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Temper Bead Welding

What Is It?

Temper Bead

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Definition

Temper Bead Welding. A weld bead placed at a specific location in or at the surface of a weld for the purpose of affecting the metallurgical properties of the heat-affected-zone or previously

deposited weld metal. (partial)

Temper Bead

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Weld Metal and HAZ

Weld Metal

HAZ HAZ
HAZ
HAZ
Weld Metal and HAZ Weld Metal HAZ HAZ Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Fe-C Equilibrium Phase Diagram

Temperature

Liquid Austenite (FCC) Upper Transformation (A3) Magnetic Transformation (A2) Lower Transformation (A1) Ferrite + Carbide
Liquid
Austenite (FCC)
Upper Transformation (A3)
Magnetic Transformation (A2)
Lower Transformation (A1)
Ferrite + Carbide

0.8%

% Carbon

2750°F

1650°F

1350°F

Alpha Iron (BCC)

Temper Bead

Body-Centered Cubic

Body-Centered Cubic Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2004

Temper Bead

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Face-Centered Cubic

Face-Centered Cubic Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Body-Centered Cubic

Body-Centered Cubic Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Face-Centered Cubic

Face-Centered Cubic Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Temperature

Fe-C Equilibrium Phase Diagram

Liquid Austenite (FCC) Upper Transformation (A3) Solid Magnetic Transformation (A2) Lower Transformation (A1) Ferrite + Carbide
Liquid
Austenite
(FCC)
Upper Transformation (A3)
Solid
Magnetic Transformation (A2)
Lower Transformation (A1)
Ferrite + Carbide

0.3%

0.8

% Carbon

2750°F

1650°F

1350°F

Alpha Iron (BCC)

Temper Bead

Nonequilibrium Cooling

Ac 3 Furnace Cool Oil Quench Air Cool Water Quench
Ac 3
Furnace Cool
Oil Quench
Air Cool
Water
Quench

Temper Bead

Time

Temper Bead

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T-T-T Diagram

Austenite

AR1 Pearlite Bainite Austenite Martensite Start Martensite Finish Time (s) 10 100 1000 10000 100000 0
AR1
Pearlite
Bainite
Austenite
Martensite Start
Martensite Finish
Time (s)
10
100
1000
10000
100000
0
Temperature

Temper Bead

Quench and Temper

A3 A1 Martensite Rapid Cool Temperature
A3
A1
Martensite
Rapid Cool
Temperature

Time

Zones subject to hardening

Liquid Austenite (FCC) Upper Transformation (A3) Ferrite + Carbide Alpha Iron (BCC)
Liquid
Austenite
(FCC)
Upper Transformation (A3)
Ferrite + Carbide
Alpha Iron
(BCC)

Bead on plate

1350°F

Lower Transformation (A1)

Temper Bead

% C

Other Zones in HAZ

1900°F Austenite Upper Transformation (A3) Alpha Iron Ferrite + Carbide
1900°F
Austenite
Upper Transformation (A3)
Alpha Iron
Ferrite + Carbide

Liquid

1350°F

Lower Transformation (A1)

Subcritical Tempering/Stress-relief

% C

Temper Bead

0.8%

Weld Zones (simple version)

Temper Bead

Weld Zones (simple version) Temper Bead Liquid (Cast) Coarse Grain Fine Grain Intercritical Subcritical Tempered (PWHT)

Liquid (Cast)

Coarse Grain

Fine Grain

Intercritical

Subcritical

Tempered (PWHT)

The whole bead on plate

The whole bead on plate Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2004

Temper Bead

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Second Pass --overlapped HAZ

Second Pass --overlapped HAZ Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2004

Temper Bead

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Two

layers. . . . .

.

Two layers. . . . . . Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2004

Temper Bead

© Sperko Engineering 2004

The real

thing. . . .

.

The real thing. . . . . Temper Bead

Temper Bead

What is temper bead welding?

What is temper bead welding? Temper Bead

Temper Bead

What is temper bead welding?

What is temper bead welding? Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Note the depth of the HAZ of the first pass

Note the depth of the

HAZ of the first pass

Where is temper bead welding used?

It was first used thousands of years ago as the half-bead technique:

Deposit a layer of weld metal Grind half of it off Deposit a layer of weld metal Grind half of it off

Deposit a layer of weld

metal. .

.

Until you are

done. . .

several layers of weld

Or until you have

metal. . .

then just weld

using small beads to ensure plenty of

interbead tempering

Where is temper bead welding used?

Half-bead? How do you know how much of the weld was ground off???

Among other things, EPRI did some work in the 1990s and found that grinding could be

eliminated by controlling heat input ratios

in successive layers.

The ratio of heat input in one layer of weld to that of the previous layer is increased by about

50%, that optimizes the overlapping resulting in overlapping the

Heat Input Ratio

Heat Input Ratio

Where is temper bead welding used?

Very prescriptive half-bead

technique was permitted in ASME Sections III and VIII for small and shallow in-process repairs of

components that were already heat

treated.

In 2000, ASME Section IX issued rules for qualification of temper bead

WPSs based on the EPRI work to

replace those rules with user- developed procedures.

QW-290 Temper Bead Welding

Used to make welds where PWHT would

normally be required. Usually for repairs, but may be permitted for some new construction in the future. Fully

incorporated into NBIC

Applies when permitted by construction code

Builds on existing qualifications

Requires special control of volts, amps and travel speed for each layer of weld metal

Basic Qualification

All WPSs shall be qualified for groove

welding in accordance with the rules

for qualification by groove welding in

QW-202 or the rules in QW-283 for

welds with buttering and QW-214 or -

216 for overlay.

Temper Bead

Upgrading Previous Qualifications

One can upgrade an existing WPS by welding and testing a new test coupon big enough to do the required testing

WPSs already qualified for temper bead welding can be modified for use with different

temper bead variables by welding and testing

a test coupon big enough to do the required

testing.

Temper Bead

Welding Process Restrictions

Temper bead welding is limited to SMAW, GTAW,

SAW, GMAW (including FCAW) and PAW.

Manual and semi-automatic GTAW and PAW are

prohibited.

Rationale: To effectively use temper bead welding, heat input and bead size must be controlled. In

manual GTAW and PAW, the bead size is

uncontrolled.

Temper Bead

Welding Process Restrictions

TWO EXCEPTIONS:

Manual GTAW and PAW may be used for:

The root pass of groove welds made from one side

as described in paragraph QW-290.6 for making (in-process) repairs to temper bead welds.

Temper Bead

Default Qualification Basis

Unless the construction code specifies

that impact testing is the basis for acceptance, the qualification variables

are those listed for hardness testing. In

case of conflict with QW-250 variables, these variables apply.

Nonessential variables always apply.

Temper Bead

Impact Tests

When specified by the applicable Section or

Design Specification, the test coupon shall be Charpy V-notch impact tested and the

supplemental variables of QW-250 applicable to the process being qualified shall apply.

Temper Bead

Hardness Variable QW-403.26

An increase in the Carbon Equivalent IIW formula

CE = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15 P-number qualified still applies

Temper Bead

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QW-409.29

A change

in

the

ratios

of

heat

input

beyond the following

(See Figure QW-

462.12.):

Temper Bead

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Temper Bead in Groove

Temper Bead in Groove Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Heat Input Ratio

An increase or decrease in the ratio of heat

input between the first tempering bead layer and the weld beads deposited against the base metal of more than 20% for P-1 and P-3 metals and 10% for all other P-number

metals

Temper Bead

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Heat Input Ratio

An increase or decrease in the ratio of heat input between the second tempering bead layer and the first tempering bead layer of

more than 20% for P-1 and P-3 metals and

10% for all other P-number metals.

Temper Bead

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Heat Input Ratio

the ratio of heat input between subsequent layers shall be maintained until a minimum of 3/16 inches of weld metal has been deposited over the base metal

Temper Bead

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Heat Input Formula

Standard Heat input measurements:

Volts X Amps X 60 / Travel Speed or Instantaneous Power/unit length of weld bead Deposit Length / Unit Length of Electrode Volume of weld metal = size (width X thickness) of the weld bead

For machine or automatic GTAW or PAW, the power ratio

is measured as:

Power ratio = (Amperage X Voltage) [(WFS/TS) X A f ]

Temper Bead

Surface Temper Beads

QW-410.58

The deletion of surface temper beads or a change from surface temper beads that cover the weld surface to beads that are only deposited along the toes of the weld.

Temper Bead

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Temper Bead In Butt Weld

Surface Temper Beads

Temper Bead In Butt Weld “ Surface Temper Beads ” Note 3: This is the distance
Temper Bead In Butt Weld “ Surface Temper Beads ” Note 3: This is the distance

Note 3: This is the distance from the edge of the

surface temper beads to the toe of the weld.

Temper Bead

Temper Bead on Plate

This layer doubles as a Surface Temper Weld Reinforcement

Temper Bead on Plate This layer doubles as a “ Surface Temper Weld Reinforcement ” Temper

Temper Bead

Temper Bead on Plate This layer doubles as a “ Surface Temper Weld Reinforcement ” Temper

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Temper Bead applied to a

Fillet weld

Temper Bead applied to a Fillet weld Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2014

Temper Bead

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Surface Temper Bead Offset

Surface Temper Weld Bead Offset Distance S

Surface Temper Bead Offset Surface Temper Weld Bead Offset Distance “ S ” Note 3: This

Note 3: This is the distance from the edge of the

surface temper beads to the toe of the weld.

Temper Bead

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QW-410.61

The distance S from the edge of the surface temper weld reinforcing bead to the toe of the weld shall be limited to the distance measured on the test coupon 1/32 +1/16 inch. Alternatively, a range for S may be

established by locating surface temper beads at various distances from the toe of the weld followed

by hardness traverses for each distance.

Temper Bead

QW-410.63 Bead Overlap

A change in visible bead overlap

beyond +15% of that qualified. (e.g., if the qualified overlap is 50%, the

overlap range permitted is from 35 to

65%.). Bead overlap shall measured as

shown below.

Temper Bead

Visible Bead Overlap A Direction of bead sequence B
Visible Bead Overlap
A
Direction of bead sequence
B

% Visible Overlap = (A-B)/A X 100%

Temper Bead

QW-410.62

Surface Grinding of Temper

Bead Layers

The addition or deletion of grinding such as flat topping or

half-bead removal of temper bead layers. Grinding required to clean the surface or remove minor surface flaws is permitted without specific qualification.

Half-bead just will not go

away. . .

.

Temper Bead

Temper Bead in Groove

Temper Bead in Groove Note 1: Weld beads shown above may be deposited in any sequence

Note 1: Weld beads shown above may be deposited in any sequence that will result in placement of the beads as shown

Temper Bead

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Possible Bead Sequence 1A

Possible Bead Sequence 1A Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Possible Bead Sequence 1B

Possible Bead Sequence 1B Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Possible Bead Sequence 1C

Possible Bead Sequence 1C Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2014

Temper Bead

© Sperko Engineering 2014

Possible Bead Sequence 2

Possible Bead Sequence 2 Temper Bead

Temper Bead

Possible Bead Sequence 3

Possible Bead Sequence 3 Temper Bead © Sperko Engineering 2014

Temper Bead

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In-process Repairs

In-process repairs are repairs in

which a flaw is mechanically removed and a repair weld is made

before a joint is presented for final visual inspection (i.e., the welder

blew

it. . . .

)

Temper Bead

In-process Repairs

For processes other than manual and

semi-automatic GTAW and PAW, repairs shall be made using the parameters given

in the WPS for production temper bead

welding. Then guess what layer you are at

-- and use the parameters for the layer(s)

being fixed.

Temper Bead

In-Process Repairs

When it is necessary to make repairs

using manual or semi-automatic GTAW or PAW, a WPS shall be prepared based

on PQRs developed for temper bead

welding using machine or automatic GTAW or PAW respectively.

Bead size and heat input details must be

described in the WPS.

Temper Bead

Welder qualfication

Code has nothing special.

I recommend that each welder weld a test coupon consisting of a mock-up making beads of the size specified in the WPS using the heat input specified in the WPS. Only visual examination is

required.

Temper Bead

What does TB welding do?

Modifies the microstructure of the HAZ to minimize untempered

microstructures. 1)That softens hardened structures that might be present - - like martensite. 2)Does not soften all of the microstructure there are always local hard spots. If “hardness” is an issue for service (e.g., H2S), TB may not be a suitable option. Do testing. 3)For hardenable materials, the microstructure is predominately

tempered martensite which has excellent toughness. 4)Is of questionable value for low-hardenability metals 5)Residual stresses are still yield-point magnitude.

Temper Bead

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Temper Bead Welding

Grrr

. . .

.

Arrgh!

Temper Bead

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