincd whcn the bow is
a.ppl!cdat a
nodc of one of tho higher componcnts, and th
point obscrved is
onc of the otlier nodes of the samc system. If th bow works
fairly so as to draw out tho fundamcntal tono cicarly and strongly,
thc reprsentative curve is tha.t she\vn in
figure 22; where tho
abscisse correspond to tho tirne (~173hcing a conpicte
period),
and t]io ordinates reprcsent the displaccment. The rcmarkabio

fact is discloscd t))at. thc whotc po-iod T ma.ybc divulcd inin two
parts ~ nnd r-T., during c~ch of whieh thcvdocityof thet)bsct-vcd point is consent,; but th vulucitics to and fro ;).re in
goict'a! uncqua].
Wc Iiavc now to rcprc.scnt this curvc
by n so-ies ofiiarmnnic
terms. If t)tc ori~in of timc corrospond to t))c point J, and
Donkin'<~cf)~.<f)~,
p. 13).

138.]
J 7'

VIOLIN

1GT

STRING.

T'Y?
== Fourier's t)teorcm E;ivea

With respect to thc value of T., wc know that ail those com(xa being thc
pouents of~ must vauish for which sm-=0
point of observation),'bccn.uscunder th circumstances of the case
the bow cannot gcnGrato them. Tliere is thcreforc reason to
suppose thn.t T. T= a', l; and in fact observation proves tbat
J.C' C~ (iti tho figure) is cqual to the ratio of the two parts iuto
which tlic string is divided by the point of observation.
Now thc i'rec vibrations of thc string are rcprcsentcd in
geucral by
=
+ sin
sia
cos
and Uns at thc point a;= must agrec with (1). For convenience
of euu)parison,we inay write
2S7T/. T~
2S7T<
287rt
2S7T<
=
A
Co.2s7r < ~)
ces
Sin~~7rt (7,
C~
~, cosT + R
B~sin
T
T t
2/
19
D
~(<),

Ir (

1'0)

and it thon a.ppears that C, = 0.


We find a.Isoto dtermine D,

whcucc

In thc ca.se reserved, the comparison !c:wcs DHundetcrmincd,


but wc know ou otlier groundH tliat DHthen vanistics. Howcver,
for the sakc of simplicity, we sh:dl suppose for tlie pt'cscnt that.
D~is ahvitysgivcn by (2). If the point of application of tlie bow
do not concide with a nodc of any of the lowcr componcuts, thc
error comtnittcd will bc of nu grcat cousof~uenc.
On tliis undGrsta.udingtlie complote solution ofthc problem is

168

TRANS VERSE VIBRATIONS

OF STRINGS.

['138.

The a.mpl:tudea of th componcnts fu-et.tjercfore


proportions) to
int~u!p!!t~,)dMt!-l;
A
~)U;tdfu!fi'JC<;)t'C!t)~)"'
0
y
futictiou
i'uuctiou
1 l is sonicwhat
whic)i
l,
'JsinnJfn-. If
Iftijc
J string
s'sin'S~ L,
s-"sln'
ho ptucked at th mnhilc, th cvcn
components v~nish, but thc
Oth!oncs foHowthc same )!twas obta.hjs fur a vioiin
strincr. T))c
c()ua,tin (3) ulcHcatcst]):tt thc strmg is :Jways m t))e fun~oftwo
.st.mi~ht Unes mcetittg a.t an angtc. In order inore convettiontiv
to shew this, !ct us change thc origin of tftc tune, a.ud t)ic constat
mu)t,ip!ier, so that

willhc thc quation cxprcssing th form oft))c


string :tt any titnc.
Now wo know ( 127) that thc C(tU!ttio.iof th
p.ur of lines
proceeding from thc fixod em]s of thc .string,and mcet.nrr at a
puint wliosc co-ordinates arc or,/9, is

Thse quations indicatc that thc


projection on th axis of:B
cf thc point of intersection moves
uniforndy backwards and
forwanis bctwecn .~=0 an.! ~=Z, an.) t.)iat t).c
point of inter.suction itscif i.s situatc.d on onc or ot).< uf t~-o
p;u-abo]ic arcs,
'~t' whieli thc equilibrhun positon of th
.string is a connnon
chofti.
Since the motion ofthc string as th~ d~nu<i
hy tl.at of thc
point of intersoction of its two straight parts, bas no
cspccia!
rctatioti to (Lhc point of
observation), it. fo)h~-s that, accordin.
to t])c.seouations, titc sa.ne J<indof motion
m.gbt Le obscrved a't
any otho- point. And t)iis is approximatciy trnc. But tbc thcorctica) rL-.suk,it wil! bo romonbcrud, was
o)i)y obtaincd by asH)))ni))gtbc prsence in certain proportionsofcomponent vibrations
ha\'in~ nodc.s at
thongh in tact thuir abscucc is )-<j(p)ircdby
"chanica) !aws. Thc prsence or absence of thse
components is

138.]

STRINGSSTRETCHEDON CURVEDSURFACES. 109

a mattcr ofindifercncG when a, node is thc point of observation,


but not in nny otho' c-f. Wh~n thc nid.' i.-idoparted from, thc
vibration curvc shews a sries of ripples, duc to thc absence of
thc conponcnts In question. Somc furt!icr dctails will be fuund
in Hcitnhoitz and Donhin.
Thc sustaining powcr of thc bow dcpeuds upon the fact that
so)id frictiuu is Ic.ssat modrate t))an at smalL velocitics, so thf).t
w)tt]t)tc part of th stri!~ actud npou is moving witil th bow
action is greater
(nut imprububly at thc s:~mcvulocity), thc mutual
titmi wi'eu thc string is moving in tho opposite direction with
:L greatcr relative vulucity. Th ~ccctcrating eH'cct in tl~c first
not cntirdy ncutratiscd by th subthus
is
motion
of
thc
part
accctcra.tion rcmains
squent rctfu-da.tion, and an outstanding
vibration in spite of other losscs of
cap:(.b)cof ]n:untaining th
of solid friction
~ncr"-y. A cm-iouscncct ofthc samc peculiarity
bas becn obscrved by Mr Froudc, who found that tl)0 vibrations
uf a, pcndulnm swinging from a sbaft might bc maintained or
cvcn Incrcascd by causing tt~cshaft to rotate.
A strin"' stretched on a. stnooth cui'vcd surface will in
to certain concquilibrium lie along a gcodcsic Une, and, subject
ditions of stubitity, will vibrato about tilis eonnguratiun, if disthat call bc proposcd is when. tlic
ptaced. TI)C simplest case
surface is a cyHnder of any form, and th cquitibrium position
of tlie string is perpcndicular to titc gnerating hncs. Th studcnt
will casUyprovc that tbc n~otion is indcpcndcnt of thc curvature
of tlie cylinder, and that thc vibrations arc in :dlessential respects
thc samc as if th surface wcrc developcd into a plane. Th case
of an endiess string, funning a nccidace round th eylindcr, is
v/orthy of notice.
In oi'tterto Ulustratc tlic charactcristic features of this class of
of a
problenis, we will tako thc conparatively simple cxample
and lying,
string stretched on th surface of a smouth sphre,
v/hcn in cquilibrium, :dong a grcat circle. Tite co-ordinatea to
which it will be most convcnicnt to refer thc system are th
mcasurcd front thc grcat circle as equator, and th
Jatitudc
of thc sphre be
~n~itudc measured alung it. If thc radius
wb bave
139.

170

TRANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STRINGS.

fl39.

Thc extension of th string is denoted by

Now
sothat
so
tliat
f~

J(~i)~.
~=(~f~+(ocos~
= f/
{(~~ +

= 1/
2 (~~

2 ~PP'tc]y.

Thus
~(y-(~'

andli
a.nd

Cltp

V= aTl.
Q
i-~ -10
~)~.
If thc ends Le fixed,

-8-

dtp.(2);1

ose ~(to

+ e Jcp.

~=0'
L~J. 0
and thc equation of virtual velocitiesis
0 se dtp
0 0 8~
whence,since S~ is a-rbitrary,

o0

+ 8 dcfJ=
= o,
0,
(10

"(~)
This is thc cquatiou of motion.
If wc assume occos~<,wc get
_rl'B 0 cc'p 22
~,+~0.
cf \vl)ieh the solution, subject to t)ic condition that
with is

(4),
vanishes

.cos~ .(5).
~=~sinj~~+l~
Tho rcmaining condition to bc satisfied is that
vanislics whcn
~= or <j&= et, if a =<! K.
Tiiis givcs
I\
( :I- cG~

~h' -~=p'(~
1)

a p a -1 p
J
~herc ?~ is an iutcger.
CambrMHO
Mathcmaticftt
TritMB
187G.
Exnmination,

.G

139.]

VARIABLE

DENSITY.

171

Tho normal functions arc thus of ~'c samc form a,a for a.
stnufht strmf. viz.

but thc series of periods is digrent. Thc effect of th curvature


is to makc cach tone graver thao. the corresponding tonc of a
is
straigbt string. If a> 7r,0110at least of tho values of p2 ngative, mdica.ting tha.t the corrcspouding modes are unstable. If
a =='7r, is zro, tlie string bcing of tlie same length iu tlie displaced position, as whe!i = 0.
A similar method might be applied to catculatc the motion of
a striug strctched round tlie equator of any surface of rvolution.
140. The approximate solution of the problem for a vibrating
bas been
string of ncarly but not quitc uniform longitudinal dcnsity
of
fully considcred in Chapter IV. 01, as a convenierit cxampic
thc general thcory of approximately simple systems. It will bc
thc
sufficienthre to repeat thc result. If tlie density bc ~+
pcriod , of thc ?' component vibration is given by

Thse values of r" arc correct as far as thc first power of thc
small quantifies 8p and ?~,and give the incans of calcul~ting a.correction for such slight dcpartures from uniformity as must always
occur iu practice.
As might be expecte(l, th effect of a small load vanishes at
nodes, and rises to a maximum at tlie points midway bctw<;cu
conscutive nodes. WIien it is dcsircd mcrcly to make a rough
Gstimato of thc effective dcnsity of a ncarly uniform string, thc
formula indicatcs tliat attention is to Le given to the neighhourhood of loops rather than to that of nodcs.
1-tl. The dinerential quation determining th motion of a
string, whose longitudinal dcnsity p is variable, is

172

TRANSVERSE

from which, if wc
assume
.'<))';n:u
iuucti~

VIBRATIONS

occos

0F STRINGS.

F 141.

wc obttuu to dctcrmu~ th

~yhcre

,swntt.n for~-?',
of th second
This~uationis
hncar, b,.thasnothit)icrtobccn.so!v.d:n
o'rand
huitotcrms.
Cun.s.dcrc.t dcH.ling th curve ~su.ucd
by tho .st.rin.r In thc
uonna! mode uih!cr considration, it dutcnnincs
thc c~rc
at
nnd
any pou.t,
accordin~jy cinbodic~ a ru)c I.y whidi th c-n-vo
can bc construct.cd
Thns in thu npptic~iun to
~phic.Hy.
string nxcd both cnd.s,if
st.t from c.ithcr end nn ~rbitrary
inclination, and wit). zro curvatm-c,~-0are
ahvay.sdirectcd by tbe
quation w.Lh what eurvaturc to p.-uceed, and in tins
wc
way
trace
out
th cutirc curvc.
jaay
If thc assumcd value of
be rigbt, the curvc will cross
th. axis of at thc
rc.uircd distance, aud thc ]aw of vibration
will hc con~tctdy dctcrndncd. If
Le nul known, ditterent
vaincs may bc tri.d untii thc curvc
ends rightiy; a sufncient
approximation to tho value
cf~m.~u.su~iyho
~-nvcdathy~
c~cul~tion founded on an as.smncd
type (88, 90).
Whcthcr t!.c longitudinal
density be uniform or net th
pcncdic timo of any simple vibration varies c~~
as thc
root
cf
thc
s<(u~e
den.sity aud Invcr.s.ly us th .square root of the
tension undur w)nch t]io motion takcs
piace.
Thc eonvcrsc prob)cm of
dct~mining thc <icnsity,w!,c.uth
pcnod and H,c type of vibration arc gi vcn,is
always sutuhic For
tins purposc is ody
necessary <o substitutc thc givcn vah.c of v
and of its second di~brontial cocmcient in
quation (2). Unkss
tbedcns.tybo innuitc, th extrunutics of a
string arc points of
zero curvature.
W!tcn a givcn string is
s)iortencd, every componcnt tono is
ra..scd ,n p.tc)L For tho new stato of
things may bc rcgarded as
dcnvcd from thc old by
intradnction, at t!ic proposed point of
hxturo, of a spring (without inc.rtia), ~vhosestifFncssis
gradua]!y
incr~scd without limit. At
of
thc
cac)..stc.p
proccss tho potcntia!
cncrgy ofa givcn dformation is angmentcd, and t).c-rcfor
( 88)
th intch of every tone is raiscd. In likc
manner an addition to
thc length ofa str.ng dcpresscs thc
pitc! cven though thc added
part bc dcstitutc ofiucrtia.

173

VARIABLEDENSITY.

142.]
14-2.

a gnerai

Atthongh
<<

Sh' ~c'

v'

pr,ui'

of

Intgration
t'~

m.T\p~y

(2)

quation

.u-

t!n)-~k'n
1.

of141
c'ft.h'

many intcresti! propcrties of th solution of th hnuar quation


of'thc second order.which liavc hcen detnonstrated LyMM. Stnrnt
and LiouviHu'. It Is impossible in tins work to give anythiug
hkc n. compictu ~ccomit of titeir invc.st.i~Lions;bot :), sketch, in
which tho te:tdi))~ fca.tm-csn.ruinctudcd, m~y be found intcrcstth
incr, and will tin'uw li~ht on sone points comicctud with
not
gcncnd thcory of the vibrntions of continuons bodics. 1 hve
thought it ticccs.s:u'yto adhre vcry c~osclyto t)'c mcthods adoptcd
io thc origina.)tncmon's.
A.t no point of t!t0 curvc satisfying thc cquation
rl'r/ 2
~+~~n.(D,

(1)

can both y a.nd '( vanish togctiicr. By sucsstvcdiHcrcntin.tio~s


vanish simnitancousiy,

n,nd

of (1) it is c~sy to prove that, If

aU thc highcr dncrcntial coemcicnts

Cl'`

&c. musta!so
C~:Cs

vanish at th samc point, and tilo'cfore by T~ytor's theorcm tho


curve must eoincidcwith th axis of a;.
Whatevcr
suu~

being

\duc

be

conc:wc

ascnbcd

to

tbt'oughout

thc

cn)-vc

to\vard.s

tlio

satisfying
axis

of

(1)

is

a-, sinec

ana
l
1 and
origin y vanish,
Ilositive. If at th
cvoywhcrc positive.
p isis cverywllere
~Lx
Lu positive, thc ordinatc will rcnmin positive for aU vaincs of a;
bclow a curtain limit dei'cndcnt on thc vainc ascribed to
bc vu'y smaH,thc cm-vaturc is slight, artd thc curve will
If
remain on t]tc positive sidc of thu axis for a gi'cat distance.
incrcascs, aU tho vahtcs of a;
Wc hve now to provo that as
which satisfy thc cotation = 0 gradua)Iy diminish in magnitude.
Lct Le th oi-dinatc of a second curve sati.sfyingth quation
+ Il p?J

~+,=0
cl;c'

.(2),

vanishes at thc origin, and lut us


as weil as thc condition that
Multiplying (2) hy y,
suppose t)iat is somcwhat grcatcr than
iu titofirstvolumeof
T)to)i)c;]))"i)'n
rnferrc~to ui tho tcxt nrt: euittttmcd
.yuto'/t'~
LiouyiUu's
()'S!it!j.

174

TRANS VERSE VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[143.

n.nd (1) by
subtmcting, and integn).th]g with respect, to x
bctwecu ttic limita 0 and x, wc obtn't), sincti and .1 ~ot!) vnmsh
wii,L.'t!,

If wc further suppose thftt .c corrcspomiHto n.point :).t winch


;u]d th~t tlie di~rcucc betwccn and is
y vcmi.sfK's,
vcry small,
we gct ultimately

TIic right-hand mcmber of (4) bcing


csscntially positive,
wo Jcaru that y and
arc of thc samc sign, and thcrcforc t!)at,
w])ethor

be positive 01-ngative,

is ah-eady of thc samc sign


as that to which y is changing, or in o~K-rwords, th value of a;
for which vanishcs is less t)ian that for
winch vanishcs.
If wo Hx our attention on thc portion of the curvc
!yin~
betwccn ;K=0 and .r=
thc ordinatc contitmcs positive t)n'ou"'hont as th value of incrcases, until a curtain v:duc is attaincd,
which wo will call
Titc function is now idcntical in form
with thc first normal function M, of a string of dcnsity (ixod
/)
at 0 and a~d lias no root cxccpt at thosc points. As
a'~ain
iacreases, thc first root movc.sinwards from a;=~ unti), when a
second special value
is attaincd, th curve again crosses th
axis at th point a'=~, and thcn rcprcscnts t]tc sccon(t norma!
functiou M,. This function bas thus onc internat root, and onc
ot~y. In likc manucr corrcsponding t.o a hi~hcr value
wc
ohtain titc third nonna! functiot ?~ with two interna! roots, and
so on. Thc ?"' functiou M,,bas thus cxactiy
1 intcrnid roots, and
sinco its ih'st dinurcntial cocfticientucvcr vanis))cs sinndtancousty
with thc function, it changes sign cach titnc a root is passcd.
Frn)n quation (3) it app~u-s that if nnd
hc tw.) di~'rcnt
normal functions,

A bciUttifu! thcorum bas bccn di.scuvc-rcdby Shmn rc)!~in<r


to the mnnhur uf Uic routs ci' funcLio;)(k'rivcd
by addition
from Hnitc tiumbur of nurnud fuuctious. If
bu thc eompoucnt

143.]

STURM'S THOREM.

175

of lowest order, and M~thc component of highost order, tho functtou


&c. arc arbitrary coefHcicnts,has a< ~ecM<
m11
whcrc ~), <
internai roots, and
~os~ Ml intcrna.1 roots. The cxtrenutics
f~t~=0 aud at .~=~con'cspon.d of course to roots in a.Ucases.
The followingdmonstration bca.rssomc rcsonbluncc to that givcn
hy Liouville, but is considcrn.blysimpicr, aud, 1 bellcvc~not less
rigorous.
If 'wc suppose that /(.E) ~as cxact]y
Internai roots (any
number ofwincli may bo cq)ia.l), thoderived functionj~) cannot
Iiavo less tl)an + 1 internai roots, sincc therc mnst bc at ]cast
onc root of/'(.'c) bctwccn cach pair <~fconsccntivcroots ofy(a;), and
t.Itu whoc numbcr of roots of~(.~) eoncurnud is ~.+2. 1); liko
roots ofy'(a:),
manncr, wc sec that thcrc must bo at Icast
bcsides tlie cxtrenutics, which thcmselvcs necessarlly correspond
to roots; so that in passmg from _/(~) to y"(~') it is impossible
that any roots can bc lost. Now

bas at luast /t interna.! roots; and th proccss tnay bo continnc'd


tu fmy uxtcttt. la this w~ywc obtai)i a scrics of' ftmctions, :t.])
intct'n:d roots at !en,st, whieit dUrur from the origina!
with
imtCtioM/(:)')by tho continua]]y menjasin~ relative !))iport!inccof
the componL'utsof thc hi~Lcr oniurs. Wi~cnt!i(i procL'ssI):~sbcot
ciu'i'iud sufficicnt.Jyfur, we sh~H :),n'ivc!tt a function, whosu iorm
ditturs as )itt)c :)Hwe p!t.'ascft-om that of t))c normal fonction uf
hi~))cst ordcr, viz. M, and w)iic)i])as thcnjforc )t 1 intcrn:d roots.
IL funows thi~t, sincc no roots can 1je lest in passit)g down thc
so'ics uf fu))ctio!)s, thc m))ub(.'ruf Int(.'t'))a)ruuis ufy(;<') c;U)n<jt
UXC'));) t.

17G

TRANSVERS

VIBRATIONS

0F

STUINOS.

[142.

Thc other ]~!f of tho thcorcm is


proved in n..simDarmannor
hycc!tt:t~:u~th~8';)-Ic:~if'un.cti.<
h.kw.'n~
:;i fl'u~i'
h.ll
Utiswaywcobt:).i)i

arriving- t~t last at a functiun sc.n.sib]ycoiuc.d~nt in form with thc


normal fu])ctionof
ordcr, v~
~nd havin~ Lhei-cforo
M-lnitcrnali-oots.
Sinccnoroutsc.-mbctastinp~sin~upthc
senesfrom <.hisfunctinn
to/(..), it full~y.s t].at/(.r) ~nr~ot Lave
fewertntcrn~ roots tl.nn ~-1;
but it must bc und~-stood that
auy number oft)~ w 1 roots mny be cqu.d.
Wc wi!!now prove tl.at,/(.) cannot be
ide..t:ca!!y zcro un)c~
a!I tlic cocfHcicnts va.n.sh.
is not 7ro
Supposa t).at
and intgre wit),
Muhiply (G)hy p
respect to~ betwccn
~nnc t!tc
Jhmts0aud/.
Thc.tby(5)

from wl.ich, since t)ic intgre on thc


rigbt-hand sidc i.s ~nitc we
sec t)iat/(.r) cannot vanish fui- aU vah.c.s of
Incli.dud withuAhc
t'fmgcofintogratio)).
LIouviiIe ].M inadc u.sc of Stur.n'.s thco-ent to sliew
i)ow a
scriGSof normal f.u.ctions n~y be eo)np<,u)h)c<I
su as to have an
at-bitrary sign atatt puint.s iymg bL.twccn ~=0 and a;=~. His
methodi.ssunK.'wItatasfoDuws.
Thc va]u~ of~ fur windt th n.nc~iun is to
changr. sign bfi.)<
&,c,
(.juantitic.sw).)) wiDxmt loss ofgcnera.Hty~G
m~
suppose tu bc aU (tiOcrent,fut u.scon.sidc.rtl~suries of dterminants,

~andbyStunn's
T.c~.snsa!.nc..u-funct,onof.,(.)~.)
t!K..o,-cm
h.~th~forc
onci.iU.rna! n,o< atn.ost,whidi
roulis
]\rcover t).o dL.tcrunnant is not
cvidc.ht)y
idcntica))y zcro
sn.ce th cu~ciont of ,(..), viz,
~~), .) ~.t ~)~
,,]~tevcr
bcth.v~ho
ut'
-\Vchve thus oht.in.d a
function, ~h:ch
chan~s~natauarLiLrarypuiut.r/ui.!thcreon)yiuL.rn:t))y

143.]

EXPANSION

IN SERIES 0F NORMAL FUNCTtONS.

1~7

The second dterminant vanishes when ~;=~, and witen ~=&,


und, ~inc it canuoL hnvc tnure tb~n tv.u iatcmai ~oms,it chu-u~ca
sign, wheu x passer through t)ieso values, and tl)ere on!y. Thc
coefHcientof ~(a;) is tlie value nssumod by the fii'st dcterminn.ut
whcn x = &,and is thcrefoi'e finite. Hcnco thc secoud dcterminaut
is not identically zro.
Simila.rly thc third dctermma.nt in th series vanishes and
changes sign whcn x = a, when a;= and wilcn = c, and a.t those
internai points only. Thc coefficient of ~(;E) is funtc,bei!)gthc
value of the second dterminant wheu .E= c.
It is evident that by continuIng this process we can form
functions compounded of th normal functions, whieh s!)allvanish
aud change sign for any arbitrary values of a*,and not eisewhere
internally; or, in other words, we can form a function whose sign
is arbitrary over th wliote range froin..B=0 to x =
On this theorem Liouville founds his demonstration of the
possibility of representing an arbitrary function between x = 0 and
.c = by a series of normal functions. If we assume the possibility
of the expansion and take
t!)c necessary values of < < &c.arc determiued by (9), a.nd wc
fiad
1
J
f8l
/(.c) = 2 j'~)
(.

f~o

p i').)~

j-'a Up !t;(~) r~-}.(11).

If tlie sries on thc right bc dcuotud by ~'(.~), it ron.Lms to


cst.abtislithc idcutHy of/(..t') and ~(x:).
Iftiie right-hmjd mcmbhr of (11) he tunttiplicd by pi<~(~)and
Intcgra.tud with respect to from a:= 0 to x = wc sec that

or, as we nmy :tlso writc it,

where M~(-c)
ts ct~y nonna.)function. Frutu (12) it followsthat

w~crc the coefHcicnts


it.

&c. are !n'bitmry.


~),

178

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[143.

Now if F(~)-/(.c) bo not


Idcntic~Hyxcro, it will bc pnssiMo
so chonsct.hc
t~ <M
c<.tis~)t.s.1. J,.
-t .<.r~
tuLsthroughout thc sa).tc
in' \v])ic). CMc'cvc.-y
sign ~'Y.'(.<:) -),
eloncnt ofthe jutcgmt woul(!bc positivu, :m()
cqu~~ion(13) cuu)d
not bu tn.o. It fuUuw.sLh.Lt
F(.) -/(.<.) cannot <)i~r imn) zro,
or th:),t t])e s(;i-ics of sonnt fnnciions
fortning tho right-hatxt
nimber of (11) is idcntie:d
wit)i/(.r) for ~11vaJue.sof .t-from tc= 0
to =
Thc arguments and rc.suits of Uns snctinn arc of course
~~pptic-aDo tu thc ]):u-ticu).-ucase of a unifonn stmig fur wi~ch tite
normal functious arc circuhu'.
14.3. Whcn Lhcvibmtions of a string arc not con~icd to cno
pJanc, it is usua)]y ninst e.mvenient to rcsnivo thon into two sets
cxGcutc-din perpendicuL-u-~imc.s, which
m.~y be trcatcd indcpcndonUy. Thcro is, howcvcr, onc case of t!.i.sdescription worth
p~sing notice in which thu niotion i.smost casity cuuccivcdaud
tt'catcd witliout rsolution.
Suppose tha.t

Thcn

aud

-shuwin~ <),<. thc~-hojc -stri.~I.sata~'tnonu.ntin


one j.Jano
wh.cii ~volves
uni(ur.n)y, :uni tliat cach pa.-Ucic dc..scrib~ circi~
with radius siu~
t!.c wh.dc ~tcni
Intact,
turns witi~ut t
rdativc <]isp)ace.ncnt. ahuut. its
position < c.tui)ib.-iuni, c.mi{~tin<r
cachrevuludunin
H.ctimuTTh~n~nic.s
uf-t.hiscn.sci.s
as wh~t).cnmt.H)u!sc<~finu.)
quitc assise
t.,o.K.phuK.,thc
rsultant uf)L].c tensions
arti.~ at i!H.L.xt.-cn.iti~<,f any s'n~t)
p..rtiuu oi' thc striu~ iu~Ht bL-ing Latancud
by tlic cuntrifu.~]

furce.

144.]
144.

UNLIMITED
Thc

gnerai

cHScrendal

STRING.
equation

179
for a uniform

stril)"-

'ix.

cxprcssing fho rciation bctween a;andy, reprcscntsthe form of thc


string. A change In tho value of t is mercly cquivaleut to an
attcra.tion in thu origm of x;,so t!)at (4) indicates that a certain
/or?~ is propn.gatcdaiong thc string witli uniform velocity ft in tho
positive direction. WImtcvcr thc vainc of maybcat thc point
a; and at thc tuue t, th samc value of y will obt:uu at thc point
a:+ a A<at ti~e time + A<.
Ttio form thus perpctua.tcd may ho any \vlu).tcvcr,so long as it
docs not viotatc thu rustrietioas on whici~(1) dcpcnds.
Whcn titc motion consists of thc propagation of a wave in thc
positive direction, a certain relation subsists betwccn thc iuchnation and thc velocity at any point. Dif'ercntiatinn'(4) wc find

Initia [y,

und

n:).ybuth bc gLvcn arbttrariiy, but if tho

a.bovcrelation Le not sati.sfied,t)ic motion cannot bc rcprc.scntcd


by(4).
Inasmultu'nmnucrthcuquatiun

y=~+~).(G),
dnotes the propagation of :),wave in tho ?<e~(t<tM
direction, and
t!)Crelation butween
:Lnd corresponding to (5) is

]2_2

180

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F

STRINGS.

[]4.t.

lu tho gnerai case tlie motion consists of th simuttaneous


propagation of two waves with vciocity ?, thc one in the positive,
anu iL~ cthcr in die uugative du-cc~L'u; aud tiiesu wa,ves arc
entirely indepcndcnt of one a.nother. lu the first

~=

ft~
<c'

and

m tthe secon
second

=
T)ie
10Illltw,
initial va
values
\lCSof
an
and
must ho
ue
=
Mt, n~conecived to be divided ioto two parts, which
satisfy rcspcctivcty
the relations (5) and (7). The nrst ccn.stitutcs the wavc which
will adva.ncein thc positive direction without
change ofform the
second, the negative wave. Thus, Initia)]y,

whence

If the disturbance be
origina)!y confined to a rmite portion of
the string, the positive and
ncgative wavcs sep:L:-atcafter t))0
interval cf time required for each to traverse bulf the disturbod
portion.

is th part initialiy disturber).


Suppose, for example, that
A point P on the positive side remains at rest nntil th
positive
wave has travelled ft-omA to P, is disturbed during th
passngo
of the wave, and ever after remains at rost. Th negative wave
never affects P at ail. Similar statements apply, ?!H~M ~M~iA',
to a point <3on th negative si deof~4Z?. If th character of th
original disturbance he such tha.t f<.c o a< vanishesinItiaUy. tho-~

144.]

AND
NEGATIVE
WAVES. 18L
POSITIVE

is no positive wfi.ve,and th point P is never disturbed at all;


vanisti initially, there Is no ngative
and if +
wave. If
C)
t
Cf~ (tM<
K<
vanish iiiitially, the positive and the ngative waves are similar
and e(~un.l,and tlien ucither can vanish. In cases whei'e eittier
wavc vanishes, its cvanesccncemay be considered to be due to the
mutual destruction of two componeiit waves, one depending ou
th Initi:d di.sptaccments,and tlie other on the initial velocities.
On th one side thse two wavcs conspire, and on the other
thcy destroy one anotlicr. Ttiis explains th apparent paradox,
that P can fail to bo affectcd soonct' or later aftcr -~jB Las been
disturbcd.
Th subsquent motion of a string that is initially displaced
without vutocity, may he readHy traced by graphical mcthod.s.
Sinco tllC positive aud the ngative wavcs are equaL it is on)y
ncccssary to dividc t)iu original disturbance into two equal parts,
to ()i.spi:(ccthse, onc to tho right, and th ot)ier to the left,
through a spacc equal to at, and then to recompuund them. We
shall present)y apply this method to tho case of a plucked string
of nnite tongth.
]-t5. Vibrations are called N~o?M)' when th motion of each
partidc of th system is proportional.to some functiou of th time,
tlie same for a!l th particles. If weendeavour to satisfy

Ly iissuming y=~Y', AvhoreJ~ dnotes a. function of a? on!y,and


a. function of t ou[y, wc H)id

sothat

1 ~T
Y'=A'=~

Id~Y
~constant),

proving that th vib:).tio)is must bo simple harmonie, though of


arbitrary pcriod. Thc value ofy mny be written
y = cos (~t~ e) cos (/a; a)
= PCOS(~(~ + M.T; e Ct)+ ~7'' cos (Mf;< ?~.K e -t-a).(3),
shcwing that th most gcner:).lkind of stationary vibration may
be regarded as due to the superposition ci' cqual progressive vibra-

~82

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

[145.

tions, whoso directions of propagation arc opposcd.


Converscly,
two stationary vibrations
may eotnbinc into a progressive one.
Th solution
in tlic
~=/(~)+~~+~
instance to an infinite
string, but may bc interprcted so as to
give thc solution of thc prol)le.n fur a nnitc
string in certain
ca~cs. Let us .suppose, for
cxamp!c, tl~t tl string termintes
at ~=0, a)id is he!d fast
thcrc, whilc it cxtcmLsto inHnity in
th positive direction
on)y. Nuw so long as thc point .-c= 0
Mtua]!y rcmains at rcst, it is a mattcr of indinfcrcncowhcther
the string Le prulongcd on t!to
ncg~Ive hidc or not. Wc
arc thus Icd to regard th
gh'cn string as ibrnung part of one
doubly inrin.tc, aud to scck ~iicthcr and how thc initial
disp]acGmcnts a.nd vetocities on tlie ucgativc side can hc
taken, so that on
thc wltolo t!)crc shidi ho no
dispfaccmcnt ~=U throughout t!ic
subsquent motion. Titc initial values ofy and y on thc positive
snic dtermine thc
corrc.spondingparts of t!.c positive and ngative
wa.vc.s,into which wc kuowthat thc whulc mution can bc resolvcd.
Thc former bas no influence at thc
point .7-=0. On th ngative
S)de thc positive and th ngative waves are
hntiaHy at our disposa!,
but with thc latto- we arc not concerned. TI.c
problem is to
dtermine th positive wave ou th
ngative .side, so that in
conjunct.ion with tlie givcn ngative wave on t).c positive side
of tlic origin, it sh:dt Icavu that
point undisturbed.
Lct
bc thc line (of any form)
i-cprcscnting th
wavc m M~ wluch advanees in ttie
ngative diruetiou. It is

evident that th reqmrcmcnts of thc case arc met


by taidng on
thc uthur side cf 0 what may be caUcd t!)c
c?!<a?-~wave, so that
is tlie gcumctncid centre,
biscctmg every chord (such as TV)
which ])a.s.s~tijrough it.
Au:dytlc:d)y, If =/(.c) is thc quation
of O~
is thu equatiou of O~'Q'7);
=/(-)

REELECTION

145.]

AT A FIXED

POINT.

183

Whon after a, timc t the curves M'e shifted to the loft !md to
th right rcspectivcly throttgh a, distance at, the co-ordinatca
cut'rcspojiding to ? = 0 arc necessa-ntycqual and opposite, and
tlicreforc when conipoutidcd give zero rcsultant displacomont.
Thc efcct of the coustrahit at 0 may tttcrcforc bo reprcsented.
by supposing t!):T,tth ngative wavc tnoves through undisturbed,
but that a positivo wnvc n.t tho s~mc timc merges from (9. This
l'cfL'ctcd w~vu may a,t auy timc be fouud from its pa.rcut by tbe
iulluwing rule
Lcit ~7bo tho position of the pM-cnt wave. Thon the
rcflectcd wavc is ttic position which this would assume, if it werc

turncd thro-ugh two nght angles, fn'st about OJC as an axis of


rotation, and then thrungh thu samc angle about OY. In other
words, t!)G rutuni \vavc is thc itnagc of ~P()~~ formcd by
successive optical rciteetion iu O~Yaud OY, regarded as piano
mirrors.
Th same rcsult may aiso bc obtamcd by a more analytical
process. lu the guneral solution
y=/(a;)+F(~+ft<),
tito functious/'(~), J~(s) arc dutcrmincd by the initial cn'cumstances
fur al! positive values ot'z. Th condition at = 0 requircs that
/(-~)+(F(~)=0
fur

al!

positive

values

of

or

/(-~)=-F(.)
fur positive values of z. Thc functions
tc'nnincd ibr aH positive values of and

and .F are thus dc-

Thcrc is now no difnculty in tracixg thc course ofcvcnts wbcn


~o points of thc strmg -/i and J? are hctd fast. Thc initial disturbance in ~17~dividcs itself Into positi.vc and ngative wavcs,
which are l'cnuctcd backwards and furwards bctwucii tlic nxed

184

TKANSVERSEVIBRATIONS0F STUINGS.

['145.

points, ch~nging their character from positive to


negative, and
vice M)' at each renection. Aftcr an even numhf~
pf )~
tions in each case tite original ibrm and motion is
recovcrcd. The proccss is most casiiy followej in compictely
when thc iniLiaI Ji.sturb.mcc is connncd to a .sma!l imagination
part of the
iitring, more particularly when its charactcr is suc!t as to give rise
to a wave propagatcd in ouc direction on!y. The
~~ travels with
uniform velocity (f()to and fro along th
Icngth of the .string, and
after it has rcturned ? ~eco?~ time to its
starting point' the
original condition of things is exa.et]y rcstorcd. The period of
th motion is thus tha time requircd for the
pulse to traverse
the length of the striug twicc, or

Thc s~unciaw cvidcntty ho]ds good wlmtcver may be the character


of the original disturbnncc, only in tlie gcnera! case it
may
that
th
s/io?'~ period of rcurrence is some aliquot part
happen
of T.
14G. TItc metliod of the !a.5tfcw sections
may bo advantageons!y applied to thc case of a plucked string. Since the initial
velocity vanishes, haf of tho displacemcnt belongs to the positive
and haf to th negative wavo. The ma.nner in which th wave
must be complotcd so as to produce the same effect as tlie constraint, is shewn in th figure, wliere th uppcr curve rcpresents

tho positive, and thc lower the


negative wave in their initial
positions. In order to find the connguration of the string at any

146.]

GRAPHICALL%IETI-IOD.

185

fotm'f time, the two curves :nust be superposed, after the upper
has been sluftcd to th right and tbe lower to the left through a.
space e(~ualto at.
TI)Gresulta.nt curve, like its components, is made up of stra.ight
pices. A successionof six at intervals of a,twcifth of th period,

shewiug tho courseof th vibration, is given in the figure (FIg. 27),


taken from Helmholtz. From the string goes back aga.Into il
through thc same stages'.
It will be observed that th inclination of th string at tho
points of support alternates bctween two constant values.
147. If a small disturbance be madc at th time t at the
point x of an infinite stretched string, tlic effect will not be fcit at
0 until aftcr thc lapso of the timc
a, and will be in ail
respects the same as if a like disturbance had bccn made at
the point a; +Ax at time t- A.c-r a. Suppose tliat similardisturban ces are communicated to thc string at intervals of time r at
points whosc distances frorn 0 incrcase each time by ctS~ then
1 Thismothod.
of troittUf;thovibrationof a plackodstringis duoto Yonng.
fftmi!iar
withit
to mnkcIdmself
J~tt!.2'Mf~ 1800. Thostudcntis Tecommonded
thformsofFig.27.
byactuaHyconstructiug

18 G

TRANSVERSE

VIBRATIONS

0F STRINGS.

('147.

it is vident that thc result at 0 will be the sarne as if


tlic dis~nc~w<~anniauuatth.!san)upoint,j)rovtdu(t~iatti!Ctii:i~
intorvais bc incrca.sedfru.n T to T + 8r. This
rcmarkcontaiu.s tlic
of
t!)tjoiy t)to altoi-atiun of pitcit duc to motion of tixj s(n)i-ceof
disturbance; a subjcct w)uc)t will corne uuder our notice
a~aiu
in connecti'Jtiwith acrial vibrations.
148. AVitenonc point cf an innnitc
string i.ssubjcct to a forccd
vibration, trains of wavcs procccd frorn it ill bot!)'directions acoord.n~to hws, wf.ic)i arc roadity invost.i~ated. Wc shall
snjipo.sc
tb~ thc or~in is thc point of excitation, th
string bcing thcro
subject to t!~ forccd motion y=~
and it will bu suniciunt to
con.sidcrtl.c positive sido. If tbc motion of cach
dc.ncnt
bo
resistcd by t)ic frictional force
tlie dinTercutialquation is

WAVES. 187
0FPROGRESSIVE
148.] DAMPIN&
If wc supposethat /<:is small,

:uid
This snhttion sttcws thft-tthcrc ia propa~tcd a!oi)g the string
a wavc, '\v))ost;funptitmtu stowty duninishus oti nccunut of ttie
cxponcntiaHactur. If <=(), t)iis factor disappca.rs, iuid wc hve
simpty

This rcsult stands in contradiction to t)ie gnral !aw H)a.t,


whcn thcre is no friction, thc forccd vibrations uf a. System (due
to a sing)e snnph harjnonic force) must bc synchrouous in ptiase
tbrougbont. According to (9), on tho contrM'y,t)iu phase varies
cuntiuuuusty in passin~ ft'omune point to a.uother along tiie string.
Thu fuct is, tl)a.t wc M'o not a.t liburty to suppose /e==0 in (8),
Inasmucti as timt cqmt.tion was obtalucd on tuu assumption that
thc rca,l part of Xin (3) is positive, aud not zro. Howcvcr long
a nulte stnng may 'bc, t!m coenicicut oi' friction may Le ta~en so
stnaM that the vibrations are not dampcd bufurc readiing t!t0
Hirthcr end. Ai'Ltjr tliis poitit of smaUness~reficctcd waves bcgin.
to compHca.tcth result, and when thc friction is dinilnistied
indonuitely, an iunnite sries of such inust be takeu iuto accoun.t,
and wcuid give a.rsultant motion of thc samc phase throughout.
This problemmay be soivedfor a. string whosemass is supposed
to be concuntratcd at C(p)idistantpoints, by th mcthod of 120.
Thc co-oi'din:Ltc may be supposc<) to hc givcn (= ~le""),and
it will bc found that thc systcm of quations (5) of 120 maya.11
be satisned by taking
whcrc is a comptex constant dctemuucd by a quadratic cquatn)!i. Thc result for a. cuntmuous string )nn-ybc afterwards deduecd.

CIIAPTER VII.
LONGITUDINAL
ANDTORSIONAL
VIBRATIONS
0F BARS.
1-tJ. Tin, next sysL.m to th
string in order of simnjicity
is tlie bar, by winch terni is
usuaUy undcrstood in Acoustics a
of natter of uniform substance and
mass
orm. At t!ic c..ds thu cylinder is eut oH' c)ongatud cytindrical
to tlie gc~-atu~ lincs. Tho centres of by p]anes pcrpcndicuJar
u.c.-tia of t).e tmnsvcrse
sections lie ou a stra.ght ]inc whic!. is calk-d
t!.e
Thc vibrations <-t-a bar arc of throe
kind.s-iongitndina!
the
~-rorJ:
but
~T~'at t.c same time the most diHicu)t in
tt.cory. Tbcy are
considered by thc.n.sctvcsm thc next
chapter, and will on]y bc
rcferrcd to hcrcsofarasis
ncce.ssaryfor
and contrast
W)th thc othcr two ktnd.s of vibrations. co~parison
Long.tndu.at votions arc those in which thc axis romains
nnmoved. whde t)~ transversc sections vibrato to and fro
in the
direction pcrpendieuL-u.to their
planes. Thc moving powcr is
tho r~stancc o~red by thc rod to
extension or compression.
OucpccuH~ityofthIs class of vibrations I.s at once vident
Since the force neccssary to
produce a given extension in a bar
is proportional to tho area of the
section. ~hHe th ,na.ss to be
moved a!so in the same
proportion, it fo)!ows t!mt for a bar of
given length and inatcrial ti.epcriodic tunes and the
modes of
vibration arc ~dpendent of th area
and of tlie for.n of th
traverse
sect.on. A.sinufar law obtain.s, as we shaU prcsentty
in
tite case ot torsionat
-sce,
vibrations.

Itisothcrwiscwhen
the vibrations arc latral. Thc
pcriodic
tunes are mdecd i.~ependent of t!.e
thickness of tbc bar in th
direction perpendicular to ~o
plane ofuexurc. but the motive power

14!).]

CLASSIFICATION
OF VIBRATIONS.

189

in this cttse, viz. tlie rsistance to bcnding, incrcases more rapidiy


th~i the thickness in that plane, and therefore an incr~lae in
tinckuess ]s accompa.uicdby n risc of pitch.
In thc case of Iongi.tudiun.1
and latral vibradons, ttic mcchanical consta.uts coticcrncda.rc thc dcnsit.y of thc m~terud nad tho
v:due ofYoung's tnodulus. For sm:d) extensions (or compressions)
Hookc's Ia.w,accordingto w!dch thc tension v:n'icsa.sth extension,
aetnid Icngth nntural ]ongth
hoids good. Tf
If ,i
tLe extension, viz.
-n
",i
nittundtengtn1
bc callecl c, we liave y=~, whet'o is Young's nioduius, and T
is th tension per unit m'en,ncccssary to producc thc extension e.
Young's moJnhis maythercforc be dcancj as tlie forcewhiehwould
ha-veto bc appHcd to a bar of unit section, in oi'dcrto doub]c its
length, if Hooke's law contiuncd to hold good for so grea.t extenthose of a forcedivided by an
sions; its dimensionsare a.ccol'd.ing~y
area.
The torsional vibrations depend aiso on a second clastic constant IL, whose interprtation will be considered in the proper
place.
Although in tlleory the threc classes of vibrations, depcnding
respectively on rsistance to extension, to torsion, and to ncxurc
are quitc distinct, and independent of one another so long as th
squares of the strains may be neglectcd, yct in actual exprimenta
with bars which are ncititer uuiform in matcria).nor accuratcly
cyliudrical in figure it is often found Impossible to excite longitudinal or torsional vibrations withont tlie accompanimentof some
measure of latral motion. In bars of ordinnry dimensions tb
gravest lateral motion is far graver than tbo gravest.longitudinal
or torsional motion, and consequently it will generally happcn that
thc principal tonc of either of th latter kinds agres more or less
perfectly in pitch witli some overtone of th former kind. Under
such circumstances thc rcgidar modes of vibrations becomc
uustabic, and a small irregularity may prcduce a great effect, Thc
dimculty of exciting purely longitudinal vibrations in a bar is
similar to that of getting a string to vibrato in one plane.
With this explanation we may proceed to consider tbe threc
classesof vibrations independently, cominencingwith longitudinal
vibrations, which will in fact raise no mathematical questions
beyond those aiready clisposeclof in th previous chapters.

190

LONGITUDINAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

D.50.

150. Whcn a rod is stretchcd by a force


parallel to its tcngth,
the stretching is in gnral
accompanied by latral contraction in
su~-ha manner tha. th ~<)
of v<Juiuo I~ss than if
th dplacement of cvcry particlc wcrc
paraHc!to thc axis. In the
case of a short rod andof a partiel situated ncar tlic
cyliudrical
this
L~tcral
motion would bu comp~ble iu
bonndary,
jn~nitudc
with thu longitudinat motion, and eou]d not bc ovorlookcd
without
risk of considrable crror. But where a
rod, whosc Io)gth is grc~t
in proportion to tho lincM-dimensions of
its.section, is subjcct to
a strctching of onc sigu
tliroughont, t)ic longitudinal motion accumultes, and thus In th caso of ordinary rods
vibratmg lon.din
thc
tu()in:d!y
graver modes, thc inertia of thc hter~motion
may bc negicctcd. Morcover wo shall sco lator how a correction
may bc introducud, if necessa.ry.
Lct bc th distance of th hyer of
particles composino-any
section from thc cqnHibrium position of onc
end, whc.i thc~-od is
unstrctchcd, cithcr by pcrtnancnt tension or as thc rusuit of
bc t]ie <Hsp]accment,so that th actuat
vibrations, an<I !ct
T)~ eqnihbrium and actuai
position is givcn by +
position
of a, nuighbounng laycr
bcing a;+~
rc~-+~+~+~~ f~
is
und thus, if T be thc tension
spoctivcly, tl.c e~~
per
unit arca, acting across thc section,

Considcr now the forces acting on thc s)ice boundcd


a:
by
and + 8~. If tl.o arca of tho suetion bu the tension at
.c is
by (1) y~
actiug In thc ngative direction, and at a:+~
tho tension is

~~+~

acting in thc positive direction; and thus th force on the sHcc


due to th action of th
adjoining parts is on Die whutc

Tho mass ofthc clment is


If p bc tl.e original
density
and thcreforc if ~be titc
acce!erating force acting on it.thc equa-~

DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATION.191
150.] GENERAL
tion of oquilibrium is

In what foHowswc shaHnot rcquirc to cojtsidcr thc opration


of:ui itnprcsscd force. To find th quation of motion wc hve
aud
ouly to replace
by th raction ~gaiust acclration
thus if
p =a~, wo hve

Tins quation is of th same form as tbat applicable to tho


transverse displacuments of a, strctched string, an<) itidicatcs thc
undistnrbud propagation of waves of any type in ttie positive and
ngative directions. Ttie velocity <t is rotative to thc UH~'e<c/<er/
condition of thc bar; thc apparent vuloeitywitb which a disturbn.uce is propugatud lu spacc wilt bc gruatcr in th ratio of th
strctched aud uustrctched Icngths of any portion of thc bar. Tho
distinction is matcrial oniy in t!ic case of permanent tension.
151. For tho actual magnitude of thc vclocity of propagation,
wc liavc
f~=</ p = ~M ~)M,
which is the ratio of the wholo tension necessary (according to
Hoo~c's law) to double thc length of th bar and t)t0 longitudinal
density. If tho samc bar wcrc strctchfd wit)t total tension T,
and wcrG ncxibic, th velocity of propagation of wavcs alung it
would hc ~/(2' /3M). In order titcn that thc vclocity inight bo
thc 8:nnuin titc two cases, Tmust Le ~M,or, in othcr words, tlic
tension would hve to bc t)iat thcorcticaUy nccessary in ordcr to
double tho Icngth. Thc toncs of longitudinaUy vibrating rods
arc thus very high in comparison with tilose obtainable froin
strings ofcompiu'abtc Icngttt.
In titc case of stcel thc viduc of q is about 22 x 10" grammes
weight pcr s<p)are centimtre. To express this In absotnte utnt.s
of force on thc c. f!. S.' systmn, wc ninst mnttipty by 9SU. In
thc same syston thc dcnsit.yof stcct (Identical witb its spcifie
gravity rcferrcd to water) is 7'8. J~-nec fur steel

1 Centimtre, Gramme, Second. Tliis Systemis recommeuded by n. Coinnutteo


of tboDritiBliAasociatiu. Brit. Ase. Report, 1873.

102

LONGITUDINAL

VIBRATIONS

OJ BARS.

fiS].

velocity of
-~el is
cent.n.etre.sper second, or about 1G ti~es grc.ter
~ut. 0,000
Lhc
L samc as
"T in .stec].
It ought to bc nicntioncd th<itin strictnoss
t.hc value nf dctcrminedby.statua! expc.ri.ncnta is not that wiuch
o~ht tu be ~scd
hre As in th
of ga.cs, .vbi.~ will bc.trcntod lu a
c~c
.subscq~nt
chaptcr, thc mp,d
altcration.s of state co.~crnc-diu t)~
pr.p~tion ofsounJ arc tende.! witli
ther,~ e~cts, onc rusul~of
to n~e
thc active va!ne
cf bcyond tl.at obtaluod
~nch
on c.xtcn~. co.luct.cd at a
constant tc,np~
from cbscrvat.~s
turc
But tho d.ta arc not prcise
to m..d<cthis con-cction
ci any consGqucnccni tlie c~sc of enoug]~
solids.
v~
vibrations ofau uniimited bar,
n:unc]y

'<~tud;na]

~=7(~-a<)+~(~+~),
bcing the same as t~t appHc~Ie to a string, need not be
furti~r
eonsidered hcre.
Whcn both ends of a bar are
fre~ titere is of course no pcrminent tcns.on, and at the ends the.n.sdvc.s
titerc is no
tcn~rv
tension. Thoconditiouforaf.-cec.ndisthcrefore

~=0.
le doter~nc t)~ nor.ual n,odc.sof
vibration, wo must assume
vanes as a harmonie function of tho
timc-cos7i~
th~t~
TI~n
as a function of .r, ,nust
satisfy

Now

sinco~vanishcs

again smce

al~ys ~hcn ~=0, we get j3=0;

an<!

u.turat iungth of tlic


g vanishcs ~~cn ~=/-thc
bar, sin ~~=0, wbich sl~cws tih.Lt is oftiie form

t'bcingiutc'graj.

152.]

BOTHEXTREMITIES
FREE.

193

Accordingty, the normal modes arc given by quations of thc


form

in which of course au urbitrury constant may bc nddcd to if


<
<!esh'cd.
Thc complete solution for Il bar with both ends frce is thcroforc cxprcssed by

whcrc
and arc arbitrary constants, wliieh may bc detcrmincd
in the usu:d mauncr, whun thc Iuiti:d values
arc
of
aud
givcu.
A zcro vainc of i is admissible it gives a term
rcprcsentmg a.
dispIn.ecmGnt constant with respect both to spn.cc and tuno,
aud amounting in fact only to an altration of the origin.
TIic period of the gravcst component in (6)
corresponding to
which is thc tinlc occuhiedby a. disturhanee in
t=I, is 2~
travelling twice the Icngth of t)io rod. The other toncs fonnd
Ly ascribing integral values to i form a complte harmonie scale i
so that according to tliis theory tl)c note givcn
hy a rod in
longitudinal vibration would bc in aU ca~cs muslca.1.
In thc gravest mode thc centre of the rod, whcro /c=
is a
place of no motion, or nodc; but thc periodic elon~ation or comf~ is thcrc a maximum.

pression

153. The case ofa bar with onc end frec and the other fixed
may be deduecd from th gcncral solution for a bar with both
ends froc, and of twice the Icngth. For whatever !rmy be ttie
initial statc of thc bar froc ut .B=0 n,nd ftxcd at x = l, sucii displacements a.ud velocitius ma.ya.!waysbo ascribed to the sections
ofabarextending from 0 to 2~ and frce a.t both ends as shaH
make thc motions of th parts from 0 to Identical in th two
cases. It is only ncccssary to suppose that from to 2~the displacements and vclocitics arc initially cqual and opposite to thosc
found in thc portion from 0 to at an cqnal distance from thc
ccutre x =
Uiidcr thcsc circumstanccs tho centre must by
tl)c symmr-try rcm!).inat rest throughout t)ie motion, and thcn thc
R.
13

194

LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS 0F BARS.

H 5 3.

portion from 0 to s~tisnes all tl.e


required conditions. We conc udc that the vibrations of a bar frce
at one end and fixed at tho
othcr arc ~dcnfj.d ~L .h.
of
bar uf twice the
longth of whichboth ends arc free, thc latter
vibrating only n
unevcn modes, obtained by
in successiona))~
~king
i~~
T!~ tones of tlie bar still
te
a
hannomc ~.h, b~'
belong
cvcn toncs (octave, &c.of th
fund.menta!) are .vauting.
Th period of the gravest tone is th
time occupicd by a
pulse
in travelling/b~ timcs the
length of th bar.
154. ~)cn both ends of a bar are
fixed, the con(litions to
be satisfied
that the value
~t~
At K-0, we may
that
suppose
~=0 At
& is a small1
constant .h
is zero if
j no permanent tension.
"'1:"
dep.n.).nt)y of' th. vibrations w.),av.
~idcnt)y
f~T<
we should obtain our result most
simply bt~M'
this tenu
at once. But it may
method.
that as a fonction ofthe
Assuming
timc
~COS7!f~+ 7?sinK~,

varies as

we sec that as a function of x it must


satisfy

of whichthe gnral solution is


J

But since vanishcs with x for ~11


values of t,
<. rC'=0,
n nnd
~) thus
we may write

BOTH EXTREMITIES

154.]

FIXED.

1!)5

The series of tones form a, compote harmonie scalc


(ft-on
which ])owcvcr any of the mcmbo-s may bo
mi.ssiug ni any
actua! case of vibration), and tho period of the
gravest componcnt is the tinic takcn by a pulse to travc! twice tho Icnn-t.b
of th rod, thc sa)nc thcroforo as if both ends wcre frec. It
nnist be observed thnt we hve bore to do with thc MH~r~c~~
length of th rod, and that th period for a givcn natural length
is ludependent of the permanent tension.
The solution of the problcm of the doubly fixed bar in the
case of no permanent tension might aiso bc derived from t)iat
of a doubly free bar by mcrc ditfcrfmtiation with
respect to .c.
For in thc latter problem

satisfics the necessary difereutial

quation, viz.

masmuch ns

(I' ~.E~
d
satis~cs

= a2

(le
<

and at both ends

vanishcs. According!y
iu this problem
(lx
dx
satisfies ail tl~e conditions prcscribed for
in the caso when
both ends arc ~xcd. The two sries of toncs are thus identicul.
155. Thc effect of a small ioad ~f attac])cd to
any point of
the rod is rcadi]y ca!cu)ated
approxnnatc!y, as it is sufncient
to assume thc type of vibration to bc uuaitcrcd
( 88). \Vc
will takc the case of a rod nxed at .~=0, and free at .t'=
The
kinetic cncrgy is proportinnal to

or to

~G

LONGITUDINALVIBRATIONSOFDARS.

[155.

Since the potentia.1


cncrgy is uudtcred, we sec by t!ic prmciples of Chapter iv., th~t tho cfrcct of ti~) sma!) !o~
at a
'h~ucc &: u'u:ti Lhe iixcd cud is to inci-cMCthe
period of' tho
compouent toucs in thc mtiu

Tho snrnH quantity


wholo mass of th rod.

p~ is thc ratio of tlic !o:tdto t!ic

Iftheload

bcatt~chcd at thc frec end,


and tlic
sm'~=l,
effect is to dcprcss the piteli of
cvery tone by t!ic s~mc small
mtcn'd. It will bc rcmembei-udt!)at i is hei-can MMC~t
mtcgcr.
If the point of .~chmcut of J!f bo nodc of
any componcnt,
tlie pitch of that eojupouontronams uualtcrcd
by th addition.
150. Another problem worth notice occurs whcn t]to load ~t
thc frcc end is grc~t iu
compiu-isoi with thc masa of thc rod.
In th)3 CMCwo inay assume as thc
type of vibration, a. condition
of Utntbrmextension
along tlic Icngth of the rod.
If bc tttc displaccmcnt of thc load 3/, tho kinetic cncrgy is

The correction duc to the incrtia of the rod is


thus cquivalent
to t)ic dition to ~ofone-third of thc
mass of the rod.
1.~7. Our mathem~tic~ discussion of
JongitudinfLlvibrations
close
with an estimatc of thc cn-or invo!vcd in
nmy
ncgieetinrr
tttc latc.ral n.ut.ou of thc
of
th rod net situatcd on tlic
parts

157.]

CORRECTION

FOR LATERAL

MOTION.

197

~xis. If the ratio of latral contraction to longitudinni cxtoisinn


denutcd bj.
i,injhuerai disp~acoment of a.
particie distant
?-from thc axis will bc ~re, in the case of
cquilibnum, where e is
the cxtcMsion. Altiiougli in strictiless this relation will bc
modiiicd by tho Incrtia of thc httcl-al motion,
yct for thc prsent purpose it may bc supposed to hold good.
TIic constant /t is uumerical
quantity, lying between 0 and
If/~worc ucgativc, a longitudinal tension would produce a latral
were greater tbau
swelting, and if
tlie lateral contraction
would bc grcat oicugh to ovcrbalance th
elongatiou, and cause
a diminution of volume on the whole. Th latter
statc of thin~
would be mconsistclit witli
stability, aud tlie former can scarccy
be possible in ordinary solids. At one time it
was supposed
was nccessarily equal to
that
so tliat thcro was
only one
independoiit clastic constant, but oxperimcuts have since shcwu.
that is variable. For glass and brasa Wcrthchn found
expcri=
nicutally /t
If dnote tlie lateral displacement of thc particlc distant r
from the axis, and if thc section bo
circular, th kinetic encrgy
duc to t]ie lateral motion is

Thc effect of tlie incrtia of th latcra! motion is


thct'cfoi-c<o
Inercascthe poriod m thc ratio

This correction will bc nearly insensible for tlie


graver modes of
bars of oi-dinaryproportions of
length to thickness.

198

LONGITUDINAL VIBRATIONS 0F BARS.

[158.

158. Exprimenta on longitudinal vibrations may be made


v.'itii icds of dc~l r ot' g!a.~s. Tho vibmtbns arc cxcitcd by
friction, with a wet doth in the case of glass; but for mtal or
wooden rods it is neccssa.ryto use Icather charged with powdered
rosin. "T!tc longitudinal vibrations of a pianofortu string may bc
cxcited by gcnt)y rubbing it longitudinaUy wIHi a piece of india
rubber, and those of a violin string by p!a.cing the bow obliqucJy
across the string, and moving it aiong thc string loogitndina.Hy,
kecping tire same point of thc bow unon th strirtg. Thc note is
unpjcasn.ntiysin'ill in bot!i ca.sus."
"If t]te peg of thc vioini bc turncd so as to attc't' thc pitcb of
th lateral vibrations vcry considcrabty, it will be found tba.t t))u
pitch uf'th ]ongitudina.ivibrations )ias:dt(ired vcry shghtty. Tim
rca~on uf this is tha.t in thc case of t)tc lateral vibrations thc
ehtuigc of vclocity of wavc-transmission dpends cbicny on t)io0
change of tension, which is considrable. But in thc case of thc
longitudinal vibrations, thc change of vclocity of wavc-transniission dpends upon th change of extension,which is comparativcfy
sligttt'
In Savart's expci'Imcnts on longitudinal vibrations, a, peculia.r
sound, calted hyhim a "son rauque," was occasionaMyobservcd,
whosc pitcii was an octave below tl)at of tbc longitudinal vibration. According to Terquem" thc cause of this sound is a transverse vibration, whuse appcarance is due to an approximatc
agrecmcntbetwee)i Itsown pcriod and that of the sub-octave of thc
longitudinal vibration. If this view be correct, the phenomenon
wuld be one of th second order, prubabiy referable to the fact
that longitudinal compression of a bar tends to produce curvature.
15!). Thc second class of vibrations, ca)ted torsional, whic!i
dpend on t!te rsistance opposed to twisting, is of very small
importance. A solid or hoi)ow eylindricat rod of circular section
may be twistcd by suitable forces, applied at the cuds, in suctt a
nianuer that cach transverse section remains in its own plane.
But if thc section be not circular, th cneet of a twist is of a
]norc compticated cliaractcr, the twist being necessarUy attendcd
by a warping of th layers of matter originally composing tho
nornud sections. Altijough tho enccts of th warping might proDoukin'H
~c')t~t'M,
p. ~i.
~'f.

C'Anott-, Lvn.

12U1!)U.

159.]

TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS.

199

bably be dctermiucd in any particular case if it wero worth


'.vhi!c, v~jh:I
c~nnti. our~ivc~ iicrc t,o dm c~e ut' c~-cutai
section, wheu there is uo motion pa.r:~telto the axis ofthe rod.
Th force with which twisting is resisted
depends upon an
clitstic constant different from q, ca.Hed th
rigidity. If we denote it by n, tlie relation
betweenq, m,a.nd may be written

shewing that n lies betwcen


M=~.

and

In the case of ~=~

Lot us now suppose that we hve to do with a.rod in the form


of a thin tube of ra.dius r a.ud thickness ~r, and Ict dnote
t]io
angular displacement of any section, distant a: from the origin.
Thc rate of twist at a: is reprcsentcd
by
material composing the pipe by
r~.
umtof area

is~
round the axis is

and th shear of the


The opposing force per

and since thc area is 27n-~ the moment

Since this is independent of r, the same


equation appUcato a
cyliader of fmitc thickness or to one solld throughout.
The velocity of wa,vepropagiitionla

and the wholo thoory

A/
is prccisely similar to that of longitudmal
vibrations, the condition

TIiornson
aodTait.683. This,it ahouldbo remarkcJ.appliesto inotropic
mntcria!on]y.

200

LONGITUDINAL

7/]

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

for a free end bcing


and for a fixed end
'C = 0,
permanent twist be coutempla.tcd, = constant.

[159.

= 0, or, if a

The vclocity of longitudinal vibrations is to tliat of torsional


vibrations in tlie ratio
or ~/(3+ 2~) I. Th samc ratio
applics to the frcqucncics of vibration for bars of cqna! Icngth
vibra.ting in corresponding modes under corrcsponding termint
conditions. If == the ratio of frequencies would bc
:=~/8
:3=1'G3,
corresponding to an interval ratitcr grcatcr than a nftb.
In any case tbc ratio of frcqucncicsmust lie between
V2 1 = 1-414, aud~/3 1 = 1-732.
Longitudinal and torsional vibrations were nrstinvcsti"-atcd bv
Cbladni.

CHAPTER

VIII.

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F BARS.
160. IN tho present chapter wc sliall consider the lateral
vibrations of thin ctastic rods, which in thcir natural condition arc
straight. Next to those of strings, this class of vibrations is perhaps tlie most amenable to thcoretical and exprimental treatment.
Thcre is dimculty sufncieut to bring into prommenco somc important points connected with th gnerai theory, which th familiarity of th reader with circular functions may lead him to pass
over too Hghtiy in th application to strings; while at the same
time the difficultiesofanalysis arc not such as to engross attention
which should be devoted to general matliematical and physical
principles.
Daniel Bernoulli' scems to have been tlio first who attae~ed
th problem. Euler, Riccati, Poisson, Cauchy, a.nd more reccntly
Strehiko", Lissajous",a.nd A. Scebeck~ arc foremost among thoso
who have advanced our knowledge of it.
161. Thc problem divides itsolf into two parts, according to
the presence, or absence, of a permanent longitudinal tension.
Thc considration of permanent tension entails additional complication, and is of interest only in its application to stretchcd
strings, whose stiffiiess, though small, cannot bc neglecte altogether. Our attention will therefore bc given principally to the
two extrme cases, (1) whcn there is no permanent tension,
(2) when the tension is thc chief agent in the vibration.
t. xnt.
/<M<J'<'<r~).
C'oHUMn<.
rogg.~;t)!.Bd.xxvu.
~;)~.f!.Chimie
(H),xxx.!}85.
d. !rfj!C;td. ~/<!< J'/ty~.ClassefL/C..S'<M'/.
CMC~M/t~/t
~h/!))~~f~<'M
sc/t<fc)t.Leipzig,1852.

202

LATERAL VIBRATIONS 0F BARS.

[161.

WIth respect to thc section of thc rod, wc sha)!


suppose that
one principal axis lies m thc phuic of vibration, so that t!ic
at cvcry part takcs p!acc iu a direction of maximum or bendinomiuimm~
(01 st,atinary) rtcxunUri~idity. For uxample, thc surface of thc
rod may bc onc of rvolution, cach section
bdug circular, thoun-h
not ncccssarilyof constant radius. Under t!icsc
circumstances thc
potentiaJ cncrgy of th bending for each clment of lungth is
proportional to the square of thc curvaturc multiplied by a
qnantity
dcpcnding on thc matcriid of t))e rod, and on thc moment of
inertia of thc transvcrsc section about an axis
t))rough its centre of
inertia pcrpeudicuhu-to tlie plane of bending. Jf
be thc area
ofthe section,
its tnomcut of inertia,~ Young's
moduius,~ th
clonent of icugth, and ~F' t)ic
corrcspouding poteutial energy for
a curvature 1
of tlie axis of the rod,

This resuit is readily obtained by


coDsidermgthe extension of
th varions filaments of whicli the bar
may Le supposed to bo
made up. Lot be tlie distance from the axis of thc
on th piano of bending of a nl&ment of section ~M. projection
TIien thc
length of the niament is altered by the bending in th ratio

-Kbeing th radius of curvature. Thus on th side of


thc axis for
whidi~ is positive, viz.on th o~c~
side, a filament is extended,
while on thc other side of th axis there is
compression. Tho
force necessaryto produce th extension
by the deiiiis (~
tion of Young'smodulus; and thus th whole
couple by which th
is
resisted
amounts to
bending

if &)bc th area of th section and < its radius of


gyration about
a Imc through tlie axis, and
perpendicular to the plane of bending.
The angle of bcuding
correspondingto a length of axis ds is
aud thus the work rcquired to bend o~ to curvature 1 Ti!!q
c
~t
siucc th Mea?;is hdfthc~~

value of tlie couple.

161.]

POTENTIAL ENERGY OF BENDINQ.

203

For a circular section ? is onc-ha.Ift!te radius.


Th~t th potential Ct'icrgyofthcbcndingwoutd bc proportionn.1,
cc~e?'tN
~ft~tfs, to the squ:).roof thc cut-Yidure,is vident bcforehand. If wc en!!tho couificiotitJ9, wo may tako

in which y is tlie lateral dispiffcmcnt of tliat point on thc axis of


thc rod w!iosc abseissa,mc'asurcd paraltel to th undisturbed position, is x. In th case of a rod whose sections arc similar and
siniiladysituated 7~is a constaiit, and may bc removed from under
the intgral sign.
Tho kinetic cncrgy of thc moving rod is derived partly from
tlie motion of translation, parallel to of th lments composing
it, and partiy from tlie rotation of th same elements about axes
through thcir centres of inertia perpendicular to th plane of vibration. Th former part is expressed by

if p dnote the volume-Jensity. To express the latter part, we hve


only to observe that th angula.]'displacement of thc lment dx is
Th square of this
therefore its angu!a.r vclocity
",a.nd
(~uantitymust bc multiplied by haf t!ie moment of inertia. of tho
We thus obtain
clement, tliat is, by ~m <

1G2. In ordcr to form thc equation of motion we may avail


ourselvcs of tlie principle of virtual velocities. If for simplicity we
confineourscivcs to the case of uniform section, we have

204

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[162.

where th terms free from the


Intgrt sign are to be t~cn hetwu
th I.nuts. This expression inctu.ics
ouiy t])e internat forces due
to tlie ben<hng. In what futlowa ~ sh.U!
.s..pposcti.at there are
no forces Mting from wltlinut, or ra-thcr none that
<)owork upon
t))c System. A force of con.stramt, suc)i as th!it
to ]iotd
ncccssary
of
the hn.r at rc.st, need not bc
any pu.nt
it do~ no
work and therctore cannot appcar in t!~c rcgn.rded,
quation of virtual veioettics.
Thc virtual moment of tlie acclrations is

Thus tlie variational quation of motion


is

in which th tcrms free from the


between th limits. From this we mte~-al sign arc to h.. takcn
Jer~edatallpo~ofthel~t~f~~

..J~. tud

Jongi

inl11

lVilVl'S.

1G2.]]

TERMINALCONDITIONS.

205

Thc condition (5) to be satisfied at thc ends assumes different


forma according to thc circumstances of tlic case. It is possible to
conceive a constraint of such a nature that thc ratio 8 ( ")

8vhas

a prescribed finitc value. Th second boundary condition is then


obtained from (5) by introduction of this ratio. But in aH the
cases that we shaH hve to consider, there is either no constraint
or th constraint is such that eithcr 8

or Sy vanishes, and
[-")
thon th boundary conditions take the form

We must now distinguish the special cases that may arise. If


an end be frcc, 8y and S

( ~)

are both arbitrary, and the eonditiona

becomc

the first of which may bc regarded as expressing that no couple


acts at thc frec end, and tlie second that no force acts.
If th direction at th end be frec, but the end itself he constrained to romain at rcst by the action of an applied force of the
necessary magnitude, in which case for want of a botter word the
rod is said to be supported, th conditionsare

by which (5) is satisfied.


A third case crises w!)cu an cxtrcmlty is constramcJ to maintttin its direction by a.n applied couple of the necessary magnitude,
but is free to take any position. We ha-vcthcn

Fourth)y, thc extrcnuty may bc constrained both as to


position and direction, in which case thc rod is said to be c~n~ec~.
Thc conditions arc plainly

206

LATERAL VIBRATIONS OF DARS.

[162.

Of these four cases th first and last are the more important
tlie third we shall omit to consider, as there are no exprimentt
means by which the contomplated constraint could bc rcaHzed.
Even with tins simplification a considrable varicty of problems
romain for discussion, as cither end of thc bar may bc frco,
clamped or supportcd, but the complication thencc arising is not
so groat as might have hccn expected. We shaH find that
difforent cases may be treated togethcr, and that thc solution
for onc case may sometimes bc dcrivcd immediately from that of
another.
In cxperimcnting on thc vibrations of bars, thc condition
for a clamped end may bu rcahzcd with thc aid of a vice of
massive construction. In thc case of a frec end thero is of course
no difilculty so far as thc end itself is concerned but, whcn both
ends are free, a question arises as to how th weight of the bar
is to be supportcd. In order to Interfre with the vibration
as little as possible,th supports must be connned to th ncighbom'hood of th nodal points. It is sometimcs surHcicntmcrely
to !ay th bar on bridges, or to pass a loop of string round the bar
and draw it tight by screws attached to its ends. For more exact
purposes it wou!d perliaps bc prcferabJc to carry th weight of
th bar on a pin travcrsing a holc driHed through th middie of
th thickness in thc plane of vibration.
Whcn an end is to ba 'supported,' it may be pressed into
contact with a fixed plate whoso plane is perpendicular to the
longth of the bar.
1G3. Before procccding fnrthcr we shall introducc a supposition, which will greatly simplify thc analysis, without set-iolisly
intcrfcring with th value of tlie solution. We sliall assume that
th terms depending on th anguhu' motion of the sections of
th bar may be neglected, which amounts to supposing the
tHer~ of' each section conccntratcd nt its centre. We shall
afterwards ( 180) investigate a correction for th rotatory inertia, and shall provo that under ordinary circumstances it is
mail. Tho quation of motion now becomcs

')M.

163.]

HARMONIC VIBRATIONS.

207

Th next step in conformity with th gnera,! plan will be


thc assumption of the harmonie form ofy. We may convenicntly
take

where l is the Icngth of th ba.r, and w is a.n abstract number,


whose value ha.s to be deternimed. Substituting ni (1), wo
obtain

p"*
If M==e be a, solution, we see that p Is one of tlie fourth
roots of unity, viz. +1, 1, +t, t; so that the complte
solution is

containing four arbitrary constants.


Wc have still to satisfy thc four boundary conditions,-two
for each end. These detcrmino th ratios A
(7 -D, and
furnish besides an equation whieh '?~must satisfy. Thus a series
of particular values of w a.rc alone admissible, a.nd for cach ?~
th coiTcspondingicis determincd in everything except a constant
multiplier. Wc shall distinguish the different functions u belongiug to the sa.mcsystcm by suffixes.
Thc value of y at any time may bc cxpanded in a series of
the functions
( 92, 03). If <
&c. be tho normal coordiDates,we have

and

We arc fully justified in asserting n.t this stage that each


intcgrated product of the functions vanishes, and tl]crcforc th
process of th followiiic,section need not bc regarded as more
It is however rcquircd in order to determine
than a Mr(/?ce[<t'o?t.
th value ofthc intcgra.ted squares.

308

LATERAL VIBRATIONS 0F BARS.

[164.

M, <)cnotctwo of thc nonna.1functious correspOQdingrespectivciy to ?~ and ?/ Thcn


IC't. Lot

If wc snbtmct cqn:ttiot)S(2) aftcr multiplyiog tl)cm hy M~


rcspcctivcly, and thcn ixtugmtc over thc lungHi uf thc biu',
we!ia.vc

the Intcgratod tcrms bcing takcn bctwecn tlie limits.


Now whcthcr thc end in question bo cla.mpcd,supportctt, or
free', eacli terni vanishcs on account of one or other of its
factors. We may therefore couchtdc that, if M~,?< rcfcr to two
modes of vibration (corrcspondingof course to th same terminal
conditions) of -wincha rod is capable, then

providcd

?)t and Mt' bc (Useront.

The

attentive
rcader will peroive that in the proccss mst
foiowcd, we ha.vc in fact rctraecd thc stops by w)nch t))c fnndamcntd diicrcntial quation was itsctf provcd iu 1G2. It is the
Tho ronder ahonitl obscrvn t)nit tho eftscs hcro RpoeificdMGpa.rticuJn.r andV
thnt tho right-hand monbt'r of (;!)Vtuushcs,provided t.)t)tt
<~
~j
t:Llll

<~

~m<<j:

~.E

<
f/

Thoso conditions incindo, for ittstfmco,tho Ctlaoof n rod whofiOend is urpod


towm'Jsits position of L'quili)')-iu)uLyn terce pr~portional to thc dispUtcc'ment,as
by n spring witimut inertia.

209

CONJUGATE PROPERTY.

164.]

originat MM'M!<MK<i!
cquatio!) that ha.s the most nnmcdin.te conncctiun with tho conjug~tc propcrty. If we dcnotc by Maud Sy
by~.

and this proof is cvidentiy as direct and gnral as cou)d bc dusired.


TIie reader may investigate the formula corresponding to (6),
whcn th term l'cprescnting tlie rotatory inertie is retnined.
By !ne!msof (G)we m!iyverify thn.t tlie admissible varies of n2
aro rca.1. For if 7~ were complex, and 1t= a + !3 were a normal
function, thcn a i,8, th conjugatc of u, would bc a normal
fonction also, corresponding to tlie conjugate of ?~,and thon tlie
product of the two functions, being a. sum of squares, would not
vanish, whcn Ititcgratcd
If in (3) w. and ?~' hc the samc, thc quation hecotncs Idcntica.lly truc, and wc cannot at once Infcr the value of n~
Thismcthofl
is,I bdicvo,t!notoroisson.
R.

14

210

LATERAL
VIBRATIONS
0FBARS. [164.

We must take ?~' equal to M + 8w, and trace th limiting form of


th equation as 87~tends to vanish. In this way we find

betwecn the limits,


Now whether an end be clamped, supported, or free,
M~"=0,

~V=0,

and thus, if we take the origin ofa; at one end of the rod,

==~(~-2~V+~),(8).
Th form of our integral is independent of th terminal condition at x =0. If th end = b& free, M"and u"' vanish, and accordingly

that is to say, for a rod with one end free the me~n value of u' is
one-fourth of tbe terminal value, and that whether the other end
l)e clamped, supported, or free.

1G4.]

VALUES0F INTEGRA/FED
SQUARES.

Ag-a.in,if wc suppose that th rod ia c){nnpcd ~t


vanisL, a)id (8) givc's

==

211
n.ndM

Since tins must huld good whatevcr be the termina.l condition n.t
the other end, wc sce tliat for roJ, one end of which is fixed and
theot.itcrfree,

shewing thnt in t)iis case M'at the frec end is the samc as M"'a.t
thc c!ampe() end.
TIie a.!i!)cxedtable gives t)ic vahiesof four times th mea.nof M*
in thc diffrent cases.
M(ft'ccend),ot'M"'(cIu.mpedend)
c!tunped,frpf.
M'(ft-Rccnd)
free,ft'eo
M' (clampcd end)
clf~mped,c]!i)npcd
2~
supportcd, supported
(supportcd end) = 2~"
M"(freo end), or -2M'M'" (supported end)
supported, ft-eo
snpported, chmpL-d M"' (damped end), or 2M'M'"(supported end)

By th introduction of these values th expression for T


assumes a. simpler form. In th case, for example, of a clampedfree or a frec-frec rod,

where the end <c=~


is supposed to befrce.
165.

A similar method may be applied to investigate th

values of

and
In the derivation of equation (7) of the
jM"~c,
preceding section nothing WM assumed beyond th truth of th
equation M""=M, and since this quation is equally true of any
of th derived functions, we are at liberty to replace Mby M' or u".
Thus

142

212

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

ta.Inbetween tlie limits, since tlie tcrm


c~es.

OF BARS.

[1G5.

M' vanishcs in ail threo

For Il frec-frec rod

for, as wc shall sec, thc values of ~M'must bc cqn~I and opposite


at thc two ends. WhcUtcr u bc positive or ngative at a' =~, ')(t/
is positive.
For a rod which is clamped at a:= 0 n.ndfree at

We ])a.vcah'cadysccn that ~"=~


M"'=u/, so that

=l

a.ndit. will appca.r ( 173) t)):).t

Il rcsult thf),twc sliall have occusionto use latcr.


By n.pplyingthc same quation to tlie cva.inn.tionof ~M'
find

wc

sinco M'u"a.cd Mu'" vanish.


Comparing tins with (8) 1G4-,wc secthat

whatcvcr tlie termina! conditions may hc.


Tho samc result maybc arnvud at more dirccMyby intcgmting
by pa.rtsth equation

213

NORMAL EQUATIONS.

1CG.]

16G. We may now form th expression for V in tcrms of tlie


normal co-ordina.tcs.

If
sion

thc

fonctions

:t

bc

thosc

propcr

to

:). rod frce

nt ~=

t)us

expres-

reducesto

In any case th quations of motionarc of tlie form

and, since ~~t is by dfinition the work done by the Imprcsscd


furcusduring tlie dispin.ccmcnt8~

if YpM~<;Le thc lateral force actmg on thceictncnt of mass pax~c.


If thcre be no impresscd forces,the cquatiou reduces to
~+

n.swc know it ought to do.


1C7. Th signidc~ucc of the rduction of the Intgrais
te dcpoidcnco on thc terminal values of thc function aud

~(~
its dcnvativcs may be p!a.ccd in n clearcr light by thc foHowing
!me of fu'gmncnt. To fix tlie ideas, considur tho case of a
rod chunpcd at x=(), and free at A-=~ vibrating in the normal
mode cxpressed by u. If a sm:di addition A~ bu madc to the
rod at ttic frec end, th form uf K (cons~ered a~ a function of
~) is ehanged, but, l!i accordaucc with thc gmicral principlG
CHtabii~hcditi Chaptcr iV. ( SH). wc ma.y calcntatc tlic period

214

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F BARS.

[167.

under th altcred circumstances wititout aUowance for the change


of type, if we are content to ncglect tbe square of thc
change.
In consquence of th strajghtness of thc rod :).tthc place where
the addition is made, therc is no altration in th potentiel
energy, and therefore the altoration uf period dpends eiitirely
on th variation of ?'. This quantity ia incrcased in the ratio

which is also tlie ratio in wliicli tlie square of thc period is


augmcutcd. Now, as wc sliall suc preseutly, tlie actuat pcr!ot!
varies as f, and thet-cforc the change in the square of tlie
period
is in the ratio

A con)p:u'isouuf th two ratius shcws tlint


M;'

ft(W~

=-i.

TIie above rcasoning is not inalsted upon as a dmonstration,


but it serves at least to exptain tlie rduction of which ttie intgral is susceptible. Other cases in winch sucli Intgra]~ occur
tnay be treated in a sunitar manncr, but it would often require
care to predict with certainty what atnonnt of discontnunty in the
varicd type might be admitted without passiug out of the range
uf the principle on which the argument dpends. The reader
may, if lie p)cases, examine tlie case of a string Iti the jniddic
of whieh a small piece is Ititerpolated.
168. In treating problems relating to vibrations t!)o usnal
course bas bceu to dtermine in th first place the forms of the
nornial functions, viz. the functions represeuting th normal
types, and afterwards to investigate the intgral formuim by
<neans of which th particular solutions may be conibined to
huit arbitrary initial circumstances. 1 have prefen'ed to follow
a dinercnt ordcr, t)ie bcttcr to bring out the generality of th
jnethud, w/~cA(/oes not depend M~o~(t knowledge of the 7:o?'?~a~
yM/tc~'c~s. In pursuance of th same plan, 1 shali now investigate

168.]

INITIAL

CONDITIONS.

315

the conncction of th arbitrary constants with th initial circumstiUlces,and solvc oue or two problems analogous to those treated
uiidcr th head of Strings.
Th gcnend value of~ ma.y be written

formuloewhich dtermine the arbitrary constants


B,.
It must be observed that we do not need to prove analytically
thc possibility of th expansion expressed by (1). If a~ the
particular solutions arc iucludcd, (1) necessarily represents th
most general vibration possible, and may therefore be adapted
to represent any admissible initial state.
Let us now suppose that th rod is originally at rest, in its
position of cquilibrium, and is set in motion by a blow which
imparts velocity to a small portion of it. lilitially, that is, at
thc moment whcn tlie rod becomes free, = 0, and differs from
zero only in th ncighbourhood of one point (x = c).
From (4) it appeurs that the coeiHcients vanish, and from
(5) that

216

LATERAL

CiUling~~<u~,
ha.vc

VIBRATIONS

0F BARS.

[1G8.

thc w!)ule momcntum of tbc blow, Y, wc

If thc blow bc app)ied at a no(te of onc of thc normal componcnts, tha.t conponcnt is missing in th rcsutting motion. Tlie
prcsunt ca.)cu!atiun is but a. pai'Licular c~c of thu investigation
uf101.
ICf). ~a another examplG we may take the case of a
bar,
which is initially at rcst but dcHected from its natural
position
hy a latral force acting at .'c=c. Undor thse circumstances
the coefficientsB vanish, and tlie others arc
given by (4), 1G8.
Now

!)i which tit tenus frce from thc


iutcgml sigii arc to 'bc takcn
bctwccu tlie inuits; by t))e nature of th c:).sc satisdes tlie

169.]

SPECIAL
CASES.

217

same tcrminal conditions <mdocs


and thus a.ll thse tcrms
vanisli a.t both limits. If tlie external force initially applied
bc yi~c, th cq~a.tion of equilibrium ci' tlie
to thc .cicmeut
har tri vos

If wc now suppose thn.t thc initia dispiaccmcnt is duc to


a. force applicd in thc immdiate mjighbuurhuod ut' t))c punit
a; = c. wc tiave

a.nd for tlie complte value of y at time t,

In Jenving the above expression we have not hitherto made


th ends, but
any special assumptiuns as to the couttitions at
if we nowconfine curscivus to ttte case of fiba.t'which is c!cnnpcd
at a;= 0 aud irec at x = l, ve may replace

Ifwc suppose furthcr that the force to whk-h thc Initial dcHcetio))
is duc acts at th end, so that c= wc get

Whcn t=0, this cquadon nuist represent t)'c initiid dispjacc:tncnt. Iti cases of this Idnd di~culty tnay pi-cscnb itMu[fas
to !)0\v it is possible for the series, cvery terni of which satisfics
th condition y"' = 0, to rcprcs~nt au initial displacement Iti
which tins condition is violated. Th iact is, that after triple
tlic series no longer converges
diH'crentiation wiHt respect to
for a~, and accurdingly the value of y" is not to be ~rrived
at hy making the diHerentia.tioas first and summing the terms

218

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[1G9.

aftcrwards. Th truth of tins Rta.tement will be a.ppa,rent if


<vecousiJer a point distant dl from the end, and replace

For th solution of tlic prsent probtcm by normal co-ordiiiatcs


the reader is referrecl to 101.
170. Thc forms of tlie normal functions ni the varions p!u'ticutar cases arc to bc obtained by deterimuing thu ratios uf thc
four constants iu thc gnrt solution of

If for thc sako of brcvity

be written for

th solution may

heputintothofonn

coshx and sinh x arc tlie hypcrbollccosineand sine of x, defined


by
th quations
1 hve foltowed thc usual notation,
though thc introduction of
a special symbol might vcry weHbe dispcnsed with, since
cosha'==cos/.c,

sinha;=-.t'siu

.(3)
w]~t-et== y- 1, and then tI)Gconncctioti between tlie formuh~ of
circular and hypcrbo)ic tngttnoniet.rywou)dLe moi-c
apparent. Th
ruics for diiTurcntiationarc cxprcs.sedin ttic
cquatiuus

In diicrentlating (1) any number oftimes, the same four compound funetions as thcrc occur are contmuaUy reproduced. Th
on!y one of them which does not vanish with is cos a;' + cosh ic,
wbosevalue is thon 2.

170.1 ]

NORMAL FUNCTIONS

FOR FREE-FREE

BAR.

219

Let us take ~h'st the case in which both cnJs are free. Sincc

This is the quation whose roots are tttc admissiblevalues of ?/t.


C given in (5) ~rc e(tual,
If (7) be satisfied,tlie two ratios of
:m(leither of titcm ma.ybe substituted ia (4-). The constaut multifunction
plier bciug omittud, wc have for thc !iorm:d

171. The frcqucncy of th vibration is ~M~, in whiuh &is


a velocity dcpcnding only on the material of which th bar is
material
formcd, a-ndHt.is an abstract number. Hence for a given
and mode of vibration tlie frcqucncy varies clirectly as Kthc
radius of gyration of tlie section about an axis perpendicular to th

~0

LATERAL VIBRATIONS0F DARS.

fl~I.

plane of bendingand iin'erseiy as thc square of the Jcngtit. Thcsc


rusults might hve bccu
anticip~tcd by thc argument f'rumdimcnStons, tf if worc considrt that t))C frcqnency is
Mcccssari)y
dctci-tninc-dLy tl.e v.d)!e of
togeUtcr widt th~t of ~tho
uuly qu.mtity (]cpendh)g on sj~cc, timc and mass, which occurs in
t)to diH'crcntiidcqn~ion.
If cvcrytitingeonccnnng a bar be given,
cxcept its absolutc m:~It.udc, tiic frettuency vanes
as
invcrscly
thc iincar dimension.
Thcsc I~wsfind an Important application In thc case of
tuning
furks, w))oscprongs vibratc fm rods, Hxcd at t))c ends wherc
thcy
juin the stal!~ and frce at tiie othcr cuds. Thusthc pcriod uf vibration of furks of t.hc samo tnatcrinl and
shapc vancs as thu lincar
dimension. Th period will Le approximatdy
indcpcndent of th
thickncss po-pG!)dicn)arto th plane of
bending, but will vary invcr.scly with thc thickness in thc plane of bcnding. WIien thc
tliiekncss is givcn, tlic penod is as thc
square!of t]ie length.
In ordcr to ]owcr th pitch of a fork we
jnay, for tonporary
purposcs, load thc cnd.s of th prongs witli soft wax, or file away
thc mtal near thu base, thcrcby wcakcnitig thc
sprinn'. To raisu
thc pitch, thc cuds of tit prongs, which act
by inertie may bc
filod.
Thc value of b attains its maximum in tho case of
steel, for
which it amouuts to about 5237 mutt-cs per second. For b'mss
t)ic vcloclty would Le less in about th ratio 1'5 1, so that a
tunni~ fork n~tc of bt-~s woutd bc a.bout a. Hfth lower iu pitch
th~ti ii'thc miLtcrialwere stcd.
172. TIie solution for the ense w!)cn buth ends arc
dampcd
bc
may
un!ncdi)ttu]ydcrived from thc prcccding by a double dif~rcutiation. Since y satisnc~ at both ends tiic terminal conditions

~'hich arc thc conditions for :Lchunpcd end. I~torcovcrt))C


gnerai
dtRerctit.iid eqtmtiot) is a]so s~tisticd hy y". Titu.'jwo
may tal,
oniitting cunst:u]t multiplia-, as bcfur~,

173.]

NORMALFUNCTIONSFOR CLAMPED-FREEBAR. 221

while 7Kis given by thc same quation as hcforc, namely,


cos H:cosh ??t=l.(2).
We conctudc that the component tones hvethc samc pitch in tho
two cases.
In each case therc arc four systoms of points determincd by
the evanesccncu of amt its dcrivativcs. WIien vanislies, thore
is a nodc ~hcrc ~anisites,a. loop, or place of maximum displaccmcnt wlicro y" vnnis!)RH,n. point of inftection and whcru
Vimishes,:).
place uf maximum curvaturc. Whcre thercaru in th ni-st
case (frec-fr) points of iuncction and of maximum culture, there
arc in thc second (chunpcd-chunpcd) nodcs and loops rcspcctivcly;
and vice ~er~, points of inftcctiou and of maximum curvature for
a douhly-clampud rod correspondto nodcs aud loops ofa rod whoso
ends arc free.
173. We will nowconsider th vibrations of a rod clamped at
a;=(), and frec at a;=~. Rcvcrting to the guncral intgral (1)
170 we sec that ~1 and C' vanish in virtuo of the conditions at
a;=0, so that
=~
The

remaining

(cos;r'

+ D

cosh~)
at

conditions

(sin

.r

sinh

~')

.(1).

x = givc

.D( cos?)!.+ cosh ?M)+ D (sin ni + sinh w) = 0


J? sin ?~ + sinh ?M)+ D (cos ?K+ eosli~t) = 0 )}
whence,omitting the constant multiplier,
) \f
i ")
sin
u (sin
ne
+
cosh
= (smsinh?~)
M+
t
(~cost
J
(cos?H+
or

(
cosh?~wsm

i "~1
srnii

(2),

i ~~)
-;cos( t cosh tJ
Ma:
(
smm-Sllll1n
+
sinh ??!.v].(3),
+(smm- smhw~sm
6
J
wherc M:must bc a root oflf
M= (cos Mt+ cosh

cos M cos!)'w -)-1


= 0

(4).
Thc pcriods of the componcnt toncs in th prsent proLIcm arc
thus dincrent from, though, as wc shall see presently, nearly rchttcd to, thosu of a rod both wtiose ends are clamped, or frcc.

222

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[173.

If th value of !( in (2) or (3) be diftcrentiatcd twice, the rcsult (!) satisfies uf course t!ic fundamcntal diffcrential cqua.tion.
At .u=0, ,t",
but nt.<;=~ M"a.nd-rva.nish.
<
~.c")i"ani.sh,
~.r
The function ?<"is therefore applicable to a.rod clumpcd ft.t and
free at 0, proving that th points of inncction and of maximum
curv~ture in th origina.1curve :u'c at th samc distances from the
clampcd end, as thc nodes and loops respcctiydy arc from tiic free
end.
174'. In dcfault of tn.htcs of tho hyperLoHccosine nr its !ogarithin, th admissible vaincs of M may bc ca)cu!atcd as follows.
Ta.lun~ nrst ttic cquation
we see tha.t ~t, when Jfu'gc, must a-pproximate in value to
~(2t +1) Tr, i being au intcgcr. If we assume

;8 will bo positive and comp~ra.tivclysmall in magnitude.


Substituting in (1), wc find
y

eot~=~=~

an quation which may bc solvedby successiveapproximation aftcr


in ascending powers of th small
cxpamHng tan~ and e
<;uantity/3. The result is

which is sufficiently accur~te, cven whcn t= I.


By cn.lcula.tion.
/3, = -OI79CGG -0003228+ 0000082

-0000002 = -017C518.

arc found still more easily. Aftcr


~t. ~g,
th first term of
ttie sries gives~3 correctly as far as six significant ~g~ires. Th
Thia prncoRs ia aomewhat Himi!ar to that adopted by Strehikp.

CALCULATION
OF PERIODS.

174.]

223

table contains the value of ~3,th angle whosocircu]n.rmeasurc is


/3, and tlie value of siu ~/3, whichwillbe required fm'ther on.
-F'ee-Free j~~)'.
in dcgroea,
oxproHsed
minutcH.tmdtiCcondt).

.q
1
2
3
4
5

10'' x -17G518
10-777010
10-" x-335505
10-'x-144989
10-'x-C2C55G

Th values of

1" 0' 40"-9.t


2'40"-2G99
C"-92029
-2MOG2
-0129237

~2'

~3

10-' x -88258
10-'x-38850
10-1G775
10-" x-72494
10"'x-31328

which satisfy (1) are

M, = 4-7123890 + /3, =
M, = 7-8539816 /3, =
= 10-9055743+ =
= 14-137~1669
=

4-7300408
7-8532046
10-995C07S
14-1371655

= 17-2787596 +/3, = 17'2787596

e"=cot~=~e~
where however

a' = e~

From this it appea-rsthat th series of values of a is the samo


as that of /3, though the corresponding sufHxesare not the same.
In fact
~=~,
a,=/3,cf~=/3.
so that we ha-ve nothing furthcr to calculate than c(~for which
however the series (4) is not sufHcientIyconvergent. Th value
Thiaconnexionbetweena and ~3doesnot a.ppeMto havebeenhitheto
noticed.

224

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[174.

of a, may bu obtaincd by trial andcrror from the quation


log~cot a, 'C821S82 --t342:)-<-48
a, = 0,
a.nd will bc found tu bc
a.=-304.3077.
Another method by wbieh /)!, may bc obtamcd (Hrcct)ywill bc
givcn prescntty.
Thc vaincs of ?~ wtiich satisfy (5), arc
M, = 1-57079M+ a, = 1-S7.~04
= 4-C94737
w, = 4'7123890
M, = 7-85M.S1C+ aa = 7'85-)<758
= 10'!)!)55743
= ]0'9!).554.1
7)!, = 14'137tCC9+ a6= 14'137JU8
= 17'278759,1
7M,= 17-278759G
aftcr which 7H= ~(2t l)'7r Rensibly. Thc frcqncncics are proportional to ?M",and ~re thcrtifurc for the highcr tones ncariy in thc
ra.tio of thc squares ofthe odd nmnbers. Howcvcr, in thc ca~c of
ovcrtcnes of vcry high order, thc pitch may bo stightiydisturbed
by thc rotatory inertia, whosc effect is Itcre ncglectcd.
175. Since th componcnt vibrations of a system, Dot subject
to dissipation, arc nccessa.rilyof tlic harmonie type, n!! the values
of Mt",which satisfy
cosM

cosh

m =

l.(l),

must be reah We sce furthor that, if M bc a root, so arc also


w, w
1, ??i.
1. Hence, taking nrst th lower sigt], wo
hve

If we takc thc logarithms of both sidus, cxpand, and cquate cocfHcicuts,we gct

This is for a clatnpcd-frcc rnd.

COMPARISO~

175.]

0F l'J/J'CH.

225

F''om thc known value of S?)~, th value of )?~mayLe dcrivbd


witli tlie aid ofapproximate values of?y~,w,
Wc fmd
2~
~nd

M~

=-0065t7C2J,
=

-OOOOO.i-237

~=-000000069
~=-000000005.
whencc

w,='OOG5i.33)0
= '187510;'), n.sbefo)-(\

j~iving

In likc manner, if but.))ends of t))u Lar bc el.nnpcd or free,


9It
1

~W.

'-~+-=~)('

7)r

.Cc.
~n

(4),
(4),

=
crmrsct))p ,;Ill)lnl~itioli
whct'e of
%vliet-e
nf entil-setilt,
sumDin.tionis
Is exclu~~a' :2,tJ)
J &c,
sive ofthc zero value of??{.
wliciice
whcnce S

17C. The frcq~cncics of thc sorics of toncs are proportional to


w". Th interval between any tonc and the gra.vcst of th sries
may con'vcnientiy bc expressed h) octaves and fractions of an
octave. Tins is effected by dividing the diffurencc<ifthc logarithms
of w' hy th logarithm of 2. Thc rcsults are as fotlows
8
r4G2<)
2'C478
2't3.')8
4-1:~2
~'1590
.IO!}G
6
~-8288, &e.
3-7382, ~c.
wliere the first column relates to the toncs of a rod hoth whose
ends are clamped, or free; and the secondcolumn to the case of a
rod clampcd at ottc end but free at th other. Thus from the
second column we find that tlie first overtone is 2'()-t78octaves
higher than th gravest tone. The fi-actioiialpart may be rcduced
to mean semitones by multiplication by 12. The interval i.s then
two octaves + 7'7736 mean scmitons. It will be seen that th
rise of pitch is inuch more rapid than iu th case of strings.
If a rod be clamped at one end and free at th other, th pitch
of the gravest tone is 2 (log 4'7300 log 1'87.51) log 2 or 2-G698
octaves lower than if both ends were clamped,or both free.
R.
15

LATERAL

22G

VJBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[177.

177. In ordcr to examine more closely the curve in which thc


rod vibmtes, wc will transfbrm the expression for M into form
more convcnicnt for nutncrieal odeuladou, takin~ fu'st thc case
when both ends arc free. Sinco w=~(2t+l)7r(l)'/3,
cosM=sin/3, siu?~=cos'7rxeos~3; and thoreforc,
bcing n,
root of cosM ccsh ?/=!,
ccshMt= coscc/?.
AlijO
Hinh"w = coHii"~t
or,

smcc

1=tau2ut = cot' ~3,

is positive,

cot/3

= cot/3.

sit)h~

Thus
slM?):8[nh)~

lcos!'7rsin/3

cosMtcosh?~

eus/3
(cos

(COS
ces

COStTT Hit)

~/3

ces

cos

~/3

cos

tTr

sin

cos

'Tr

+ sin

't'Tr sin

~/3)

~/3) (COS ~/3 + COS ZTr Si)!

~)

A/3

Wc may thcrcfore take, omittiog the constant nudtiplio',

(~~ 7T
i~f/3)
SiIl
-~+(-])'~
=~cos<7r.s.n~
Mj
t~
+SHl~e'-COSZ7TCOS~C''
.(~.
If wc furthcr throw out the factor ~/2, an(tput~=l,wc
may ta.ko

M=~+~+7whcrc
= cos '-n-sin {;);
!og7~=
!og

~,=

~7r+ ~( 1//3J
'(2),

~cloge+Iogsin~-logys
Mi~ log

e + log cos

log

~/3

from which 7~may be ealculated for dUTercutvalues of i an'!

GHAVESTMODEFOR. PREE-PREE BAR.

177.]

227

At thc ecutro of thc bar, =


are numcrically
and
cqual i)i ~irtueof e'" =cot ~3. Whcn i is ~fc~ thcsotcrmsea.ncel.
which is cqn:~ to xcrowhcn
For.F~weha.vc ~=(-l)'siu~7r,
i is evcn, tuni to i 1 whoi i is odd. WItcn is even, t)io'cfoi'c,
<hc!sumof thc threctcrms'v:mishcs, and thorc is accordin~y n,
nodc in tlic mi<!d[c.
Whcn = 0, Mreduccs tn 2 (- l)'sin (.~7r
(- 1)'/3}, winch
(since Is a.Iw!).ys
smal!) shows that for no vfttuc of i is t)icre a.
nndo at thc end. If a long ]):u'of steel (hcl(), fur exempte, ut, th
centre) bc gcnt)y t~pped with n, ita.mtncr whilo vtn'ying points of
its length !u-c damped wit)i th nngcr.s,n.n unu.su:d dcaducss in
thc souud will bc uoticcd, as the end is cluscly approacttcd.
178. Wc will now t:).kc somc p:u'ticn!ar cuses.
F~n~'o): w~/t.<wo HOf~M.i = 1.
If -t'=1, th vibration is th ~ravcst of which the rod is capa-btc.
Our fonnuhe bueotnc
=

sin

(270+ 1"C'40" '94)

-M" 30' 2()"'4.7}


}

h'g 7~ = 2 054231a; + 3-7!)52301


log = 2-054231a; + 1-8494G81,
from whicit is calculatcd titc fuDowlng table, giving thc values of
Mfor a; equal to 'OU,'05, '10, &c.
Thc values of M :M('~)for thc intcrmcdiatc values ofa; (in tlic
last column) werc found by iutcrpoht.tionformulK. If o, ~,?',N,t
be six consccntivc terms, that intcrmcdiatc between aud r is

228

LATERAL

I~

In

VIBRATIONS

7~
I~a

0F

BABS.

?;.
at.

[i78.

~c
M:~(-5)
7c(')

-000 +-7133200 +-OOG3408+-7070793 !+l.42GC401'+l-G45219


1-45417G
'025
-050 -5292548 -0079059 -5581572
1.0953179 I-2G3134
'075
r0721<!3
-100
'075. -3157243 -0100153
'O1001o3 '~140G005
-440GOC5I '7GGJ401
-7GG3401 1:0721G2
-8837528
'125
-G9<!9004
'150 +-084GIGC -012G874 -3478031
-4451071
-5133028
'17~
-3341(!25
'200 --1512020
-01G072C -2745503 + -1394209 + -1G07819
'225
-0054711
'250 -3786027 -0203G09 -2IG7256
-1G31982
-14151C2
'275
-3109982
'300
-5849255 -0257934 -1710798
-44750GG
-3880523
'325
-5714137
'350
-7586838 -0326753 -1350477
7
-5909G08
-GR15Q32
'375
.7766G2!)
'400
-8902038 -0413934 -10GG045
-7422059
-8559210
'425
-9184491
-450 -9721G35 -0524376
G -0841519
-8355740
-9G35940
'-175
-9908730
'500
+-OGG4285 -OGG4282 -8G7I433 -1-0000000
-1-000000

Since th vibration curvc is symmctnca,! with respect to t)ie


middie of th rod, it is unneccssary to continue the table bcyond
~='5. Thc curve itself is shewa in Hg. 28.

To Hnd th position of tlie node, we bave


by interpolation
~1G(i2530

FREE-FREE BAR WITH THREE NODES.

178.]

229

which is th fraction of tlie whole Icngth by which tlie uodc is


distant from th Huarerend.
?~~A</<re
Vt&)Yt<MM
nodes. i = 2.
FI =s:n ( (450 2'40"-27) .B-4.5" +1' 20"-135)}
3'410604.c+4'438881G
log~=
log (- F,) = 3-410G04 +1-8494850.

iC
-000
-025
-050
-075
-100
-125
-150
-175
-200
-225

~M(0)
-l'OOOO
-8040
-G079
-4147
7
-2274
-0~87
+ -1175
-2G72
-3973
-5037

X
-250
0
-275
-3O
-325
-350
-375
-j00
-425
5
-450
-475
-500

M:-t(0)
+-5847
-6374=
-6620
-6569
-6245
-5653
-4830
-3805
-2627
7
-1340
-0000

In this table, as in th prcecding, th values of !( were calcu]:t.tcddirectiy for x = -000, '050, '100 &e., and intcrpotated for thc
ititcrmediate values. For th position of thc nodc tlie table gives
by ordinary ititerpolatioM a; ='132. C:T.lculatiugfrom th above
formul, wc fiud
~(-1321) =--000076,
M(-1322)=+-OOU88,
\vhen.cex = '132108, agreeiug with the result obta-inedby Strehike.
The place of maximum excursion may be found from the derived
function. We get
('3083)==+ -00~6077,
(.~081)= -0002227,
u' (-308373)= 0.
whence
Hcnce
is a maximum, when a; = -308373 it then attains
the value -6636,which, it should be observed, is mnch less than th
excursion at the end.

230

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BAHS.

[178.

Thc curvc is s!)wnin fib. 2~).


Fig.Si).

r~t'tt~M M~/tybtO' )!O~CN.i = 3.


7'~= sm [ (G30"+ G")2)

45" 3"-4G],

= 4-33~ .e + 5-0741.~7,
Io~7~ = 4-77.'i!~2 + I-S-~4850.
if~-

From t))is ~(())=1'4M24., M(.~)= 1-00570. T!ic positions of


th uodcs are ruadi)y foumt by trial and crror. TIms
u (-3558) = -C()()037 M(-3-')59)= + -001047,
whcncc M(-35.~S03)= 0. Thc \t)ut; of :r ibr thc nodc nca.rthe (nid
is -09~ (Scebeck).
Thc position of the loop i.s he.st fuund from t!te dc'rived
function. It ~ppc~rs thut ~'=0, w)ju!i a;=':22UO, ard thc!i
M=34-9.
Tibre is a)so a tuop at thu centre, whcre I)o\vVt.;r
t!tc excursion is not so grc:t.tas at thu two uUters.

Wu sa.wt))!ttat thc centre of thc bar 7'~:H)d~u'c n)t)]icric:d]y


eqn:U. lu thc nci~hbom-hoodof t])c )))i<!([)c-,
7'~is L'vidcntlyvury
sni:)]!, if bc modurn.tciy~rc~t, fmd thus t))Cc~uation fur tbu njdcs
rcducus approximateiy to

?!. bcing f),u int~cr.


If wu tr~tisf~nn thc ot'igiu to thc centre of
thc ru(.),~nd rcptacc 7?t
by its approximate vainc K2~+]) Tr wc
Hnd

178.]

GRAVEST

MODE FOR A CLAMPED-FREE

DAR.

231

shcwing tha.t ncM' thc middic of thc bar thc nodcs are uniformiy
spac~d, thc intm'vit.tbctwecn consceutivonodes bcing 2~ (2t+ 1).
Tins t))corct,icn.trusult lias bccu verifiud by tit mca.surcmcutsof
Strchtkc and Lissajous.
F(.'t' mutliods of n.pproxiin:(.tio)inpp)ic:)bic:to thc nudcs nc~r
thc cud.s,whcn i is gre~tur th:n) 3, thc l'cadcr is rcf'~rd to t)tc
mcinnir by Scubcck :di'eu.dytnoutioued 160, :uid to ]3on~in'!t
~tcu:cs (p. 194').
179. Thc ca.lculn.tionsn.rc vcry simitar for tho case of a. bar
a.u.d
clamped at onu end aud frcc n.t thc uthcr. If to:
~'=~+7~+7~ wc hve in gcncrui

Ift= ], we obtain for thc culculation of tlie gravest vibratioucm'vu

Thse

givc

ou

ealcut.i.ti'ti

( 0) = -OOUOOO,
~(-2) =-10297(.-t)= -370G25,
frutn which fig. 31 was cot~tructcd.

~( -G)=-7-t3~2,
~( -8)=riCUO:32,
F(l-())=l-G1222-t,

232

LA.TEHALVtBRATIONS0F J3ARS.

[170.

Th distances of tlie nodus i'rom tlie free cud in tlie case of a


rod clamped at the other eud are given by Secbcck aud
by Donkin.
2"tonc -22G1.
~'i.(Htu

-132<,

-4ij!')i).

4.to!tu -0!)-t-4.,-3-').')8,-04.3!).
~3

~hm~
4~

4~-7~)75
t,

"Th last row in this table must be understood as


meanincr

4/-3
that
may bc takcn as the distM)ccof thej)' uodc from th
froc (.'nd,cxecpt for t!tu first tin-ce aud thc last two nodes."
Wlmn buth ends are ft-ce,tlie distances of the uodes from the
ncarcr end are
1" tone '2242.
2'tonc-1321

-a.

3"' tone -0!)44

'3.')58.

i"'
~tone't-<+2

~i~
~t'+2

4t+2 2

-3
4t'+2'

Th points of inUcction for a h-ec-frcc rod


(corresponding to
thc nodcs of a chunpcd-dampcd rod) arc atso
givcn by SccLeck
1~ point.

l~tf)no

No inaecdon

2"tone.

-f)f)O

3'tone

-03

tl tone
i~"tone..

2"~ point.

i~
4t+2

S.9!)!)3
-in-2LI

t''point.

point,

4.+1 1
~+~

Exccpt in th case of th extrme nodes (\vh!chhave uo corresponding infieettou-point),th nodes :md InHection-poiutsalw~ys
uceur m close proximity.
180. Ttiu casewhcreonc eud of:). rod is ft-ceand the other
s~dous
u~t
ubcd
an
~o~eJ
indcpcndent investigation, as it may be

180.]

POSITION
0F NODES.

233

rufcrrcd to that of a rod with both ends free M'M~ in an e~?t wof~,
For attitc central node
that is, with anode in themiddie.
y aud v" vanish, winch are precisely thc conditions for a supportcd
end. In hkc nianner the vibrations of a clamped-supportcd rod
are the saine as tliose of one-haf uf a rod both wliosc ends are
c)amped, vibrating with a central nodc.
181. The last of tlic six combinations oi' tenninal conditions
occtu's whcn both ends arc supported. Refcrring to (1) 170, we
sec that tlie conditions at x = 0, give ~1= 0, -D= 0 so that
= (<7+ D) sin.e' + (C D) sinh
Since Mand M"vanish when a:' = C' D = 0, and sin Ht= 0.
Hencc the solution is
'J'TT.'r ~TT~X~
<
y=sin -cos~

(1),

wltcrc i is an intcgcr. An arbitrary constant inultiphcr may of


course be prcnxcd, and a constant may be addcd to t.
It appcars that tlie normal curves arc tlie sanie as in thc case
of a string stretchcd bctwuen two fixed points, but the scqncncc of
toncs is altogcther dirt'crcnt, tlie frcqucncy varying as tlie square
cf i. Th uodes and InnccLton-points concide, and thu loops
(which arc also the points of maximum curvature) biscct thc distances between thc uodes.
182. Th theory of a vibrating rod mn.ybe appHcdto illtistrate
tlie gcnera.1principle that th natura] periods of a system fulfil the
maximuni-ininilnum condition, and that the greatest of th natural
periods exceeds any that can be obtained by a variation of
type. Suppose tliat th vibration curve of a clamped-free rod is
that in whieh thc rod would dispose itself if dcnected by a force
of
curve may be
appHcd at its free extrcrnity. The quation th
taken to bc
y=-3~+~,
and makes Jy and Jy vanish at
which satisfics << = 0 throughout,
b
Ttius, if thc configuration of th rod at time t be
0, and at
~= (-3~+~)

cos~

thc potcntial cncrgy is by (1) ].61, C~cos~X,

(1),
while th

234

LATERAL

J"
kinetic

~ow

VIBRATIONS

OFDARS.

[182.
9

33

n
40 7
2
I.s
l7
cncrgy
and
1] thas 2]
~sin'
~=~
(U)c truc v~tuc of ;) fur tlic gravest tonc) is cqual to

~(~~J.
suthat

shewing that thc i-cal pitch of tho gravest tonc is rather (but
coniparativcfy IitUc)!owerthan t)iatca!culated from the I)ypothetical type. Jt is to bc observed tbat thc
hypothctic:d type in
question violtes thc terminal condition y" = 0. This circumstancc,
however,(tocs not intcrfcro with (hu application of' ti)e pnncipi~
for the assumed typu niny bu
:my whicii wouid bu admissibie as an
unti:d couf~m-atiou but it tends to
provcnt a very dose ngrccJnent of pcriods.
Wc )nny cxpcct a bottur approxitnatiot), ifwc found our calcuI~tioa on thc cnrvc in whici)thu rod wou)d bc d~flectcd a force
by
actiug at somo litttc (ti.stancufrutn thu frcc c-nd,butwcen whicti
and the point of action of the force (.c = c) thc rod would bo
strai~ht, and tbcrcforc witiiout putential cncr~y. Thns
potential eno-gy = (Jy~M~ cos'
Ti)C kinetie cno-~y can bc rcadify found
by intgration from
t))c ~'atuuofy.
From

0 to c

y =

:}~

amt from c to L

y = (c 3.<'),
as may bc sccn frutn the
considration that yand y' nn)St not
sudd<jn)ychange at :c= c. Thrcmt)t. is
kinctic cnc.rgy=

sin'

(~- r) (.' + 3f-)1

\yhcncc
"12 70'3.1Ga

`~

(c2

e3Gt)

~=~[~+~]The jnaxinmm vainc hf 1-~wiM occnr wttcn t)tc


point of
application of thc force is ill thu ueighbour)tood of the nodc of tl)c
second nornud compuncnt vibration. If' wc takc
c =~, ~vo obtaini
a result wllich is tw fngh
o in the m~hicat scatc by thc intun-a)

182.]

235

LOADEDE~D.

cxprcsscdby th ra.tio 1 '9977, a.nd is ~ccordinglycxtremdy nea.r


t,hetrut)h This cxampio may givc un idca. how uciu'ty thc pci'iod
of a. vibr~tin~ systort may bu catcntittcd by simple rncans without
th solution uf diHurcMti:dor tra-uscuudenttdcqu:),tious.
Thc type of vibration just cousidered wout<tbe tliat actua.ily
~ssumcdby a. bar whicii is itscif dcvoid of inertie but can'ics :t
lu.tdJ/n.t its frec end, providcd that tbe rotatury inurtin ofJ/could
bu ]mg!ccted. Wc sliould h:n'c, in i'act,
si)i'
7' = 2~
F= Cf/~N~eus'
sothat

:<
V~

.(.<).

Evcn if thc i))Grti!iof tbe bar bc not attogcthcr n~gligibic in


with jV,v'c may still tid~ titc saniu typu as tticbasi.sut'
eomp:u'isoM
:m appruxijaatu c'idcutation

th:Ltis, J/ is to bc incrcascd by n.hont onc quartcr of tLc mass of


thu )'od. Mincutitis rcsuk is accm'!).k!whcn is mfimt.e,atld dous
hot ([m'ur nmch (ruiu t!ic trnt)), cvun whcu~V=0, Itrn:).ybu rc~n.rdudas gutiuraHya.pplic:).b!u!).sa.u a.pj'roxhn~tiun. Th cn'or
will ahv~ysLe on tlie sidu of cstimatm~ ttiu pitch tuo liigL.
183. But thc ncglect of th rotatory Inortia of ~f could not
bcjustiiicd midd' thc ordi)i:u'ycouditi~us of cxpenmoYt. It is as
unsyto Im:)ginu,thou~h ~ot to construct,a.c:).scm whie!)tlic inertia
of translatioji s))un)(ibL;ncgligIDc in comparisou with thc iucrtia of
rotation, as t)~ opposite uxtrutne wtuch bas just bccn considcrcd.
If both kinds of incrtia. in thu !na.ss~f bp iuctudcd, cven thougli
that of t)ic l):ti'bc nc~jectcd ft!to~ctiicr, th systum possesscs two
distinct aud indupendoit po'iods of vibration.
Lct z and

dnote thc vaincs of

cquatiou of thc cm'vc of thu b:).ris

~+

and

ut .B=

Then tLe

S3G

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F UARS.

[l83.

and

whileforthkIneUcctiu'gy
~=~+

L~

.(2),

If~ be the nutius of gyration ofJLTabout an axis pcrpendicular to


t!)ep)an(;!ui'vibnLtioti.
Tbc equa.tionsof motiou are theruforc

whciicc, if z and

vary as cosj;)<,wc find

con'cspo)idingto tlic two penods, which arc aiways difci'cnt.


If wc negluct thc rotatory iucrtia by putting /e'=0, we fall
back on our prcvious rcsuit
oT 3f7~"M
~f
Tite ot!)cr value of~ is thon infinite.
If ?'
lectcd,

bc merc!y sma. so tliat its Iti~Itcrpowcrs may be ueg-

If on the other hand A:"be vcry grt, so tha.t rotation is prevented,


vcntud,
12<7A'~ or <~M
~=-77rth lattcr of which is vcry sma]]. It appc~rs thn.twhen rotation
is prcvc!'t.c<),tlie pitch is an octave iu~Itci'than if therc were no
rotatory inertia at a!). T))cse cundusions might also be derivcd

EFFECT
0FADDITIONS.

183.]

dit'cctty from tlie diH'crentiat quations; for if/c'=~,


tlieii

butif/<=0,

~=~

237

0=0,a.nc

by thc second of quations (3), and in

thatcase

184. If any addition to a bar bc made at thc end, th periocl


of vibration is prohjnged. If tlie encl in question bc frce, suppose
nrst that thc pice addcd is wit)iout inertia. Since thcrc would bo
]t0 altration in eithcr tho potcntia! or kinetic nergies, th pitch
would be nncliangcd but in proportion as the a.dditiona.tpart a.cquires inertia, the pitcli Mis ( 8S).
In the sa.mo way :),smiULconthiun.tiun of a. har bcyond a
clumpcd end wonid hc wiLhout nu'ect, ns it wou)d ac()ui)'c no
motion. No change will cusue if tlie ncw end bc a.tso c):).mpcd
but as thc first chunpingis rc!a.xcd,thc pitch faits, In consquence
of th diminution in thc potential cucrgy of a givcn dutormation.
The case of a supportai od is not quitc so simptc. Lct tlie
and let tlie added piccu whieh is at
original tjn(Lof th rod bc
nrstsupposed to hve no incrtia., bc ~t/?. InitiaNy thc end ~1 is
fixed, or held, if we )ikc so to l'cgiu'dit, by a spring of inrinitc stin'ncss. Suppose tbat this spring, which )ias no ino'tia,, is graduaHy
rclaxod. During this proccss thc motion of thc ncw end
diminishcs, and at a certain point of relaxation, -Dcornesto rcst.
During this proccss tlie pitth falls. 7~,being now at rest, may bc
snpposed to become nxcd, and the abolition of th spring at ~1
cntails anothcr f:d!of pitcli, to Lefurther increased as ~J3 acqnircs
inertia.
18.5. Thc case of a rocl whieh is not quitc utufonn may bc
treated by the gencr:d method of 90, We ))ave in thc notation
thcre adoptcd

238

LATERAL
VIBRATIONS
OF J!AHS.

[185.

whcucc, P,. bc'iog t))Cuncu)-)-cct,cd


value oi'

For examplu, if the rod bc e!:unpu(!at 0 and fr :tt

Thc samc fonnu!~ appiics to a


doubly frcu bar.
T)ie e~uct ofa. smaHlo~d (~V is thus
givctt Ly

who-c
dnotes tl.c mass of thc whoc har. If thu load bc at
t!iocn<],it,s cficct Jst])esa)nGnsa.iL-]igth('))i))g'ofthcb!U-mt~c
ratio ~+~J/:
(Compte 1U7.)
~8G. T!)c samc prineipte jnay hc
appticd to estimatc t!)C
corroctio)!duc to ti)c rotatory inertin of n. ~ttifoi-inrod. Wc havo
on!yto <md what additton to m;)kc to thGkineticcncrg'y, sup])osing
tha.t tho bur vibrtes accordin~ t.o thc samu !:twas wou]d
oblai)~
were Uierc no rotatory ioc'rtia.
Lctu.s take, far cxmnpic, thu case uf a L:uc!a)npc() at Oaud
frcc at a.nd assume tftat th vibration is of th
type,
.V= !<cus~
whcre Mis one of thc func-tions
invosti~atud in 170. Thu ].i))(-tic
f'no-gy cftttc rotation is

18C.]

FOR KOTATORY
CORRECTION
INERTIA.

23U

Tothismustbca.ddt.id

ti0that tlie lunctic encrgy Is mcrcascd in thc ratio

Thc atto'ed frcqnency Lcnrs to thi~t calcnh~tcdwithout allowanee for rotatury inertie n mlio '\v!uch is thc square root of th
rcctprociti ofthe! prcce~ing. Thus
?~/c' ,?</
M~\
1-(~,+~(1).
<'7r.t:).)t7~,
By use of thc retat.ionscosh?~ == suc M, sitilt ?~==cun
.-<;= ill thc furjn
wu m~y cxprcus K' A\'L<j~
7'= ~=

sin M
;t.

eus <7r + ces

eus
?~

ces

a
/7r siu a'

if wc substitntc fut' ?~ front


~=~(2t-l)7r-(-l)'a.
In thc c~suof th ~ra.YCSttune, ot='3()43, or, in dL'grccsand
nunutcs, K==172C',wlicncu

Thus

which ~ivcs tlic corrcctitn) fur rotatory incrtin. in tlic case of thc
gt'avcst tonc.
WtK'u thc ordcr of th tone is modoratu, a is vcry small,
andtheti
'u=l
sc'nsibly,
atld

n
r=l-fl

/w\?)~
+
~-)

(3),

shcwing tl~at thc correction incrcases in importance witi) thc


order of tlic component.
In a.ll ordina.ry bars K Is verysma.!), and thc tcnn dcpcnding
on its square ma.y be ncgluctcd wit))out sensible error.

240

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

0F

BARS.

[187.

187. Wben thc rigidity and dunsity of a bar are variaDc


from point to point aJong it, t)ie nonna.1 functions cunn~t in
gnera.!be expresse) tumiyticaUy, but tticir nature tnay be invcstigated by tlie method.soi'St.ur<n and LiouviHe oxpituned in 14.2.
If, as in 1G2,7~<tcnotc thc vanahie flexunU rigidity at any
point of the bar, and pM~ the mass of the clment, whosc Ien"-th
is
wc nnd as tlie gcncral dUTo'entiiJ quation

tho effets f'f rotat'ry ixo-tiubcmg onuttcd.


If wcnssumc- t]):)t
c< cos! woot)tain as the quation to (]ctL')-i))C thc i'orm of' thu
nonnat fonctions

in whieh is IImited by th termina! conditions to bc one of an


induite series ofdcnnitc quantitles
)~,
Let us suppose, for cxamp!c, that thc har is cliunpc'd at both
ends, so tliat th termina! values of and
v:mi.st). TI)c first
~.<;
normal function, for which
Las its lowest vatnc
Jms no
inturnal root, so that t)tc vibration-curvc lies cntirdy on nnc sidc
of the eqnilibrinm-po.sition. T)nj .secondnonnid function bas onc
intcrna.1 root, thu t))ird function has two interna) roots, an'),
gcncra!)y, t!ie )' function bas t- 1 internat roots.
Any two dincrent nor)n:d fnncti~)).sarc conju~a.tc,tliat is to
say, their product wiH vanish when mu)tip)icd by ~Mt7~, and
Intc'grated over tho Icngt,h of thc bar.
Let us uxn.)nineth nurnber of rf'ts uf a funetion /'(.)
th fonu
/M

=~M

M-t-

+~

(.).(3),

compoundcd of a Hnite number of normal functions, of \\hich tho


function of lowest ordor is ':<(.) and that of highest ordct- is
(-<"). If tl'c numbcr of internai roots of/(~) be so that thcro
arc ~+4 roots in all, thc dcrived functiou (.?')cannot hve )css
than + 1 Internai roots besides two roots at thu extremitles, and
thc second derived fonction c-annot hve Icssthan~+2
rots

187.]

ROOTS OF COMPOUND FUNCTIONS.

24L

No roots can bc lost whcn the latter function is


multiplicd by 7~,
and another double din'ercntiation with respect to x will ]cave at
least internal roots. Hcncc by (2) and (3) wc conclude that
M +

M, M +

< M M. (4<)

bas at least as many roots as /(.).


Since (4) is a function of the
same form as/(.), thc same argument in~ybe ropcated,a.nd{),a
series of functions obtaincd, every mcmber of whic)) lias at least
aa many roots as/(~) lias. When the operation by wliieh
(~) was
derivcd ft-otn(3) bas hccn rcpcatcd su<Rcient)yofteo, a function is
arrived at whose fo'm differsas !itt!c as wc picasc from that of thu
component normal function of highest order ?<(?');and we conIntcrual roots. In
cludothat/(;c) cannot have more than~-l
likc manncr wc may provo t);at/(.r) cannot hve less than w-1 1
internf).!roots.
The application of this thcorcm to deMonstrat th possibility
ofexpa.nfiinga.narbitraryfanctionin an infinit series of normal
functious would procecd cxact)y as in 14'2.
188. When.th bar, whoselatral vibrations are to bc considered,
is subject to longitudinal tension, thc potential energy of any configuration is composed of two parts, the nrst (ieputtding on the
stinness by which th bonding is directly opposcd, and the second
on th reaction against th extension, which is a neeessary accompaniment of tho bending, w])en th ends arc nodcs. Th second
partissimUa-r to the potential energy of a dcnectcd string; the
first is of thc same nature as that with wtuch \vc have becn
occupied hithcrto in this Chapter, thongh it is not entirely independent of th permanent tension.
Considerth extension of a filament of th bar of section f~u,
whosedistance from the axis projected on th plane of vibration
is
Since th sections, which were normal to the axis originally,
remain normal during th bending, th length of th niament
bears to th corresponding lment of th axis the ratio Tt*+ JT,
7~being tbe radius of curvature. Now th axis itself is ex tendcd
in th ratio q :y-~y, reckoning from thc unstretchcd state, if
7'j dnote the whole tension to which the bar is subjected.
Hence the actua! tension on thc filament is -~+~(7'+~)~M.
R.

J (j

from whieh we find for thc moment of t))c couple acting acrosstho
section

and for thc who)e potcntud cno'gy due to stithtcss

an expression din'cring from that previousiy uscd ( 1C2)t'y tho


substitution ofy+7'fory.
Sincc is ttic tension ruquircd to strc-tch a har of unit arca to
twicc its natnmt loi~'th, it is cvidunt th~t m most pra.cticatcases
Y'would bc nc~tigibic iti comparisonwith
T!te expression (1) dnotes thc work th~t \vou!J ne ~iocd
dnring thc strai~htcning'oftLe bar, if th luugth of c:).chdment
ofthc axis W(.'['oprc'scrvcd constant dut'ing t])(; proccss. But
whcn a. strctchcd L~r or strin~ is attowcd to p:LSSfrotn iLdisp!a.ccd
to th nutura! position, thc to)~t]) uf t)tc axis is dccrcascd. Tho
and the
thu corrospol.lding
illllolll'Itof
amount
of th
tho dco'casc
clocrcasc Is
-cl.r,
<< and
corrcspoudinggain
gain
(
.")
is :~f
j\~t<
G?fY
cfworki.s
: T(
~(~.

cl,c

d.c.

Thus
r=< (~

&+
-~(~,)'(a).
.(~)'
T)ie Yariationof the first part duc to n. hypothc'ticfd dispiaccment is givon in 1G2. For thc second part, wc hve
icf/7
~c= f~Sy
~8 J V~
j

(~y~l
f~-Vc
7
/o\
r..
(3).
f<~
J
( ~y~
In aH <hccases that wc hve to consider, ~y vnnishcs at thc
limits. Thcgcncra) diircrentia) quation iHa.cconiingty

or, if ~Yc'put

-t-T =

~'= ~),

rlx<:t~
.vcl.~c
1.~+~
r!t .t.
'fc/</

p.
0.
.UcltfM..l..t.~
cl.ccAc

(4).

Fora. more dctailcd investigation of this equationtlie readcris


rcfcrrcd to th writings ofCtebsch' n.nd Don~i)i.
~'()r<t'~t'r7'<(ts<)'ct<</M<fr7~[ir/)<'r.

Leipxig, 16G2.

189.]

PERMANENT
TENSION.

18'). If thc ends of thc rod, or wire, bc chnnpcd,

24:3
= 0, !ind

tite tc)-)i)!)i:L)
conditionsfu-csaLisfied. ]f t])c nature of Lhe
support
be such that, wlutc th cxtrutnity is coii.stnuuudto he a, node, tiio'o
is no conp!c itctmg on thc b:u-,

must vanish, thilt i.sto say, tho

on! nmst Le strfught. T)tis suppo.sition i.su.sua.Hyt~(cn to


rcprcscnt thc c:i.suofa. string strctchcd ovcr hritt~cs,a.s i)i
manytxu.sic:).!
but
it
is
cvidoit
that titc pfu't beyotid thc bridge
i)Lst)'nmcnts;
must pa.rt~kc ofthc vibration, !ui(l that thcrcforc its
lo~tit cannot
Le altogcther n ]n:).ttcrof Ijiditfcruncc.
n'in thc ancrai dif1b)'c:nti;t.l
cqu.Ltiou wc tit-ke~pi-oportional
to cos wc gct

whi<hiscvident)ysatiH(n'dhy

if
bc suit:d)ty dcto'mif~d. T)tc sanic solution a)sn makcs
yat)dy" vimisha.tthccxtt-etnitic.s.
By substitution wcnbtflin
for??,
n ~+~7!
(3),
"'=~'
-~+/W
which dtermines thcfrcquc~oy.
If we soppose t))CAviruinnnitt'Iy thin, ?r=~7r~
thc same
as wn.si'ound in OtaptcrVt., by startin~ from th supposition of
ns a vcry sma]) qnantity, thc
perfcct m-xibUity. ]f wc t)-e:tt
approximatc vah)c of?; is
<'7r</
rc
f
)
,rr
+' -;7T~
"=
2~ (rr-~}1'
For a.\vit'(.;of circult' scetion of radius r, ~=
and if w
rcpht.cc a)i([ f< hy thcir va)ups in tc'rtns of y, 7', an()

whic!) gtvcs t!)c corruction fur ri~idity'.1. Since t)) expression


\vithin brackets invoivcs ?',It appc'ars that t])C harmonie rclatinti
of th componcnt tones is (Ust~rbed by thc stiitncss.
'Dont{in's.-frn)f.f'f~,Art.im.

]f!S

244

LATERAL

VIBRATIONS

OF BARS.

[190.

190. The investigation ofthe correction for sti~ncss when the


ends ofthewirearc ctanipcd is not so simple, In consquence of
thc change of type which occnrs ncn.r tlie ends. In on)< to puss
from the cftsc of th preceding section to that now undcr consIdGrationau ~hiitional consti-:unt must be introduced, with the
eHcctof attti fm-ther raising the pitch. Die fu!tow!ng is, in the
ma.in,thc investigation of Scobcck and Donkin.
If the rotatory incrtia be neglected, th differential quation
becomes

where a and /3 are fonctions of ?t determmed by (2).


Th solution must now be nm<!eto sattsfy tho four boundary
conditions, which, as therc are only three clisposable ratios, tca.d
to an equation connecting a, ~3, This may be put into th form

190.j

PERMANENT

TENSION.

245

Thus far our equations are rigorous, or ruther as rigorous as


the dincrential equation on which thcy are founded; but we sha.11
now ititroduce the supposition that tlie vibration considered is but
slightty aSected by tlie existence of rigidity. Tttis being th case,
t!te approximate expression for y is

uearty.
Th introduction of thse values into th second of equations
6~
is a stna]] quftntlty under th cir(G)proves that H' < ur
.j
cumstn-ncescontempiatud, a.ndthei'cforctli:tt a'~ is a l:u'gc(~tfnitity.
Siucc cosha~, sinha~ are both I~i'gc,('(~uation(5) rcduccs to

According to this quation thc component tones are ail raised in


pitch by tlie same smaU interval, and thcrcforo the harmonie relation is not disturbed by th rigidity. It would probably be otherwise if terms involving
f were reta.incd it does not therefore
follow that thc harmonie relation is botter preserved in spite nf
rigidity when the ends are ctamped than when they are frec, but
only that tbcre is no additional disturbance in th former case,
though tlie absolute altration of pitch is much greater. It should
be remarked that b (t or ~/(<y
+ l') \/7', is a large quantity,
and that, if our rcsuit is to be correct, A: rnust. be small enough
to bear multiplication by b a and yct romain small.

346

LATERALVIBRATIONS0F BARS.

[190.

Th theoretica-1rcsult cmbodicd in (8) ha.sbeen eompared with


experimoit by Seebeck, who found a. s:d.infactoryagruemcnt. Thu
constant of stirfness \vasdmtuccd frum observations of tite rapidity
oi't)io \'ibr~tions uf n smaU piuco of thu \vii'C)wttcn one end was
(.'tutiipudlit tt.Vice.
191. It lias hcon shewnni t)ns c])apter tliat thc theory of bars,
cvcn whcn sh)]pUHudto thc utrnost by t)tc omission of uniniportant
quantifies, is (tceu~dty more cumpticated t!t:ut t.hat of po'ftjct!y
fiuxibtc stnugs. The ruasun of thu extrme snnpiicit.y of thc
vibrations of .stringsis to Le fcund in thc flet titat \),v(.'s oftho
luu-monictype arc propagated with a velecity.indcpL'nd(;)itof tho
wave Iun~t](,so tti~t an a.rbitnu'y wa.veis aHowcdto travut Avithout
dcomposition. But whcu wc pass from string's to b;u's,t!ic con`l
`l = Uisis no
stmt in
stant
iu thc
tlle din'crGntifd
(litlrential C(lliLtloll
~'1Z.
-Iquation, vix. ~t-/<=(),
longer cxprus.sihiu as a veh'city, and thcrufm-c t])(j V(.d"cityof
transmissionof a train of harmonie wavc.sc:mnot dpend on th
dif)'cr(;utialontution ,'dom',but must vary with tiiu wa-vclungth.
Indccd, if it bt.' admittud t])at t))e train uf harmonie wavcs can
bc propagatcda.t a)), titis considuration is sufHck'nt by itscif to
provc that thu velucity must vary inycrscly a.s thc wavc tcngt)).
Thu samo titing may bc scen front thu soJution npj)]ieab!cto
C)
wavcs propagatcd in onc direction, vlx.=cos". (H~),
which satisfiesthc diH'urcuti.dC(p(ationif

Let u.s suppose that titcrc tu'c two tminn of wavcs of equa.1
amp)itudL's, but. uf diftbruut w~vc ]c))gt)).s,trnv'L'HI))~m t.hc samc
directujn. Tiius

If T r~
bc .smn.1),
we ha.vea train of wavc-s,Avitosenmptitu()c s!(jw)yvancs from ouc:point to anothur IjctwGOlthc vatucs
0 amt 2, ft)!')ning-a so'ic.sof group.sS(-)):).r:).ted
from onc aufjther by
]'egiot]scojnparativ-clyfrcu ironi distm'baucc. In t)tc case of u.
stringor of a co]um!iofair, v:n-icsas T.and t!)cn thc gt'oups move

0FTWO
TRAINS
0FWAVES.347
~91.] RESULTANT
forw:u'dwith titc same velocity n.sthc compone~t trains, :t.ndt!ierc
is no change of type. It is ot.ttcrwisewhcn, as in tiic case ot' a bar
vibrating t.ransvcrse!y, th vdoctty of' propagation is a fmictton
ot'thc wave Icogth. Titc position at ti)nu t of thc middia of t)t0
grnup which was initiatty at thu origiii is givoi. hy

In thc j'rcscnt cn.SL)!.== 1, an<taccordingly t)in vc!ocity oftiio


l,
gt'oup.sis <t'ce that ot' <,)njcompoount w.~ves*.
H)2. On account of tho (tt.'ppn<)cncc'
of thc! vclocity of propaga.tion on tho wave Icngth, tin.! cutHution of :ui infhnto bar at :u)y
time subsc'j'tcnt to an initm.t (tistnrbancc f'ontuu'tt tu a, lunitcd
purtiott, will h:tve n<jnc of t.hc simplicity wttich chanicteri.sGStho
Fouricr's
cort'cs~ondmg pt'obtt.'m ior a .sLriug';bt'.t ncvL'rLhutcHS
i)ivcstig:).tionofthis qncstton umy property <)ttd:t.p):).cuhci'c.
It I.s rcquircd to dutcrmmc a. function of :nid t, so us to
sfitisfv

and !U:~kc initiaity


A solution

of (1)

(~').

is

~/=cos~

whcrc

(.), ~='

cos~(.<x).

and a arc constants, irom '\vluch we conclude t))at

In tho c<in'csponJh)f} pr')1))om fur wfivcs 0)i th surfaco of Jcfp water, tho
\'dot;it.y of prf)p!ts'~t't"~ Yarit~ dh'(;Kt)y as tho square root nf tho W!t.vo Icut;) su
that M=A. Tho vetocity ( tt group of such Wftvcfiis tLcrefuro f~<;
of thttt of
tbe component trains.

248

LATERAL VIBRATIONS0F BARS.

[193.

is n.)so a sohttion, where j~('x) is an arbitrary function of a. If


!iowweput<=(),

which shcws that ~(a) must be takcn to


be 27r (a), for then by
Founer's double intgre thcorcm ~j,=~(A'). Murccvcr, y=0;
lience

By Stokcs' t!morc!n ( f)5), or iudependently, we mny now


suppty t])e i-(;m:umngp:u-tof thc sulution, which I)nsto Ha.tisfytlie
(liU'ercutmlquation whilc Ib makcs initi:d)y = 0, = (.); it is

Thc Hnal result is obtained by a.dding thc right-I~ud members


of (3) aud (4.).
Jn (3) thc intgration with respect to q may bc c~ected by
mctuis of thc formula.

which may Le proved as follows.


formula

Ji' in thc wcM-knownintgral

Now suppose that~=<'=<


whcre !:=VI-l,
only th ren.1p:).rt of tho equation. TI)us

and rctain

193.]

FOURIER'S

SOLUTION.

249

whencc

from -which (5) foUows by a. simple ct~nge of va.nab!c. Thus


ecma.tiou(3) may bc wi'tttc]i

CHAPTMR IX.
ViiHATtONS

0F MHMtiItANES.

U)3. Tm-: tlicorctica! monbranc is a


pcrfcct]y f)cxib!c and innnitctythin Jnmina ofsotid )nattcr,of nnifoDn materiat and thickncss, whicb is strctcbcd in :dt directions by a tension so
grcat as to
rem~in scusibly unidtcre.t during th vibrations at)d
di.spfaccmonts
If
fui
eontcmpjated.
imagioary Une bc drawti across t!ie membrane in any direction, t))omut)):d action betwccn thc two
portions
separatcd byan eiemunt uf U !inc is proportionn! to thc len'rth of
thc dment and pcrpcndicutar to its direction.1. If t)ic for~c in
gestion bti l' ~.9,7', mnybo caifcd tbc <o<uMof ~e
??te~6~Heit i.s a quantity ofont: ditncn.siunin tnas.sand2 in time.
Ti)c principat probfon in conncction with tins
snbjoct is tlie
investigation uf tbc trau.svo-scvibrations of mcmbratic.sof dirbrcnt
shapc.s,whosc boumhu-iu.sarc nxcd. Otbcr questions ind~cd
rnay
bc proposcd, but thcy arc of
compat-ativutyHtt!(j intcrcst; and,
niorcovur, t))e tuutttod.s prop~'r for sulvin~ thcm wi)[ be 'suff~
cicnHy iitustratd in otticr parts of this work. Wc may titcrofor
procuudat unce to the con.sidcrationofa membrane strctchcd ovcr
thc arca inc!)tdcdwitbin a nxcd, closed,ptanc
bound:u-y.
10~. Taking t)tc phinc of tbc bonndary as t)iat of
a'y, let M
dnote th smail disp!aco;ncnt tbcret'roni of
any point 7~ of tho
monbranc. Round takc fi sma)t an~
amt consido- thc forces
acting upon it parattcl to z. T)~ roso)ved part of the tension is
cxprcsscd by

m f~

~'j~
wltero (~ dcnotc.s an ch-mont of tbc
and tf/t
r/~ tm
bound~yt/ of ) "m~
nn
cfomjnt ot thc normal to thc cnrvc drawn out\ar<).s. This is
balanccd by the reaction against accctcration mcasnred
by ~v

EQUATION

194.]

251

OF MOTION.

p buin"' a symbot uf onc dimension in mass a.nd 2 hi length


dcnotmg tlie supui'Hci:ddensity. Nuw by Grcen's theorem, if

;S' ukimatufy,
f).udthus th cf~un.tiottof motion is
~) J

.d).

Thc condition te bu s:).tisficdat tlio bomidm'yis of coursew= 0.


Thc diU'orential quation ma.y a!so bc invcsti~atcd from thc
expression for thc putcntin.!cncrgy, winch is fouud by muttiplying
thc totisiou Ly th supediciid strctclimg. T)ic :dtcred a.rca.is

from which 8~ is casily ibund Ly au intL'gratIouby parts.


If wc writc ?~ /]=c' thun c is of t)ic nature of tt.vc!ocity,aud
tlie diH'cruutial con~tion is

!!)!'). We sha!l now suppose that tho boundary of th membrane is thu rcchuig!~ formcd by Lliccnordinatc axus and thc linc.s
for ovcry point withhi tlic arc:).(:}) 104 is satisiicd,
te = n, y =
fmd fur cvorypoint ou tnc boundary 'w=().
A particuttu' It~tegralis cvidcntiy

l 11C l'C
where

,7)~

?l-

2 /))Lz
C-7T'

?~\
+~(~'
)l21

CI)

and M~and Harc intcgcrs n.nd fromthis thc gnerai solutionina.ybc


dcrivcd. Thus
w=S

w=~ )<=~o
S
M=t siu
M-i

??;7TT'

);'77'
{:Imn COSI)~
sln-(~~cos~<+7?~sin~}.

-j- En," Sll1 2)t} (3).

252

VIBRATIONS

0F MEMBRANES.

F 19 5.

That this result is really gnerai


may be proved a posteriori,
by shcwu~ tliat it n~y be ad~p~.d to express
arbitrary initial
circumstanccs.
WI~tevcr fiiiietioii of thc co-ordinatos
may hc, it can bs expresscd for all vaines of bctwccn thc limits 0 and
by th sries

where th coemdents Y.,


&c. are Indcpeudont of
Again
whatever function of~nnyoac ofthe coc~cicnts
YmayLe, it can
be expanded betwecu 0 and &iu t)ie series

where C, &c. arc constats. From this we conclude


that any
function of x and y can bc expressed within th limits of the
rectangle by th double series

and thcrcforc that tbe expression forain


(3) eau beadapted to
arbitrary initial values of wand
In fact

.(4.).
Thc dmmctcr of tlie normal functions of a
given rcctang!c,

as depending on and is
easily undcrstood. If and n be both
un.ty, w retains thc same sign over th whole of th
rectanclc
vamshing at th edge only but in any other case there are
nodal lines running parallel to the axM
of coordinates. Th
numberofthc nodal lines paraHetto
is n -1, their equations
being

RECTANGULAR

195.]

In th sa-me way th quations

BOUNDARY.

253

of th noda.1 lme3 pMa.Hcl to

n)'f.

divides th rectangle
being w 1 in number. The nodal system
is
into ??~ equal parts, in ea.chof which th numcnca.1value of w
repeated.
functions
106. Th expression for w in terms of th normal
1s
~q

to fonu
whcrc 6, &c.are the normal coordinatcs. We proceed
We hve
the expression for Fin terms of

In integrating these expressions over th area of tlie rectangle


we find
the products of th normal coordinates disappear, and

of wand ?!.
the summation being extcnded to <d!intgre vahtes
th sMne
The expression for th kinetic cncrgy is proved in
wr,v to be

if Zf~cf~ dnote the tmnsvcrse force acting on the element ~.t.-<

254

VIBRATION 0F MEMBRANES.

[1()Q.

Let ns suppose that, tl.e i.iitial condition is one


of resb undcr
t)tc opration uf a consent, force .s.ie], as
Le supposed to
ansu from gascons pressure. At thc tin.c nmy
<=0, tlic i.nj~d
force is rc.novcd, ~nd thc mo.nbmuc Jeft to
itsc)f. IniMativ thc
cquation ofcquiiibrium is

i"C('njunctinnwit,h(~.
In on]cr to cxpn.s.s
v.-Lh.c,n (..), or ,n t.).is case
si,nr]y to ren.uvc
J'iLpgr;d.s)gn. Thus

f,.o,n undcr thc

Thi.si.s an cxamph.of (.S),{;)()!


If tlie ,nen~r.n..
p,i.s)y
set
solution is
4
=~

at. n.sL in its po.s.Uo. ofcn.i),tlie

W7TX M~S/Y
.sin

~< .(~).

197.]

CASES OF EQUAL

rERIODS.

255

197. The frpqucncy of thc na-tural vibra-tions is fouud by


ascribing diiTerent intgral values to M and in tho expression

For n, givcn. mode of vibration thc pitch faUs whcn cither


Hido of ttie rectangle is incrca-scd. In th case of thc gravest
mode, when w=], ~=~ additions to thc shorter Hidciirc titc
more effective; n.nd whcn th iurni is very clo!)~ttcd, additions
tu th longer sidc {u'ca-tmostwlthout c~uct.
WitCH a~d are inconnnensur:ddc, uo two pairs ci values
of w and ); can gi\'c t))Csa-mc frcqncncy, and cach fuodamcntal
]t)cdc of vihratiuu bas ils own ch!Li'actc)'isticpcriod. Uni whctt
ft" a)Kl arc coonnmisurabtC)two or more fut)d:uncnt:d modes
may hve t)tu samc pcriodic ti)nc, and may tlien cocxist in any
proportions, w)fi)e thc motion sti)) rctains ils simpte harmonie
charaetcr. In suc)) casus thc sp~'incxtion of thc pc'riod docs
not co)np)ctc)y detenninc Lhc type. Thc fuM cnnsidcration of
thc prohion now prcscntin~ it~c]f n'nnircs thc aid of thc thcory
of numhbr.s; Lut it will bc sufUcicnt for thc purposes of this
work to considcr a few of thc sunpk'r cases, which arisc whcn
thc membrane is square. Th rcadcr will find fnHci' information
in Ricmann's lectures on partial diUbrential quations.
If f; =

Th lowest tone ]S foun<tby putting n~ and )z cqual to unity,


which givcs only onc funda)ncn<d )nodc

Next suppose that one of the numbo's ?)!,?; is cqu:~ to 2, and


the other to unit.y. In this way two (tistinct types of vibra-tion
are obtfuncd, '\v!fosc po'iod.s arc th s:unc. If Utc twr) vibrations
be synctironous in phase, thc wt)ole motion is exprc'sscd by

so that, although every part vibrtes synchronousiy with a


liarmomc motion, thc type of vibration is to somc cxtcnt arbitrary.

35G

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

f'197.

Four particular cases may be especially noted. First, if 2? =0,

which mdicn.tcs a vibration with one node along th line a?==~.


Sinailarly if C'=0, we have a node parallel to th other pair of
edges. Ncxt, howevcr, suppose that C' fuid D are nitc and
equal. Thon w is proportional to

which mn,yLe put into th furm

This expression vauishcs, whcu

or ngfun, \vhnn

The first two quations give the edges, which wcre originaHy
assumed to be nodal while the third gives ~+a*=a, representing
one diagona.1uf th square.
In th forn'th case, when C= D, we obtain for th nodal
lines, th cdgca of ttte square together with the diagonal ~=.r.
The figures represent t!]e four cases.

c+~=o.

For other relative values of 6' and 7) thc interior nodalIine


is corvcd, but is always a.nalytica)]yexpressed by

and may he casily constructed with th help of~ table oflogfu'ithmic cosines.

197.J

CASES OF EQUAL PERIODS.

257

Thc next case in ordcr of pitch occurs w!icn = 2, = 2.


Tiie values of M~and n being equal, no altration is caused by
their mtcrchangc, -\v]nlcno ottter pair of values givcs the samc
ft-equcncy of vibration.
Th oniy type to bo considered is
accordIn~Iv

whose nodcs, Jetct'mincd by th equation

arc (in addition to the cdgcs) th straight lines

T~)cnext case winch we shaH consider is obtained by ascribm"ta w, n th values 3, 1, and 1, 3 successively. Wc have
f~. 37ra; Try
Tra; 3~~
Usin
sin
D
sin
+ sin
cosM<.
M)=
a
a
o
o J
(
The nodes arc given by

or, if we reject the first two ,{a.ctoys,


which con'cspond to th cdges,

which represent th two diagonals.


R.

17

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

258
Last)y, if C'=

[107.

tlie quation of thc nodc is

and similarty whcn


Jn ca~c (4-)wlicn a: = a, y = ft, or
TL'usoue ha!f ofCtichof tlic lines julning
y = a, ? = , or
tlie xuddie points of opposite cd~cs is intcrccpted by th curve.
It should bc noticcd th~t in wha-tever !'n,tioto one another
Mid D may Le t~kcn, th nodfd eurvc always passes through
thc funr points of mtcrscctio!i of thc nod~I lines of tlie Ursttwo
cases, C'=0, D=0. If the vibrations of thse cases 'bc comtha.t in thc
pounded with correspon~ing phfmcs, it is vident
shaded compnrtmcuts of Fig. (3.')) tlio directions of disph~cment

n.rc thc s~nc, und that thcrcfore no pM-t of the nocM curvc
ia to bc found thcrc; whn.tevcr thc ratio of amplitudes, thc
curvc Jnust bc drawn tlu-ough thc utish~dcd portions. When
on the othcr hand the phases ~]-Gopposcd, tlie nodal curvc will
p:uis Gxelusivclythrough thc shadcd portions.
When w =3, ?t=3, tlie nodcs M-e thc straight lines par:illct
tu th ed~cs shown in Fig. (3G).

0FSLIGIIT
197.] EFFHC'T
IRREGDLARITIES.
259
Thc iMt ca~c which we shd! consider is obtaincd
by putthi~

or, if th factors con'esponding to th edgcs be rejected,


o 4cof:l
-1
-1 -0.(0).
(4
M
o
cos-.+Deos-ce
a
c(4co~l)cos~+Deos~~c~l)=0.(0) <x\4C08
If C or D vania!), wc feU!back on tl)e nodai
Systems of th
eomponent vibrations, consisting of straight lincs paraUel to titc
edgcs. If (7=~, our quation may bc written

of whieh the nrst factor rcpresputs the


diagonal ~-)-~=~ a,nd
the seconda hyperboHc curve.
If (7=-7),
diagonal'.

wc obtain the same figure re]ati.vc!yto t!)e othcr

~98. Titc pitch of tlie natural modes of a. sqaa.remembrane,


which is nearly, but not quite aniform, may be nn'estigatcd by
t hegeucra] method of 90.
We will suppose in. thc first place tha.t w a.nd ? M'c equal.
In. this case, when thc pitch of a umform membrane is givcn,
the mode of its vibration is comp!etc!ydetermiued. If we now
conecive a variation of dcnsity to eusue, the natural type of
vibration is in gnera! modincd, but thc period may be calcutated
approximatcly without aHowancofor th change of type,
Wc have

of which th second terni iflthe increment of Tdue to 8p. Hence


ifwoecos~ n.ndP dnote th v~lue cf~ previousiy to variation,
we have
9. 1T) s,,en=i1- 44ff"8p p ~H7T.T
.B~~V,
~~z~r,y 7
m~r_r.~in2
p~
~a
(1
nPO
=~ (1 o.rn
~y.(l).
a ~,r,rly. (1)~
~s'
'It()n)~,J')).<<tfrt'c~.<<'<<{?,p.l29.

17--2

2GO

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

[198.

For exemple, if thcrc bc a small load Jtf attached to thc middie of


the square,
1r
in which sin~~~Tr vanishes, if be cvcn, and is cqual to unity, if
bc odd. la th former case thc centre is on th nodal line of
th unloaded membrane, and thus th addition of th load produces no result.
When, however, M and n arc uncqnal, the problem, though remaining subject to the same gencral principles, presents a pccnliarity different from anything we have hithcrto met with. Ttie
raturai type for th unloaded membrane corresponding to a specified period is now to some extent arbitrary; bnt the introduction
ofthe load will in gnral removc the indeterminate lment. In
attempting to calculate th period on tlie assumption of th undisturbed type, the question will arise how the selection of tho undisturbed type is to be made, secing that there are an indefinite
number, which in th uniform condition of th membrane give
identical periods. Th answer is that those types must be chosen
which differ Innnitely little from th actual types assumed under
th operation of th load, and such a type will bo known by th
criterion of its making th period calculated from it a maximum
or minimum.
As a simple example, let us suppose that a small load Jt~is
and
attached to th membrane at a. point lying on the line x =
that we wish to know what periods are to be substituted for t!ic
two equal periods of tlie unloaded membrane, found by making
= 1, M==2, or ?~= 2, M= 1.
It is clear that the normal types to be chosen, arc those whose
nodes are represented in th first two ca~es of Fig. (32). In tlie
first case th incroase in th period due to tbe load is zero, which
is the least that it can bc; and in th second case the increase
is the grtes possible. If /3 be th ordinate of Jf, the kinetic
energy is altered in the ratio

198.]
whilo
e

SOLUTIONSAPPLICABLETO A TRIANGLE.
?)'=P'-

261

Tito ratio eLaractcristic of thc interv~l betweoi t!)c two uaturnl


toucs of th loadcd membrane is thus approxnna.tcty

= ~<,ncither pcriod is aHected by the load.


As another example, thc case, where th values of w and
are 3 and 1, considered in 197, may Le referred to. With a. !oad
in the middie, ttie two normal types to bc seleetcd are those
corresponding to thc last two cases of FIg. (3't), in th former
of winch the load has no efTecton tlie period.
The probleiii of determhung the vibration of a square membrane winch carries a relativcly heavy load is more dIiHcuIt,and
we shall not attempt its solution. But it may be worth while tu
rccali to metuory thc fact that the actual period is greater than
auy ttiat can hc calculatcd from a hypotlictica.1type, winch dinars
froui tlie actual one.
If

199. The preceding tlicory of square membranes ine!udcs :).


good dcal more than was at first iutcudcd. Wheuevcr in a vibrating systom certain parts remam at rest, t!iey may be supposcd to
be absohitelynxed, and \ve thus obtain solutions ofothcr questions
than t!)osc origmaUyproposed. For example, in th present case,
'whGrcvcra diagonal of th sqnaro is nodal, we obtain a sohttioti
apphcabte to a membrane whoso fixed boundary is an isoscelcs
right-angled triangle. Morcovcr, any mode of vibration possible to
tho triaugle corresponds to sotno natnnd mode of tlie square, as
may ho scen by supposing two triangles put togcther, tlie vibrations being equal and opposite at points which are th images of
each other lu thc common hypothcnu.se. Undor thcsc circumstances it is evident that th bypothenuse wou!dremain at rest
witttont constraint, aud tl~crcfbrctlie vibration in question is iucludcd among those of wttich a complte square is capable.
Thc frequency of thc gravcst tone of tlie triangle 1s found by
puttiug ?~==I, n= 2 in the formula

r/~
and is thercforc coud
'1 to 2ft

2G2

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[199.

Thc next tone occurs, whcn M =3, ?:= 1. lu this case

as might also bc seen by uoticing that th triangle dividcs itself


into two, FIg. (37), whose sidca arc Icss than those of th whoc
triangle in the ratio \/2 1.
For tho tlicory of thc vibrations of a membrane whose boundary is in thc form of an cquilatend triangle, th reader is refcrrcd
to Lamd's 'Levons sur l'lasticit.' It is provcd that th frcquency
of thc gravest tone is c /t, wlicrc Ais tlie hcight of th trianghi,
which is thc same as thc frequeucy of tlie gravest tone of a square
whosc diagonal is A.
200. Whcn thc fixcJ boundary of thc membrane is circular,
th first step towards a solution of the probicm is thc expression
of thc gnral diHcrcntiaI cquation in polar co-ordinates. This
may be effected analytically but it is simpler to form the polar
cquation de novo by considering thc forces whicli act on th potar
etemcnt of arca ?' dOt~ As in 194-the force of restitution acLing
on a small arca of tho membrane is

and thus, if TI p = c" as before, tlie equa-tiouof motion is

The subsidiary condition to bo satisncd at the bouadary is that


w=0,whcn?'=f/.
In order to invcstigatc th normal component vibrations we
ha.vcnn\v to assume that
is n harmonie fonction of thc time.
't'hus, if ~cc cos(~<e), and for thc sakc of brcvity we writu
/) c = /< the rhf'crcntia! cquation appcars in the form

l'OLAR

200.]

In which

2G3

CO-ORDINATES.

is thc ruciproca.1of a liucar quantity.

Now whatevcr ma.ybc tlie nature of


it eau be cxpMiJed lu Fonrier's series
M = w. +

as &functiou of ?' and

cos (~ + al) + M~cos 2 (~ + a.~)+.(3),

in which
&c.arc fuuctions of but not of
uf snbstitutiug froni (:;) In (2) may be written

The result

thc summation cxtcnding to all mtcgra.1 values of ?:. If wc


multiply this quation by ces M(~+ aj, and integrate witli respect
to betwuen th limits 0 and 27r, wc sce thttt each term must
as a
vanish separately, and we thus obtain to dotermmG
function of r

in which it is a mattcr of indirfcrcnce whcther the factor


or not.
cosn (~ + a,,) bc supposcd to be includcd in
Th solution of (4) involvca two distinct functions of r,
cach multiplied by an arbitrary constant. But one of thse
functions becomes Infi nitewhen )' vanishes, and the corresponding
particular solution must be cxctuded as not satisfying the prcscnbed conditions at th origin of co-ordinates. This point may
bc illustratcd by a roforeiiceto the simpicr equation derived from
(4) by making K and ?!.vanish, when the solution in question
ruduccs to to=Iog?', which, however, does not at tlie origin
intesatisty \7~ = 0, as may bc scen from the value of
grated round a small circle with the origin for centre. In like
tna.uner the comptctc Intgral of (4) is too gencral for our
prsent purpose, since it covers th case in which th centre of
tlie membrane is subjected to an exteriial force.
Th othcr function of )', which satisfies (4), is the Bessel's
function ofthc border, dcnoted by (~?-),and may bc cxpressed
i)i several ways. Th asccnding sories (obtained nnmcdiately
from thc difrerential quation) is

264

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[200.

which is Pessel's ongiua! form. From this expression it is vident


t!)at J,, and its differchtia! coe~eicnts with respect to z are aiwaya
less than umty.
Ttie aseending sries (.5),though InHnitc, ia convergent for all
values of~ aud z; but, -\vhen is grca,t, the couvergcncc does not
Lcgin forn. long time, and then th sries bccomesuseless as a basis
for nuincrical calculation. In such cases anot)terseries procecding
l)y desconding powcrs of may Le suLstituted with ttdvantagc.
This sries is

it terminates, if 2~ bc cqual to an odd Intcger, but otherwise, It


runs on to innnity, and becomesultimately divergent. Neverthelcaa
wlten z is grent, th convergent part may be employed in ca~culation for it can be proved that th smn of auy nuinber of term~
differsfrom the true value of thc function by less than th last
tnn inctuded. Wc sba,Uha.veoccasion later, in connection with
anothcr problem, to consider th drivation ofthis descending series.
As Besscl'sfunctiohs are of considrable importance in thcoretical acoustics, I have thougbt it advisahie to give a table for thc
functions J,, and
extracted from LommcI's' work, and due
&crclic/?M~'t-c';<)FtOtc~fn.Leipzig;,
Lommd,$<;<(~'<
1868.

2G5

DESSEL'S FUNCTIO~S.

200;]

and J, arc conncctcd by


Thc
Hansen.
to
functions
J,
originatly
thc rela-ticii
= J~.
~)

~(~

0.0000
0.0
1.0000
-0499
-9975
0-1
-0095
0-2
.9900
0-3
-977C
-1483
-I960
-9604
0-4
-2423
0.5
.93~5
-28G7
-9120
0-6
-88)2
-3290
0-7
-3(!88
U-8
-84C3
r)
-4000
-8075
0-9
-44011
1-0
-7~22
-4700
1-1
-71!)C
-C7)l1
-4983
1.3
-5220
-6~1
1.3
-541U
-MG9
9
1.4
-5579
-~118
1.5
-5C99
-4554
1.6
-980
-5778
1-7
-MOO
-5SI5
1.8
-5812
1.9
-~818
-57C7
-2239'
2-0
-5C83
-!66C
2-1
-5560
-1104
2-2
-0555
-5399
2-3
-5202
2-4 +-002;')
-4971
2-5 --0484
-09G8
-4708
2-6
-4416
-1424
2.7
-4097
-1850
2-8
-3754
-2~43
2-9
-3391
-2601
3-0
-3009
-2921
3-1
-2613
-3202
3-2
-32077
-3443
3-3
-M4:)
-1792
3-4
-3801
-1374
3-5
-0955
-3918
3-6
-0538
-3902
3-7
-402G +.0128
3-8
-4018 -.0272
3.9
-3973'~) -0660
4-0
-1033
-3887
4-1
-1386
-37GG
4.2
-1719
-3610
4-3
-2028
'3423
4-4

~(=)

~.(~

')
~(~_

-2453
-0903
9-0
.2311
4-5
-3205
-2324
-1142~)
f;
9-1
6
-2i)Gl1
4.G
-2174
9-2
-1367
-27911
9 3
4-7
-2004
9-3
-1577
-2985
4-8
-24044
-I81G
9-4
-17G8
-3147
-20!)7
4-9
-1G13
9-5
-1939
-3276(-)
5-0
.1776
-1395
9-G
-2000
-3371
-1443
5-11
-116G
-2218
-3432"~) 9-7
5-2
-1103
-09288
-2323
9-8
-34GO
5-3
-0758
-0684
-2403
9-9
-0412~? -3153
5-4
-2459
-0435
10-0
-3414
5-5 --OOG8
-2490 +-0184
10-1
-3343
.6 6 +.0270 0
-24% --OOGG
10-2
-3241
-0599
5-7
-0313
10-3
-24777
-3110
-0!)17
C-8
-0555
10-4
-24344
-2951
.1220
5.9
-23GG
6
-0789
10-5
-27G7
7
-150G
G.O
-1013
10-6
-22766
-2559
-1773
G-l
-1224
-2164
10-7
-2329
-2017i
G.2
'1422
-2032
10-8
-2081
6-3
-22388
-1604
10-9
-1881
-1816
6.4
-24333
-17~8
11-0
-1712
-1538
-2601
6-5
-1528
-1913
11-1
-1250
-2740
6.6
-2039
-1330
11-3
-0953
-2851
6.7
-3143
-1121
11-3
-0052
-2931
6-8
-3225
-0003
11-4
-0349
.2981
6.9
-2284
-OG77
11-5
-3001 --0047
7-0
-044G
-2320
11-C
-29911 +-0252
7-1
-2333
11-7 --0213
-0543
~), -2951
7-2
-2333
11-8 +.0020
-0826
-288~
7-3
-02500
-2290
11-9
-1096
-278<!
7-4
-2234
-0477
12-0
-1352
.2663
7-5
-31577
12-1
-OC97
-1592
-251G
7-6
-3060
12-2
-0908
-1813
-2346
7-7
-1943
-1108
12-3
-2014
-2154
7-8
6
-1807
-129G
12-4
-2192
-1944
7-9
-1655
-146U
-2346 12-5
8.0
-1717
-1626
-1487
12-6
-34766
-1475
8-1
-1307
-1766
-3.580
12-7
-12222
8-2
-1114
12-8
-1887
-3M77
-0960
8-3
-0913
-1988
12-9
-27088
-0692
8-4
-0703
13-0
-2069
-27311
-0419
8-5
-0489
-3129
13-1
-2728
8-6 +-014G
-31677
-0271
-2G97 13-3
8.7 --0135
-2183 --00.~2
13-3
-0392~), -2G41
8-8
-31777 +-01G6
-255913-4
-0653
8-9

266

VIBRATIONS

0F MEMBRANES.

[201.

201. lu accorda.nce with thc notation for Bcsscl's functions


the expression for a nurin:),!component vibration may thercfure bo
written
?(/=P~(/t)') cos~~+cf) cos(~+e).(1),
a.]ultlie boundary condition requircs that

~(~)=0.(2),
an quation -whose roots givu the admissible values of /c, am
tli reforeof~).
The complete expression for w is obta.ined by combitung th(
particular solutions embudicd in (1) wit)i all admissible values u:
und M, and is ncccsstn'Hygeneral enough to cove).'any initif),
circumstanccs that may be imagiucd. We conclude tliat an~
i'Huction of r and 0 may be exp:mdcd within tlic limita of thc
circle ?'= a in the series
(/er) (~ cos7~+-~sm~).(3).
~=S~~
For overy intgral -aluc of ? thcrc are a series of values of
arc
given by (2) and for cach of these tlic constants <~ and
arbitrary.
Thc dtermination of the constants is effected in thc usual
way. SInce tl energy of the motion is cqua.1to

and whcn expressed by mca.nsofthe normal co-ordinatcs can


only
involve their squares, it fullowstliat thc product of any two of tlie
terms in (3) vnnisbes, when integra.tcd over tlie area of tho circle.
Tims, if wc multiply (3) by ~(~')cos~
and integratc-, wc
find

-7r~[,7:.(~)r~(5),
by w)iich is dctermincd. Thc corrcsponding formula,for -~ris
obtaiMcd hy writing sin~ for cos?: A mctiiod of cvaluating
thc lutcgral on the right will be givoi prcscntly.
SiucG and
cacii contam two terms, one varying as eos~~ and thc other a~
sui~ it is now vident how t)ic solution may be ad~ptcd so as to
:'grec with arbitrary initial values of w and w.

202.]

BOUNDARY.
ORCULAR

267

202. Let us now examine more pa.rticukriy tlie character of


th fondamental vibrations. If ?t=0, iv is a function ofrouly,
that is to say,the motion is synnnetrical with respect to th centre
of th membrane. Thc nodus,If any, are th concentric circlus,
wliose quation is
~(~-)=0.G).
Whcn has an integral value dinurcut froin zro, w is a function of 0 as well as of 7', and th quation of tlie nodal system
takes th form
J,(~?-) cosn (~-c<)=0.(2).
Th nodal system is thus divisible into two parts, th iirst eonsisting of tlie concentric circles represciited by
J,(~.)=0.(3),
and th second of tlie diameters

wherc is an integer. Thse diametcrs arc ?!.in number, and


are ra.ngcd uniformly round tlie centre in other respects thcir
nodes will bc inposition is arbitrary. The mdn of tlie circular
vustiga.ted further on.
203. Thc important interal formula

wliere /t and ?' arc different roots of


~(~)=0.(2),
may be verified analytically by mcaus of th differential equations
s:Ltisned by <7,.(~), J,.(K')-); but it is both simpler and more
instructi-ve to begin with thc more gnerai probicm, whcre the
boundary of th membrane is not restricted to be circular.
Thc variational equation of motion is

where

2G8

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

[203.

and thcrcforc

In thse quations w refera to th actual motion,and


to a hypotbctical dispiacetnent consistent with thc conditionsto which tlie
system is subjcct.cd. Let us now suppose that tlie system is executing one ofits uormal componentvibrations, so that w = Mand
while 8wis proportional to anottier normal function v.
Siucc

=p c, we get from (3)

whcrc /< bears the sa.mcrelation to

that /< Lcarsto u.

Accordingly, if thc normal vibmtions rcprescnted by Mand


hve diQcrcnt penods,

In obtaining this rcsult, we hve madc no


assumption as to the
boundary conditions bcyoad w!~t is impjicd in th absence of ractions uga-inst a-ccelcration,which, if they existcd, would
appear
in th fundamental quation (3).
If in (8) we suppose /c' =A-,th equation is satisfied
identicallv,
and we cannot iufer thc value of
In ordcr to evaluatc
~i~cfZy.
this intgral wc must follow a ratlier diffrent course.
If u and v be functions sa-tisfyiugwithin a certain contour the
+ A: = 0, wc have
= 0,
equations \7"M+

2G9
YNTEGRATED
0F
VALUES
SQUARES.
203.]
from
is
d
erived
'U
that
Let
us
n
ow
thcorcm.
G
reen'a
suppose
by
sotliat
/C,
ubyslightiy
varying
=
=it ~tc.
v~=~+-,0~
~=~+0~;
8K,
a/< K bic;
substitutingm(10),wcHnd
or, if u vanish on the boundn.ry,

For tlie application to a circular arca of radius r, we have

and thus from(10) on substitution of polar co-ordinatca and integration with respect to 6,

Accordingly,if

and /eand ?' be different,

an equation first proved by Fourier for the case when


Again from (12)

dashes denoting differentiation with respect to Kr. Now

97f)
and

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[20:}.

thus

0
witli fixed
s'hl~

as

to

bouu~laries,

cxpl'ossions for 'L'fLIlcl


~=~

tlie

to si111
1)lifytlic

Inrom

(~-)cos~+~7,

(~-)sm~j.

n)

wcfind

Md a suuihuequation for

The vn.).w.nf
the work ~loneby t]m
impressec]forc:escluring a ]iypothetic.vl
clisplacement8~~ so t],at
if
't t
~=-Z be thc nnpresscd for~ reckoucd
por unit of area,

lvhe" 0 aua

a.re amalgamatod. We 0thcnhave

~.rs~
constant pressure Z; thus

tliat the initial velocities are


,<,r.
that assllmed
n
influence
11

204. Jj

SPECIAL PROBLEMS.

2711

No\v by thc difforential quation,

andthus

thc sommation extchding to all the admissible values of/c,


sti)t
As an example of/b?'ce~vibrations, wc maysuppnsc tnat
constant with respect to spacc, variGSa~a harmonie function of the
timc. Titis tnay bc takcn to reprosent roughiy th circumsta.ns
of a small mumbrane set in vibration by a train of aerial wavcs.
If Z= cos wc nnJ, ncarly as bef'ore,

It will bc scen
Th forced vibration is of course independcnt of
that, whilenone of th synunetrical normal componcntsare missiug,
thcir relative importance mny vary grca.tly,especially if there be :).
ncar a.pproach in value bctwccn y a.nd onc of th sries of quauti.
If thc approach be vcry close, tlie cScct of dissipativo
tics
forcesmust be included.
205. Th pitches of the various simple tones Mtd th radii or
th nodal circles depend on the roots of tlie quation
(~) = J,. (.) = 0.
If thse (exclusive of zero) ta~eu in order of magnitude be
ues 0of~
n118SIe values
then
1011th
10 aadmissible
ed zz", z"(~) w.
p
called
ca
2;

VIBRATIONS0F MEMBRANES.

272

are to bc found by multiplying thc quantitios


particular solution may thcn be writteu
=

~)

cos

sin ?~) cos f~

Th lowest tone of the group 7t con'csponds to 2!

[205.

by c a.

6,'4

Th.c

(1).

a.nd since in

this case J,,


does not vanish for any value of r less than a,
(~) ca
there is no interior nodal circle. If we put s = 2, <7,,will vanish,
when
<s)
")r
a

that is, when

r=a

~n
which is the radius of th one interior !iodal circle. Simi!arJy
wc obtain a vibration witli
1 nodal
if we take tho root
circles (exclusive of the boundary) whosc radii are

AU the roots of tho equation J,, (~a) = 0 arc re< For, if


possibtc, let Ka= X+ bc a root then ?'0 == t~ is also a root,
and thus by (14) 203,

Now
(~r), J~ (~) arc conjugate complex quantities, whose
product is necessarily positive so that theaboveequa-tion requircs
tha~t either X or /t vanish. That X cannot vanish appears from
the considration that if rcawere a pure ima.gmary, cach term of
th ascending series for .7,,would bc positive, and thcrefore t!~o
sum of th series incapable of vanishing. We conclude that
/n=0, or that /tis real'. Th same result might be arrived at
from th considration that only circular functions of tho time
ca.n enter into the analytical expression for a normal component
vibration.
The equation J" (z) = 0 bas no equal roots (exccpt zero). From
equations (7) and (8) 200 we get

205.]

ROOTS OF BESSEL'S

FUNCTIONS.

273

whcnco we see tha.t if


<7,/ vanished for thc same -va.hieof.s:,
would a.)sovanish for U~t ~atuc. Butin
v)i'tueof(8)
200
this wou)d rcquu'e tti;Lt H~ ttiu functions
vtmi.s)i fm' ttic va.lnc
uf iu (question'.
20G. Th actu:)! Yalucs of .3~m~y bc found by into'pola.tion
fron Hansen's t:).hl<j.ssu f:t.r a.s thse uxtou) ) or furmuRc ma.y be
catcutatcd froni t!tu duscunding sries by t)tc niettiod of suceuH.stve
a.pproximatiu[), cxprcHsiu~ th routs dirccLiy. For t!)c it~portant
case of thc sytiunctricat vibrations (~ = 0), t)[C values of J~ay bc
found frutn th fuliuwin~, ~iveti by Stokcn'~

Th

lutter

con'csponding
t.h:m
grcate;'
indepcndcntly.
Stokcs'
pa.pcr,

sries
tos==

is convergent
1.
'J'!tC series
but

unity;
Thc
with

thc

enough,
(1) will
firsb

root

even
sunice
must

for tho first


for
ho

t!tb)e
is
:K'co]np~)ying
(A)
dittLit-ence of notation.
sti~ht

values

root,
of

cn.Icutn.tcd
t~cn

from

It wHI be secn cither frum tho fo)'mul:H,or t)ic t:iUe, that tho
tlifTcreocGof successive mots of )ngh erder i.s n.pproxinmtcly7r.
Tiu.sis truc fur all vaincs of ?~as is vident from t))e dcscending
series (10) 200.
M. Bourgct hn.s gtven in his tncmoir vcry claborate tab)c3 of
the frcqucncies of th diiTcrent sirnptc toncs and of tho rn.dii.of
the nodal circles. Table J3 i)t.cludestlie values ofz, whicii SH.tis(y
9.
J,.(.!),for~=0,l,5,s=].,2,
des mf'mbrMtfs eircu!Mrea,"
BourRet, "M~mnircsurIotnnnvGmcntYibrntoiro
~inn. de !fo~
onrwft~, t. tu., 1H(!(!. In ono j~nssnRo
DonrHet implifs t)int ho
1)M provod thnt nn two Hessefti functtons of intf~r'~ order cnn havo thf.' HMnnroot,
buticannotfmtithat
La hns donc ho. Tho thf'oron), howovcr, is pr<)t))t)))ytruc;
in thti cnso of functioxn, wlioso ordurs JiOur t'y 1 or 2, it mny bo easity provud frotn
t)tofnrtnn])nf'f2()f).
C'~Mt~.~t<7. 7'M); Vt)I. tx.
On th num'jno~ C)t!cu]&ti):t of ct~ss of dof!nitc intgrais and infinitc Rerics."

n.

18

VIBRATIONS 0F MEMBRANES.

274

[206.

TAI!LE A.

0
~fur.)=0.
7T

'7'S

r7~7L
C)
~1:
3'75;H
4 ' fi~7
7
~1~
(j'7fd!)

1
.)
7

-7516
~S
S
10
t~
12

J';rl3
S~
irt'i~
n'7~1

)df ~fM-(:)-0.
Difl:
(z) O.Di'.
DUF.
TTOI'.Ti
1'2~7

.n.

~0
'J!)~1
'!J!)!3
3

:R:3
4'21111
6

~!I!1!l

'!J!J~8
'!ln!i9
JJ''J
~~9

.139

8'2.I,j.1
3
1(1~`?.IG3
iin~~
12-2.1G!)

i;~3
l'()(lii:3
H)()~~

l
l'(I OU3
l'll(I():
lUU.1
,E
Iww~
1.0003

is consido'ahic thc calculatinn of tlie carlicr mots


Wth'n
becomes troubicsono. Forvcry hig!) v:du(;s of
approxias xmy bc scL'nfrmn t])uconsittumtion
nia.tcsto ratio of o<~)f~it.y,
thut thc pitch of thc gm.vcst tonc ofn. very acutc sector tnust tend
to comcidu wit)i th:).tnf a. tong pamiiul strip, whoscwidth icic~ua.1
to tttC grcatcst 'idt)i of thc scctor.
ABLR B.
s

)t.=0

M==l

~~2

M=5r

~=3 3
M=4

1
2
3
4
5
C
7
8
9

2'40t
n'O
-1
8-G54
11-792
14~:il1
18-071
1
21-212
24-353
4
27-4U4

:~832
7'0!Gfi
3
10-173
3
13-323
lG-t70
19-G1C
22-7f:0
25-903
29-047

f''I3.')
8'4!7
11-G20
H-7UG
17-OGO
21-117
2t-270
27-421
1
3U-571

G'370
9'7M
13-017

4
1G-224
H)'.tl0
22-f!83
25-74!)
28-909
32-050

C)
7~SG
H-r'G.t
l-t-373
3
17-G1G
20-827
21-018
27-200
1
30-371
33-512

8'780
I2'{M
1;~70()
18-983
22-220
0
2~-431
1
28-~28
31-813
34-983

20G.~

NODAL FIGURES.

275

Thc ~gnrcs rcprcscnt thc more Important normal modus of


'vibnLtIon,ami the uumbci'safHxcd givc thu ft'cquenRyr(jfut')'cdto
182

27G

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[206.

the gravest as unity, to~ether with thc radii of thc circu~arnodes


cxpresscd as fractions of thc radius of thc mcmhra.nc. Iti the case
cf six noda.1diiuncters t!)Cfrcqucncy statcd is the rcsult of a. rough
calculation by myscif.
Th tones eoi'rc.spoldingto tlio varions fund:unental modes of
th circular monbr.mc (!o not bclong to a, htu'momc scale, but
therc are one or two n.pproxima.ietyImrmouic relations winch may
bc worth notice. Thus
x l-5!)t = 2-125 = 2-136 ne:u')y,
x 1-59.1.= 2-G57= 2-65:;nearly,
2x 1-59~=3-188=3-156

nearly;

Hothat thc four gra.vest modes with nodal diamctcrs oniy would
give a consonant chord.
Th arca. of tho membrane is (lividcd into serments by the
nodal systcm m snch a manncr that th siga of th vibration
changes whencver a. Ticdciscrosscd. In those modes of vibration
which hve nndal diameters thcre is Gvidcntlyno displaceme])t of
the centre ofinertia of th memitrane. In th case of symmfttrical vibrations t))c disp]aceinent of tbe centre of inertia is proportiona.!to

an expression which does not vanish for any of the admissible


values of /c,sincc
(.?) ami '~(~) can)!ot vanish simuitancousiy.
In all thc aymmct.)'ic:).l
modes thcrc is thcreforc a. dispia.cctncu'tof
th centre of incrtia of thc membra.nc.
207. Hithcrto wc ha.vc supposcd thc ctrcu!ar a.rca of th
mcmbr.'me to hc complutc, and th circumfcrcncc on!y to he
nxcd but it is vident that our thcory virtually includcs th
solution of ther prohicms, fur exampicsome cases of a membrane boundcd by two conccntric circles. Thc cow/~e theory
for a. membrane in th form of a ring requircs tbc second Besscl's
fnnction.
Th probtem of thc membrane in the fonn of a scmi-circle
inay ht.' re~ardfd as ah'uady so]ved, since any mode of vibration
uf whkh thc soni-circlc is capable !nn.st be app!ieab]c to th

207.]
]

FIXED

377

RADIUS.

complte circle a!so. In order to sce this, it ia on]y necessary


to attribute to any point in ttje conpicmenta.ry semi-circle ttic
opposite inotiou to th~t whic)i o!)tn.ins at its opti.ca.limage in
the bounding diameter. Dus line will ttien requu'e no constraint
to kccp it no(h).l. Simila.)' cotisidcrations apply to auy sector
whoso angle is an atiquot pru't of two right angles.
Whe]i th opening of th sector is arbitrary, the prohlem
may be soh'ed in terms of Bess~l's fonctions of fractional order.
= /3, th particular solution is
If the fixed radii are 0=0,

who'c is an intogcr. Wc Pcc th:).t if /9 bc an a.liqllt part of 7r,


f7r /3 is integr:). :un.tth suJutiouis inctuded amoug those a.lready
used for tlie complte cirelc.
Au Intcre.stmg ca.suis when /3=27r, which corresponds to th
pl'oblum of cotti[)!(jtccircle, uf whici) th radius ~=0 is coustr:uned tu bo nodal.

Wc Lave
w = Pt7)(. (/f)') sui

eoa (~

e).

When v la even, this gives, as might be expected, modes of


vibration possib]e without the coustraitit; but, -\vhen v is odd,
new modes make their appearance. lu fact, in tlie latter case
th dcscc~~di~)g
sries for V termintes, so tliat tl)e solution is
cxprcssibic in nni.tc ternis. Thus, whcn ~=1,

The valuesof /<are given by


siu

/<<t = 0,

or

/M =7/t-n-.

278

VIBRATIONS
OFMEMBRANES.

[207.

Thusthc
circula)- nf)th;sdiv!(tc thc ~xcd radins into equat
hfn'mcnic scittu. Int~e
parts, tunithe MCt'ic'sot'tuntj'~ ~nn
e~suut'tho~r:LVust,tm)dc,thL!wt)()luoi'thn)u)nbrau'
is~ta~y
)nu)ncntdcHcctcdo)t
thus.uuc
sideof its c(~!i)ibriuta positon.
Ibis runuu'kubtcLh~t, t,)tc :Lpp[i(.Lt,i"n ut' L)m cuntit.t'aiuLtuthc
radins ~=0 innkcs Lhu probtetn casier t)t!Ui buturu.

If wc t~kc t~=3, Hic solution is

In this case thc nodal l'asti arc


2-n"='3'
'=~T'
and tlie possible toncs arc givcn by th cqun.ti.on
ta.n/ca=Kf!(4).
To caleulatc thc roots of tan = x wc may assume
a;=(m-)-~)7r-y=Jr-~
whcrc y is a positive quuntity, winch is smaU \v!ien is large.
Substitutiug this, we find cot = JV M,
wLcuce
V Sy" I7'/
1/1
J~x(~~+r~)-'3--ii~L
x x 2
-'3-15-31This cquatioti is to bc solved by successive approximation.
It will rcadity bu found tha.t
= ,rl + Al
X-5
J2/=Y-'+~~+~~+~~Y3
]ij
10~

i-~ +.

LOAD.
0FSMALL
EFFECT

207.]

279

so that thc roots of tMi <c= x a.re given by

whcro

J\"==(M+~)77-.
In thc Hrst quildrn-nttho-c is no root aftcr xcrosince tana; > a',
n.nd in thc sccottd <p)adnn)t thcrc is noue ))cc:m.scth signs of
a;:uitl L:ui.Ba)-eopp"si~. Th fii'stroot.iit'tc)-zro is thus in
Evcn m tins case
thut)nrdqu:u1)-:L))t, c(.rrcspondin~to~=l.
thu sft-ic.s convoies suHicicntty to ~ivc thc v:t)'tc of' Die root
wiMi nsitierahic :t.ccur:Lcy,whitu fur I)i~hcr va.lucs of' ?~ it is
a)i t)~ con)d )'e (h;sh-c'L Th ~-tn:~ vahtcs of~ 7r m'o l--t303,
&c.
2'-i.~0, 3'-t.70U,'t'-i74.7,5'4Mi~ C-4H-H-,
208. Thc cH'ccton thc pcriods of n. sU~))t incqnd~y in thc
th
dunsity of tlic circular tTtC-nthnmu))t~y hu invc.stig~tctt hy
h:w(j :Urca<)y
gcnut'a.)xictinxt !)0, <'f ~hich scvcrid ux!LU)ptt;s
Lcun '(.'n.
IL wtH hu snH'iciuntheru to considct-tlie case of a
s)n:dlio:Ld~:Ltt:).c)tcdto thc monhnuie at a, point wim.seradius
vector i.s)'
We wi)l t:d first the symmctncal types (-M=0), which n~y
Thc
sti)t hc supposai to :i.pp~ynotwit.hs~ndiog tlic prcseuec of
knictic cnergy 2'is (C) 20-t :dtcrcd from
p7T~J;' (~)

whcrc P,

t0 ~TT~J~ (~)

dnotes thc value of~

(~).

whcn thcre is no !oad.

dctcrmhmtc for
Th unsymmctt-ic:U
nnrt~a.1 types are not ful)y
the unioadcd moubrane Lut foi-thc prsent purpd.se tttcy must
bo tfdn so as to nmko thc i-c.sultin~pcnods n. ma-xinunn or
load is th
minimum, tliat is to s:).y,so th.Lt thc cH'cct of the
!oad can ncvcr r~isc
greatest ~td lc:tst possible. Now, since a.
thc pitch, it is c)ca.r th:Lt th inthmnce of tho !oad is tlie lu~st
that a uod:d diamctcr (it
possible, viz. xcro,whcii tlic type is such
is mdiHcrcnt winch)passes t!n-oughthe point nt which t!)0 lo~d is
ahtachcd. Thc untoadcd mcmbmnc must bc supposud to h:ivu two
couLCidoitpcriods, of which o;~ is untdtcrud by tho addition of thc

280

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[208.

load. The other type is to be chosen, so that the fdtcration of


pcriud is os ~rca.t as possible, which will ovidoiHy be t))c case
whun t)ic r.t.dmsvecto!- )-' bisucts thc futg!c bctwcon two <uij:LCcnt
nud~l diatnutcrij. T)tus, if correspond to = 0, wc are tu take
'~=~~

(~)cosH~; i

so tha.t (2) 204.

Of course, if r' bc such t!mL titc lu~d tics on one of tbc tiodal
circles, ncithcr pcrio<tis af!'uct.cd.
For cxampic, lut ~VLe at thn contre of t)tc membrane. J,. (0)
vanishcs, cxpt whcn )t=0; ~ud
(<))=!. It is on)y th
symmctricai vibrations whosc pitc)) isin!)uc[]ccd by a central load,
aud furthclu by (1)
fil
ni
~(~)~

0 ( ~no) P

By(G)2()0
~(.)=-~(.),
so that the application of t)tc funrmJa
rc()uircsoniy a ktlowlo~c of
th va)ucs of' (2). whun (.2)
viuushes, 200. For thu gravcst
mndc thc value of J/(A-~) is -5190:}'. Whcn
~.0 is cousidorabic,
~~o~)=2-7r~

approximatoly so that for thc tngacr components thc influence of


thc !oad in altcring t!tc pitcb incrua.scs.
Tbc it]f)uenceof a smaU
irreguiarity in disturbing the nodal
systcni may be ca!cutatcd fron th formula of 90. Tbe most
obviuus cn'ect is thc brcakin~ up of nod:).!diamutcrs into curves
of hypcrbolic form duc to tbe introduction of
suhsidiary symmctrical vibrations. In many ca.scs thc disturbance is favoured
by close agreerucut betweeu some ofthc natural puriods.
20!). We will next investi~ato how t])c natnral vibrations of
a unifonu metubrane are auected by a s)ight
departurc from th
exact circular form.
ThoBUfoeedingTa!nosnrc~proximnte]y
-341,-271,-23~,'20(!,-187,A'p.

209.]

281

DOUNDARY.

NEARLYCI&CULAR

Wttatcver ma.yLe th nn.ture of th bounda.ry, t~ sa.tisfiesthe


cnuntion

By Fouricr's thcorcm M

whcre /cis a, constant to be dcto'mmcd.


inny bc cxpundcd in tlie series

whcrc ~,w~ &e.arc functions of r only. Substituting i)i (1), wc


sec that
must sa.tisfy

ofwhich thc solution is


M.~

~.(~');

for, as in 200, the otlier function ofr cannot appear.


Tbe gnral expressionfor M may thus bc writton
~==J.J.(/<-r)+~(/<:r)(~,cos0+7?,sin0)
+ J.. (/~)

(.1,

cos

H0 + 7?, sin )~)

+.

(2).

For all points on the boundary M is to vauisb.


In thc case of a nearly circulai' mombranc th radius vector is
nearly constant. Wc may ta~e r=ft+8?', ~)' bcing a small
function of
Hence thc boundary condition is

0=~[.7.,(~)+~(~)]+.
+ ['

(~t)

t/

(/<:ft)] [J~

+.

cos

sin

tt0]

(3),

which is to hold good for aH values of


Let us considcr first those modes of vibration wMcbare nearly
symmutrical, for which therefore approximately
~=~.J.(~-).
A)) tbc rcmaining coefficients arc small relativcly to j~, since
th type of vibration can only differ a little from w!iat it would

282

VIBRATIONS
0F MEMBRANES. [209.

bn, wcrc the boundnry an exact circic. Hcncc if th squares of


th!'s)n:)H(jU:u)titn'"b'~)mittr.L,~)!jf'co!ri<
'~o'(~)] + 'A (~~) [~i cos <9+ .B,sin <9]
+.)(~) [. co.s?t<9
+ 7~.si n/~j +.=().

oL~.(~~) +

If wc intt'gratc thi.s cquattun widi respect to


limits 0 aud ~7r,weubtf).i)i

(.t).

butwcc!) titc

or
which shcws that thc piidt of tlie vibration is n.pp)-nx!)natu]y
thc
s:unc as if th radius v~ctot-ha<! uui~rtnty its ~e~/t ~<e.
This t-csnit idiuwsus to f'm-m:i rou~h csLimatc of t)tc
pitch of
any mcnil.triutc whusc boundary iij nuL cxtmva~mUy cjon'ratud.
]f o- dnote thu fu'c:t,su t)t:).tpo- is t)tc )naHHof Ute whutc muniLraue, tho frcqucjtcy of t)ie gt~vost {.uneis approximatdy
2~
2-40.i.x~(6).~P
In ot~cr to invcst.tc the altcred type of vibration, wc
m~y
and thoi int~-m-atcas beforu
mnltilly (-t) by eusy~, or sm
Thu.s

Witen thc vibration is not npproxim~cly


symmctriciil, thc
question bocomes tuorc coinp)ic:).tcd. Tlie nor))i;d tn0()cs io;- t).
truly circuler mcmbrMGare to somc extcut Indetcnniuatc, but tin'

209.]

NEARLY
BOUNDARY.283
CIRCULAR.

irrc~Iarity in th bonndru'y will, in gnerai, rcmovc tlie indcterminatcn<'SH. T!tC position ufthc uudal difuncters nmst ))utukcn,
no that Ute resulLin~pct'io~s !n!Lyh:LV<!
maxinium or minimum
values. Lot us, howuvcr, snpposL-t!u).tthc approxiinato type is
w=~t~<7,,(/fr) cos ~(9),
a.nd aftcrw~rds invcsti~atc how th initia.! linc must bc ta~en in
ordcr that this form may )io)<!good.
A!l thc rcmaming coe~cients bo!ng ti'cated as small in companson withJt., wc gct froin (4)

or

winch shcws tha.t tlic effective ra.dius of the mcmbra.neis

Thc rn-tiosof ~t,, a.ud 7?,,to A,. mn.ybo found as before by insin )!0.
tcgraiin~ quation (10) a.ftar inulLiptic~tionby cos
But the point of~rcatcst intercst is th pitch. Tt~cinitial line
is to bc so t:).kun as to )ti:~ thc expression(11) a maximum or
minimum. If we refer ta a, lino fixed in spacc byputtin~a
instc:).dof
we liave to consider t)~c dcpeudencc on a of the
quanti ty
r~eos~(~-a)~,
cos' v (B u) clfl,
J o0 8r
which may aiso bc writtcn

284

VIBRATIONS
0FMEMBRANES. [209.

andisof th form
J. cos~fx + 2Z?cost/xsin va + (7sin'x,
2?, (7 buing indepundcnt of a. Thure are according]y two
admissible positions for tho nodal diamctci's, one ofwhich makes
thc period a. maximum, and tl)e othci' a minitnum. T!)c-dianietcrs
ofon set bisuct the angles bctween tlie diameters of thc other
set.
Thcr are, howcvcr, cases whcrc th nortna! modes remfunInJctC!'minatc;,witichhappcnswhcn thc expression (12) is mdcpendent
t'a. This is t!ie case whcn S/' is constant, or whoi
is pronortional to cos
For exa.mpic',if
wcrc proportional to cos 2~,
or in ot))erwor<]sthc hnund:u'y wcro s]ight)ye!liptica),thc uodal
system corrcspunding to )t=2 (that consisting of a pair of pcrpondicular dinmctcrs) would ho arhitrary in position, at Icast to
this onict' ufapproxunation. But th single diamctcr, con'csponding to !t=l, must coincide witit one of th principal axes of
thc ellipse, and tlic pcriod.swill be diircrcnt for thc two a.xes.
210. Wc hve SGGnthat tho gravcst tone of a membrane,
whose houndary is appruxhnately circular, is ncarly the samc as
that ofa mcchanicaHy simil.'t.rmembrane in the form of a.circle of
tlic samc mcan radius or area. Ii' thc arca of a membrane hc
givcn, thcre must evidenHy bu some furm of boundary for wltich
th pitch (of thc principal tonc) is thc gravest possible,and this
form can he no othcr than the circle. Ju th case of approximate
circuhu'ity an analytical demolistration may Le givcn,ofwhich thc
foUowlngis an outhnc.
The gnerai value of~ being
~~=~1,<(/<) +.

+J,. (xr) (~cos~+J9sin~)

(1),

in which for the prsent purpose tliecoenicients~ 7?


arcsmaM
rc]ativcty to J, we nud from thc condition that M vanishes
wltcn ?' =ft +8r,
J. (~) +
+S [(J,(~)+

J.' (~a)

(~) 8?'+ .l~eos

~J,

(~). (~.)' +

?~ + J3, sin ~)] = 0.

(2).

Hence, if
~'= ~cos~+/3~in

~+

+ ~cos/+

/3~sin/i~+

(3).

210.]

FORM OF MAXIMUM

PERIOD.

285

from wLieh we soc, as hcforc, that if tlic squares of tt)C small


(}uantitk's bc nc~1cct(~, <(/ca)=0, 01-that to tLis ordcr ofa.pproxima-tioti th )nc:i.n radius is :).]so thc L'Huctivuradius. In
ontur to obtailt :Lctoscr n,pp)'oxi)n;ttiun\ve <h'stdutcnniuc ~1~
and ~o
l'y multiplyin~ (2) by cus~ sin?;~ aud thoi intcgr~ting butween <hc limits 0 aud 277-. Thus

286

VIBRATIONS

0F

MEMBRANES.

[210.

sothat

muinbur.
T))C <-)))cst.icnis i~ow us to thc sign of thu i-hL-h:UKl
If M= 1, :L'~t- Le wnttcu fur A:<(,

and
vani.shcs approximatdy by (7), .since in gcncml ,~== 0, as shou)d
In the p~sc.nt case ,(~) = 0 n~u-)y. Tt'ns f~<'
cvidunUy b~ Lhc case,.sitjcc thc term iu fjuu.stionrcprcMcntsmcrcly
in th f~nu uf
disphtucmcnt of th cirdc wifLont an i~turatiun
t)~ buuudary. Whcu = 2, (M) ~UO,

is pnsitn'c for mtc-gra.lvalues of Mgrever than 2, whoi .!= 2-401.


For this purpnsu wn n):)y nvail ourseh'cs of a. thojron givcn in
to thc cft'cct th~t
Kiuma.nti's jf'r<~e D~rc;c/N~<~e/i,
ubithur "or< has a r<)"t (t)<hcr ttt:ni xo'(t) l(.'ssthan ?t. Thc
di~reuti~l c~u~Lujnfor may bc put lato thc furm

wcll as
whilu luitiaUy J, und J,'
.)
(~s

~~cpositive. Accord-

Lv increa.sing a.nd docs not cca.seto do so


in'~v- "-Lc~ins
-log~
before .:=?:, from whieh it is cicar tliat within tlie range = 0 to

210.]

ELLIPTICAL

DOUNDARY.

287

.3= M, ncither ,7~nor


can vanish. And siuco t/~and J' are
hothp'it~u:]tii~~M.itJ'('vsth~t,ii5anittt~gc'rgr('atcr
tha.n 2'4U~,
f~t is positive. \Ve ccmdude tha.t, nn!cns c' /9~
all va.ni.s)),f~ is gycn-tcrthan
winch shews tlmt in th
0,
c)t.scof nny mumbranc of appmxim:)tc)y ci)'cu)ar outHnc, tho circle
ofc~na.tat'cacxccedsthocu'cIcoi'ctjualpiLtdt.
Wc ttave seen that a good cstimatc of th pitch of an npproximatly circulai' monbranc may bc oLtaincd frutn its arca a!onc,
but by tucims of c~nat.iott (~) a stil) ctoscr approximation ntay Le
cn't-'etL'd.Wc will apply tilis method tu thu case uf an ellipse,
~hosc sciai-axis maj~r is Tt!anfl ucccntricity e.
'J'!mp(;)ar quation ofthubonndaryis

In which the term coutaining e*shouMbc correct.


Thuresult may also bc expressed m tei'ms of c and the arca oWc have

and thua

from wLidi we sec how smal! is the influence of a moderato ecccntricity, whcn the arca,is givcn.

VIBRATIONS 0F MEMBRANES.

288

[211.

211. Whca thc nxed boundary of a.membrane is ncitbcr straight


\iL)'.i<i~ prc.-cnts
j)or<'h\!dar, tbcpr~b~'i.'t ofdck't'i-'i'jh.~ir.
difficultics witich iM gnera! could not bc cvc'reotnc wltliont th
A
intro()uction of functions not hit!)crto discusscd or tabniatcd.
partiat exception mnst bc ma()c in faveur of an uttiptic bonndnry
but for thc purpoHcs of t))i.s trc'ittisG thc i)npm't)).ncu of t-bu probton
is scarc<)y sufHciunt to warrattt thc i))tr(j(hK;t.ioti of compHcatcd
invusdan;dy.sis. 'J'h(jr(':K)uri8thurnf"ru!'cfurrc<ltot)K'()ri~iu:d
gatx.n ufM. ~!athi(;u'.l, It will bH su~Hc'icnt to n)C))t,U))il'f't'o that
t))C txjdtd systetu is composcd of tl)0 confocal cUipscs a.nd hypcrho]as.
by meaus of thc gcncnd

Solubtc cases m~y bc invonted


solution
!o=~l.J.(A:r)+.t-

(.l..cos~+7?,.sin~).7,.(~-)

+.

For exa.mp!c we might take


?~ =

(~r)

X. J,

(/<-r) cos

and attacinng dif1!rcnt v:duc;s to X, trace thc vfn-ious forms of


bonnd:u'y to which thc solution will thcu app~y.
U.scfui infortnation ~ay sonictinics bc obtaincd from th
theoron of 88, whicb aDows us to provc that any contractioa of
thc iixcd bouudary ofa vibrating niembnmc tnu.st cause an lvation ofpitc!), because tbe ncw state of thin~s may bu conccivcd to
diffcr from the o)d mcrc)y by tbc introduction of an additional
constraint.
Springs, wlthout incrtia, arc s~ppnscd to urgc th
linc of th prnposcd boundary towards ils cquitibrimn position,
and graduaHy to bicorne stin'cr. At c:).cb stcp thc vibrations
becomc more rapid, until tbcy approach a linut, corrcHponding to
infinitc stiH'nuss "f thc nprings and abso1ut,c (ixity of thc-ir points
t)io p:n'tcntoffshou!d
of application.
Itisnotn(.'c~ssarythat
hve th H:unc dcnsity as thc l'est, or cvcn at~y dcnsity at a.)L
For instance, the pitch of a reg~dar polygon is intcrmcdiate
inscribcd and circmnscribcd circles. doser
bctwecn tboseofthe
Umits won!d bowcvcr bc obtained by substituting for the circuniscribed circle that ofequa~ arca according to ttic rcsult of 210.
In th case of thc hcxagon, th ratio of tbc radius of the circle of
crp)al arca to that oft!te circle Inscribcd Is l'OaO, so that the tnean
'I.intni)].]M8.

MEMBRANES

2UJ

AREA.

OFEQUAL

289

of the two limita cannot differ from th truth


by so much as 2~ per
cent. Li t.he~iic w:ty we migh~conc)'dc(.h.').tthesect.<)rcfa
circle of G0is n graver form than tlic equilateral
triangle obtained
by substituting th chord for th arc of th circle.
Tho following table giving the relative frequency in certain
calculable cases for th gravest tone of membranes under similar
mecbanical coadifions and of equal cn-e~(o-),shews tho effect of a
greater or less departure from the circular form.
CIrcIc.

2-404.=4-261.

Square.

~2.-n-=4'443.

_1
f.
1
Quadrant of~circle.
Q

5'135./
45w1
f~?.~=4.~i~
~s

Sector of a circle 60.

6-379 A/~=4'616.
/13
A/7r=4'G24.

Rectangle 3x2.

27r. ~/tan 30"= 4~74.

Equilatcral triangle.
Semicircic.

3832A/~=4'803.

Rectangle 2x1.1
isosceles tna-ngle.J
R~ctangle 2x,l.
Right-angled

/5
= 4'067.
~y~ =~'967.
'T'~2

,}

3Rectangle 33x1.
1

G u,
7!-A/~= -.) 5-736.
~r1/

For instance, if a square a.nd a. ch'c]c have thc same area, thc
former is th more acutc in th ratio 4-443 4'2C1.
For th circle th absolute frequency is

In th case of similar forms th frequency is inverscly as tho


linear dimension.
212. The thcory of th frce vibrations of a membrane was
first succcssfut)y considered by Poisson'.
l, His thcory in th
case of th rectangle left little to be desired, but his treatmeut
1 Af~m.
(ler~e(!(MMt'<
t. vm. 1829.
R.

19

~0

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[~312.

of the circular membrane vas restrictcd to th Rymmetncfd


i'c
-.ut -h
vibrations. Kirci-.h"~ ~~di.mortbc~'m~r,
in 1H;)0 aud
w~
circular
ofthc
publisbcd
plate
dimcult, problem
of tho
thc
thcory
gnerai
givcs
Ctebsch'a y/~op-yq/Y~
(18G2)
oi
circular memt)ranc induding thc efFectsof stiil-nessand rotatory
not much left
was
tticro
that
sccn
be
will
thercfore
It
incrtia.
to Le donc m 186G; ~evertheless tlie mcmon-of Bourget aircady
uscfui discus.sbn of thc problem accomrefon-ed to contains
thc whoc of which
Dumcricid
results,
complte
very
by
paHicd
howcver wcrc not nc\v.
uso
213. In his cxpcnntcnta! mvcsti~tions M. Bourget made
of various m~terials, of winch papcr proved to hu as good as any.
Tl)c papct-is immerscd in wato-, and aftcrTonova! ofti'c snperHuons
wbose
~noisturc by blotting papcr is piac~d upon a framc of woud
Thc contraction of th
with
coatcd
havo
bcGn
gtuc.
prcviau.sty
edges
but many faihu'cs
tension,
thc
in
ncssfu-y
papcr drying produccs
rcsult is cbtaincd. Evcn
wUlt
bufurc
a
met
be
satisfactory
mny
ui
a wcll strctchcd mcmbmne refiuircs cottsidci-abicpt-ecautions
in consc.tuencc of thc
in
variations
Uabic
to
pitch
use, bcing
grt
are cxeltcd
vibrations
'i~hc
of
tho
niuisturc
atmosphre,
varying
tiavc a scrics procecdiug
to
of
it
is
which
necessary
hy organ-pipcs,
vident to thc cyc
mado
arc
:uid
of
intcrvals
sma!!
they
pitch,
by
H'c mombranc. If tho
by means of a littic sand scattcrcd on
vibration be sufHcicntty vigorous, thc s!uut accumultes on th
less prcciston.
nodallincs, whosc fortn is thus dcHneJ wit)~more or
th cire-lesbeeoning
Any Ine'jUidity in thc tension shcws itsclf by
elhptic.
Th principal results of experiment arc the foUowing
A circult-membrane cannot vibratu in unison with cvcry sonnd.
than
It can ouly place itself in unison with sounds more acute
tliat Iicard whcn th membrane Is gcnt)y tapped.
As theory Indicates, thse possible sounds are separated by Icss
aud Icss intervais, tho highcr thcybceomc.
to
Th nodal lines are oniy formed distinctiy in rcsponse
certain deunite souuds. A littie above or Mow confusioncnsues,
and when d~e piteli ofthe pipe is decidcdly altcred, thc membrane
continuons
re.nains un.aoved. Thero is not, as Savart supposai, a
transition from one Systemof nodal Uncst') auother.

213.]

OBSERVATIONS

0F M. BOURGET.

291

Tho nodal Unes arc circlos or diamcters or combinations of


cu'c~osan
~~Tn.tors,an ~ipory rcrju~-f~, ITo~'cvcr, tvh'ju thc
number of diamcters excecd.s two, thc s~nd tends to hea.? itself
eonfuscdly toward.s t!ic iniddie of the membrane, and the nodos
are not well dcfincd.
The sa.me gcncra.1 laws wcrc vcriHcd Ly MM. Bernard and
Bourgct in thc case of square membra.ncs'; a.ndthese authors considcr that the rcsn)ts of theory arc Elecisivelyestablished in opposition to th vicws of Savart, who hc!d that a membrane was
capable of i'<jspondin~to any sound, no matter what its pitch
might be. But 1 must tierc remark that the distinction between
forccdand free vibrations docs not secm to have been suniciently
borne in mind. Whcn a membrane is set in motion by aerial
wavcs having tLcir origin in an orgau-pipc, the vibration is
propcriy spcaking/(j;'ce~. Theory asscrts, not that th membrane
is only capable of vibrating with certain denned frcqueneieH,but
that it is on!y capable of so vibrating j~'e~y. When however th
period of th force is not approximately equal to one of th
natural periods, the rcsulting vibration mny be insensible.
In Savart's cxpcnmcnts the sound of th pipe was two or three
octaves higber than t)~e gravest tone of th membrane, and was
aceordin~y ncvcr fnr from unison with eue of th sries of over
tones. MM. Bourget and Bernard made th experiment under
more favourable conditions. Whcnthey sounded a. pipe somew!~a,t
lower in pitch than th gr~vest tone of th membrane, tlie sand
rema.inednt rest, but was thrown into vhment vibration as unison
was approached. So soon as the pipe was decidedly higher than th
membrane, titc ~and returncd again to rest. A modification of the
cxperimcnt wa.s madc by first tuning a pipe about a tliird higher
than th membrane whon in its natural condition. Th membrane
was then heatcd until its tension had increased sumciently to
bring tbc pitch above that of tlie pipe. During the process of
cooling th pitch gradually fe! and the point of coincidence
manifcstcd itself by th violent motion of th sand, which at the
bcghmiug and end of th experiment was scnsihiy at rest.
M. Bourget found a goodagreement between thcory and obscrv:).tionwith rcspuct to t)]Cradii of thc circuler nodcs, though the
test wns not very prccisG,in consquence of tlie scusibic width of
~n;.

C~tt'w.M. 44947f,

1860.

~:)3

S93

VIBRATIONS

OF MEMBRANES.

[213.

the bands of sand; but thc relative pitch of thc various simple
tones deviated considerahly from th theoretica.1estimtes. Th
committee of tlie Frcnch Acadcmy appointed to report on
M. Bourgct's memoir suggcst as th explanation th want of
perfect fixity of th boundfu'y. It should also be remcmbered t))at
the thcory procccds on th supposition of perfect HcxibiHtya
condition of tbings not at ail closely approached by an ordinary
membrane sti-etchcd with a comparatively small force. But
perlaps th most important disturbing cause is tlie resistance of
thc air, which aets with much grcater force on a membi-a.nethan
on a string or bar in consquence of th large surface cxposcd.
The gravest mode of vibration, during which tlie dtsplacement is
at ail points in thc same direction, might bc affccted very
differcntiy from tlie highci- modes, which would not roquire so
grca.t a transference of air from one side to tlie other.

CHAPTER X.
VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

214. IN order to form according to Green's method th quations of eduilibrium and motion for a thin solid plate of uniform
isotropic material aud constant thickness, we require th expression
for th potential encr~y of bending. It is easy to sec that for each
unit of area the potential cjiergy
is a positive homogeneous
symmetrical quadmtic function of thc two principal curvatures.
Thus, if p~, bc tlie principal radii of curvaturc, the expression
for Vwill be

where A and
arc constants, of which J. must be positive, and
/n inust be numerically less than unity. Moreover if thc matcrial
be of such a character tha.t it undergoes no lateral contraction
when a bar is pulled out, the constant
must vanish. This
amount of information is almost ail that is recaured for our
purpose, aud wc may thcrcfut'c content ourselves with a mere
statcnicut of tlie relations of th constants in (1) with those by
mcans of ~hich t)io elastic properties of bodies are usually denncd.
From Thomson and Tait's -Mra~ Philosoplty, G30,642,
720, it appears that, if b be tlie thickness, y Young's modnius,
and thc ratio of latcral eoutraction to longitudinal elongation
when a bar is puited out, th expression for Vis

294

0FPLATES. F314.
VIBRATIONS

If M bo the small dispiMcmcnt pcrpendicular to thc plane


of tho plate at tlie point wliusc rectangular coordinates in tho
plane of tlie pta,tc arc ?, y,

and thus for a unit of area, wc have

which quantity bm) to bc integrated ovcr the surface (~9) of th


plate.
215. We procccd to find the variation of F, but it should bc
tcrm in V,
prcviously noticed that tlie second
uame!yj< P,P~
of the p]:ttc, and is thereforc dereprsenta th <o~ cMruct~tp'e
thc edgc.
pendent only on th state of thinga at

so that ve have to consider tlie two variations

1 Tho followingcomparison of tho notations uscd by tho principal writers may


iinvotrouble to thoso who wish to conault the oriH'H'Hmouuira.
'hx
Youae's moda!uB=F (Clcbseh)=~ (Thon)aon)=:~K+~t (TIiouison)
~"(~)

(Tbomso!J)=? (~rckLoS tmdDoDkiu)=2~

(Hirchhof).

Ratio of latcral contraction to longitudinal elongation


=~ (Clobsehaud Douldu)=<r (Thomson)="~
Poiasou MiituaeJ this ratio to Lu

(Thomson)=~
and Werthuim

(Eircidtoff).

215.]

l'OTENTIAL

ENERGY

0F

BENDING.

295

Now by Grecn's theorem

in which f~sdonotes un clment of th boundary, and

dnotes

diH'crcntIationwith respect to thc normal of tbe boundary drawn


outwards.
Thc transformation of the second part is more difficult. Wo0
have

Tho quantity under the sign of integration mn.ybe put into


tlie furm

'wherc is tho angle bctween aud tlie normal drawn outwards,


and tlie intgration on the right-ha.ud side extends round the
boundary. Using thse, wc (tnd

tZ~
If wc
ve substituto ior
~8w f/;<; ~8M; thcir values in terms
M~
<<y
from tlie quations (sce FI~. 40)

29G

VIBRATIONS

[215.

OF PLATES.

wc obtain

Collecting and rearra.ugmg our results, we ~Ind

r~
-s-~

f~w..cfw
+(1-~)
cos8smO \,t/y'
(~
"'(7~\ jcos~sm~

<~M\

'TZ)\
(cos'8
+(eos~-sui~)
't~/y/J
~~M
.f~w
(
+
+
-icos'
d~' sin" a~
J~/i. f~- ('~'C7"M (1 ~)

y 1

Tliere will now bo no difficulty in forming the equa-ticns of


the transverse
motion. If p bc the volume deusity, aud Z~
force acting on thc c!cment c?6',

215.]

CONDITIONS

FOR A FREE

EDf.E.

397

1
8F-ff~8w~+f~wSM~M=0.(7)'
is thc gcno-al v:u'iation!Uquation, which must bc true wha.tevur
mn.y
fmiction (consistent with tlie constitution of ttic system)
bo supposcd to be. Hcocu by tlie principles of thc Cidculus ot'
Variations

at evcry point of thc ph(.tc.


If thc cdgcs of thc pMe bo froc, therc is no restriction on th
a'id thei-cfore th
and
8w
va)ucs
of
bound~ry
hypothctic&l
for SFmustvanisIt.
cne~cicnt.softhcsoquautities in th expression
Th conditions tu Le:s~isncd at a, frcu cdgc arc tlms

If th whole circumfercucc of the pla,tebe clampcd,5w = 0, cln = 0,


and tlie satisfactiou of thc boundary conditions is already sccured.
Th
tn-bttrary.
If th cdge
bc
~=0,
'supportcd",
0
hut~ia
cl~a
sccoud of th cqua.tious (9) must m tins case bc s~tisfied by w.
216. The bound:n-y quations may be simplified by getting
rid of th extrinsic lment involved in tho use of Cartesian coordinates. 'l'aking the axis of a: pM~Iel to th normal of tlie
buuuding curve, wc sec that we may writo

Aiso
Tho rotatory inortia ial'cre uc~locted.

CoinpMe 1G2.

298
VIBRATIONS 0F PLATES.
[216.
axiscoincidiug
whcre
o-isa,fixcd
at t!t0point
withthctangent
(I"wToobtain
.1'
l '1 Ingenci'a.l-diH'ei'=ih'om
underconsideratiou.
d
C12w
M~*
<M' b
threlation
bctween
wemayproceed
thus.Expn.nd
wby
them,
inascouding
Ma.cta-unn's
thcorcni
ofthcsmaU
powcrs
qua.ntities
luterms
nando',andsubstituto
forMando-thcn.'
values
ofa,th
arcofthccurve.
ingnera).
Thus
fF~ ~"w
~<;
-r 0-'+
jj?~+ ~0-~
?:o-+ ~ow= +
+ o-+A(/)!~
ft
whUc
onthcurvco-=s +cubes,== s'"
+ whcrc
/?Isth
radius
ofcurvature.
forpoints
onthcurve,
Accordingly
andthcrcforc
whencefrom(l)
1~!00~~
2
~"W.
Io
v~"tc=-+-+.
p (~'

(3).

thsecond
Weconcludc
thn.t
condition
in(9) 215
bouoda.ry
beputiutotlicform
mn.y
In the sa.moway by putting

==0, we sec th!).t

is quivalent to
wherc it is to be undcrstood that the axes
chtcl~
of Mnd cr a.rc Rxcd. Th (h'st boundary conditiou now becomes

If wc apply thse Ct~uationsto th rectangle whose sides arc

216.1

CONJUGATEPKOPERTY.

200
299

to bo
pa.mllol to the coordinato axes, wc obtahi as th conditions
sutisncd :).longtho cdges pa.ra).ielto

In this ca.sethe distinction betwecn o-and s disa.ppcars,and p, thc


radius of curvaturc, is inlinitely gt'ea.t. Th conditions for tlie
other pair of edges are found by mterchanging x aud y. Thse
rosults may be obtained cquaUy well from (0) 215 directly, without th prelilninary transformation.

con'csponding to thc same


Auy two values of w, K and
boumi:ny conditions, arc co~x~e, that is to say

to prove this
provided tha.t tlie periods bo diffrent. In order
from thc oi-Jiuat-y diU'erentia!.quation (3), we should ha.vc to
retrace thc stops by which (3) was obtaincd. Tins ia the method
it is much aimpicr
!~doptedby Kirclihoff for th ch-cular dise, but
Mid more direct to use th va.rin.tiondquation

in whick w refurs to the actual motion, and 8~ to %ti arbitrary


SF'Isadisplacemcnt consistent with th nature of tlie system.
or
symmctrical funetiou of w and ~M,as may be seen from 215,
from thc general character of V ( 04'.)

VIBRATIONS0F PLATES.

300

If we now suppose in tlie first place th~t w = :t, 8~ =


hn.vc

[217'.
wc

~~=~~f:tu~;
and i)i Hkcnia.tuier if we put w = v, 8~ = u, which wc are equally
oitittcdtodu,
gr=~f~~s',
'\vbencc

Tins dmonstration is valid wl~tcvcr may be thc form of th


in
boundary, and whcthcr th cdge be cla.mped,supportcd, or frec,
'\vltolcori!ipa.rt.
As for thc case of mcmbmnes in the la-st Chapter, equation
(7) may bu onpiuycd to prove that thc admissible v:duus of arc
ruai; but tins is vident from physieal cousidcrations.
For thc application to a circular dise, it is necessary to
express the quations by means of polar coordinates. Taking
titc ccnti-cuf tlie dise as polo, wc hve for the gcncral uquatiun to
bc satisnud at ail points ofthe arca
218.

To cxprcsa the boundary condition ( 21G) for a frcc ~d~o


()-=(t),we!m.vo

= radius

of curvatnre

M; and

thus

AfLcr tl)C diiTcrcut~tions are pc-rfurmed,r is to Le made cqu~I


to.

218.]

301

POLAR CC-ORDINATES.

If w bc cxpa.nde<lin Fourier's series


w = ?t~ +

+.

each term sepM'atclymust satisfy (2), and thns, since


!~<xcos(M0a),
/r~
l~A
d1'
~~p+r~'r~
(l'zo"
~=0

3-~
US

,/2-~r~

Il\Q'
(3).

1 (_luu"
(2nt

The superficial diferentia.1quation may bc written


(V'+~)(~)~=0,
which becomes for the general tei-m of th Fourier expansion
M'
.1
~_z'
)'f~' ?"
f +--T-i+~('n+''
~f~

.1~
7
?'~)'

n_'
-a
)-'

,Y, =
KM

will bc obtained by ndding


shewing that tlie complete value of
of
togcther, with arbitrary constants preHxcd, th genera.1solutions

The equation with the npper sign is the samc as that which
obtains in th case of th vibrations of circular membranes, and
as in the last Chapter wc conclude that thc solution applicable
ceJ.. (/o-), the second function of r
to thc problem in hand is
bcing hre inadmissible.
In tlie same way the solution of tl)c quation with the lower
nigu is Wnx ,7,,(~r), whcre t ==s/ 1 as usual.
The simple vibration is thus
+ sin
{'yJ, (~-) + SJ,. (t/<?-)}.
M),= cos?t0{o(J,. (~-) + /3~, (~?-)}
Th two boundary quations will dtermine tl)e admissible
values of and the values which must bo given to the ratios
a ~3 and y 8. From the form of thcsc quations it is evident
a /3 = 'y 8,
that we must have
and thus ' may bc expressed in the form
(~)) cos (~ e).(5).
t., = P cos (~ a) (J, (~-) +

302

VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

[218.

As ni th case of a, membrane the nodal system is composed of


diametcrs symmetric~Iy (UstribuLedround tlic centre, but
tlie
othenviso arbitrary, dcnoted by
.(~,
cos(~-a)=0
is
togethcr with tlie conccutric circles, -\vhosectiu~tion
J~-)+XJ,(~-)=0.(7).
219. In order to dctcrmiMC?La.nd we must ultrcduce th
we obtain from
bouudary conditions. Whcn tue edge is free,
(3) 218.

in which use has been nmde of tl<e diU'crcntiidquations satisncd


fractions on th right Hie dct)oth
e~chof
In
(/c-),J,.(~)').
by
minator ma,ybe dcrh'cd from tLc numcrator by writing in place
of BycHnunatioa ofXthc cquntiou is obtuiucd wlioseroots givc
tlic admissible vidues of /c.
Whon = 0, tlie rcsult assumes aj simple form, viz.
~(~'t) rt
/'9')
Jn('A:a)
2(l-~)+~~+~y~=0.(2).
This, of course, could ha.vebeGHmoro easilyobta.incd by neglecting
Mfrom ttic bcgiumng.
The calculation of the lowest root foreach value of is troublemust 'be cceted
some, and in the absence of uppropri~c tables
by menns of thc asccnding sries fur thefunctions ~(~'), .y,.(!).
lu the case of tho higher roots recunrsc ~n~yLe h~l to th semifunctions. Kirc))hoff
s~ne
fur
thc
sries
descending
convergent
finds
~L-+
8~(8~)"
(8m)"
tan (~Tr)
= T
~~8~~(8~t)~
whcrc
~=~=(1-~)-8,
~=ry(l-4~)
C ='V(1 4~') (9 4~) + 4.8(1 + 4~),
8 + 136~ + 30~).
7) =
((1 4~) (f) 4~) (13 4n')] + (9

219.]

KIRCMHOFF'S

303

THEORY.

where~isanintcger.
/t Is idcntical with
It appears by a numcrical comparison that
a, law discovei-cd
the uuinbcr of circulai' nodcs, n.nd (4.)cxprc.ssGH
to figurcs with a
by CIdadni, that tlie ft-e<tucncicseorrespouding
the exception of the
given number of nodal diameters arc, with
lowest, approximately proportional to tlie squares of conscutive
cven or uncvcn uumbers, according as thc number of the diamGtcrs
is itself cvcn or odd. 'Within th limits of application of (4), we
sec also that th pitch is approximately unaltercd, when any
number is subtracted froni A, provided twice that number be
addcd to ?:. This law,of which traces appear ill the followingtable,
th pitch nodal
that
towards
raising
be
saying
by
expressed
may
circles have twice t!ic eScct of nodal diameters. It is probable,
however, that, strictly spealtiug, no two normal components have
exactiy th same pitch.

Ct~
1
2
/t i

~=-11

?=0

/t

Gis
g:s'+

W.

Cn.

P.

W.

HiH+ A-tb'-(h'-

b
o"+

hf"+

cfts"+

P.

?t=3

'cnr*'p.~ w.
C C
0 C
1 g'
gis'+ a/-

~=33

Cil. P. w.
d
(tis- d)sd".dm"di8"+ c"-

Th table, extracted from Kirchhoff's mcmoir, gives th pitch


ofthe more important overtones of a free circular plate, th gravest
three columns under tlie heads
The
C'
bc
to
assumed
being
refer respectivcly to tlic rcsults as observed by Odadui
Ch,
and as calculated frou theory with Poissou's and Werthenu's
little
A
values of
sign deMotesthat tlie actual pitch is a
is a little lowcr, than that written.
it
that
a
7)~)t!<s
aud
sign
higher,
notation,and~tto bnatural.
1 Giscorresponds
to (~ "t theEnK)ish

304

VIBRATIONS

0F

[219.

PLATES.

Th disercpancics between theory and observationare considrable,


l)ut perhaps not greater than mny bc attributcd to jrrcgularity in
th plate.
220. Titc radil of the noda! cit'dus in tlie symmctric:d case
(t; = 0) were calcuiated by Poisson, and comparcd by him with
results obtait~edexpci'ime!)tf)J]yby Savart. The followingnumbers
arc taken from a papcr by Strehikc', whomade som careful measuremcnts. The radius oftho dise is taken as unity.
Onecircle
Two
Iwo

Obsorvnt.ion.CnIeuJation.
0-67815 0-68062.
fO-39133

0-39151.

~.g~~
cu-cles.
fO-256310'25679.

Thrcc circles 0-50107

0-59147.
~0-893GO 0-89381.

Thc ca.!culated rcsutts appcn.t-to refur to Poisson'svalue of


would vary very little if Wert.Itcim'sv~luc were substituted.

but

The foUowingtitb~ givcs a, comparisou of Kircilhoffs theory


()! not zro) with measuremcnts by Strebikc m~dc on less accurate
dises.
7?~~Mq/' ~'CM~ft)'2Vo<~<M.
Obser~tbu.

]cu!a<on.
~==nP.).

?t=l, A=l1
~=2, /t=l
~=3, ~=11
M-i, /t~

0-781
0-70
0-838
0-488
Q.g~

0'783 0-781 0-783


0-81 0-S3
0-843
0-493
Q.g~

0-7M136
0-82194
0-8.1523
0-40774
4
0-87057

~=~(W.).
0-78088
0-82274
0-84G8I
0-49715
0-87015

221. WLcn thu plate is truly symtnctrictd, whctherunifonn


or not, theory indicntes, and exporiment veri~GS,th:).ttlie position
of the nod:U diameters is fu'bitnu'y, or ra.ther dcpcndcnt only on
thc manner in which tlie pl~tc is supportcd. By varying thc
place of support, any dcsircd (liamctcr mny be made nodal. It is
goncraUy othcrwise wlien t!)crc is a.ny sensible dcpartui'c from
exact symmctry. Ttic two modes of vibration, whicli originany,
1 Pc~e-/iH".xcv.p. 577. 185S.

221.]

BEATS DUE TO IRREGULARITES.

305

in consequence of the equa.lity of pcriods could be combined in


any proportion without ceasing to be simple harmonie, are now
separated and anected with different periods. At the same time
tlie position of the nodal diameters becomes determinate, or rainer
limited to two alternatives. The one set is derived from the other
by rotation tlirough haf the angle included between two adjacent
diameters of th s:nncset. This supposes that th deviation from
uniformity is small otlierwise tlie nodal system will no longer be
composed of approximate circles and diameters at al!. Thc cause
of the deviation may be an irrcgularity either in thc material or in
the thickness or In the form of thc boundary. Th effectof a small
load at any point may be investigated as in the parallel problem
of th membrane 208. If thc place at which th load is attached
does not lie on a nodal circle, tho normal types are made determinate. Th diamtral system corresponding to one of the types
passes through the place in question, and for this type the period
is unaltered. Th period of th other type is Iiiereased.
The most gnerai motion of th uniform circular plate is
expressed by th superposition, with arbitrary amplitudes and
phases, of the normal components already investigated. Th
dtermination of the amplitude and phase to correspond to
arbitrary initial displacements and velocities is effected precisely
as in the corresponding problem for th membrane by th aid of
the characteristic property of th normal functions proved in 217.
Th two other cases of a circular plate in which the edge
would be easier than th preceding
is eit,her clamped or ~)o?'~
in their theoretical treatment, but are of less practical interest on
account of th difficulty of expcrimcntally realising the conditions
assumed. The gnral resuit that th nodal system is composed
of concentric circles, and diamctcrs symmetrically distributed, is
applica.bleto all thc tin'ee cases.
222. Wc have seen that in general Chiadni's ligures as traced
by sand agre very closcly with th circles and diameters of
theory but in certain cases dviations occur, which are usually
attributed to irregularities in tlie plate. It must however be remembered that the vibrations excited by a bow are not strictly
speaking free, and that their periods are therefore liable to a
certain modification. It may be that under the action of the bow
two or mnre normal component vibrations coexist. The whole
J!.
20

306

VIBRATIONS 0F PLATES.

[223.

motion may be simple harmonie in virtue of tho external force,


althougli the natural periods would be a little diffrent. Such an
explanation is suggcsted by th rogular charactcr of th figures
obtained in certain cases.
Another cause of deviation may perhaps Le found in th
manner in which tho plates are supported. Tho rcquirements of
theory are often difficult to meet in actual cxperimcnt. WheM
this is so, we may have to be content with an imperfect comparison but we must remember that a discrepancy may bc thc f:~u!t
of the experiment as well as of th theory.
223. The first attempt to solve th problem with which we
have just been occupied is duc to Sophie Germain, who succccded
in obtainiag tho correct differential equation, but was led to
erroneous boundary conditions. For a frec plate tlie latter part of
thc problem is indeed of considrable dimculty. In Poisson's
mcmoir Sur l'quilibre et le mouvement des corps diastiques'
that eminent mathematician gave ~7'eeequations as necessary to be
satisfied at aU points of a free edge, but Kirchbon*bas proved tht~t
in gnral it would be impossible to satisfy thcm aU. It happons,
however, that an exception occurs in the case of tlie symmctrical
vibrations of a circular plate, whcn one of tlie quations is true
identically. Owing to this pcculiarity, Poissou's theory of tho
symmetrical vibrations is correct, notwithstanding the error in his
view as to the boundary conditions. In 1850 th subjcct was
resumed by Kirelihon' who first gave thc two quations appropriate
to a free edge, and completed the theory of thc vibrations of a circular dise.
22~. The correctness of Kirchho6''s boundary quations bas
bcen disputed hy Mathieu", who, without explaining whero lie
considers Kirchhoff's error to lie, bas substituted a dinEcrentset ui
quations. He provcs that if Mand u' be two normal functions, so
that w=~cos~, w='eos~'< arc possible vibrations, thcn

m~. de !4Md. d, Se. <tPar. 1829.


Crelle, t. XL.p. 51, Ucber dus CIcitihgowicht und die Bcwcgung cincr c]~tichenScttcibc.
~Z,~)f)-~t'.t.xtY.J8G9.

224.]

HISTORY

0F

307

PROBLEM.

This follows, if it bc admitted that u,


satisfy respectively
the e<~uations
==~/V.
c" ~7~<t'
c* ~7~=~,
Since th left-hand member is zero, the same must be true of
the right-hand member; and this, according to Mathieu, cannot
bc thc case, uuless at ail points of th boundary Luth u a.ndu'
satisfy onc of t!ic four followingpairs of equa,tions

Thc second pair would seem the most likely for a free edge,but
it is found to lead to an impossibility. Since th first and third
pairs arc obviouelyinadmissible, Mathieu coneludesthat the fourth
pair of equations must be those which really express th condition
of a frec edge. In his belief in this result hc is not shaken by the
fact that th corresponding conditions for th free end'of a bar
would be

the first of which is contradicted by th roughest observation of


tlie vibration of a. large tuning fork.
The fact is that although any of the four pairs of quations
would secure th evancscence of the boundary integral in (1), it
does not follow converselythat the integral eau be made to vanish
in no other way; and such a conclusion is negatived by KirchhofPs
investigation. There are besides innumera/bla other cases in
which thc integral in question would vanish, a.11that is really
necessary being that the bounda.ry appliaBCCssbould be either at
l'est, or devoid of inertia.
225. Thc vibrations of a rectangular plate, whose edge is
the normal
.suMWteJ, mny bc casily investigated theoretically,
functions being identical with those applicable to a membrane of
tbf same shapc, whoseboundary is fixed. If we assume

2D2

308

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[225.

we sec tbat at ail points of thc boundary,


~=0,

~-n
~-0,

~=0,

whicit secure thc fu~hnent of tlie. ncccssa-ry conditions ( 215)


The value of p, found by substitution in c*o=~'M,

to th
sbewing that the anatogy to th membrane docs not cxtcnd
squence of toncs.
It is not necessary to repcat bero the discussion of the prnnary
and derivcd nodal systems given in Cbaptcr IX. It is enough to
observe that if two of tlie fondamental modes (1) hve th same
must ah-sohve thc same
period in tlie case of th membrane, thcy
nodal systems are
period in tlie case of tlie plate. The dcrived
accordingly idontica! i)i tlie two cases.
The freucratity of tlie value of w obtaincd by compounding
with arbitrary amplitudes and phases ail possible particular solutions of tlie form (1) i-cquircs no fres!t discussion.
Unless th contrary assertion I~ad bcen madc, it would bave
seemed unnccessary to say that the nodes of a ~M~w?' plate
bave nothing to do with the ordinary Cbladni's ng'n-es, which
belong to a plate whose cdges arc frec.
The realization of the conditions fur a snpportcd edge is
are required capable
scarcely attainabic in practice. Appliances
of holding t!)e boundary of tlie plate at l'est, and of sucba nature
that they give rise to no couples about tangential axes. Wc may
conceive the plate to be hc!d in its place by friction against thc
watts of a cylinder circumscribed closcly round it.
226. The problem of a rectangutar plate, whosc cdges are
rcsisted
frec, is onc of grt dimeulty, and bas for tbe most part
is independent
attack. If we suppose that tlie displaccment
with that
of?/, thc gnral differcntial quation bocomes identieal
with \vbich we werc concerned in Chapter Vin. If we take t)te
solution corresponding to the case of a bar whose ends are frec.
and tbci'cfore satisfying
<

<

22G.]

UECTANGULAR

PLATE.

30!)

when .c=U and when a;=~, we obtain a value of?o which sa~tisfies
t!fe getierai (liierenti~l cqua.tion, M well as th pair of boundat'y
cqua.tiou.s

which :u'c a.pplica,b}cto tho cdges parallel to y; but tlie secotu)


boundary condition for thc ottior p:ur of edges,namely
~M
f~t?
(?)
~+~~=0.(2),
CI;C
will be violated, uniess ~.=0. This shews that, exccpt in the
case reserved, it is not possible for a frce rectangular plate to
vibrato after tlie manner of a bar; uuless indeed as a.n approximation, when the Jcngth paraHcl to one pair of edges is so grcat
that thc conditions to bo satisfied n-t thc second pair of edges
may be left out of account.
Although the cottstaut fk (which expresses thc ratio of lateral
contraction to longitudinal extension wbeti a, bar is drf).\vaout)
is positive for every known substance, in tlie case of a. few substancescork, for cxampicit is comparativelyvery smaIL Therc
is, so far as we know, nothing absnrd in the Iden of a substance
for which vanishcs. Thc investigation of the probtem undcr
this conditionis tilercforc not devoid of interest, though the results
will not be strictly applicable to ordinary glass or meta.1ptatcs,
for which tiie value of is about 1
If
&c.dnote the normal functions for a frce bar invcstigatcd in Chapter vin., corresponding to 2, 3,
tiodcs, th
vibrations of a rcctangular plate will be expressed by

1 In M'dorto rnuko n.pinte of mfttorial, for


wluch is not xero, vibrato m tho
mnuner of a bar, it would bo noecfiHfu'y
to apply conHtnutlingcouples to tLe edgea
pnraU! to the p)anp of bondinn to provent tlio aasumption of a contmry earvfttuTe.
Tho oficct of thcso couples wouH bo to rnise tho pitch, und thorofora tho calonintion founded on th type propnr to ~=0 would give )t rosutt fiomowhathigbcr in
pitch tlxm the truth.

310

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[236.

In each of these primitive modes th nodal system is composer


of straight lines parallel to one or other of tho cdges of th
recta.ng]c. Whc)i b = o~th rectangle becomes a squa-rc;aud the
vibrations
/a;\
1
Il a
~=~u'a
"=~
having nocessarily tlie same period, may be combined in any proportion, while th whole motion still remains simple harmonie.
Whatever th proportion may be, the rcsulting nodal curve will of
necessity pass through th points detcrmined by

Now Ict us consider more particularly tlie case of = 1.


consists
The nodal system of th primitive mode, w = M,
a[ ),
of a pair of straight lines parallel to y, whose distance from the
nearest cdge is '2242a. Th points in which thse lines arc met
a,rcthosc through wlticli
by the corresponding pair for w= u1
('),
th nodal curve of th compound vibration must iu a.ll cases pass.
It is vident that they are symmetrically disposed on th diagonals
of tho square. If tlie two primitive vibrations bc taken equal,
but in opposite phases (or, algebraically, with equal and opposite
amplitudes), we have

from which it is evident that w vanishes whcn a:==~,tha.t is along


th diagonal which passes through tlic origin. That w will also
vanish along th other diagonal follows from thc symmetry of
th functions, and we conclude that tho nodal system of (3) comFiR.41.

prises both the diagonals (Fig, 41). This is a well-knowu mode of


vibration of a square plate.

326.]

CASE 0F SQUARE

311

PLATE.

A scccnd notable cage is when the amplitudes arc cqual and


their phases tlie sa.rne,so that

Tho most convenient method of constructing graphically


thc curves, for which M=const., is that employed by Maxwell
in similar cases. Tho two systems of eurves (in this instance
= const., a.rc
= const.,
straight
n Unes) represented by
a
)~J
a~j
first laid down, th values of th constants forming an arithmetical progression with th sa.me common diffrence in the two
cases, In this way a network is obtained which th required
eurves cross diagonaUy. The execution of tlie proposed plan
re<[uires an inversion of thc table given in Chapter yllL, 178,
expressing th march of t!ie function M~of which th result is as
follows
M~

a:: M

+1-00 '5000
-75 -3680
-50
-25
-00

-3106
'2647
-2342

M,

~:0

'25 -1871
-50 -1518
-75
1-00
1-25
-1-50

-1179
-0846
-0517
-0190

Th system of lines representcd by the above values of x (completed symmetrically on th further side of th central line) and
tlie corresponding system for y arc laid down in the figure (42).
From titcse thb curves of cqual displaeement are deduced. At the
centre of tlie square we h:Lvew a maximum and equal to 2 on th
side a-dopted. The first curve proceeding outwards is th locus of
points at which w= 1. Th ncxt is tlie nodal line, scparating th
regions of opposite disphcement. Th remaining curves taken in
order give thc displacements 1, 2, 3. The numericallygreatest ngative dispt~cement occurs at tlie corners of the square,
where it amounts to 2 x l'G-to= 3'290.'
Ontbonodatlinosof squnro plate, Phil.

Angust,1873.

312

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[226.

The nodal curve thus conatructed agrees pretty closely with t!]c
observationsof Strehike
Hia results, winch refcr to three carefully worked plates of glass, are embodied in tlie following polar
quations:
-40143 -017H
-00127)
r= -40143 + '0172 cos4<+ -00127~cos 8~,
'0013 1
-4019
-OJC8J

the centre of the square being pole. From these we obtain for tire
radius vector parallel to thc sidcs of the square (<=0) '4-1980,
-41981, -4.200,whilo the c:deulatcd rcsult is -4154!. Thc radius
vector mefmm'cdalong a diagona.1is '3S;')C,-3855, -38C4,and by
e~culation -3900.
Yol.CXLVt.
rf'g~.-hfM.
p. :<lf.

226.]

NODAL FIGURES.

313

obtain the
By crossing th network in th other direction wc
locus of points for which

is constant, winch are tlie curves of constant displaccmeut for that


ttmdcin wti!c)ithe (UagonalsM-enodal. Thc ~<c/t of thc vibratiou
is (accordi ngto theory) thc samc lu both cases.

/.K\
=
w
The primitive modes represented by
~ ~t or :t)= M,)~)
the noda.1curve
may be combined in likc manner. FIg. 43 shews
for thc vibration
.(~(~<.).
Th form of the curve is th same rciativcly to tlie othcr diagODa),
ii' th sign of the amhtgmty bc altcrcd.

314

VIBRATIONS

[227.

OF PLATES.

227. Thc method of superposition docs not dpend for its


application ou any particular for)n of norma.1function. Whateverr
t!ie form may bc, th modo of vibra.t.Ion,winch wben = 0
passes into that jnst discussed, must have the same period,
whethcr thc approximately straight nodal lines arc par~nd to
x or to
If the two synchrouous vibrations bc superposed,
thc rcsultaut lias still Hjc sa.iuc ])criod, and the gnerai course
of its nodal system may bu tra.ced by mcans of thc considration tlmt no point of th plate ca.)i bc nodal at w)nch tho
primitive vibrations hve the sa.mc sign. To dotcrmiuc exact)y
thc line of compensation, a complete knowledge of th primitive
normal functions, and not mercly of th points at whicti thcy
vanish, would in gencra.1 be necessary. ])octor Young and th
brotllers Weber appear to have had thc idea of superposition as
capable of giving risc toncwvarleties of vibration, but it is to Sir
CharlesWheatstone' that weowetlie first systematic application,of
it to thc cxplanation of Chiadni'a figures. Thc results actually obtaincd by Wheatstonc arc however only very roughiy applicable to
a plate, in consquence of thc form of normal function implicitly
assumed. In place of Fig. 42 (itself, bc it remcmbcrcd, only an
approximation) WIieatstone nnds for the node of th compound
vibration th inscribcd square shcwn in Fig. 44.
Fig.44.

This form is rcally apptica.b!c,not to a, plate vibrating~In. virtue


of rigidity, but to a. sti'ctched mctnbranc, so supported th~t cvery
pomt of th ch'cumfcrcncc is free to move n.lon~ li.ncs perpendicular to thc p!:uie of th membrane, Th boundary condition
ahplicable 1undci'
applica-bic
to

shew

tbat

tbo

circumstances is
Is ~h0
and ibit isis ca.sy
= 0,0 and
easy

thcsc

circumstfLnccs

~ln

normal

== cos
ordinale
ormate
a.rc 10=
arc

functious
=
or w
or
W=

whieb
ces

involve

(x ),
(
a.ta corner of th square. Thus thc vibration
7Mtt

??t

oniy

one

co-

tthclU ongm
orjgui
being
omg

22~.]

WHE,ATSTONE
)S FIGURES.

315

thc noda.1systom is composed of the two diagonals. This rcsu~t,


which dpends ouly on thc symmetry of the normal fonctions, is
strictly applicable to a square plate.

shcwn in Fig. 45. If tlie other sign bc takcn, wc obtain a similar


figure with rei'ercnec to tlie other diagonal.

316

VIBRATIONS

0F

PLATES.

227.

Withthcothcrsign

wcobttun

of th diagonale tcgcthcr witb thc


a.
eouiposcd
systum
ruprcscnting
inscribcd square.
Thcsc foDns, which aro strictly appHcab)c to t)tc membrane,
rescinble th ngurcs obtained by mcans of sand 0)1a, square p1atu
more closu)y than might hve bccn expcctcd. Th squence of
toncs is howcvcrquite durrent. Frum 176 wc sce that, if /t were
thrcc
zo-o, thc interval bctwec!). thc furm (4.3) dcrivcd from
durived i'rom two, woutd bc
or
and
nodcs,
(41)
(42)
primitive
l-4-(i29octave and th interva.1between (41) or (42) a.ud (4M)or (47)
wou!d be 2-43.')8octa-vcs. Wbn.tcvcr may bc th value of tbc
furms (4!) !U)d(42) shouki have exacte tlie same pitcb, and tbn
samc sbould be true of (4(i) a.nd (47). Witb respect to tbeHrstmoitionod pair this resuit is not in a.grecmetit witb CbLidrit's
observa.tionH,wbo found a dirt'crencc of more than a whoc tone,
bc Icft: out of
(42) giving thc higbcr pitd). If bowcvcr (42)
account, thc cumparison Is more satisfactory. Aecording to thuory
fmd (4(i), (47)
(43) should givc
(~=0), if (41) gave
Cbhubu tuund for (43) ~)-, andfor(4G),
sbould give~"+.
and
+ respectively.
(47)
228. Thc gravest mode of a. square plate bas yet to bc considered. Tbc nodus in tbis case arc tbc two Huesdra.wnthrougb tbc
middio points of opposite sides. That thcre must Le sueh a mode
will 1)Gshewn prcscntly from considerations of symmctry, but
neither tbc fonn of Hic normal function, nor tbo pitch, bas yct
beeu dctcrnnucd, cveMfor tlie particidar case of = 0. A rongh
calcnlatioli howcvcr mny bc founded on an as.sumed type of
vibration.

228.]

GRAVEST MODE OF SQUARE

PLATE.

317

If wc take tlie nodal lines for axes, thc form !o= a; satisfies
\7*M= 0, as wcll as the boundary couditions propor for a free edge
at ail points of the porimeter cxcept th actual corners. This is
in fact tlie foi'tnwhich thc plate wuuid assume if hold at l'est by
four forces uumericidiy equa!, acting at thc corners pcrpendicularly to tlie plane of thc plate, thosc at tlie ends of eue diagonal
beh)"'in one direction, and those at the ends ofthe other diagonal
in the opposite direction. From tins it follows that w=~cos~~
would bc a possible mode of -vibration,if thc mass of the plate
werc concentratcd equally lu tlie four corners. By (3) 214, we
sec that

For th kinetic enorgy, if p be th volume density, and ~)/ thc


:ulditionn.Im:tss at eacli corner,

dnotes tlie mass of tlie plate without the loa.ds. This


whcrc
result tends to become accurate whcn~jf is re~tLvuiygrcut; otherwi.scby 8f) it is scusibly less than tlie truth. But even when
jtf=0, th error is probably not very grt. In this c~e we
should have
24
2-~q b~
~=p(l~
Th gra.vest mode
giving a. p'Lc!) which is somewha.t too high.
next a.fterthis is whcn tlie diagona.~ a.re nodes, of which the pitch,
if = 0, would Le given by

(sec174).

318

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

[228.

m~tcri~ of thc plate wcrc sud.


if
thc
that
conclude
Wo may
thc two gravest tones would
,-(/themterv~bctwecn
l'SU;.
the ratio 1.1..
thc
that
by
than
express
-Pd
o
be somewlmt greater
tho intcrval t~Afth.
Chludni
makes
of vibratiou in which
modes
cxi.t
must
therc
2~9 That
bc infcrrcd from
~-o
ncdcs
may
.~cters
thc two shortcsb
that su~
lu
suppose
(~)
Fig.
thc
following.
~Lldcrations as
Pig.18.

and th
arc
CO
~or~,
the
Jf~,
which
cdgcs
is a plate of
T~~ P'
i s 6'C
of vibmting in certam
be
must
capable
of cqu~brium,
~t;on
our attention on one of thse, let us
modes.
Fixing
uuLhuncnt.1
the th~c rcmammg quadrants
conceive a distribution of over
values of .<;.u-c cqual aud
tl~c
that
two
adjoin,
in
any
such that
each other in th line
of
the
arc
which
inmges
opposite at points
vibrato accordmg to thc law
whulc
th
If
pl~tc
of sparation
in ordcr to kccp
be
~ill
eoustmiat
rcquircd
no
thus detcnnincd,
th ~hoh plate may be
thereforc
and
~cd,
the lines C~,
Thc samc argument may be uscd to prove that
free.
as
rc~rdcd
or in ~!uch botb the
arc
nodcs,
thc
~hich
in
diagonals
modes exi.t
diamctcrs just considered are togethcr nod~.
thc
and
Ji~onals
aiso be applicd to other forms
of
may
symmetry
Th principle
of nodal diameters
thc
iufcr
thus
possibility
Wo
might
of plate
Whcn tlie
in
an
axes
ellipse.
nodal
of
or
principal
in a eirele

tn sec that Fi~. (4f)),


it
i.s
e~y
a
is
hexagon,
rcgular
boan~ry
fonns.
(~0), (;) rcprc'scntpnssib!o

229.]

PRINCIPLE
0FSYMMETRY.

319

It i.sintcrcsting to trace thc continuity of Chiadni's figures, as


tho form of tlie plate is graduaDy altered. In the circ1e, for
cxa)nplc, whcn thcre are two perpendicular nodal diameters, it is a.
mattcr of indiifo'cncc as respects the pitch and th type of vibration, in what position thcy bo tnken. As the circlc develops into
a. square by throwing out corners, tlie position of thse diamctcm
becomesclefiuite. In the two alternatives tho pitch of tlie vibmtinn is dinercnt, for the projccting corners have not t))CSfunccficicncy i)i the two cases. TIis vibration of a square plate shcwn in
Fig. (42) corresponds to that of a circlc whcn thcrc is ouc circular
nodc. rite con'cspondcncc of tho graver modes of a hexagon or
an cHipscwitli tliose of a cirele may bc traced in likc manner.
230. For plates of uniform material and thiclcness and of
invariable shapc, thc period of the vibration in any fondamental
mode varies as tlie square of the linear dimension, providcd of
course ttiat tlie boundary conditions are thc same in aU tl~e cases
comparcd. Whcn th edges fn'e clamped, wc may go further
and assert that the removal of n~y external portion is attcnded
hy a risc of pitch, whethcr tho inatcrial and the thickncss bc uniform, or not.
Let ~4~ bo a part of a clamped edgc (it is of no consequence
whethcr the rcununder of thc boundary be clamped, or not), ami

let thc pice ~4C'J3Dbe remoYed, the ncw edgc ~173Bbeing also
cla.mpcd. TIie pitch of any fuad{nuenta.l vibration is sbarpcr
than beforc tlie change. This is evident, since th altered
vibra.tions might be obtained from the original system by thc
introduction of a constra.mt clamping thc edge ~4-DR The effect
of thc constt'Mut Is to raise ttio pitch of evcry componcnt, and
thc portion ~IC~Z) being plane and at rest throughout th motion,
may bc rcmovcd. In order to follow thc squence of changes
with greater security from error, it is best to suppose th Une
of clamping to advanee by stages betwcen the two positions
~1/)/ For pxampic, the pitch of a ~niform chmpcd ptuto
jr'

320

VIBRATIONS0F PLATES.

[230.

in th form of a rgulai' hexagon is lower than for thc inscribed


circle and higher tlian for tlie circurnscribed circle.
WIien a plate is free, it is not true that an addition to
tlie cdgc always incrcases the period. In proof of this it may
be sufncicnt to notice a particular case.
~7~ is a na.n-owthin plate, itscifwithoutinertin. but cn-rrylng
Ion.dsat A,
C. It is clear that thc addition to the hrcadth

indicated by thc dotted line would augment the stifrncsaof th


bur, and tlierefore ~Ot thc period of vibration. Thc same
consideration shews that fur a uniform free plate of givcn area
therc is no lowcr limit of pitch for by a sufficicnt elongation
tho period of th gravest component may be made to excd
any astiignabic quantity. W!ten thc cdges are clamped, th
form ofgrn.vest pitch is doubtless the cirele.
If an tlie dimensions of a plate, including the thickness, be
altered in the same proportion, t!tc period is proportional to th
linear dimension, as in cvery case of a solid body vibrating in
virtue of its own elasticity.
The period also varies inversely as th square root of Young's
modulus, if be constant, and directiy as the square root of tlie
mass of unit of volume of th substance.
231. Experimenting with square plates of thin wood whose
grain ran parallcl to onc pair of sidcs, Wheatstone found thut
thc pitch of th vibrations was difforent according as the approximatcly straight nodal Unes were paraUel or pcrpendicular
to th fibre of th wood. This effect dopends on a variation
in th flexural rigidity in the two directions. Thc two sets of
vibrations having djfferent periods cannot hc combincd in tlie
usual manner, and conscquently it is not possible to mal~e such
a plate of wood vibrato with nodal diagonals, The inequality
of periods may however bc obviatcd hy altcring th ratio of the
sides, and tlien th ordinary mode of superposition giving nodal
diagnnals is again possible. This was verified by Wheatstonc.
'J~.T'r~j'.lHM.

231.]

CYLINDER

OR RING.

321

A furthcr application of the principle of superposition is duc


to Konig 1, In order that two modes of vibration may combine,
it is only neccssary that th periods agre. Now it is evident
that th sides of a rectangular plate may be taken in such a
ratio, that (for instance) the vibration with two nodes parallel
to one pair of sidcs may agrcc in pitch with th vibration having
thrce nodes paralhl to t!)e other pair of sides. In such a caso
new nodal figures arise by composition of th two primary modes
of vibration.
232. W!icu the plate whose vibrations are to be considered
is naturaUy curvcd, thc difficulties of tbe question are gcnerally
nmch incrcascd. But thcre is one case ia which thc complication
due to curvature is more than compcnsated by tho absence of
a free edge; aud this case happens to be of considrable interest,
as being th best reprsentative of a bell which at prsent admits
of analytical treatmcnt.
A long cylindrical sitell of circular section and uniform tlucknesa is evidently capable of vibrations of a flexural character
in winch th axis remains at rest and the surface cylindrical,
'while th motion of every part is perpendictilar to the generating
lines. The problem may thus be treated as one of two dimensions
only, and dpends upon the consideration of th potential and
kinetic energies of thc various deformations of which tho section
is capable. Tlie same analysis also applies to th corresponding
vibrations of a ring, formed by th revolution of a small closed
area about an external axis.
Thc cylindcr, or ring, is susceptible of two classes of vibrations
depcnding rcspectively on extensibility and flexural rigidity, and
analogous to th longitudinal and lateral vibrations of straight
bars. When, however, the cylinder is thin, the forces resisting
bcnding become small in comparison with those by which extension is opposed; and, as in the case of straight bars, th
vibrations depcnding on bcnding are graver and more important
than those which have their origin in longltudina.1rigidity,
In th limiting case of an ilifiiiitely thin shell (or ring), thc
flexural vibrations become independent of any extension of tho
circumfcrencc as a whole, and may be calculated on th supposition that each part of the cii'cumfcrence retains its natural
length throughout tho motion.
rnRt!)));).186i,cxxti.p. 238.
R.
21

322

VIBRATIONS

OF PLATES.

~333.

But although tho vibrations about to be considercd are


analogous to th transverse vibrations of straight bars in respect
of depending on tlie rsistance to nexure, we must not fall into
th common mistake of supposing t)~at t)iey are exctusively
normal. It is indeed casy to sec that a motion of a. cylinder or
ring in which each pf).rtictcis displad in the direction of the
radius wou!d be incompatible with the condition of no extension.
In order to satisfy this condition it is neccssary to aseribe to
cach pa.rt of the circnmfcrence a ta.ngentia.1as wcU !ts a. normal
motion, whose relative inagnitudes must satisfy a certain di~'ercntial quation. Onr nrst stop wi)l be the investigation of this
quation.
233. The original radius of tlie circlc 'being a, let th equi)Ibrium position of any clment of the cireumfcrcncc be dcnncd
During the motion let the polar co-ordiby the vcctorlal angle
natcs of the cl meutbeeomc
?'=ft+8r,

~=6+M.

If ds rcprcscnt the arc of the deformed curve corresponding to


we have

+ (~ +f~)'
(~)"= (af~)'=(~8r)'
\vl)cncGwc nnd, by negiccting the squares of the small qnantitles
~?-,

.(1),
.(y,
as the required relation.
In whatcver manner the original circle may be deformed at
time t, 8r may be cxpandcd by Fourier's theorem in the sries
8r = ft {~1.cos + J9,su) <?+. cos2~ + 7?,sin 2~ +
+j4~cosM~+~sin~+.}.(2),
and the corresponding tangcntia! disptaccmcnt required by the
condition nfno extension will be
~=-~l,s:n~+73,cos~+.smM0+-"eos?t0?t

M.

tho constant that might be added to 86 being omittcd.

.(3),

233.]

POTENTIAL AND EINETIC ENERGIES.

If o-< denote the mus of th clement


energy T of the whole motion will be

th products of the co-ordinatcs


intgration.

323

the kinetic

disappea.nng ia tho

We havo now to cn.kula.tcthoform of tho potent!al energy K


Lct be th ra.dms of curvaturc of any eletncnt f~, thcn for tho
1\"
clment
of
take
whero ~Is a
F~wc
coi-responding
may
~f~(8-j,
constant dcpcuding on tho materia,!and on the thickncss. Thus

Now

and

for in the small terms tl)c distinction bctwcen


neglected.

and <?may bc

Hencc

aod

in \vhich thc summation extcnJs to ail positive intgral values


of~.

324

VIBRATIONS OF PLATES.

[333.

The tenn for which n = 1 contributes nothing to thc potential


energy, as it corresponds to a. displaccmcnt of the circle as a whoc,
without dformation.
Wc sec that when th configuration of tlie system is defined as
above by th eo-ordinates J,, ~t, &c.,t]ic expressionsfor f7'a.nd V
involve only squares in otlier words, tlicso are tlie ))or)~ coordinates, whose Independent I)armo)ilc 'variation expresses thc
vibration of tlie system.
Ifwcconsidcr only thc terms invlving cos?:~ sin~
by taking the origiu of suitably,
'n
= a.A cos110, O
8r
8~=-~=~~cos?~,

r,"sin~(7),
siii ?td
n

wc have

(7),

This resuit was given by Huppe for ring in a mcmoir pubHshcdin CrcIIc, Bd. 03,1871. His mcthod, though more comptctc
than th preceding, is less simpJe, in consequence of his not rceognising cxplicitiy that the motion contempla.tcd corresponds to
complete inextensibility of thc circumfcrence.
According to Chiadni the frc(~icnclca of the toncs of a ring
arc as
3'
7' 0'
If we rcfcr cach touc to thu gravcst of thc series, wc Dnd for
the ratios chara.ctcristicof the iuturvaJs
2'778, 5-44.5, 9,

13-4.4, &c.

Thc corrcHpondingnumhcrscbt~iticd from thca.hovethcorctic:Ll


formula?,by making 7t succcssivclycqual to 2, 3, 4, are
2-828, 5-423, 8-771, 12-87, A'c.,
agrccing prctty nc:u'!y~'it.h titosc-fonnd cxpcrimcutaDy.

234.;]

POSITION 0F NODES.

325

234'. When = 1, the frequency is zro, a.s might have been


anticipated. TIie principal mode of vibration corresponds to ?!= 2,
and Ims four nodcs, disant from each other by UO". Thse socalled nodes arc not, however, places of absolute rest, for the
tangentiat motion is ttiere a maximum. In fact tlie taugentia).
vibration at thse points is hali' thc maximum normal motion.
In gnerai for t)ic ?t"' turm the maximum tangcntial motion is
of t!ic maximum normal motion, and occurs at the nodes of
M
thclattcr.
Whcn a bu!I-s)tapcdbody is sounded by a blow, th point of
application of thu blow is a place of maximum normal motion
of thc resutting vibrations, and tlie same is truc when thc
vibrations are excitcd by a violin-bow, as gcneraHy in Iccturcroom cxperimcnts. Bu!!s of glass, such as nnger-glasscs, arc
howcvcr more casily thrown iuto j'cgular vibration by friction with
thc -wctted migci' carried round the circumfcrcncc. Ttic pitch of
the rcsulting sound is the same aa of that chcitcd by a tap with
tlie soft part of tho finger; but inasmuch as the tangential motion
of a vibrating beU bas been very gonerally ignorcd, th production
of sound in tliis manner bas been fc!t as a difficulty, It is now
scarccly necessaryto point out that the cffect of the friction is in
the first instance to excite tangential motion, and that the point
of application of th friction is the place wherc thc tangential
motion is grcatest, and therefore where the normal motion
vanishes.
235. The existence of tangential vibration in tlic case of a bell
was verified. in thc following manner. A so-called air-pump rccciver wassccureiyfastened to a table, opcn end uppermost, and set
into vibration with th molstencd nnger. A small chip in tlie rim,
reflecting the light of a. candie, gave a bright spot whose motion
could be observed with a Coddingtou lens suitably nxcd. As the
nngcr was cai'ricd round, the hne of vibration was scen to rcvolvc with an angu!:u' veloeity double that of the nnger; and
the amount of excursion (indicatcd by the length of th line of
light), though variable, was rinitc in cvery position. There was,
however, somc difficulty in observing th correspondence bctwccn
thc momcntary direction of vibration and thc situation of the point
of cxcitoncnt. To crfeet this satisfactoriiy it was found nocessary
to apply th friction in the ncighbourhood of one point. It thc'n

VIBRATIONS OP PLATES.

326

[235.

bccamc vident that the spot moved tangentially whonthc boll was
excited at points distant thcrefrom 0, 90,180, or 270 degrees and
norma.Iiywhen tho friction was a-ppliedai the intormediate points
corresponding to 45, 135, 225 and 315 dcgrecs. Carc is somctimes
required iu order to ma.ke the bell vibrato in its gravest mode
without sensible a.dmixtureof overtoncs.
If tliere be a smn.Uload at any point of tho c!rcumferencc,
a slight a.ugmcnta.tionof pcriod cns~cs, which is different according as the Ioa.ded point coincides with a node of the normal or
of the tangcntiai motion, being greater in thc latter ca.so than
in the former. Th sound produccd dpends therofore on the
p!a.ce of excitation in gcncral both tones arc hcard, and by
interfrence give rise to beats, whose frequency is equal to the
diffurence between tlie frc(~)encies of the two toncH. This phcuomeuon may often bc obscrvcdin th case of largo hells.

ENDOFVOL.I.
1

C.\MDKUXm:

rtUNTKD

!jY C. J,

CLAY,

M.A.,

AT TOE

U!f!Vii:!(H!'[Y

rttHSS.