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24/02/2012

DEFINING and NON-DEFINING


RELATIVE CLAUSES
LENGUA INGLESA II
UNIT 3

Outline (II)
- I. Defining and non-defining relative
clauses (D.R.Cs and ND.R.Cs)
- II. Types of antecedents: person or thing
- III. Subject and object pronouns
- IV.That instead of Who / Which

24/02/2012

Outline (II)
- V. Omitting the relative pronoun
- VI. Relative clauses with prepositions
- VII. Whose and Whom
- VIII. Where, When and Why
- IX. What

Icebreaking questions (I)


Correct the following sentences where
necessary:

Ann praised her students presentations, that


she enjoyed very much.
Whats the name of the museum where we
visited last Sunday?
The man whom I met at the reception is the
Ambassador.
Mary told me about a new film, which review is
excellent.

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Icebreaking questions (II)


Correct the following sentences where
necessary:
She gave her children all the love what she had.
I will never forget the place which we first
met.
The composer which Preludes I love is Chopin.
Everything what they said was true.
Did you hear that I said?

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

I. DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING


RELATIVE CLAUSES
There are two types of relative clauses:
A) Defining clauses (D.R.C.) WITHOUT COMMAS- give
essential information about the subject of
the sentence

This info tells us exactly what is being referred to:


The children who were tired went straight to bed.
B) Non-Defining clauses (ND.R.C.) WITH COMMAS- add extra
(but non-essential) information about the noun.

This info could be omitted without affecting the sense of


the sentence:
The children, who were tired, went straight to bed.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

I. DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING


RELATIVE CLAUSES
COMPARE:
The children who were tired went straight to bed.
[D.R.Cs limit the Noun:
Only some of the children were tired, not all of
them went to bed]
The children, who were tired, went straight to bed.
[ND.R.Cs do not limit the Noun:
All the children were tired and all went to bed]
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

II. PERSON or THING


The antecedent of relative pronouns can be a
person or a thing:
A) PERSON:
Thats the woman who / that bought my car.
[the woman (person)]
B) THING]:
Thats the car which / that I used to own.
[the car (thing)]
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

III. SUBJECT or OBJECT PRONOUNS


Relative pronouns can function as subjects or
objects:
A) SUBJECT:
Thats the woman who/that bought my car.
[The woman (subject)]
The 8.15 train, which is very punctual, was late today.

B) OBJECT:
She gave me this jumper, which shed made herself.
[the jumper (object)]
Peter, whom everyone suspected, turned out to be innocent.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

IV. THAT instead of WHO / WHICH


We can use THAT instead of WHO / WHICH in
conversational style:
My cousins who/that I will be seeing soon live in Leeds.
The hotel which/that was above the cliff was impressive.
That is the car which/that I used to own.
BUT: We cannot use THAT instead of WHO / WHICH

in ND.R.Cs:
My cousin Daniel, who I will be seeing soon, lives in Leeds.
That car, which I used to own 10 years ago, has recently
been removed from the market.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

V. OMITTING THE RELATIVE PRONOUN


In Defining Relative Object (thing and person)
Clauses, it is more common to omit the relative
pronoun:
This is the person (who/that) I sold my car to.
Thats the car (which/that) I used to own.
In ND.R.C.s, the relative pronoun cannot be left
out.
This is Mary, who I sold my car to.
Thats the car, which broke down two weeks
ago.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VI. RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH


PREPOSITIONS
Formal English: prep. + relative pronoun (only WHOM or
WHICH are possible):
This is the person to whom I sold my car.
This is the car for which I paid 8,000 .
(NOT *This is the car for that I paid 8,000 ).
[That cannot be used after a preposition]
Informal English: we move the prep. to the end of the R.C.
(WHOM is then replaced by WHO):

This is the person who/that I sold my car to.


This is the car which/that I paid 8,000 for.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VI. DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


WITH PREPOSITIONS
The man to whom I sold my car is Anns father.
The man whom I sold my car to is Anns father.
[NOT *The man to who I sold my car is Anns father].
The man who I sold my car to is Anns father.
The man that I sold my car to is Anns father.
[NOT *The man that I sold my car is Anns father].
The man I sold my car to is Anns father.
[NOT *The man I sold my car is Anns father].
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VI. NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES WITH


PREPOSITIONS
The man, to whom I sold my car, is Anns father.
The man, whom/who I sold my car to, is Anns father.
[NOT *The man, to who I sold my car, is Anns
father]
The man, who I sold my car to, is Anns father.
[NOT *The man, to that I sold my car, is Anns father]
[NOT *The man, that I sold my car to, is Anns father]
[NOT *The man, that I sold my car, is Anns father]
[NOT *The man, I sold my car to, is Anns father]
[NOT *The man, I sold my car, is Anns father]
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VII. WHOSE and WHOM (I)


WHOSE means of whom (people) or of which (things)
A) We can never omit it.
B) We can use it in both D.R.Cs and ND.R.Cs:
The house, whose windows were all broken, was
a depressing sight.
The shop whose clothes I love is about to close.
This shop, whose clothes I love, is about to close.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VII. WHOSE and WHOM (II)


WHOM is the object form of who. It can be used as:
A) the object of a verb:

This is the person to whom I sold my car.


The man whom I met at the reception is the
Ambassador. [Formal]
B) after prepositions:
This is the person I sold my car to.
[Everyday speech]
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

VIII. WHERE, WHEN and WHY


We can use WHERE, WHEN and WHY in D.R.Cs
after nouns related to place, time and reason
[In spoken English, when and why can be
omitted]:
The hotel where we stayed was brand new.
1987 was the year (when) I worked the most.
Thats not the reason (that/why) shes mad at me though.
In ND.R.Cs, these words cannot be omitted:
The earthquake happened shortly before dawn, when most
people were asleep.
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

IX. WHAT
What = the thing(s) that:
What happened was my fault.
(= the thing(s) that happened)
(NOT *the thing what happened)
Everything that happened was my fault.
(NOT *everything what happened)
I gave her all the money (that) I had.
(= I gave her what I had)
(NOT * the money what I had)
Facultad de Letras Departamento de Filologa Inglesa
Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia
T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

TO SUM UP (I)
1a. That is the person who/that bought my car.
Defining Person Subject Relative Clause
2a. That is the person (who/that) I sold my car to.

Defining Person Object Relative Clause


3a.The hotel which/that was above the cliff was impressive.
Defining Thing Subject Relative Clause
4a. Thats the car (which/that) I used to own.
Defining Thing Object Relative Clause
Facultad de Letras
Departamento de Filologa Inglesa

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Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia


T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

1 Grado Estudios Ingleses - Lengua Inglesa II - 2011-2012


Lecturers: Drs. Juan Fco. Cerd, Manuel Cobarro and M del Mar Vilar

TO SUM UP (II)
1b.My aunt Ann, who will be 50 soon, lives in Leeds.
Non-Defining Person Subject Relative Clause
2b. My aunt Ann, who I will be seeing soon, lives in Leeds.
Non-Defining Person Object Relative Clause
3b.The hotel, which/that was above the cliff, was impressive.
Non-Defining Thing Subject Relative Clause
4b. Ann praised her students presentations, which
she enjoyed very much.

Defining Thing Object Relative Clause


Facultad de Letras
Departamento de Filologa Inglesa

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Campus Universitario de La Merced. C/. Santo Cristo 1 - 30001 Murcia


T. 868 883 191 F. 868 883 185 www.um.es/dp-filologia-inglesa

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24/02/2012

References
ADAPTED FROM:
Capel, A. & W. Sharp (2008). Objective. First Certificate. Selfstudy Students Book. With CD-ROM. Cambridge: CUP.
Murphy, R. (2005). English Grammar in Use with Answers.
A Self-study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Students of English. (7th rev. ed.). Cambridge:
CUP.
Swan, M. (1995). Practical English Usage. (3rd ed.). Oxford:
OUP.
Vince, M. (2009). First Certificate Language Practice: English Grammar and Vocabulary. With Key. (4th ed.).
Oxford: McMillan.
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LENGUA INGLESA II
(1 GEI - 2011-12)

TOTAL TIME
DEVOTED TO THE STUDY OF
DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
RELATIVE PRONOUNS

...... h..... mins

22

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