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ADDRESSING THEth

CHALLENGES FOR RELIABLE,


6 SOUTHERN
AFRICA REG
EFFICIENT & SUSTAINABLE
SUPPLY OF ELECTRICITY
- NOW
& INTO THE
FUTURECOMMITTEE A
JOINT
STUDY
CIGR 6TH SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE

SUMMARY OF PAPERS

Somerset West (Cape Town)


17 - 21 August 2009

OPENING SESSION
Convenor:

Robert Koch

Eskom Holdings Ltd.

Committee:

Ken King
Clive Burchell
Demi Kambouris
Kevin Leask
Roy Macey
Pieter Pretorious
David C. Smith
Rob Stephen
Asiff Amod
Roger Cormack
Chris van der Merwe

Chairman, South African National Committe


Consultant
Consultant
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Mace Technologies
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Eskom Holdings Ltd.
Eskom Holdings Ltd.

P001

Secretariat:

A REVIEW OF THE JANUARY 20


PROBLEM A DECADE IN THE M

M CHETTIAR, K LAKMEEHARAN

This paper highlights the decade-long


Anelja de Bok
Active Capture (Pty) Ltd.
culminated
in: the load shedding events o
emergency by the South African governm
the power system. The key concepts in th
Organised
and Printed
by the
buffers,
organisational
resilience, and co
SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE OF CIGR
supply
issues
are discussed. In addition
c/o
Administrative
Secretariat
PO Box 763, Douglasdale, 2165, South Africa
recovery phases are highlighted, together
ISBN

Conference Session 1
ASSET MANAGEMENT

P101

ASSET MANAGEMENT AND THE

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE


SUMMARY OF PAPERS

Table of Contents
Item No.

Ref. No.

P001

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

P101
P102
P104
P105
P106
P107
P108
P109

10

P110

11
12
13
14
15

P201
P202
P203
P204
P205

16
17
18
19

P206
P207
P208
P209

20

P210

21
22
23

P301
P302
P303

24

P304

25

P305

26

P306

27
28
29
30

P401
P402
P403
P404

31

P405

32

P406

33

P407

34

P410

35

P411

Paper Title
Keynote paper - Eskoms recovery process

Author/s

Page No.

M Chettiar

CONFERENCE SESSION 1 - ASSET MANAGEMENT


Asset management and the end-of-life issue
Expected life time and maintenance/replacement strategy for aged transformers
Partial replacement technologies of aged GIS/MTS in Japan
Maintenance decision for power transformer based on reliability simulation
Ageing aerial bre infrastructure
Upgrade of the Apollo HVDC converter station
Management of the transmission spatial information infrastructure
Determining the accuracy of transformer oil certicates when evaluating
uncertainty of measurement
Morphological analysis of acoustic signals of discharge processes

E Rijks
T Kobayashi
H Okuyama etal
L Shaoyu
T Gosai
H Bjorklund
L van der Merwe
P Le Roux
S Tsvetayev

CONFERENCE SESSION 2 - PLANNING & OPERATIONS


Challenges of achieving energy demand in Africa
Overview of the Eskom ancillary services market
Willing-seller/willing-buyer model in South Africa
Overview of new SAPP transmission pricing methodology
Case study into the application of time or use tariffs in the Eskom Western
Region of South Africa in reducing peak loads
Designing the SCADA system to deal with disturbances
Migrating the energy management system at Eskom
Real-time monitoring of the transmission system: watching-out for res
Transmission system maintenance outage planning - the case for dynamic
outage scheduling
Eskom security constrained dispatch and automatic generation control

E Kihara
J Dean
P Tuson
G Chown
D Ramsbottom
R Candy
R Ungerer
A Momberg
N April
G Chown

CONFERENCE SESSION 3 - PROTECTION & QUALITY OF SUPPLY


Managing dynamic performance using WAMS in the South African power grid
Fault levels: impacts for long-term system planning purposes
HV and EHV network interruption performance measurement and reporting:
development of the NRS048-8 standard
Power quality assessment methods - A statistical analysis of measured data
and considerations for planning, design, operation, and maintenance of the
transmission network
Impact of water-heating DSM on voltage conditions and load parameter
choice for feeder design in South Africa
Monitoring power quality beyond EN 50160 and IEC 61000-4-30

D Wilson
C Mushwana
B Chatterton
E Venter
CT Gaunt
A. Broshi

CONFERENCE SESSION 4: SUBSTATIONS & HV PLANT


Comparison of UHV and 800kV specications for substation equipment
Verication of lifetime arcing stress withstand of circuit breakers through testing
Voltage and temperature dependent dynamic pre-insertion resistor model
Phase-to phase inuence - a design challenge for current transformers in
gas-insulated switchgear
Dead tank based compact switchgear - modular high-voltage substation
equipment
Conversion of existing double busbar single breaker arrangement substations
to a breaker and a half conguration
IEC61850: Utilizing GOOSE messages for a fully automated test and
commissioning procedure for the new breaker-and-a-half schemes implemented
in the Eskom 765 kV transmission network
400 kV and 500 kV extruded underground cable systems installed in inclined
tunnels or shafts for generating power stations
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) considerations in high temperature
nuclear reactors

H Ito
R Smeets
R Hopkins
M Schumacher
P Stenzel
S Chibba
A Dierks
P Argaut
P Pretorius

CONFERENCE SESSION 5: TRANSFORMERS


36

P501

37
38

P502
P503

39

P504

40

P505

41
42
43
44

P506
P507
P509
P510

Twelve years test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large


power transformers
Predicting transmission transformer condition status using DGA signatures
Interpretation of frequency response analysis (FRA) Results for diagnosing
transformer winding deformation
Aspects of the practical application of sweep frequency response analysis
(SFRA) on power transformers
Determining of pole-zero representation of FRA measurement data for
interpretation of power transformer
transfer function deviations
Protection of oil-lled transformer against explosion
Quality assurance of insulating oil for use in new transformers
Comparing various moisture determination methods for power transformers
Environmental friendly insulating liquids - a challenge for power transformers

R Smeets
A Singh
A Darwin
A Kraetge
M Heindl
G Prigaud
A Lombard
M Koch
G Pukel

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE


SUMMARY OF PAPERS

Table of Contents
Item No.

Ref. No.

45
46
47

P601
P602
P603

48
49

P604
P605

50

P606

51
52

P607
P608

Paper Title

Author/s

Page No.

CONFERENCE SESSION 6: LINES - 1


On the earthing of overhead power lines - a case study
On the surge impedance of 800 kV double circuit towers - empirical validation
Electric eld design limits in overhead power line design - a perspective in
view of possible regulation in South Africa
Electrical design considerations in Eskoms new 765 kV double circuitpower lines
Electromagnetic coupling from overhead power lines to fences
- an experimental evaluation and case study
Adapting electric power utility insulation co-ordination procedures to
incorporate accurate lightning data
Lightning performance analysis of a 765 kV double circuit power line
Review of lightning performance improvement project results: a case study
from South Africa

P Pretorius
P Pretorius
A Burger
P Pretorius
P Pretorius
R Evert
L Peter
L Peter

CONFERENCE SESSION 7: LINES - 2


53

P609

54
55

P610
P611

56

P612

57
58

P613
P614

The susceptibility of 400 kV transmission lines to bird streamers and bush res:
a denitive case study
Special hardware for cross-rope cable
Investigation into the development of standing waves on long distance
HVDC transmission lines
Torque balance of bare composite overhead conductor connected with
helical formed ttings
Comparison of damper evaluation techniques
The design and construction of overhead lines in environmentally highly
sensitive areas

H Vosloo
P Borges
B Duncan
A Duckham
D Sunkle
B Jacobs

Joint Study Committee A2, A3, B3 Colloquium


STUDY COMMITTEE A2: Transformers
59

C101

60

C102

61

C103

62
63

C104
C105

64

C106

65
66
67
68

C107
C108
C109
C110

69

C111

Short-circuit resistant power transformers - prerequisite for reliable supply


of electrical energy
Addressing the requirements of an ageing eet of transmission transformers
on the Eskom transmission network
Eskom Transmission experience in procuring system transformers outside
South Africa
Different approaches for the acquisition and evaluation of transformer failure data
End-of-life modeling for power transformers and reliability of aged power
system networks
Evaluating and managing transformer factory acceptance test statistics
as performance criteria
Gassing and oxidation behaviour of insulating uids under thermal stress
Managing a large and aging transformer eet
Effects of on-line reclaiming on the corrosive sulphur content of transformer oil
A path-way to cope with the dilemma of aging assets, limited capital
expenditure, reduced budgets for maintenance and the remaining need to
supply electricity at unchanged quality
Development of methods of evaluation of power transformer insulation
aging taking into account random exploitation factors

C Krause
S Mtetwa
N Buthelezi
J Jagers
Z. Wang
J Koen
I Atanasova-Hoehlein
E Figueroa
M Dahlund
B Schmitz
V Vasin

STUDY COMMITTEE A3: HV Equipment


70

C201

71
72
73
74
75

C202
C203
C204
C205
C206

76

C207

77
78
79

C301
C302
C303

80
81
82

C304
C305
C306

83
84

C307
C308

85
86

C309
C310

Optimized asset management of high voltage substations and power network


operation based on equipment performance
Residual life concepts applied to HV gas insulated switchgear
Gas-insulated switchgear for 1100 kV- challenges in development and testing
Condition monitoring on high-voltage AC circuit-breakers
Analytical maintenance optimization for HV circuit breakers
Residual life assessment and asset management decision support by
hazard rate functions
Use of data from CIGRE high voltage equipment reliability survey

F Endo
P Glaubitz
U Riechert
A Bosma
T Krontiris
A Janssen
F Waite

STUDY COMMITTEE B3: Substations


Assessment of electric eld exposure in a 765 kV open air substation - A case study
Presentation of the SF6 tightness guide
Simplication and integration of HV AIS switchgear gives operational and
environmental benets
The breaker and half circuit conguration of the Eskom 765kV AIS network
Gas insulated switchgear - seismic qualication
800 KV-AC and 600 KV-DC Brazilian transmmission systems - experience
and future trends
Hydro mechanical spring drive - the ultimate solution to operate HV circuit breakers
Increased availability of a GIS by the combination of the disconnector and
earthing switch
Optimal opportunity to reduce the sulfur hexauoride gas emissions
Substation planning for large-scale onshore wind integration

P Pretorius
J Biasse
C Solver
E Naicker
P Glaubitz
J Filho
D Fuechsle
D Fuechsle
Z Zhangkui
S Yu

OPENING SESSION

KEYNOTE PAPER

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE &


JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM
SUMMARY OF PAPERS
OPENING SESSION

P001

A REVIEW OF THE JANUARY 2008 ELECTRICITY CRISIS IN SOUTH AFRICA: A


PROBLEM A DECADE IN THE MAKING

M.CHETTIAR,
CHETTIAR,KK.LAKMEEHARAN,
LAKMEEHARAN,R.G.
R.G.KOCH
KOCK
M
This paper highlights the decade-long development of the South African electricity crisis that
culminated in: the load shedding events of January 2008; the subsequent declaration of an electricity
emergency by the South African government; and the corresponding Eskom response to stabilising
the power system. The key concepts in the recovery process of 2008 in terms of balance, adequate
buffers, organisational resilience, and country level co-ordination of security of supply versus cost of
supply issues are discussed. In addition the lessons learnt during the course of the crisis and the
recovery phases are highlighted, together with a status update and prognosis for the road ahead.

Conference Session 1
ASSET MANAGEMENT

P101

ASSET MANAGEMENT AND THE END-OF-LIFE ISSUE


G. SANCHIS, E. RIJKS, G. FORD

Asset management activities and practices attempt to optimally manage assets, and their associated
performance, risks and expenditures over their lifecycle for the purpose of achieving the required level
or quality of service in the most cost effective manner. In this process, the asset manager has to
assess the budget for mid and long terms in relation with the needs for grid development and for
replacement of assets. He has also to determine when to replace assets, due to obsolescence or due
to unprofitable use. Nowadays financial pressures and regulatory scrutiny are increasing and as a
consequence, requirements for short and long term capital and operating budget forecasting are
higher. The use of methodologies for quantitative analysis of forecast asset investment needs is
essential in the development of asset management strategies to smooth and manage capital
expenditure levels over the mid and long-term. Utilities need more accuracy in projecting their
expected needs, and in particular asset replacement programs. The replacement program includes
mainly the assets to be replaced at end of life. Defining end of life and identifying the factors which
affect it have been the subject of much industry discussion, study and analysis. The purpose of this
document is to present different methods used by utilities to integrate the end of life issue in respect
to their needs for asset replacement. Regardless of the fact that the End of life issue is a complex
process and even if the parameters to take into account before deciding to replace an asset are
numerous, in mid and long term forecasting, the asset manager needs to quantify and justify the
budget necessary to replace the assets considered to be at end of life. Mathematical models can be
used to establish failure rate curves, in order to assess the length of service at which the death of
assets is commonly accepted. But these models need to be applied with care and attention. This
document points out also the need to include the condition of assets, the loading histories and other
operational and maintenance factors in the application of probabilistic approaches, in order to avoid
mistakes or misunderstanding.

Page 1

CONFERENCE
SESSION 1

ASSET MANAGEMENT

culminated in: the load shedding events of January 2008; the subsequent declaration of an electricity
emergency by the South African government; and the corresponding Eskom response to stabilising
the power system. The key concepts in the recovery process of 2008 in terms of balance, adequate
buffers, organisational resilience, and country level co-ordination of security of supply versus cost of
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
B3, COLLOQUIUM
supply
issues are
discussed.
In addition
the lessons
learnt
during
the course
of the
crisis and the
recovery phases are highlighted, together with a status update and prognosis for the road ahead.

Conference Session 1
ASSET MANAGEMENT

P101

ASSET MANAGEMENT AND THE END-OF-LIFE ISSUE


G. SANCHIS, E. RIJKS, G. FORD

Asset management activities and practices attempt to optimally manage assets, and their associated
performance, risks and expenditures over their lifecycle for the purpose of achieving the required level
or quality of service in the most cost effective manner. In this process, the asset manager has to
assess the budget for mid and long terms in relation with the needs for grid development and for
replacement of assets. He has also to determine when to replace assets, due to obsolescence or due
to unprofitable use. Nowadays financial pressures and regulatory scrutiny are increasing and as a
consequence, requirements for short and long term capital and operating budget forecasting are
higher. The use of methodologies for quantitative analysis of forecast asset investment needs is
essential in the development of asset management strategies to smooth and manage capital
expenditure levels over the mid and long-term. Utilities need more accuracy in projecting their
expected needs, and in particular asset replacement programs. The replacement program includes
mainly the assets to be replaced at end of life. Defining end of life and identifying the factors which
affect it have been the subject of much industry discussion, study and analysis. The purpose of this
document is to present different methods used by utilities to integrate the end of life issue in respect
to their needs for asset replacement. Regardless of the fact that the End of life issue is a complex
process and even if the parameters to take into account before deciding to replace an asset are
numerous, in mid and long term forecasting, the asset manager needs to quantify and justify the
budget necessary to replace the assets considered to be at end of life. Mathematical models can be
used to establish failure rate curves, in order to assess the length of service at which the death of
assets is commonly accepted. But these models need to be applied with care and attention. This
document points out also the need to include the condition of assets, the loading histories and other
operational and maintenance factors in the application of probabilistic approaches, in order to avoid
mistakes or misunderstanding.

Page 1

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P104

EXAMPLES FOR PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF AGED GIS/MTS IN JAPAN


H. OKUYAMA, T. SATO, K.UEHARA, M. ONO, K. SASAMORI

The GIS/MTS has been in field operation for more than 30 years since the 1970s in Japan. There is a
growing concern about their reliability and difficult in maintenance and inspection due to the long
period of field operation. Since old GCB and arrester in the GIS/MTS in particular are included
immatured elements technically, these equipment are apprehensive for reducing reliability. To cope
with these problems, it would be effective to partially replace these high risk equipment only from the
viewpoint of priority and easiness of replacement. Recently, the partial replacement of old GCB and
arrester in the 550 kV GIS/MTS has started in Japan. Some considerations such as avoidance of
interrupting bus line, reduction of the investment cost and duration, re-use of equipment and parts
have been done when replacing. In addition, condition based maintenance (CBM) with the internal
monitoring of GIS/MTS by means of high sensitive sensor would be preferable to verify the soundness
of existing aged equipment. With old equipment being replaced and CBM control implemented, aged
GIS/MTS can be expected to keep operating for more than about 50 years in the filed.
P105

DECISION ON MAINTENANCE PERIOD FOR POWER TRANSFORMER BASED ON


RELIABILITY SIMULATION
L. SHAOYU, G. WENSHENG

The problem of selecting a suitable maintenance period is vital for preventive maintenance of power
transformer. Traditionally, maintenance period can be calculated by model with an objective function,
such as availability, maintenance cost, or reliability of the equipment. However, it is difficult to directly
apply these models for power transformer, because its reliability is high, and there is no enough
reliability data to calculate the objective functions. Therefore, a simulated maintenance period model is
developed in this paper. Firstly, Monte Carlo method and Fault Tree method are applied to generate
simulated fault times of the transformer system. Secondly, Mission Reliability is calculated based on
these simulated data and acts as the objective function in the model. Finally, this model is applied to
investigate the maintenance period of power transformer.
P106

AGING AERIAL FIBRE INFRASTRUCTURE


T. GOSAI, V. NAIDU

Aerial optical fibre cable is used extensively across Eskoms (South Africas National Power Utility)
power network for telecommunication, providing teleprotection, telecontrol and voice services to the
utility which ensures and enhances the performance of the power network. There are approximately
5000km of optical fibre cable on the Transmission network, and this is on the increase due to the ever
increasing requirement for a very reliable and high capacity telecommunications service that is safe,
secure and cost efficient for extremely high availability of the power delivery system in South Africa.
This paper starts with a description of the current optical fibre network on the Eskom Transmission
power system and goes on to show what problems have been experienced within the environment.
The various types of aerial optical fibres used in Eskom are briefly discussed and a comparison made.
Eskom Transmission has implemented a policy in that all future power lines would have OPGW
installed (as opposed to ADLashTM) and the reasons are discussed in the paper. Incorrect installation
and environmental circumstances reduces the aerial optical fibre cable lifespan. Together with
maintenance, corrective measures need to be integrated to enable the optical fibre to achieve the
recommended lifespan of 20 to 30+ years. Training of personnel/contractors to install the aerial optical
fibre cables correctly and auditors/clerk of works to audit installations of new and old aerial optical fibre
cables would also be discussed and the importance thereof. The requirements and problems
associated with an insulated OPGW (Optical Ground Wire) cable are also discussed as this was a
learning process by Eskom and the contractors as there was no defined precedence worldwide to deal
with this particular setup.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P107

UPGRADE OF THE APOLLO HVDC CONVERTER STATION


P. GOOSEN, C. REDDY, B. JONSSON, T. HOLMGREN, O. SAKSVIK, H. BJORKLUND

Apollo is the inverter end of the Cahora Bassa HVDC scheme. It is situated in RSA while the rectifier
is at the Songo Station 1414 km to the North in Mozambique. The present rating of the HVDC link is
1920 MW at 533 kV. In 2006 Eskom placed a contract with ABB for the replacement of the eight six
pulse converters and the two AC filters, while retaining the old transformers and the DC yard
equipment including the smoothing reactors. A basic principle was that none of the renewed
equipment should become obsolete in the future as the Cahora Bassa HVDC link has the potential to
be uprated all the way to 3960 MW by using the present full current rating of the line and extending the
voltage to 600 kV. The equipment supplied by ABB included outdoor, water cooled, thyristor valves
capable to handle 3300 A using 5 8.5 kV electrically triggered thyristors. They are presently rated for
533 kV operation but are prepared to be upgraded to 600 kV by adding thyristors inside the existing
housings. The control system is ABBs well proven Mach 2 system that is exceptionally well suited for
this kind of upgrades [1]. Due to the structure of the Apollo station with 8 series connected 6-pulse
bridges it was possible to perform the installation and commissioning in two 6-pulse groups at a time
in order to minimize the disturbance of the power transfer. The system performance since
refurbishment has improved remarkably as a result of the new valves and the new control equipment.
P108

MANAGEMENT OF THE TRANSMISSION SPATIAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE


S. E. VAN DER MERWE

TxSIS (pronounced 'Texas' - short for Transmission Spatial Information System) is the geographical
information system (GIS) servicing the spatial information, mapping and decision support
requirements of the Transmission Division. The system has evolved over the last two decades from a
point solution servicing a user base of two to an enterprise solution currently used by 650 users a
month. Sustaining this growth has constantly required adapting the management of the infrastructure
behind the system. Spatial Information Infrastructure is the infrastructure required for the collection,
management, dissemination, and use of geo-spatial data and information. This infrastructure is costly
to establish if you have to start from scratch and complex to manage. When a system evolves from a
departmental solution to an enterprise level solution the supporting infrastructure behind it is
constantly under pressure to grow as well. The manner in which this infrastructure is build up and
managed determines either the ceiling of the systems growth opportunities or the launching pad for its
future growth. The Transmission Spatial Information Infrastructure is currently under pressure to
evolve to the next level of maturity to support the demands of the electric utility. This paper will
discuss the challenges and opportunities of the required transition.
P109

DETERMINING THE ACCURACY OF TRANSFORMER OIL CERTIFICATES WHEN


EVALUATING UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT
P. LE ROUX

Transformers are like humans; they can enjoy a healthy life but sometimes suffer from a variety of
diseases that can lead to premature failure or even sudden death. A high quality of life can be assured
through a regular series of maintenance. The maintenance schedule should include oil testing that will
reveal the health of the transformer as well as the condition of the oil. A transformer oil test certificate
or report is normally issued after completion of these tests it will contain tables with measured results,
reference to standards and methods and should contain values referred to as uncertainty of
measurement. The uncertainty of measurement value, when calculated correctly should predict by
which degree the following measurement if taken would have correlated with the report value. The
uncertainty of measurement is statistically calculated and involves the evaluation of all the
contributions that could have had an effect on the measurement result. Uncertainty contributors can
be categorized into two main categories referred to as Type A and Type B. Type A is normally the
contributor(s) that there is very little control over and is sometimes referred to as the repeatability of a
reading or as the random contributor. Through statistically calculation methods a Gaussian
distribution of the results in the Type A category is assumed. Other contributors can have a Gaussian-,
Triangular-, Rectangular- or U-shape distribution curve. When calculated, all contributors are
manipulated through applying a division factor to foresee the contributors all to a Gaussian shape at 1
sigma level. Contributors are added to one another using the root sum square (RSS) method. A

constantly under pressure to grow as well. The manner in which this infrastructure is build up and
managed determines either the ceiling of the systems growth opportunities or the launching pad for its
future growth. The Transmission Spatial Information Infrastructure is currently under pressure to
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
JOINT
STUDYofCOMMITTEE
A3, B3,This
COLLOQUIUM
evolve
to the next
level
of maturity
to support &
the
demands
the electricA2,
utility.
paper will
discuss the challenges and opportunities of the required transition.
P109

DETERMINING THE ACCURACY OF TRANSFORMER OIL CERTIFICATES WHEN


EVALUATING UNCERTAINTY OF MEASUREMENT
P. LE ROUX

Transformers are like humans; they can enjoy a healthy life but sometimes suffer from a variety of
diseases that can lead to premature failure or even sudden death. A high quality of life can be assured
through a regular series of maintenance. The maintenance schedule should include oil testing that will
reveal the health of the transformer as well as the condition of the oil. A transformer oil test certificate
or report is normally issued after completion of these tests it will contain tables with measured results,
reference to standards and methods and should contain values referred to as uncertainty of
measurement. The uncertainty of measurement value, when calculated correctly should predict by
which degree the following measurement if taken would have correlated with the report value. The
uncertainty of measurement is statistically calculated and involves the evaluation of all the
contributions that could have had an effect on the measurement result. Uncertainty contributors can
be categorized into two main categories referred to as Type A and Type B. Type A is normally the
contributor(s) that there is very little control over and is sometimes referred to as the repeatability of a
reading or as the random contributor. Through statistically calculation methods a Gaussian
distribution of the results in the Type A category is assumed. Other contributors can have a Gaussian-,
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
COLLOQUIUM
Triangular-,
Rectangularor U-shape
distribution
curve.
When
calculated,
all B3
contributors
are
manipulated
through
applying
a
division
factor
to
foresee
the
contributors
all
to
a
Gaussian
shape
at
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM1
sigma level. Contributors are added to one another using the root sum square (RSS) method. A
coverage factor is applied and an uncertainty of measurement is produced at a 2 sigma () confidence
level. Provided that the certificate issued contains all the accurate results included for an engineer to
coverage factor is applied and an uncertainty of measurement is produced at a 2 sigma () confidence
make a decision regarding further actions on the transformer, one has to evaluate the results in
level. Provided that the certificate issued contains all the accurate results included for an engineer to
conjunction with the stated uncertainty of measurement. It is therefore of utmost importance that you
make a decision regarding further actions on the transformer, one has to evaluate the results in
receive a certificate with the maximum information needed to base a decision regarding the condition
conjunction with the stated uncertainty of measurement. It is therefore of utmost importance that you
of the transformer.
receive a certificate with the maximum information needed to base a decision regarding the condition
of the transformer.
P110 MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC SIGNALS OF DISCHARGE PROCESSES
P110

MORPHOLOGICAL
ANALYSIS
OFO.S.
ACOUSTIC
SIGNALS
OF DISCHARGE
PROCESSES
A.I. Chulichkov,
CHULICHKOV,
TSYBULSKAYA,
O.S. SURKONT,
M.D.
ROSCHUPKIN,
N.D.N.D.
Tsybulskaya,
Surkont,
M.D. Roschupkin,
S.K. Tsvetaev
S.K. TSVETAEV
A.I. Chulichkov,
N.D. Tsybulskaya,
O.S. Surkont,
M.D.ofRoschupkin,
S.K.ofTsvetaev
At present,
quite a number
of acoustic signals
precursors
a breakdown
high-voltage power
equipment isolation, are accumulated. It is possible to classify these signals, using mathematical
At present, quite a number of acoustic signals precursors of a breakdown of high-voltage power
methods based on signal form recognition. Software, that allows to classify acoustic signals of single
equipment isolation, are accumulated. It is possible to classify these signals, using mathematical
partial electric discharges, sounds of single spark discharges, sounds of many discharges and sounds
methods based on signal form recognition. Software, that allows to classify acoustic signals of single
of vibroimpact mechanical processes, is created. On the basis of the software it is possible to create
partial electric discharges, sounds of single spark discharges, sounds of many discharges and sounds
automatic devices for power equipment monitoring.
of vibroimpact mechanical processes, is created. On the basis of the software it is possible to create
automatic devices for power equipment monitoring.
Conference Session 2
PLANNING AND OPERATIONS
Conference Session 2
PLANNING AND OPERATIONS
P201 CHALLENGES OF ACHIEVING ENERGY DEMAND IN AFRICA

P201

CHALLENGES
OF ACHIEVING ENERGY DEMAND IN AFRICA
E.
KIHARA

E. KIHARA
Africa and
in essence all developing countries will definitely need more energy to fuel their economic
transformation to keep up with the global energy demand and global economic development trends. It
Africa and in essence all developing countries will definitely need more energy to fuel their economic
is increasingly obvious that energy consumption growth in Africa is very high and the demand for
transformation to keep up with the global energy demand and global economic development trends. It
adequate supply can no longer be ignored or postponed. Africa energy systems are threatened by
is increasingly obvious that energy consumption growth in Africa is very high and the demand for
various security challenges such as ageing infrastructures, old technology, low water levels,
adequate supply can no longer be ignored or postponed. Africa energy systems are threatened by
environment issues, high energy tariffs, skills & expertise shortages, regulatory issues and lack of
various security challenges such as ageing infrastructures, old technology, low water levels,
finance to develop new infrastructures to support the rapid economic growth whilst sustaining energy
environment issues, high energy tariffs, skills & expertise shortages, regulatory issues and lack of
demand and supply channels. Responding adequately to the rising energy demand in Africa will help
finance to develop new infrastructures to support the rapid economic growth whilst sustaining energy
create a reliable energy supply which will reduce the imminent energy challenges which pose great
demand and supply channels. Responding adequately to the rising energy demand in Africa will help
economic risks which can cripple the Africa energy systems. The energy needs of Africa continent will
create a reliable energy supply which will reduce the imminent energy challenges which pose great
require more diverse resources such as more infrastructures, logistics, government cooperation,
economic risks which can cripple the Africa energy systems. The energy needs of Africa continent will
manpower, expertise, capacity building and use of the latest technology to harmonize and develop
require more diverse resources such as more infrastructures, logistics, government cooperation,
energy mix in order to achieve energy goals to support Africa fastest growing economy. However, with
manpower, expertise, capacity building and use of the latest technology to harmonize and develop
the economic global crisis forces acting on our economies, it is evidently that quick reaction and action
energy mix in order to achieve energy goals to support Africa fastest growing economy. However, with
is necessary to avert energy crisis which can be triggered by inability to develop new energy systems
the economic global crisis forces acting on our economies, it is evidently that quick reaction and action
and infrastructures.
is necessary to avert energy crisis which can be triggered by inability to develop new energy systems
and infrastructures.
P202 OVERVIEW OF THE ESKOM ANCILLARY SERVICES MARKET
P202

OVERVIEW
OF THE ESKOM
ANCILLARY SERVICES MARKET
J.F.
DEAN, S.JOSEPH,
R. NAIDOO

J.F.
S.JOSEPH,
R. NAIDOO
A market
in DEAN,
Ancillary
Services was
developed as part of the Eskom Power Pool development from
1998. The Power Pool was an internal pool which allowed Eskom power stations to bid in to an energy
A market in Ancillary Services was developed as part of the Eskom Power Pool development from

CONFERENCE
SESSION 2

PLANNING &
OPERATIONS

At present, quite a number of acoustic signals precursors of a breakdown of high-voltage power


equipment isolation, are accumulated. It is possible to classify these signals, using mathematical
methods based on signal form recognition. Software, that allows to classify acoustic signals of single
partial
electric discharges,
sounds CONFERENCE
of single spark&discharges,
sounds
of manyA2,
discharges
and sounds
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA REGIONAL
JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
of vibroimpact mechanical processes, is created. On the basis of the software it is possible to create
automatic devices for power equipment monitoring.

Conference Session 2
PLANNING AND OPERATIONS

P201

CHALLENGES OF ACHIEVING ENERGY DEMAND IN AFRICA


E. KIHARA

Africa and in essence all developing countries will definitely need more energy to fuel their economic
transformation to keep up with the global energy demand and global economic development trends. It
is increasingly obvious that energy consumption growth in Africa is very high and the demand for
adequate supply can no longer be ignored or postponed. Africa energy systems are threatened by
various security challenges such as ageing infrastructures, old technology, low water levels,
environment issues, high energy tariffs, skills & expertise shortages, regulatory issues and lack of
finance to develop new infrastructures to support the rapid economic growth whilst sustaining energy
demand and supply channels. Responding adequately to the rising energy demand in Africa will help
create a reliable energy supply which will reduce the imminent energy challenges which pose great
economic risks which can cripple the Africa energy systems. The energy needs of Africa continent will
require more diverse resources such as more infrastructures, logistics, government cooperation,
manpower, expertise, capacity building and use of the latest technology to harmonize and develop
energy mix in order to achieve energy goals to support Africa fastest growing economy. However, with
the economic global crisis forces acting on our economies, it is evidently that quick reaction and action
is necessary to avert energy crisis which can be triggered by inability to develop new energy systems
and infrastructures.
P202

OVERVIEW OF THE ESKOM ANCILLARY SERVICES MARKET


J.F. DEAN, S.JOSEPH, R. NAIDOO

A market in Ancillary Services was developed as part of the Eskom Power Pool development from
1998. The Power Pool was an internal pool which allowed Eskom power stations to bid in to an energy
market day-ahead. The daily dispatch was based on these bids. At the same time a reserve market
was developed in parallel which allowed three categories of reserve to be bid in day-ahead. Some
demand side customers are also able to provide reserve services. Other Ancillary services include
Black Start and Islanding, Constrained Generation and Reactive Power. This paper describes at a
high level how these services are procured and monitored.
P203

WILLING-SELLER/WILLING-BUYER IN SOUTH AFRICA


P. TUSON

Recently, NERSA has issued a number of Consultation Papers (CPs) and Guidelines to assist with the
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
A2, A3,inB3
COLLOQUIUM
implementation
of Renewable
Energy
(RE) Independent
Power COMMITTEE
Producers (IPPs)
South
Africa, to
assist with Eskoms cost recovery as a result of expected purchases of power from IPPs and to assist
Eskom in managing its reserve margin by proposing Power Conservation Rules for consumers. These
documents state NERSAs and the governments commitments to Eskom being the single-buyer of
power from IPPs and the aspiration that 30% of future power generation will be derived from IPPs.
The principle of willing-seller/willing-buyer is accommodated in the proposed Renewable Energy Feed
In Tariffs (REFITs) CP and it is stated that RE IPPs are permitted to sell power directly to consumers
outside the REFIT mechanism. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of opening up
the South African market to the willing-seller/willing-buyer model and asks the question whether nonRE IPPs will also be able to sell power directly to consumers in the future local precedents already
exist e.g. Kelvin Power Station.
P204

OVERVIEW OF NEW SAPP TRANSMISSION PRICING METHODOLOGY


G.A. CHOWN, A. CHIKOVA, J.J. HEDGECOCK

The Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) has been trading electricity between member countries
using long term and short term bilateral contracts, the latter traded on a Short Term Energy Market
(STEM). The transmission pricing methodology used to date has been a point to point method where
wheeling charges are applied on a transaction by transaction basis. SAPP is moving from STEM to a
day-ahead market (DAM). The DAM is a centrally cleared auction process which is currently
undergoing market trials. The DAM clearing process results in the counterparty to each trade being
unknown. SAPP has hence had to change its transmission pricing methodology to a method based on
separate entry and exit charges. The new transmission pricing methodology has two parts: (i)
determination of the network costs of wheeling and revenue shares per TSO; and (ii) determination of
network wheeling prices to participants. In order to determine the network costs of wheeling and
revenue shares per TSO, the following steps are undertaken: (i) A Transit Horizontal Network (THN) is
defined, representing the transmission assets that could potentially be used for wheeling, (ii) the THN

The principle of willing-seller/willing-buyer is accommodated in the proposed Renewable Energy Feed


In Tariffs (REFITs) CP and it is stated that RE IPPs are permitted to sell power directly to consumers
outside the REFIT mechanism. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of opening up
the
South African
market
to the willing-seller/willing-buyer
modelCOMMITTEE
and asks the
whether non6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY
A2,question
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
RE IPPs will also be able to sell power directly to consumers in the future local precedents already
exist e.g. Kelvin Power Station.
P204

OVERVIEW OF NEW SAPP TRANSMISSION PRICING METHODOLOGY


G.A. CHOWN, A. CHIKOVA, J.J. HEDGECOCK

The Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) has been trading electricity between member countries
using long term and short term bilateral contracts, the latter traded on a Short Term Energy Market
(STEM). The transmission pricing methodology used to date has been a point to point method where
wheeling charges are applied on a transaction by transaction basis. SAPP is moving from STEM to a
day-ahead market (DAM). The DAM is a centrally cleared auction process which is currently
undergoing market trials. The DAM clearing process results in the counterparty to each trade being
unknown. SAPP has hence had to change its transmission pricing methodology to a method based on
separate entry and exit charges. The new transmission pricing methodology has two parts: (i)
determination of the network costs of wheeling and revenue shares per TSO; and (ii) determination of
network wheeling prices to participants. In order to determine the network costs of wheeling and
revenue shares per TSO, the following steps are undertaken: (i) A Transit Horizontal Network (THN) is
defined, representing the transmission assets that could potentially be used for wheeling, (ii) the THN
is costed for each TSO based on a standard costing methodology incorporating both asset-related and
operating costs, (iii) a Transit Key (TK) is defined for each TSO as the ratio of energy that is wheeled
to the total energy transported on the network, (iv) each TSOs network cost of wheeling is then
calculated as the product of the TK and the cost of the TSOs THN, (v) each TSOs share of revenue
received from network charges is then determined as the ratio of that TSOs network cost of wheeling
to the total network cost of wheeling. This paper describes the calculations that are required at each of
the above steps, focusing on the use of nodal power transfer distribution factors at key stages in the
calculations to maximize computational efficiency. It describes the approach to valuing network
assets that is adopted in SAPP, and highlights specific issues which were encountered in the practical
application of this transmission pricing technique to a large, multi-country system. Conclusions are
then drawn as to the potential benefits of this approach for wider application, as well as possible areas
for development of the technique in the future.
P205

CASE STUDY INTO THE APPLICATION OF TIME OR USE TARIFFS IN THE ESKOM
WESTERN REGION OF SOUTH AFRICA IN REDUCING PEAK LOADS
D. RAMSBOTTOM

This is a case study into the application of time of use tariffs in the Eskom Western Region. It is to
determine the effect that time of use tariffs have had on changing the load shape to reduce peak loads
during peak times. An area in the western region supplied from Houhoek substation was selected and
analysis was done on load profile information available for the total load and for all the large power
users. The large power user load profiles were grouped according to tariffs and summated. Analysis
of this data revealed that in this geographical area there has been insignificant shifting of load out of
peak periods as a result of time of use tariffs. The customers with the flattest yearly and daily load
profiles were those that were on non time of use tariffs. In this geographical area the customers
contributing the most to the total load profile shape were those on the Megaflex time of use tariff which
are mainly comprised of municipalities. It is therefore recommended that these municipalities be
encouraged and assisted to provide time of use tariffs to their end customers.
P206

DESIGNING THE SCADA ALARM SYSTEM TO DEAL WITH DISTURBANCES


R. CANDY

6th SOUTHERN
AFRICAthe
REGIONAL
& JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3, problems
B3 COLLOQUIUM
This
paper examines
reasons CONFERENCE
why Energy Management
Systems
(EMS)A2,
have
dealing
with disturbances as well as the consequences and the impacts of a disturbance on the control staff.
In addition, it defines the design requirements that need to exist within the SCADA and ALARM
applications to allow the control staff to deal efficiently with the consequential data following power
system disturbance. Currently, the basic premise in the design of the SCADA application, found in
the majority of Energy Management Systems, is that disturbances very seldom happen and when they
do they will not impact the control staff. This is contrary to both experience and the number of papers
published dealing with data overloading in the control room during disturbances. In practice,
disturbances do happen and they have a significant impact on the control staff and the data
acquisition systems ability to respond efficiently. The problems are serious enough that EPRI is now
working with international vendors of third party alarm analysis software in an attempt to address
disturbance related problems [1]. However, this effort is focused on existing SCADA designs and
does not look at the root cause of why the problems exist in the first place.

P207

MIGRATING THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT ESKOM


R. BOTHA, J.H. BOTHA

The Transmission Energy Management System Evolution Project, TEMSE, was awarded to Alstom
SA (Pty) Ltd with AREVA T&D (France) the main subcontractor, during September 2004, and went

published dealing with data overloading in the control room during disturbances. In practice,
disturbances do happen and they have a significant impact on the control staff and the data
acquisition systems ability to respond efficiently. The problems are serious enough that EPRI is now
working with international vendors of third party alarm analysis software in an attempt to address
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
disturbance related problems [1]. However, this effort is focused on existing SCADA designs and
does not look at the root cause of why the problems exist in the first place.
P207

MIGRATING THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT ESKOM


R. BOTHA, J.H. BOTHA

The Transmission Energy Management System Evolution Project, TEMSE, was awarded to Alstom
SA (Pty) Ltd with AREVA T&D (France) the main subcontractor, during September 2004, and went
into parallel operation in November 2007. A requirement in the Works Information of the project was
that the proposals shall comprise of the suppliers standard hardware and software with special
developments being kept to a minimum. Furthermore, an essential feature of the system is the
upgradeability and modularity. It is accepted that this type of upgrade path might require replacement
of certain hardware sub-systems and application software. It is essential however, that the base
system software will not require replacing throughout the evolutionary life of the system. The system
was delivered with the capability of full redundancy over two separate equipment floors. Yet, the
telecommunication end equipment is split equally between the floors. In the event of a complete floor
failure it will result in half of the system being out of scan. Also, the current TEMSE equipment rooms
will require new / upgraded facilities. The brief to the contractor is to ensure continuous operation of
the Energy Management System during the upgrade of the facility. This means maintaining the level
of availability required by the control centre, where no loss of redundancy during normal operating and
control can be tolerated. Secondly, migration of the system also creates the opportunity of adding
functionality that was not availability when the system was originally delivered. Lastly, there is a
requirement to consolidate where new technologies are introduced in the control room. Presenting the
information to the controllers can either require for the system to remain completely isolated from the
Energy Management System or integrated into the standard graphical user interface. Similarly, there
can be the requirement from all these systems to archive information over a period. All these drivers
for change, on top of a hardware replacement plan and software maintenance contract, contribute to
mapping the road to evolve the Energy Management System.
P208

REAL-TIME MONITORING OF THE TRANSMISSION SYSTEM: WATCHING OUT FOR


FIRES
H.F. VOSLOO, P.E. FROST, A. MOMBERG, I.T. JOSEPHINE

The transmission system of Eskom is subject to a number of extraneous influences that cause line
faults and consequently have a negative impact on power quality, leading to considerable costs to
customers. One example is fires under power lines. This paper discusses the background information
that lead to the decision to implement a real-time satellite based fire tracking system for Eskom. The
Active Fire Information System (AFIS) is described in the paper. The real-time use during the fire
season, as well as the use of the historic data in planning vegetation management is discussed.
P209

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE OUTAGE PLANNING THE CASE FOR


DYNAMIC OUTAGE SCHEDULING
N. APRIL

Eskom is focusing on meeting supply demand by engaging in a capacity expansion programme which
covers building of new power stations, power lines and strengthening of existing network.
Transmission system maintenance outage planning is impacted by time-varying constraints on the
system. These constraints are inherent to the historical investment criteria used to determine the
amount of redundancy in the system. Where this level of redundancy is impacted by varying load
patterns (seasonal and daily), additional factors such as the build program, the availability of
resources, and changes in weather patterns, complicate maintenance outage planning. The aim of

The transmission system of Eskom is subject to a number of extraneous influences that cause line
faults and consequently have a negative impact on power quality, leading to considerable costs to
customers. One example is fires under power lines. This paper discusses the background information
that
lead to theAFRICA
decisionREGIONAL
to implement
a real-time& satellite
basedCOMMITTEE
fire trackingA2,
system
forCOLLOQUIUM
Eskom. The
6th SOUTHERN
CONFERENCE
JOINT STUDY
A3, B3,
Active Fire Information System (AFIS) is described in the paper. The real-time use during the fire
season, as well as the use of the historic data in planning vegetation management is discussed.
P209

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE OUTAGE PLANNING THE CASE FOR


DYNAMIC OUTAGE SCHEDULING
N. APRIL

Eskom is focusing on meeting supply demand by engaging in a capacity expansion programme which
covers building of new power stations, power lines and strengthening of existing network.
Transmission system maintenance outage planning is impacted by time-varying constraints on the
system. These constraints are inherent to the historical investment criteria used to determine the
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3, B3
amount
of redundancy
in the system.
Where this
level of
redundancy
is impacted
byCOLLOQUIUM
varying load
patterns (seasonal and daily), additional factors such as the build program, the availability of
resources, and changes in weather patterns, complicate maintenance outage planning. The aim of
minimizing the risk of a transmission system interruption requires that the focus of maintenance
planning needs to shift to processes that allow for dynamic outage scheduling. This paper analyses
the Eskom Transmission (Southern Grid) System for the period 01 April 2007 -31 March 2008. It
highlights the importance of dynamic outage management to ensure that quality maintenance is done,
whilst the risk of interruptions to customers is minimized.
P210

ESKOM SECURITY CONSTRAINED DISPATCH AND AUTOMATIC GENERATION


CONTROL
G.A. CHOWN, J.C.PASSELERGUE, C.TARAZONA, M. KURUP

Eskom has recently updated its Energy Management System and included an enhanced generation
dispatch tool. The generation dispatch tool is designed to develop hourly day-ahead schedules, a
reschedule facility and real time dispatch. In ESKOM, the system operator, receives energy offers
day-ahead from generators. A unit commitment application determines which units to commit. The
day ahead application consists of an hourly-based security constrained dispatch application to also
determine and potentially relieve transmission constraints under normal and contingency conditions.
The re-schedule facility is designed to re-optimize day-ahead schedules when there are significant on
the day changes. The real-time dispatch is performed cyclically, every 5 minutes, for 15 minutes
ahead. Security constraints are determined by the real-time contingency analysis application. The real
time dispatch uses the latest state-estimator solution to determine current generation and network
conditions and a neural network to determine the load forecast for the next 15 minutes. Automatic
Generation Control (AGC) operates every 4 seconds, matching supply to demand. Generator base
points are computed and sent to the SCADA/EMS from day ahead or real time dispatch tools to
ensure an improved real time dispatch performance. The paper describes the standard Areva T&D
dispatch tools and enhancements made to improve the Eskom generation dispatch and interface to
AGC.

Conference Session 3
PROTECTION AND QUALITY OF SUPPLY

P301

MANAGING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING WAMS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN POWER


GRID
D.H. WILSON, R.A. FOLKES, A. EDWARDS, L.N.F. DE VILLIERS, N. MBULI

This paper presents the application of Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS) in the South African
power system. Some key elements of Eskoms vision for WAMS are presented, together with the
experience of Psymetrix in running WAMS systems and developing applications for system operators
around the world. The benefits of WAMS lie in three general areas: (i) Improving system security, (ii)
Optimising the use of transmission and generation, (iii) Managing stability during changes in the
system topology or generation profile. The operation of the South African power system is challenging
because of the long distances involved in power transmission, and also because of short supply of
available generation resources in recent years. It is important that generation assets are used as
effectively as possible, and WAMS is seen as a route to improve the security and utilisation of the
power system as it is operated close to its physical limits. As the system develops with an ambitious
programme of generation and transmission capacity expansion, and changing energy technologies,
WAMS is expected to become a critical tool to manage the changes.
The technical areas discussed in this paper include: (i) Dynamics and stability monitoring using
WAMS, (ii) Operational tools for islanding, resynchronisation and blackstart, (iii) Synergy between
WAMS and EMS, improving the precision of calculation of stability limits and violations, (iv) Outlook for
wide-area control applications. It is concluded that WAMS is a key technology for the South African
power system, enabling significant improvements to be made in system security and power transfer
capability. Eskom is therefore moving from a pilot phase to a large-scale deployment of WAMS that
promises to be a critical tool for operation and development of the power system.

CONFERENCE
SESSION 3

PROTECTION &
QUALITY OF SUPPLY

Generation Control (AGC) operates every 4 seconds, matching supply to demand. Generator base
points are computed and sent to the SCADA/EMS from day ahead or real time dispatch tools to
ensure an improved real time dispatch performance. The paper describes the standard Areva T&D
dispatch
tools and
enhancements
made to improve
the Eskom
generation dispatch
and
interface to
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY COMMITTEE
A2, A3, B3,
COLLOQUIUM
AGC.

Conference Session 3
PROTECTION AND QUALITY OF SUPPLY

P301

MANAGING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING WAMS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN POWER


GRID
D.H. WILSON, R.A. FOLKES, A. EDWARDS, L.N.F. DE VILLIERS, N. MBULI

This paper presents the application of Wide Area Monitoring Systems (WAMS) in the South African
power system. Some key elements of Eskoms vision for WAMS are presented, together with the
experience of Psymetrix in running WAMS systems and developing applications for system operators
around the world. The benefits of WAMS lie in three general areas: (i) Improving system security, (ii)
Optimising the use of transmission and generation, (iii) Managing stability during changes in the
system topology or generation profile. The operation of the South African power system is challenging
because of the long distances involved in power transmission, and also because of short supply of
available generation resources in recent years. It is important that generation assets are used as
effectively as possible, and WAMS is seen as a route to improve the security and utilisation of the
power system as it is operated close to its physical limits. As the system develops with an ambitious
programme of generation and transmission capacity expansion, and changing energy technologies,
WAMS is expected to become a critical tool to manage the changes.
The technical areas discussed in this paper include: (i) Dynamics and stability monitoring using
WAMS, (ii) Operational tools for islanding, resynchronisation and blackstart, (iii) Synergy between
WAMS and EMS, improving the precision of calculation of stability limits and violations, (iv) Outlook for
wide-area control applications. It is concluded that WAMS is a key technology for the South African
power system, enabling significant improvements to be made in system security and power transfer
capability. Eskom is therefore moving from a pilot phase to a large-scale deployment of WAMS that
promises to be a critical tool for operation and development of the power system.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P302

FAULT LEVELS: IMPACTS FOR LONG-TERM SYSTEM PLANNING PURPOSES


C. MUSHWANA

Eskoms current transmission expansion drive necessitates the integration of power plants and the
expansion of the networks at a rapid pace. One of the major system impacts is the change in fault
levels, which impacts the ratings of existing switchgear and also has implications for voltages profiles
and system stability. Planning a network with the development of fault levels as the major driver will
make the planning exercise more proactive, and the future system behaviour predictable. Generally,
fault levels are a good indicator for the strength of a power system, but how strong one builds a power
system will have limitations which are determined by both historic and future considerations for
network expansion. The common fault level management options are presented in this paper, namely;
network splitting, current limiting reactor, superconducting fault current limiter and solid-state fault
current limiter. The results presented in this paper cover the different fault levels management options
and how to best apply them for various system configurations and their long-term system impacts, in
terms of existing equipment ratings, voltage profiles and system stability.
P303

HIGH VOLTAGE (HV) AND EXTRA HIGH VOLTAGE (EHV) NETWORK INTERRUPTION
PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING : DEVELOPMENT OF THE NRS 0488 SPECIFICATION
B. CHATTERTON, R. KOCH, R. MCCURRACH,

This paper provides a summary of the recently completed NRS 048-8 specification, HV and EHV
Network Interruption Performance Measurement and Reporting. The underlying principles are
discussed, the key issues outlined, and the relevant details unpacked to provide a better appreciation
and understanding of the role of specification in the South African Electricity Supply Industry (ESI).
NRS 048-8 provides the requirements for reporting the network interruption performance of HV and
EHV networks in the South African Electricity Supply Industry. The aim of the specification is to assist
electricity licensees, local and national government, and large customer groupings (such as the
Energy Intensive User Group), in evaluating and tracking the overall performance of the South African
electricity supply systems. At the time of the compilation of this specification, methods for interruption
performance reporting differed substantially from one country to another. In compiling this standard,
the NRS 048 working group (WG) was therefore guided by the most recent international
recommendations provided in the Cigr Technical Report TB261, Power Quality Indices and
Objectives, and the practical experiences and key lessons learnt from the South African Transmission
and Distribution stakeholders. The requirements of the National Energy Regulator of South Africa
(NERSA) and the business and operational needs of licensees were also taken into account in the
preparation of this part of NRS 048.
P304

POWER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF


MEASURED DATA AND CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLANNING, DESIGN, OPERATION
AND MAINTENANCE OF THE TRANSMISSION NETWORK
E. VENTER, J.H.C. PRETORIUS, R.G. KOCH

This paper discusses interim research results from an ongoing study into the statistical properties of
the power quality data in the Eskom Quality of Supply Database. The aim of this study is to determine
the implications of applying different statistical assessment methods to the measured data for the
purpose of reporting transmission system performance under both normal and abnormal conditions.
P305

IMPACT OF HWC DSM ON VOLTAGE CONDITIONS AND THE CHOICE OF LOAD


PARAMETERS FOR FEEDER DESIGN
R. Herman, T. Gaunt

An extensive load research program, known as the NRS Load Research Project, was conducted
between 1994 and 2005 in South Africa. It produced a large volume of domestic customer load data
based on a 5-minute sampling period. From this data source statistically-based load models were
derived, and are used in a probabilistic design procedure for the sizing of LV feeders. The statistical
description used is a Beta probability density function. While this approach has received nation-wide
approval in South Africa, it does not include the effects of peak-load reduction through the use of hot-

E. VENTER, J.H.C. PRETORIUS, R.G. KOCH


This paper discusses interim research results from an ongoing study into the statistical properties of
the power quality data in the Eskom Quality of Supply Database. The aim of this study is to determine
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
the
implicationsAFRICA
of applying
different
statistical assessment
methods
to theA2,
measured
data for the
purpose of reporting transmission system performance under both normal and abnormal conditions.
P305

IMPACT OF HWC DSM ON VOLTAGE CONDITIONS AND THE CHOICE OF LOAD


PARAMETERS FOR FEEDER DESIGN

HERMAN,
GAUNT
R. Herman,
T.T.Gaunt
An extensive load research program, known as the NRS Load Research Project, was conducted
between 1994 and 2005 in South Africa. It produced a large volume of domestic customer load data
based on a 5-minute sampling period. From this data source statistically-based load models were
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM
derived,
and areAFRICA
used in
a probabilistic
design procedure
for the COMMITTEE
sizing of LV A2,
feeders.
The statistical
description used is a Beta probability density function. While this approach has received nation-wide
approval in South Africa, it does not include the effects of peak-load reduction through the use of hotwater cylinder (HWC) switching. In this paper we investigate the impact of HWC DSM on the voltage
performance of a LV feeder and the how it affects the choice of load parameters for design. It
describes a procedure for using load data for a community with HWC, but without DSM, and then
predicts the effect it would have on the characteristic loads once the HWCs are restored, subsequent
to load-levelling.
P306

MONITORING POWER QUALITY BEYOND EN 50160 AND IEC 61000-4-30


A. BROSHI

Power quality monitoring has become a standard task in electrical network management. The
standards currently in place provide minimum requirements, since they want to create a level playing
field that allows analyzers from different manufacturers to give the same results. It is good idea in
concept, but it also acts as a double-edged sword. Manufacturers design their product to comply with
these standards but typically do not provide data and measurements that allow power quality analysis
to go beyond current capabilities. To follow the guidelines set out by various standards and record
faults or disturbances, Todays meters rely soley on event-based triggers. While this method provides
engineers with some information regarding an event, it does not allow for full analysis of all power
parameters leading up to an event, during an event, or how the overall network recovers after an
event. Further, due to limitations in memory usage, it is likely that even the data captured by such
recording methods will not capture all the true power and energy parameters. In a majority of cases,
these limitations prevent power quality phenomena from being truly solved and prevent solutions that
will eliminate future recurrence. The paper will highlight case studies of Power Quality trouble
shooting that was not capable of solving the power quality problem with measurements simply taken
to comply with standards. It will further show that by providing engineers with data beyond the
standards, and unprecedented number of power quality events can not only be captured, but are
definitely solved.

Conference Session 4
PROTECTION AND QUALITY OF SUPPLY

P401

COMPARISON OF UHV AND 800 KV SPECIFICATIONS FOR SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT


H. ITO, A. JANSSEN, C. MERWE, Y. YAMAGATA, Y. FILION, U RIECHERT, D.
DUFOURNET, L. STENSTRM

Long distance bulk transmission of electrical energy forces utilities in a number of countries to
implement or plan electrical grids with a rated voltage above 800 kV for AC-transmission and above
600 kV for DC-transmission. Within CIGR SC A3, High Voltage Equipment, WG A3.22 has been
established to study the phenomena occurring in UHV AC networks, which are considered to behave
differently from EHV-networks, because of the utmost application of technical and analytical means to
reduce transient, temporary and recovery voltages as much as possible. Where for the 800 kV-level,
in use for over 40 years, the technical specifications were based on the extrapolation from 420 and
550 kV-levels, for UHV the new specifications are to a large extent based on sophisticated simulation
and calculation techniques, taking into consideration, for instance, the application of multiple highgrade MOSAs. This resulted, for instance, in insulation levels for UHV equipment not far beyond those
for 800 kV. TRV requirements have also been reviewed carefully and gave deviations from the
standard parameters as given in Table 1.
Table 1 : UHV TRV requirements in relation to 800 kV requirements
UHV
RRRV
kpp
kaf

t2

t3

T100

1.3 -> 1.2

1.4 -> 1.5

4*t1 -> 3*t1

T60

1.3 -> 1.2

1.5

6*t1 -> 3*t1

T30

1.3 -> 1.2

1.54

t3 -> t3

T10

1.3 -> 1.2

1.76

t3 -> t3

CONFERENCE
SESSION 4

SUBSTATIONS &
HV PLANT

these limitations prevent power quality phenomena from being truly solved and prevent solutions that
will eliminate future recurrence. The paper will highlight case studies of Power Quality trouble
shooting that was not capable of solving the power quality problem with measurements simply taken
to comply with standards. It will further show that by providing engineers with data beyond the
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
standards,
and unprecedented number of power quality events can not only be captured, but are
definitely solved.

Conference Session 4
SUBSTATIONS
& HVQUALITY
PLANT OF SUPPLY
PROTECTION AND

P401

COMPARISON OF UHV AND 800 KV SPECIFICATIONS FOR SUBSTATION EQUIPMENT


H. ITO, A. JANSSEN, C. MERWE, Y. YAMAGATA, Y. FILION, U RIECHERT, D.
DUFOURNET, L. STENSTRM

Long distance bulk transmission of electrical energy forces utilities in a number of countries to
implement or plan electrical grids with a rated voltage above 800 kV for AC-transmission and above
600 kV for DC-transmission. Within CIGR SC A3, High Voltage Equipment, WG A3.22 has been
established to study the phenomena occurring in UHV AC networks, which are considered to behave
differently from EHV-networks, because of the utmost application of technical and analytical means to
reduce transient, temporary and recovery voltages as much as possible. Where for the 800 kV-level,
in use for over 40 years, the technical specifications were based on the extrapolation from 420 and
550 kV-levels, for UHV the new specifications are to a large extent based on sophisticated simulation
and calculation techniques, taking into consideration, for instance, the application of multiple highgrade MOSAs. This resulted, for instance, in insulation levels for UHV equipment not far beyond those
for 800 kV. TRV requirements have also been reviewed carefully and gave deviations from the
standard parameters as given in Table 1.
Table 1 : UHV TRV requirements in relation to 800 kV requirements
UHV
RRRV
kpp
kaf

t2

t3

T100

1.3 -> 1.2

1.4 -> 1.5

4*t1 -> 3*t1

T60

1.3 -> 1.2

1.5

6*t1 -> 3*t1

T30

1.3 -> 1.2

1.54

t3 -> t3

T10

1.3 -> 1.2

1.76

t3 -> t3

TLF

()

1.5 -> 1.2

0.9*1.7

()

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE &t JOINT


COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
COLLOQUIUM
and tSTUDY
are based
on k =1.2,
for B3
() see
chapter 4
1

pp

Other phenomena and equipment are addressed: ITRV, line surge impedance, DC-component in
short-circuit currents, secondary arc extinction, VFTO, high-grade MOSA, HSGS, earthing switches
and disconnectors. A comparison is made between the IEC policy applied for 800 kV (and below) and
the proposals for UHV. Where applicable, the possibilities to reconsider the IEC specifications for 800
kV are given.
P402

VERIFICATION OF LIFETIME ARCING STRESS WITHSTAND OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS


THROUGH TESTING
R.P.P. SMEETS, P. KNOL

This contribution quantifies the accumulated arcing stress inside high-voltage circuit breakers during a
25 year period of operation. Ageing mechanisms due to this arcing stress are discussed briefly. The
aim is to design a suitable test program to verify endurance against this accumulated arcing stress:
electrical endurance. Passing this test program should assure a period of 25 years without major
maintenance. Data of fault- and network characteristics collected worldwide are used in a statistical
computer model in order to quantify a realistic electrical endurance test program in a recently (2008)
revised IEC standard. The actual standardisation status is outlined and discussed, and includes the
situation for medium voltage breakers.
P403

VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DYNAMIC PRE-INSERTION RESISTOR


MODEL
R. HOPKINS, C. KURINKO

This paper describes the dynamic computer model developed by ABB to support development of an
800-kV pre-insertion resistor for Eskom Transmission Groups 765 kV power system. The paper
illustrates the models value as a pre-insertion resistor design and application tool. Pre-insertion
resistors are commonly installed in high voltage circuit breakers to limit voltage and/or current
transients that may occur during circuit breaker switching. Typically the resistor portion is constructed
of multiple ceramic resistor discs arranged in stacks to provide the required resistance, dielectric
capability, and thermal capability. Unlike wire-wound resistors, ceramic resistors have a negative
temperature coefficient of resistance meaning that the resistance decreases as the resistor
temperature increases. In addition, ceramic resistors have a negative voltage coefficient of resistance
and therefore decrease in resistance as the applied instantaneous voltage increases. The net

Other phenomena and equipment are addressed: ITRV, line surge impedance, DC-component in
short-circuit
currents,
extinction, VFTO,
MOSA, HSGS,
switches
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICAsecondary
REGIONALarc
CONFERENCE
& JOINThigh-grade
STUDY COMMITTEE
A2, A3, earthing
B3, COLLOQUIUM
and disconnectors. A comparison is made between the IEC policy applied for 800 kV (and below) and
the proposals for UHV. Where applicable, the possibilities to reconsider the IEC specifications for 800
kV are given.
P402

VERIFICATION OF LIFETIME ARCING STRESS WITHSTAND OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS


THROUGH TESTING
R.P.P. SMEETS, P. KNOL

This contribution quantifies the accumulated arcing stress inside high-voltage circuit breakers during a
25 year period of operation. Ageing mechanisms due to this arcing stress are discussed briefly. The
aim is to design a suitable test program to verify endurance against this accumulated arcing stress:
electrical endurance. Passing this test program should assure a period of 25 years without major
maintenance. Data of fault- and network characteristics collected worldwide are used in a statistical
computer model in order to quantify a realistic electrical endurance test program in a recently (2008)
revised IEC standard. The actual standardisation status is outlined and discussed, and includes the
situation for medium voltage breakers.
P403

VOLTAGE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DYNAMIC PRE-INSERTION RESISTOR


MODEL
R. HOPKINS, C. KURINKO

This paper describes the dynamic computer model developed by ABB to support development of an
800-kV pre-insertion resistor for Eskom Transmission Groups 765 kV power system. The paper
illustrates the models value as a pre-insertion resistor design and application tool. Pre-insertion
resistors are commonly installed in high voltage circuit breakers to limit voltage and/or current
transients that may occur during circuit breaker switching. Typically the resistor portion is constructed
of multiple ceramic resistor discs arranged in stacks to provide the required resistance, dielectric
capability, and thermal capability. Unlike wire-wound resistors, ceramic resistors have a negative
temperature coefficient of resistance meaning that the resistance decreases as the resistor
temperature increases. In addition, ceramic resistors have a negative voltage coefficient of resistance
and therefore decrease in resistance as the applied instantaneous voltage increases. The net
combined effect of temperature and voltage on a ceramic type pre-insertion resistor is significant and
can result in a decrease in resistance value of 40% or more. This resistance change has unfavorable
thermal and dielectric effects on the resistor and also restricts its prime function of reducing switching
transients. Often these effects are not known or considered by electric utility engineers in the
application of pre-insertion resistors. Whilst circuit breaker switching resistor development engineers
are aware of these temperature and voltage effects, the net impact on the design is only approximated
and accurate dynamic computer models of the relationship are not used.
P404

PHASE-TO-PHASE INFLUENCE A DESIGN CHALLENGE FOR CURRENT


TRANSFORMERS IN GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEARS
D. Braisch, U. Schichler, M. Schumacher, H.W. Funk, R. Krebs

Over the past decades the development of high voltage gas insulated switchgears (GIS) has shown
only one direction regarding increasing compactness, higher current and voltage ratings combined
with steadily rising short-circuit current level in transmission and distribution systems. The insulating
gas SF6 allows very short distances between the phases of all components of the GIS including the
current transformers. In principle the secondary current of current transformers is an image of the
primary current of the enclosed phase conductor scaled down with the transformer ratio. Limitations of
the transformer principle are well known and limits for measuring errors are well defined in the relevant
standards. Especially everyone relies on the rule: If no primary current flows, no secondary current will
flow. Currents flowing in conductors outside the current transformer core will not influence the current
in the secondary CT winding as long as there is no saturation of the iron core. In case of a single
phase fault the distance between the conductor (with the fault current) to the other two phases may be
short enough to saturate the adjacent part of the magnetic iron core of the two other phases. In such a
case of partial saturation the total magnetic flux is nonzero and a current will flow through the low
resistive secondary circuit even with no corresponding primary current present. Similar effects are

can result in a decrease in resistance value of 40% or more. This resistance change has unfavorable
thermal and dielectric effects on the resistor and also restricts its prime function of reducing switching
transients. Often these effects are not known or considered by electric utility engineers in the
application of pre-insertion resistors. Whilst circuit breaker switching resistor development engineers
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
B3, COLLOQUIUM
are
aware of these
temperature
and
voltage effects,
the net
impact
on the design
is only
approximated
and accurate dynamic computer models of the relationship are not used.
P404

PHASE-TO-PHASE INFLUENCE A DESIGN CHALLENGE FOR CURRENT


TRANSFORMERS IN GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEARS

BRAISCH,
SCHICHLER,
M. SCHUMACHER,
H.W.
FUNK, R. KREBS
D. Braisch,
U. U.
Schichler,
M. Schumacher,
H.W. Funk,
R. Krebs
Over the past decades the development of high voltage gas insulated switchgears (GIS) has shown
only one direction regarding increasing compactness, higher current and voltage ratings combined
with steadily rising short-circuit current level in transmission and distribution systems. The insulating
gas SF6 allows very short distances between the phases of all components of the GIS including the
current transformers. In principle the secondary current of current transformers is an image of the
primary current of the enclosed phase conductor scaled down with the transformer ratio. Limitations of
the transformer principle are well known and limits for measuring errors are well defined in the relevant
standards. Especially everyone relies on the rule: If no primary current flows, no secondary current will
flow. Currents flowing in conductors outside the current transformer core will not influence the current
in the secondary CT winding as long as there is no saturation of the iron core. In case of a single
phase fault the distance between the conductor (with the fault current) to the other two phases may be
6th SOUTHERN
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3,phases.
B3 COLLOQUIUM
short
enough toAFRICA
saturateREGIONAL
the adjacent
part of the magnetic
iron core
of the twoA2,
other
In such a
case of partial saturation the total magnetic flux is nonzero and a current will flow through the low
resistive secondary circuit even with no corresponding primary current present. Similar effects are
known from other applications, e.g. CTs in power transformers or at bus ducts of generators. For such
applications the effect can be recognized during normal operation whereas here the influence during a
fault current scenario will be discussed. Measures at the CT cores have been tested following the
proposals found in the literature for applications with a similar effect. With none of the solutions the
phenomenon of secondary current caused by partial saturation could be eliminated. Furthermor the
tests have shown magnetic remanence in the iron core aggravates the effect and is becoming decisive
for the polarity of induced secondary currents. International standards for current transformers and the
related type and routine tests are all focused on a single phase CT unit and do not address the
phenomena of a 3-phase CT. As most of modern differential protection relays operate phase selective,
the critical fault scenario is a high external single-phase fault which causes secondary currents in the
other two phases. The protection relay will handle the high currents and the CT saturation in the faulty
phase correctly but may by triggered by the induced currents of remanence-ruled polarity in the
healthy phases.
P405

DEAD TANK BASED COMPACT SWITCHGEAR


P. STENZEL

Compact switchgear assemblies for high voltage substations fill the gap between Air Insulated
Switchgear (AIS) and Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) [1].The Dead Tank Compact (DTC) for rated
voltages 123 kV to 245 kV is a compact solution based on dead tank circuit breakers. It is a
combination of circuit breaker, disconnectors, earthing switches and several other elements of high
voltage switchgear. Both standard and customised versions of switchgear assemblies are available
thanks to the high degree of flexibility achieved by combining different elements. The DTC concept is
characterized by high reliability and notable cost saving.
P406

CONVERSION OF EXISTING 'DOUBLE BUSBAR SINGLE BREAKER' ARRANGEMENT


SUBSTATIONS TO 'BREAKER AND A HALF' CONFIGURATION
S.K. CHIBBA, A.Y. AMOD

Eskom has embarked on a project to increase its supply capacity and reliability on its transmission
network, especially to the Southern part of the country where generation is minimal. Historically,
Eskom had adopted a double busbar single breaker arrangement on its 765kV, 400kV, 275kV, 220kV
and 132kV substations, which provided an adequate level of reliability. With progression, demand has
increased, land availability has decreased and reliability requirements increased. As a result, Eskom
has had to review its substation design and layout strategies. Eskom has departed from the
conventional double busbar, single breaker (with bypass) configurations and has opted for the more
reliable and flexible breaker and a half configuration. The 400kV system forms the backbone of the
supply network. All 400kV substations, which are double busbar single breaker configuration (in some
cases, with Bypass facility), are key supply points to the distribution network, one of them being
Acacia substation in the Western Cape. Acacia substation has a triple busbar layout that is currently
being used in a double busbar arrangement. This paper details the primary plant conversion of
Acacias 400kV double busbar arrangement to a breaker and a half configuration.
P407

IEC61850: UTILIZING GOOSE MESSAGES FOR A FULLY AUTOMATED TEST AND


COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE FOR THE NEW BREAKER-AND-A-HALF SCHEMES
IMPLEMENTED IN THE ESKOM 765KV TRANSMISSION NETWORK
A. DIERKS, C. VENTER

supply network. All 400kV substations, which are double busbar single breaker configuration (in some
cases, with Bypass facility), are key supply points to the distribution network, one of them being
Acacia substation in the Western Cape. Acacia substation has a triple busbar layout that is currently
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE This
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
B3, conversion
COLLOQUIUM
being
used in AFRICA
a double
busbar arrangement.
paper
details
the primary
plant
of
Acacias 400kV double busbar arrangement to a breaker and a half configuration.
P407

IEC61850: UTILIZING GOOSE MESSAGES FOR A FULLY AUTOMATED TEST AND


COMMISSIONING PROCEDURE FOR THE NEW BREAKER-AND-A-HALF SCHEMES
IMPLEMENTED IN THE ESKOM 765KV TRANSMISSION NETWORK
A. DIERKS, C. VENTER

Associated with the 765kV system upgrade in Eskom, the implementation of a breaker-and-a-half
substation layout and the introduction of IEC61850 based communication in Eskom Transmission
substations, a new generation protective relay schemes for transmission feeders (both line impedance
and line differential), transformers, reactors and busbars have been developed. One objective of this
development is to improve the efficiency of commissioning and routine maintenance testing in terms of
speed and quality of testing and generation of results. Utilizing a specifically designed Test GOOSE
message, the need to interfere with the test object, the test equipment and/or test procedure during
the execution of a test procedure is reduced to a minimum. With the test procedure subscribing to
6th SOUTHERN
JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
COLLOQUIUM
function
specificAFRICA
pick-upREGIONAL
signals, CONFERENCE
which are part& of
the Test
GOOSE
message,
theB3need
to switch
OFF overlapping functions on the relay is eliminated. Also as the function specific pick-up signals
respond instantaneously, much faster tests are possible compared to triggering to a time delayed trip
signal. Lastly all the pick-up signals are available On-line, eliminating the need to re-wire hardwired
trigger signals during the execution of a test procedure. The result is a fully automatic test procedure
which improves the quality of testing and reduces the overall test time. The paper gives a brief
overview of the new protective relay scheme architecture as well as the advantages of using the
IEC61850 GOOSE messages to communicate between the various IEDs within a scheme. The paper
then describes in detail the test philosophy and how GOOSE messages have been configured to
improve the speed and efficiency of commissioning and routine testing for the various schemes. The
test procedures as well as the test system to achieve a fully automatic test of the various schemes /
IEDs will be presented.
P410

400 KV AND 500 KV EXTRUDED UNDERGROUND CABLE SYSTEMS INSTALLED IN


INCLINED TUNNELS OR SHAFTS FOR GENERATING POWER STATIONS
P. ARGAUT

Starting from 1985, several 400 kV and 500 kV Underground Cable Systems have been installed
worldwide to connect generating power stations to the Networks.
In Hydro Electric Generation Plants, due to the difference of altitude of the generators and the
transition to overhead, the cables have been installed in a great part of the cable route in vertical
shafts (up to more than 200 m) or inclined tunnels.
The paper will address the main technical issues of such cable systems: cable system design,
installation commissioning.
P411

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND EARTHING CONSIDERATIONS IN HIGH


TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR REACTORS
P.H. PRETORIUS, T. CHAUKE, R. SAUNDERS, R. TRAYNOR. J. HAVENGA

The topics of Earthing and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) present their own challenges in the
design of new industrial power plants. Particularly so when new technologies, new concepts and
specific standards are at play. EMC is not a new concept but may receive little attention in a particular
project phase, unless specifically emphasised. This situation, when married to new-build projects that
have to develop under strict time frames, bring specific design challenges to the fore. Which
international standards shall be selected for the design: IEEE or IEC? The choice would have been
easy if proper alignment between these standards was possible. Further, can a standard be used if in
a status of Committee Draft for Voting? The publication of standards follows a process that may run
over several years. Newly published standards may also present specific practices acceptable in
countries abroad but not in South Africa. Designing for Earthing and EMC further demands interfacing
with several other disciplines and design teams, such as, Electrical, Mechanical and Civil, to mention a
few. The first challenge is to motivate, from an EMC point of view, why a particular design is preferred.
Secondly, to get the third party (focusing mainly on his / her own field of study and problems) to accept
and integrate the design for purposes of EMC. This paper discusses the challenges that the design
engineer may face from an EMC and Earthing point of view. Particular examples of challenges,
relevant to the industrial development in South Africa, are provided with proposed solutions to
overcome these.

Conference Session 5
TRANSFORMERS

P501

THIRTEEN YEARS TEST EXPERIENCE WITH SHORT-CIRCUIT WITHSTAND


CAPABILITY OF LARGE POWER TRANSFORMERS
R.P.P. SMEETS, L.H. TE PASKE, P.P. LEUFKENS, T. FOGELBERG

CONFERENCE
SESSION 5

TRANSFORMERS

Secondly, to get the third party (focusing mainly on his / her own field of study and problems) to accept
and integrate the design for purposes of EMC. This paper discusses the challenges that the design
engineer may face from an EMC and Earthing point of view. Particular examples of challenges,
relevant
to theAFRICA
industrial
development
in South
Africa,STUDY
are provided
withA2,
proposed
solutions to
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
COMMITTEE
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
overcome these.

Conference Session 5
TRANSFORMERS

P501

THIRTEEN YEARS TEST EXPERIENCE WITH SHORT-CIRCUIT WITHSTAND


CAPABILITY OF LARGE POWER TRANSFORMERS
R.P.P. SMEETS, L.H. TE PASKE, P.P. LEUFKENS, T. FOGELBERG

The ability to withstand a short circuit is recognised more and more as an essential characteristic of
power transformers. IEC and IEEE Standards, as well as other national standards specify short-circuit
testing and how to check the withstand capability. Unfortunately, however, there is extensive evidence
that the matter is not as simple as the standards make it sound. Failures caused by short circuits are
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL outages,
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
COMMITTEE
A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM
still
a major cause
of transformer
though
failureSTUDY
rates vary
widely inA2,
different
countries and
systems, depending on various circumstances, network characteristics and the equipment installed.
Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 13 years by
KEMA. In total, 102 transformers >= 25 MVA participated in the survey. Test statistics show that at
first access to standard IEC 60076-5 short-circuit tests, 28% failed initially. Failures were observed
throughout the complete range of voltage (20 - 500 kV) and power (25 - 440 MVA) tested.
P502

PREDICTING TRANSMISSION TRANSFORMER CONDITION STATUS USING DGA


SIGNATURES
A. SINGH, L. MOODLEY, K. GOVENDER, Y. CHINABOO, S. GOVENDER

This paper presents the results from a DGA study into failed Eskom Transmission transformers to
identify typical failure signature patterns. Historical DGA data of failed units was analysed to identify
typical signature patterns of the failures. From the results it is clear that careful analysis of DGA
patterns can predict dielectric, thermal and overloading problems. The methodology was developed by
analyzing the DGA signatures and comparing the failure causes obtained after tear downs of the failed
units. For the cases that were analyzed the failure mode predicted using DGA signatures verified the
findings after the tear downs. It is important to note that the DGA signatures gave clear indication of a
fault in its early stages of development. The trends of the DGA signatures have proved to be a key
component in the detection of faults.
P503

INTERPRETATION OF FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS (FRA) RESULTS FOR


DIAGNOSING TRANSFORMER WINDING DEFORMATION
A.W. DARWIN, D. SOFIAN, Z.D. WANG, P. N. JARMAN

The short circuit currents caused by a fault in power system networks are experienced by other
apparatus operating on the faulty system, and could impact on the integrity of this apparatus,
particularly if it is in an aged condition. Power transformers in particular are designed to accept and
limit short circuit currents, but these currents can cause extreme electromagnetic forces within the
windings and this can cause mechanical deformation of the windings if the design is poor or if the
mechanical strength of the transformer has been reduced by ageing processes. It is obviously
important that the asset manager knows whether the involved transformer has suffered damage that
could limit its life expectancy. To be able to diagnose such winding deformation without intrusive
inspections requires advanced detection techniques such as frequency response analysis (FRA)
together with correct interpretation of the FRA measurement results. CIGRE A2 has published a
technical brochure which details the effectiveness of this diagnostic measurement method. The main
challenge for this effective technique is how to accurately interpret the FRA measurement results to
ensure correct diagnosis, especially when the difference between the measured result and the
reference fingerprint is ambiguous. Using a manufacturers expertise and knowledge of the
transformer structure, coupled with the expertise of mathematically modelling transformers, FRA
fingerprints have been generated for different winding deformation scenarios, as well as for various
winding structures and lead connections. These results have been compared with FRA traces of
existing National Grid transformers. This has lead towards the development of some general FRA
interpretation rules as well as a better understanding. The uniqueness of this paper is that it is based
on the synergy of twenty years of National Grids FRA measurement experience, a transformer
manufacturers knowledge and experience, and a universitys modelling skills. This synergy has
provided valuable interpretation experience for winding deformation diagnosis using the FRA
technique.
P504

ASPECTS OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF SWEEP FREQUENCY RESPONSE


ANALYSIS (SFRA) ON POWER TRANSFORMERS
A. KRAETGE, M. KRGER, J.L. VELSQUEZ, H. VILJOEN, A. DIERKS

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) has turned out to be a powerful and sensitive method
to evaluate the mechanical integrity of core, windings and clamping structures within power

interpretation rules as well as a better understanding. The uniqueness of this paper is that it is based
on the synergy of twenty years of National Grids FRA measurement experience, a transformer
manufacturers knowledge and experience, and a universitys modelling skills. This synergy has
provided valuable interpretation experience for winding deformation diagnosis using the FRA
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
technique.
P504

ASPECTS OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF SWEEP FREQUENCY RESPONSE


ANALYSIS (SFRA) ON POWER TRANSFORMERS
A. KRAETGE, M. KRGER, J.L. VELSQUEZ, H. VILJOEN, A. DIERKS

Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) has turned out to be a powerful and sensitive method
to evaluate the mechanical integrity of core, windings and clamping structures within power
transformers by measuring their electrical transfer functions over a wide frequency range. The
contribution summarizes various aspects of the practical application of SFRA. After a short
introduction of SFRA basics a survey of existing standards and guides on FRA is given. The different
sources of reference data and their significance are discussed using examples. Uncertainties are
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
& JOINT The
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3, B3
COLLOQUIUM
shown
and tipsAFRICA
for dealing
with CONFERENCE
them are presented.
choice
of test A2,
types
is discussed
for
measurements without existing reference data. Information about the handling of test data is
mentioned. A summary of guidelines derived from a large number of successful measurements is
given to put the reader in a position to achieve a good degree of repeatability, too. Finally the
application of SFRA for the evaluation of transportation is described and an example for the
successful detection of shipment damage is given.
P505

DETERMINING OF POLE-ZERO REPRESENTATIONS OF FRA MEASUREMENT DATA


FOR INTERPRETATION OF POWER TRANSFORMER TRANSFER FUNCTION
DEVIATIONS
M. HEINDL, S. TENBOHLEN, A. KRAETGE, M. KRGER, J.L. VELSQUEZ

Frequency Response Analysis (FRA) compares measured transfer functions (TF) of power
transformers. Deviations of frequency response curves indicate electrical or mechanical damages of
windings. As assessments are done by experts, no objective guidelines for interpretation of
measurement results exist. This paper deals with approximation of measured power transformer
frequency responses using complex rational function models. The aim is to develop an algorithm for
automated interpretation using analytical models created on the basis of measurement data. A fitting
algorithm maps the information contained in measured curves on a pole-zero model of reduced
complexity. TF of RLC two-port networks are linear systems and can be described by rational
functions consisting of two polynomials with real coefficients. In [3], an iterative method called Vector
Fitting (VF) is described which tries to find the best fitting rational function for a measured complex
frequency response in a least square sense. The number of iterations and the assumed degree of
measured TF are input parameters to the algorithm and play an important role. These parameters
have to be optimized in order to fulfil requirements for FRA interpretation purposes: Fitting accuracy
has to be high, i.e. resonance peaks of the measured TF have to be captured precisely. Root mean
square error between measured and fitted curve has to be in the few per mill range while degree of
the fitting rational function has to be minimized. The procedure of TF approximation with Vector Fitting
is improved by pre-estimation of the needed model complexity along with optimized starting pole
distribution. The developed algorithm was demonstrated using measured FRA data. Interpretation of
slight deviations between frequency responses is the most challenging task of FRA. The found
analytical representations are a first starting point for further algorithms contributing to automatic and
objective assessment of FRA measurements. Future interpretation algorithms may incorporate
comparisons of pole patterns of fitted analytical models.
P506

PROTECTION OF OIL-FILLED TRANSFORMER AGAINST EXPLOSION


G. PERIGAUD, M. P. BOIARCIUC, S. MULLER

Oil filled transformer explosions are a critical industrial issue since they can result in dangerous
spillages, expensive damages and possible environmental pollution. To prevent explosions, a fast
depressurization strategy based on a quick oil evacuation was developed and its efficiency was
experimentally tested. The tests showed that when an electrical fault occurs in a transformer, it
generates one dynamic pressure peak which propagates in the oil and activates the protection within
milliseconds, avoiding tank explosion by preventing static pressure increase. Furthermore, a numerical
tool was developed to simulate the phenomena highlighted during the tests and particularly the
pressure wave propagation. The tool is based on a compressible two-phase flow modelling where
viscous flow, electromagnetic, thermal and gravity effects are taken into account. Simulations of the
consequences of an electrical arc occurring in a 200 MVA transformer geometry were performed.
They confirm that, if the arc occurs inside an unprotected tank, the pressure waves generated by the
arc and their various reflections on the tank walls leads to an increase of static pressure which cannot
be withstood by the tank. Simulations also showed that this static pressure increase can be prevented
by a quick oil evacuation triggered by the first dynamic pressure peak generated by the electrical arc.
P507

QUALITY ASSURANCE OF INSULATING OIL FOR USE IN NEW TRANSFORMERS


A. LOMBARD

Technical standards form the basis for insulating oil purchases. The procurement process commences

consequences of an electrical arc occurring in a 200 MVA transformer geometry were performed.
They confirm that, if the arc occurs inside an unprotected tank, the pressure waves generated by the
arc and their various reflections on the tank walls leads to an increase of static pressure which cannot
be
withstood by the tank. Simulations also showed that this static pressure increase can be prevented
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
by a quick oil evacuation triggered by the first dynamic pressure peak generated by the electrical arc.
P507

QUALITY ASSURANCE OF INSULATING OIL FOR USE IN NEW TRANSFORMERS


A. LOMBARD

Technical standards form the basis for insulating oil purchases. The procurement process commences
with the issuing of tenders which incorporates technical specifications. Within Eskom these technical
specifications are compiled by experts from the various line groups and supporting functions. The
specifications
compiled
basedCONFERENCE
on international
standards,
well as the
of specifics
6th SOUTHERNare
AFRICA
REGIONAL
& JOINT
STUDYas
COMMITTEE
A2,inclusion
A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM
derived from company experience and requirements. In most cases, very limited testing are performed
to establish conformation of oils to standards at point of delivery and the end user are reliant upon the
supplier information and documentation. These practices put the end user at risk, especially when a
number of role players are involved in the handling and storage of the oil. Quality assurance testing
becomes very necessary prior to oil acceptance, not only to ensure that the correct product is
delivered, but also to ensure that the oil was not exposed to contaminants during the process of
transportation, transfer and storage. This paper discusses a number of case studies relating to
problems that were experienced, as well as new testing criteria that had to be established in order to
ensure product conformance to the purchase specification against which the oil was initially accepted.
The case studies cover particulate contamination, reduction of dissipation factor and interfacial tension
of the oil that were experienced as a result of exposure to unknown sources during transportation and
storage of oil. It also covers a case study where the presence of trace amounts of silicone oil
contamination was caused due to the usage of new flexible storage bags. This paper attempts to
make the end users aware of the risks that could be faced if a quality assurance program to evaluate
incoming oil is not in place, as well as the advantages of such a program to enable the end user to
affect the quality assurance process as agreed to during the tender is actually adhered to by the
supplier.
P509

COMPARING VARIOUS MOISTURE DETERMINATION METHODS FOR POWER


TRANSFORMERS
M. KOCH, M. KRGER, S. TENBOHLEN

This paper discusses and compares various methods of assessing moisture in the liquid and solid
insulation of power transformers. Water in oil-paper-insulations causes three damaging effects: it
decreases the dielectric withstand strength, accelerates cellulose aging and causes the emission of
gaseous bubbles at high temperatures. Therefore knowledge about the moisture concentration in a
transformer is of great importance for safe operation and for further maintenance actions. On-line, onsite and off-site moisture determination methods have been compared: Karl Fischer titration applied to
oil and paper samples, capacitive probes, equilibrium diagrams and dielectric response methods
(Recovery Voltage Method RVM, Polarisation and Depolarisation Currents PDC, Frequency Do-main
Spectroscopy FDS). The traditional method of moisture evaluation, oil sampling with subsequent Karl
Fischer titration and application of an equilibrium diagram, suffers from severe errors resulting into a
poor accuracy. There-fore a new type of equilibrium diagrams based on moisture saturation in the oil
(relative humidity) was developed. For dielectric response methods, the recovery voltage method is
now outdated since its interpretation scheme appeared to be unable for compensating the interfacial
polarisation effect and oil conductivity. In contrast to this, the new methods polarisation and
depolarisation currents and frequency domain spectroscopy feature scientifically founded
interpretation schemes and are thus able to reliably calculate water in the solid insulation. In this
article a new approach is applied, which combines measurements in time and frequency domain for
shortening the time duration. Its software also compensates for conductive aging by-products. The
methods were applied to several transformers for on-site moisture evaluation comparing conventional
to new approaches. For new transformers, the analysis of the dielectric response suits best since
moisture equilibrium cannot be expected directly after the manufacturing process. However, due to the
dry condition particularly the measurement of the low frequencies is of importance (e.g. down to 100
Hz). The study case on oil processing impressively illustrates that most of the moisture is in the solid
insulation and for drying purposes the cellulose needs to be treated. Another transformer was dried
using on-line oil circulation for 1.5 years, resulting in a decrease of moisture content by about 1.2 %
and therefore a longer life expectation. Moisture determination for a heavily aged transformer indicates
that the methods and algorithms not taking into account the aging state will overestimate the moisture
con-tent. This may lead to wrong maintenance decisions. Equilibrium diagrams based on moisture
saturation in oil delivered credible results in contrast to the conventional use of moisture content
(ppm). Within this work the developed dielectric analysis software proved its capability to compensate
for conductive aging by-products and provide dependable results for moisture assessment of power
transformers.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P510

ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY INSULATING LIQUIDS - A CHALLENGE FOR POWER


TRANSFORMERS
G. J. PUKEL, R. SCHWARZ, F. SCHATZL, F. BAUMANN, A. GERST

The most widely used liquid for electrical insulation and heat transfer in transformers is mineral oil
which is based on crude oil. Even though their technical characteristics have been optimized over the
last century to meet changing requirements, environmental performance and their availability in the
future must be addressed as petroleum resources are eventually going to run out. Due to their
excellent biodegradability properties and the fact that they can be fabricated of renewable resources
the demand for ester fluids is rising. Such environmentally friendly insulating liquids are produced by
several companies. In distribution transformers business they have shown to be reliable in operation.
Even with mineral oil in high voltage applications, every minor change in transformer design or
transformer material needs to be vetted. Changing a crucial component such as the insulating liquid
itself, the impact must be proven most accurately. This paper illustrates issues which must be clarified
in order to successfully operate power transformers filled with these environmentally friendly and
renewable insulating liquids.

Conference Session 6
LINES

P601

ON THE EARTHING OF OVERHEAD POWER LINES - A CASE STUDY


P.H. PRETORIUS, A.A. BURGER, C. CURTIS, D.C. SMITH

Concern has been expressed about the overheating of current-carrying earth conductors, at two
particular locations (Tower No 1 and Tower No 4) on a 400 kV overhead line. The overheating not only
presents an associated fire and safety risk but can also lead to potential conductor damage. This
paper covers the technical investigation into the case mentioned. The investigation included a site visit
and steady state current measurements. In addition, a software model was developed to study current
flow (under both steady state and fault conditions) in an attempt to confirm the cause of the problem
and to make recommendations to correct the installation. The paper demonstrates the importance of a
proper technical analysis in solving field problems and stresses the impact that a lack in technical
skills may have on line construction and maintenance. In addition, the value of software modelling in
studying various scenarios associated with the performance of large plant, is highlighted.
P602

ON THE SURGE IMPEDANCE OF 765 KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWERS - VALIDATION


AND APPLICATION
P.H. PRETORIUS, D. MUFTIC, L. PETER, C. VAN DER MERWE

The surge impedance of a power line tower is an important design parameter employed in the
lightning performance and insulation co-ordination of the line. Simplified numerical models are in many
cases used to determine this parameter that is costly to determine by measurement. Where equations
do not exist for specific towers, such as, cross rope suspension towers with guy wires, certain
assumptions are made in determining the surge impedance for these towers. This paper addresses
the application of an electromagnetic model to determine the surge impedance of new Eskom 765 kV
double circuit towers presently under development. The tower top voltage and surge impedance
obtained with the electromagnetic model are compared with the experimental findings from a
Japanese UHV tower (Nishi Gunma Line, Tower No 3) study. In addition, the model is applied to the
new Eskom 765 kV double circuit self support and cross-rope towers presently being developed.
Application of the model and the approach covered in this paper brings about a saving in cost (by
excluding experimental work) and also supports improved design in using more advanced software
models.

CONFERENCE
SESSION 6

LINES - 1

excellent biodegradability properties and the fact that they can be fabricated of renewable resources
the demand for ester fluids is rising. Such environmentally friendly insulating liquids are produced by
several companies. In distribution transformers business they have shown to be reliable in operation.
Even with mineral oil in high voltage applications, every minor change in transformer design or
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
COLLOQUIUM
transformer
material
needs
to be vetted.
Changing
a crucial
component
suchA2,
asA3,
theB3,
insulating
liquid
itself, the impact must be proven most accurately. This paper illustrates issues which must be clarified
in order to successfully operate power transformers filled with these environmentally friendly and
renewable insulating liquids.

Conference Session 6
LINES

P601

ON THE EARTHING OF OVERHEAD POWER LINES - A CASE STUDY


P.H. PRETORIUS, A.A. BURGER, C. CURTIS, D.C. SMITH

Concern has been expressed about the overheating of current-carrying earth conductors, at two
particular locations (Tower No 1 and Tower No 4) on a 400 kV overhead line. The overheating not only
presents an associated fire and safety risk but can also lead to potential conductor damage. This
paper covers the technical investigation into the case mentioned. The investigation included a site visit
and steady state current measurements. In addition, a software model was developed to study current
flow (under both steady state and fault conditions) in an attempt to confirm the cause of the problem
and to make recommendations to correct the installation. The paper demonstrates the importance of a
proper technical analysis in solving field problems and stresses the impact that a lack in technical
skills may have on line construction and maintenance. In addition, the value of software modelling in
studying various scenarios associated with the performance of large plant, is highlighted.
P602

ON THE SURGE IMPEDANCE OF 765 KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT TOWERS - VALIDATION


AND APPLICATION
P.H. PRETORIUS, D. MUFTIC, L. PETER, C. VAN DER MERWE

The surge impedance of a power line tower is an important design parameter employed in the
lightning performance and insulation co-ordination of the line. Simplified numerical models are in many
cases used to determine this parameter that is costly to determine by measurement. Where equations
do not exist for specific towers, such as, cross rope suspension towers with guy wires, certain
assumptions are made in determining the surge impedance for these towers. This paper addresses
the application of an electromagnetic model to determine the surge impedance of new Eskom 765 kV
double circuit towers presently under development. The tower top voltage and surge impedance
obtained with the electromagnetic model are compared with the experimental findings from a
Japanese UHV tower (Nishi Gunma Line, Tower No 3) study. In addition, the model is applied to the
new Eskom 765 kV double circuit self support and cross-rope towers presently being developed.
Application of the model and the approach covered in this paper brings about a saving in cost (by
excluding experimental work) and also supports improved design in using more advanced software
models.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P603

A FRAMEWORK FOR ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELD EXPOSURE LIMITS IN POWER


SYSTEM DESIGN AND OPERATION
P.H. PRETORIUS, P.T. BHULOSE, A.A. BURGER, D. MUFTIC, A.C. BRITTEN

Recent discussions with the Department of Health alluded to the fact that electric and magnetic field
(EMF) exposure may be regulated in South Africa in future. The exact time that such regulation may
occur is not clear at present. Regulation will be science based and will most likely be based on
considerations of the ICNIRP Basic Restriction (10 mA/m2 in the case of occupational exposure and 2
mA/m2 in the case of public exposure). The exact reason for the action of proposed regulation is not
clear. It appears, however, not to be driven by specific and recent research outcomes. It can be shown
that the ICNIRP Reference Levels are easily exceeded in some occupational and public exposure
situations. These include, public exposure to electric fields within the servitude of 765 kV lines
(exceptional case) and some 400 kV lines; occupational exposure to electric fields inside open air 765
kV substations and occupational exposure to magnetic fields during live line conditions. This paper
proposes that, based on recent local and international research findings and in order to meet the
requirements for the ICNIRP Basic Restriction for public exposure, the design limit of 10 kV/m
(maximum rms level at 1,8 m) is still applicable for overhead power line designs, even at EHV or UHV
level. Specific recommendations are made in meeting the Basic Restriction for occupational
(substation and live line) exposure.
P604

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO ESKOMS NEW 765 KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT


POWER LINES
D. MUFTIC, L. PETER, P.H. PRETORIUS, A.A. BURGER, F. MOKHONOANA, R. SINGH,
S. NARAIN, L. DU PLESSIS, J. DIEZ SERRANO, V. NAIDOO, A.C. BRITTEN

The objective with this paper is to present an overview of and motivation for design considerations
applied to Eskoms new 765 kV double circuit tower development. Electrical design considerations
include conductor bundle selection, audible noise, radio interference, surge impedance loading,
electric and magnetic fields and lightning performance. In addition, reference is made to mechanical
design considerations as well as considerations related to cost and general performance. These are
covered in the context of both new vertical self support and cross rope tower configurations..
P605

ELECTROMAGNETIC COUPLING FROM OVERHEAD POWER LINES TO FENCES EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION AND CASE STUDIES
P.H. PRETORIUS, A.A. BURGER

Significant expansion of the electrical network in South Africa to meet the demand and growth in
electricity usage includes the design and construction of new overhead transmission lines at voltages
of 400kV and 765kV. The constraints introduced to the network expansion by availability of land
present specific engineering challenges. In particular, the routing of power lines along and adjacent to
the boundaries of farms, agricultural land and game reserves. These boundaries are in most cases
delineated with a fence, be it a barbed wire fence, a game fence or an electrified fence. In such cases
re-routing of the planned line is not always an option and co-existence of the line and fence has to be
considered. In view of safety of humans (and animals), not only does electric and magnetic field
coupling to the fence have to be considered but also transferred potentials under fault conditions. This
paper highlights the parameters considered in the safety assessment in the context of power line
coupling to fences. A specific experiment conducted to confirm the threat situation is covered. In
addition, two case studies are covered, demonstrating the importance of assessment and means to
ensure safety. The requirement of proper interfacing between landowner and the utility is also noted.
P606

ADAPTING ELECTRIC POWER UTILITY INSULATION COORDINATION PROCEDURES


TO INCORPORATE ACCURATE LIGHTNING DATA
R. EVERT

A fundamental design consideration in all power systems is the exposure of that power system to
lightning surges and hence lightning. Basic Insulation Levels (BIL) of high voltage transformers,
breakers, surge protection ratings and insulation on power lines are all influenced by the frequency
and intensity of lightning. Power systems modelling dictates the implementation of specific insulation

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

coordination schemes addressing earthing, clearances, surge protection, etc. This paper will address
the need to incorporate measured lightning parameters from modern lightning detection systems and
the need to demand a measurable standard in the delivered data. Consideration will be given to the
impact of commissioning and maintenance constraints on the effectiveness of a defined BIL with
factors such as soil resistivity, footing resistance, conductivity and tower surge impedances. Case
studies will be covered in South Africa reviewing basic ground flash densities determined from flash
counters and comparing aged and generalised lightning flash statistics to the new national lightning
location system and the impact on system reliability. Finally, due consideration will be given to the
application of this new lightning information to all electrical energy stakeholders throughout Southern
Africa. Both as consumers of electricity and producers of electricity and the risk management
procedures required to manage the inevitable threat of system and production interruptions. This
paper concludes that power system designers must apply knowledge from the regional lightning
location systems in the design of new power lines and substations and in upgrades of existing power
systems. Likewise, the systems engineers responsible for the power utility assets must review power
line performance in the light of the actual and forecast storm threat to those systems. Finally that the
lightning stroke density distribution needs to become the internationally recognisable reference of
choice in the future, replacing the present flash density distributions.
P607

LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A 765KV DOUBLE CIRCUIT POWER LINE

L.
PETER,
F.M.
MOKHONOANA
L.P.
PETER,
F.M.
MOKHONOANA
Currently on the Eskom network there are several 765kV single circuit transmission lines and the
designs for double circuit lines have been necessitated by the need for high capacity corridors to
disperse the load from the new generation power stations, amongst other reasons. Lightning
performance analysis forms an integral part of the design of power lines because as both shielding
and back flashover performance form part of the overall performance optimization exercise. The
findings from the modeling of various double circuit towers (up to a height of 100m) indicated a back
flashover concern. This was contrary to the expectation that due to the 765kV lines having inherently a
high BIL that back flashover shouldnt be a concern and as a result the 765kV lines lightning
performance is naturally superior than that of the lower system voltages. The higher than expected
back flashover rate was as a result of the high tower surge impedance (TSI) of the structure mainly
due to the height. As the tower height was reduced, so did the backflashovers. But also, there were
shielding concerns that were addressed..
P608

REVIEW OF LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT RESULTS: A CASE


STUDY FROM SOUTH AFRICA
L. PETER, F.M. MOKHONOANA

Lightning still contributes around 24% to Eskom Transmissions total transmission line faults.
Measures have been taken over the past decades to combat this effect of lightning on the
performance of high voltage transmission lines. These measures mainly included improvement of
tower footing resistances. To a minimal extent, use of Transmission Line Surge Arresters (TLSA) has
been implemented. What has been realized through studies recently is that, there are certain
conditions under which, TLSAs become a much better solution than tower footing resistance
improvement. These conditions include transmission lines traversing areas with high lightning
incidence, transmission lines which are on mountainous areas and hence exposed, certain towers
which are placed on rocky terrains, and also transmission lines feeding voltage dip sensitive
customers. With Eskom having realized these conditions, there is a particular 275kV transmission line,
which was identified as having been performing poorly and other measures such as tower footing
resistance improvement had been applied in the past with no visible improvement in the lines
performance. An in-depth study was performed to investigate how the lines performance would be
improved, should TLSA be utilized and recommendations were drawn up and presented in [1]. This
paper deals with the review of the effectiveness of the recommendations, after more than three years
of having implemented them. It is believed that, even a much longer review period would indicate
more accurately how effective the solution has been, but given the fact that data has already been
collected for this past three years, which seems to show some improvement in this lines performance,
it was felt that this data had to be presented in the form of a paper.

CONFERENCE
SESSION 7

LINES - 2

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

P609

THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF 400 KV TRANSMISSION LINES TO BIRD STREAMERS AND


BUSH FIRES: A DEFINITIVE CASE STUDY
H.F. VOSLOO, A.C. BRITTEN, A.A. BURGER

This paper describes the findings of a study done of the performance of two adjacent single circuit 400
kV lines in which the phase-to-ground and phase-to-tower clearances on one of the lines were
increased above the standard clearances. The key finding that the design with increased clearances
has been shown to withstand to a considerable degree the fire and streamer (excreta) stresses
(without bird guards), whereas the standard line does not, is analysed. The implications for future
designs are discussed.
P610

SPECIAL HARDWARE FOR CROSS-ROPE CABLE


P.S.P. BORGES

During those last years, engineers of the industry have being developing studies about new
technologies for Extra High Voltage Transmission Line, in order to enhance competitiveness by finding
better economical solutions. In other hand, more and more the technical requirements have being
improved to attend more restrictive criteria of security and maintenance. That study has shown that
the use of Cross-Rope structure, for in lines of 500 kV and above, results in a substantial overall cost
reduction of the project. This paper summarizes the entire process of the development of special
hardware for the Cross-Rope cable, including researches and the final laboratory and field tests.
P611

INVESTIGATION INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF STANDING WAVES ON LONG


DISTANCE HVDC TRANSMISSION LINES
B.R. DUNCAN, J.M. VAN COLLER

The Cahora Bassa HVDC scheme in Southern Africa can transmit 1920 MW from Songo in northern
Mozambique to Apollo in South Africa. Currently the DC line is experiencing numerous insulator
flashovers. This paper describes an investigation into the possible existence of standing waves on the
DC line. The simulation study used the Cigr benchmark model for HVDC studies [10], adapted to
model the Cahora Bassa HVDC scheme. Steady state and transient studies were performed
investigating the development of standing waves on the DC line. The results show that under certain
operating conditions it is possible to have a standing wave present on the DC line, which could
increase the number of insulator flashovers, thereby reducing the overall performance of the DC line.
P612

TORQUE BALANCE OF BARE COMPOSITE OVERHEAD CONDUCTOR CONNECTED


WITH HELICAL FORMED FITTINGS
A. DUCKHAM

This abstract forms part of a study conducted on composite overhead conductors that are terminated
with helical dead ends to determine the torque balance of the assembly. It also considers mechanisms
that eventually cause bird caging and considers the link of torque balance on this phenomena. The
investigation considers theoretical calculations and correlates this to data recordings with respect to
the impact of an imbalance cable construction. The study was prompted by field failures where
birdcaging occurred on a composite OPGW cable in the loop sections between two dead end
terminations as seen in figure 1. The specific case study is not included here, but lessons learnt from
this experience are applicable. The question of what impact different dead end fittings have on the
stability of the system is measured by recording the resultant torque. Application results of the
optimised helical design applied to the previously birdcage cable is also given. The location of the
installation is in Cape Town situated on the West Coast of South Africa..
P613

COMPARISON OF DAMPER EVALUATION TECHNIQUES


D. SUNKLE, J. OLENIK, A. DUCKHAM

Vibration dampers are used to reduce Aeolian vibration on conductors, earth wires and fiber optic
cables. There are different methods for evaluation of Stockbridge-type Aeolian vibration dampers.
These methods include Analytical, Laboratory Analysis and Field Measurements. These methods are
documented in IEC Standard 61897, IEEE 664 and IEEE 1368. Very few, if any, comparisons
between the methods have been conducted. The goal of the research is to verify that a damper that

birdcaging occurred on a composite OPGW cable in the loop sections between two dead end
terminations as seen in figure 1. The specific case study is not included here, but lessons learnt from
this experience are applicable. The question of what impact different dead end fittings have on the
stability of the system is measured by recording the resultant torque. Application results of the
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT
STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
B3,location
COLLOQUIUM
optimised
helical
design
applied to
the previously
birdcage
cable
is also given.
The
of the
installation is in Cape Town situated on the West Coast of South Africa..
P613

COMPARISON OF DAMPER EVALUATION TECHNIQUES


D. SUNKLE, J. OLENIK, A. DUCKHAM

Vibration dampers are used to reduce Aeolian vibration on conductors, earth wires and fiber optic
cables. There are different methods for evaluation of Stockbridge-type Aeolian vibration dampers.
6th SOUTHERN
& JOINT
STUDY
A2, A3,
B3 COLLOQUIUM
These
methodsAFRICA
include REGIONAL
Analytical, CONFERENCE
Laboratory Analysis
and
FieldCOMMITTEE
Measurements.
These
methods are
documented in IEC Standard 61897, IEEE 664 and IEEE 1368. Very few, if any, comparisons
between the methods have been conducted. The goal of the research is to verify that a damper that
has acceptable performance analytically or, in laboratory testing, will function satisfactorily on an
operating line. In this paper, there will be a discussion on each method and a comparison done using
one particular damper for each method. Conclusions will be drawn on the validity of each method and
relations between the methods. The testing will encompass two different size dampers on a variety of
conductors.
P614

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF OVERHEAD LINES IN ENVIRONMENTALLY


HIGHLY SENSITIVE AREAS

A.
BURGER,
J. DIEZJOSE
SERRANO,
P. MARAIS,PIERRE
B. JACOBS
ARTHUR
BURGER,
DIEZ SERRANO,
MARAIS AND BERTIE JACOBS
With the strengthening of major networks currently taking place in South Africa, one line in the Cape
Town area was of critical importance. The Palmiet Stikland line now provides improved load flow and
grid stability in the Cape Peninsula, and formed an important component in the initiatives Eskom
undertook since 2006 to address power shortages that affected the region. After the Cape Blackouts
in the summer period of 2005 to 2006, international consultants noted the vulnerability of the Palmiet
Pump Storage because of it being connected to the rest of the Eskom grid only by means of the
Bacchus Palmiet line. The Palmiet Stikland line was challenging from an environmental perspective,
as the route traverses partly through pristine properties and nature conservation zones in the scenic
Cape Town area. The emphasis was on producing an environmentally friendly line within limited
available land in some areas, which was achieved by the compaction and sharing of servitudes. This
necessitated and number of new compact tower designs, including the first use of steel monopoles for
a 400kV line in South Africa. This paper will provide background to the towers used on this line
together with its associated hardware as well as other relevant information. Details will be given on
the invisible tower which was a first to be used in South Africa.

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 1


STUDY COMMITTEE A2 - TRANSFORMERS

C101

SHORT-CIRCUIT RESISTANT POWER TRANSFORMERS - PREREQUISITE FOR


RELIABLE SUPPLY OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY
C. Krause

The ability to withstand short-circuit events ("through faults") in the transmission system is an
important feature of power transformers. This paper summarizes several important issues related to
the construction and operation of transformers in this respect. General information is given about the
selection of suitable pressboard insulation. The surface of the pressboard can be mechanically treated
for obtaining optimum characteristics. Processing the transformer active part in the right way in the
factory is necessary for obtaining robust, well clamped windings. The processing steps, i.e. the sizing
of the windings, the drying, the clamping and the subsequent oil impregnation, are discussed by
means of practical examples. Finally, some basic considerations are given regarding the maintenance
of transformers in operation.
C102

ADDRESSING THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN AGEING FLEET OF TRANSMISSION


TRANSFORMERS ON THE ESKOM TRANSMISSION NETWORK
S. MTETWA, R. CORMACK

Eskom Transmission (Transmission) has been using a policy of replacing power transformers only on
failure. This policy worked well because the substations were built with redundancy, so if one
transformer failed, the remaining transformers, operating in parallel with the failed transformer, were
capable of supplying full capacity power as per the load demand, together with this strategy an
inventory of strategic spares transformers were kept for replacement of failed units. However, due to
the economic growth rate exceeding both the countrys and Transmission expectations, the
redundancy does no longer exist in some substations. In some cases a failure of one unit results in
customer outages due to reduced capacity and these customer outages are costly to both the
Customer and to Transmissions business. Moreover, the overloading of the remaining transformers,
accelerates the ageing rate of the concerned transformers and has in some cases proved to be
detrimental. Transmission has changed its replacement policy to one of replacing the transformers
when they reach the end of their useful life. The expected life of the transmission transformer is 40

JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3 & B3


COLLOQUIUM

JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE COLLOQUIUM


SESSION 1

STUDY COMMITTEE A2

TRANSFORMERS

as the route traverses partly through pristine properties and nature conservation zones in the scenic
Cape Town area. The emphasis was on producing an environmentally friendly line within limited
available land in some areas, which was achieved by the compaction and sharing of servitudes. This
necessitated and number of new compact tower designs, including the first use of steel monopoles for
SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
a6th400kV
line in South Africa. This paper will provide background to the towers used on this line
together with its associated hardware as well as other relevant information. Details will be given on
the invisible tower which was a first to be used in South Africa.

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 1


STUDY COMMITTEE A2 - TRANSFORMERS

C101

SHORT-CIRCUIT RESISTANT POWER TRANSFORMERS - PREREQUISITE FOR


RELIABLE SUPPLY OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

KRAUSE
C. Krause
The ability to withstand short-circuit events ("through faults") in the transmission system is an
important feature of power transformers. This paper summarizes several important issues related to
the construction and operation of transformers in this respect. General information is given about the
selection of suitable pressboard insulation. The surface of the pressboard can be mechanically treated
for obtaining optimum characteristics. Processing the transformer active part in the right way in the
factory is necessary for obtaining robust, well clamped windings. The processing steps, i.e. the sizing
of the windings, the drying, the clamping and the subsequent oil impregnation, are discussed by
means of practical examples. Finally, some basic considerations are given regarding the maintenance
of transformers in operation.
C102

ADDRESSING THE REQUIREMENTS OF AN AGEING FLEET OF TRANSMISSION


TRANSFORMERS ON THE ESKOM TRANSMISSION NETWORK
S. MTETWA, R. CORMACK

Eskom Transmission (Transmission) has been using a policy of replacing power transformers only on
failure. This policy worked well because the substations were built with redundancy, so if one
transformer failed, the remaining transformers, operating in parallel with the failed transformer, were
capable of supplying full capacity power as per the load demand, together with this strategy an
inventory of strategic spares transformers were kept for replacement of failed units. However, due to
the economic growth rate exceeding both the countrys and Transmission expectations, the
redundancy does no longer exist in some substations. In some cases a failure of one unit results in
customer outages due to reduced capacity and these customer outages are costly to both the
Customer and to Transmissions business. Moreover, the overloading of the remaining transformers,
6th SOUTHERN
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
A2, A3,
B3 COLLOQUIUM
accelerates
theAFRICA
ageingREGIONAL
rate of the
concerned transformers
andCOMMITTEE
has in some
cases
proved to be
detrimental. Transmission has changed its replacement policy to one of replacing the transformers
when they reach the end of their useful life. The expected life of the transmission transformer is 40
years, if purely based on thermal ageing. This expected life reduces rapidly if the transformer has not
been well maintained or the oil has not been well looked after. The critical question is how to
determine the end of life. Financing authorities can hardly be convinced of replacing the asset just
because it has reached 40 years. At the same time, if an old transformer continues in service, it affects
the network reliability and its failure is likely to be catastrophic. This paper firstly describes how
Transmission is interpreting the condition of transformers that are 40 years and older, in terms of
ageing, based on known condition monitoring information. Secondly, the paper explains how
Transmission is implementing the transition from the previous replacement policy to the present
replacement policy. Thirdly it reflects on how the ageing fleet is managed prior to replacement time.
Finally, the failures during the period between January 2000 and February 2009 are analyzed to
identify the bad performers in terms of age and voltage class. It is then concluded that Transmission
has to still rely on both methods of replacing units as they reach 40 years and to do the asset health
review exercise and replace the units based on high risk profile. It is also noted that average age of
the fleet (28 and 24 years for transformers and reactors respectively) is above the average age at the
time of failure (23 years), meaning the failure rate is expected to increase. The 400kV class is the
most affected class and these transformers are usually of high power rating.
C103

ESKOM TRANSMISSIONS EXPERIENCE IN PROCURING SYSTEM TRANSFORMERS


OUTSIDE SOUTH AFRICA
NV BUTHELEZI

In order to address the challenges for a reliable, efficient and sustainable supply of electricity now
and into the future, Eskom Transmission has been obliged to purchase network transformers from
outside the country. This strategy has presented many unexpected challenges which are addressed in
this paper. The drivers for the strategy to procure transformers outside the country include: (i) poor
performance of local manufacturers, (ii) insufficient local manufacturing capacity, and (iii) risk
reduction. The strategy includes an open tender procurement policy which evaluates tenders on
manufacturers capability, factory evaluation, tender evaluation and is based on the Total Cost of
Ownership. A rigid repeatable process is followed to produce the most suitable manufacturers. The
tender evaluation process is followed by a rigorous design review and monitored manufacturing and
testing process. Over and above the strict process followed above many challenges became apparent
during the procurement process, these include the following: (i) material defects, (ii) new technologies,

identify the bad performers in terms of age and voltage class. It is then concluded that Transmission
has to still rely on both methods of replacing units as they reach 40 years and to do the asset health
review exercise and replace the units based on high risk profile. It is also noted that average age of
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINTrespectively)
STUDY COMMITTEE
A3,average
B3, COLLOQUIUM
the
fleet (28 andAFRICA
24 years
for transformers
and reactors
is aboveA2,
the
age at the
time of failure (23 years), meaning the failure rate is expected to increase. The 400kV class is the
most affected class and these transformers are usually of high power rating.
C103

ESKOM TRANSMISSIONS EXPERIENCE IN PROCURING SYSTEM TRANSFORMERS


OUTSIDE SOUTH AFRICA
NV BUTHELEZI

In order to address the challenges for a reliable, efficient and sustainable supply of electricity now
and into the future, Eskom Transmission has been obliged to purchase network transformers from
outside the country. This strategy has presented many unexpected challenges which are addressed in
this paper. The drivers for the strategy to procure transformers outside the country include: (i) poor
performance of local manufacturers, (ii) insufficient local manufacturing capacity, and (iii) risk
reduction. The strategy includes an open tender procurement policy which evaluates tenders on
manufacturers capability, factory evaluation, tender evaluation and is based on the Total Cost of
Ownership. A rigid repeatable process is followed to produce the most suitable manufacturers. The
tender evaluation process is followed by a rigorous design review and monitored manufacturing and
testing process. Over and above the strict process followed above many challenges became apparent
during the procurement process, these include the following: (i) material defects, (ii) new technologies,
(iii) test failures, (iv) manufacturing processes not adequate, (v) manufacturing defects, (vi) test
equipment insufficient, (vii) inadequate design skills, (viii) failing to adhere to agreed designs, (ix)
inability to monitor processes overseas, (x) problems experienced with overseas travel, (xi) sea and
road transport accidents, (xii) failures, (xiii) misinterpretation of specifications, (xiv) lack of skilled
resources. One by one the above inefficiencies had to be overcome in order to get low risk
transformers. This paper describes the challenges and how they were overcome..
C104

DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR THE ACQUISITION OF RELIABILITY STATISTICS


J. JAGERS, S. TENBOHLEN

Transformers are an integral part of power systems and their reliable operation directly impacts that of
the whole network. Internationally, utilities are aligning their strategic directives to meet the necessary
requirements for reliable power system operation. Statistics about failures of power transformers
constitute an important basis for asset management of a fleet of transformers. Periodic review of these
statistics becomes necessary where they can be used to influence transformer design and technology,
maintenance and condition monitoring practices with changing system loading, operation and network
configuration. This paper provides the process of statistical data acquisition and evaluation based on
two methodologies of studies used in Germany and South Africa, emphasising the importance of
proper data collection and analyses. It also demonstrates the level of insight a detailed failure study
can provide into the performance of a large transformer fleet. The work of CIGR working group
A2.37: Transformer Reliability Survey is also discussed.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

C105

END-OF-LIFE MODELLING FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS IN AGED POWER SYSTEM


NETWORKS
P. JARMAN, Z. WANG, Q. ZHONG, T. ISHAK

Although the design lifetime of transmission transformers was 40 years or less, operational experience
has been very good with transformers up to this age, as the majority of transformers on National Grids
UK system were installed between 1955 and 1975 it is important to understand and predict the future
reliability of ageing transformers. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the failure history of the
transformer fleet and its age profile in order to understand the trend and whether/how the failure rate is
associated with age. Data from failures to date only show random failure modes and no correlation
with transformer age. As we know that transformers are subject to ageing mechanisms it is not
reasonable to base a prediction of future reliability on this historical data. A further problem arises
because with the asset condition assessment techniques available, transformers are being replaced
somewhat ahead of actual failure, so a method of predicting the age of failure of the replaced
transformers has had to be developed using DP analysis. For in-service transformers a calculation of
life based on the physical ageing process of paper insulation using design data, loading condition and
ambient temperature, under the normal IEC assumptions, has been made. This analysis shows that
for a typical network transformer, the ageing rate depends more on transformer design and cooler
operation temperature settings than on loading. If the cooler on temperature setting is low and the
transformer thermal behaviour is as designed, then the expected lifetime would be in excess of 100
years. Despite this there have been examples of age related failures indicating that operating
temperatures for at least some transformers are significantly higher than designed. Further statistical
and thermal modelling is required to fully understand how the range of thermal parameters of
transformers will affect the ageing rate of the transformers, their future reliability and hence the
replacement plans required to maintain the future reliability of the power system.
C106

EVALUATING AND MANAGING TRANSFORMER FACTORY ACCEPTANCE TEST


STATISTICS AS ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
J. KOEN, L. JORDAAN

This paper explores the use of factory acceptance testing as criteria during factory assessments. It
presents the viewpoint from both a transformer manufacturer and purchasing utility. The paper
presents a frequent approach and its effectiveness as well as recommending an alternative
interpretation of test statistics as evaluation criteria of transformer factories. The paper will consider
and categorise different test failures in terms of the impact as seen from the utilitys point of view.
Differentiation will be made between units based on the risk (or significance) it holds for the utility, the
complexity of the specific unit, the factorys experience with the type of unit manufactured and the
amount of test failure rework that is required.
C107

GASSING AND OXIDATION BEHAVIOUR OF INSULATING FLUIDS UNDER THERMAL


STRESS
I. ATANASOVA-HHLEIN, C. REHOREK, T. HAMMER

Thermal stress usual for service conditions causes ageing in the combined solid-insulation system.
The insulating fluid delivers valuable diagnostic markers even for the early stages of ageing. In this
paper the different gassing patterns of insulating fluids with different chemical basis is studied and
compared with gassing in service. A revision of the origin of the carbon oxides and their acceptable
ratios is needed. Peroxide species can be used for studying of the oxidation behaviour of different
fluids. Variation of important fluid characteristics like viscosity of vegetable fluids as a result of
oxidation is described.
C108

MANAGING AN AGING FLEET OF TRANSFORMERS


E.J. FIGUEROA

There are approximately 800 power transformers with an average age of over 35 years in the Hydro
One system. They are connected at 115, 230 and 500 kV. The largest unit is 1000 MVA and the
average capacity is 100 MVA. While most of the units are within their useful life, 20% of this population
is 50 years of age or older. Transformer Health Indices based on industry standard diagnostic testing

paper the different gassing patterns of insulating fluids with different chemical basis is studied and
compared with gassing in service. A revision of the origin of the carbon oxides and their acceptable
ratios is needed. Peroxide species can be used for studying of the oxidation behaviour of different
fluids.
VariationAFRICA
of important
fluidCONFERENCE
characteristics
like viscosity
of vegetable
a result of
6th SOUTHERN
REGIONAL
& JOINT
STUDY COMMITTEE
A2, fluids
A3, B3,as
COLLOQUIUM
oxidation is described.
C108

MANAGING AN AGING FLEET OF TRANSFORMERS


E.J. FIGUEROA

There are approximately 800 power transformers with an average age of over 35 years in the Hydro
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
& JOINT
COMMITTEE
A2,isA3,
B3 COLLOQUIUM
One
system. They
areREGIONAL
connectedCONFERENCE
at 115, 230 and
500 STUDY
kV. The
largest unit
1000
MVA and the
average capacity is 100 MVA. While most of the units are within their useful life, 20% of this population
is 50 years of age or older. Transformer Health Indices based on industry standard diagnostic testing
have been developed to rank all the transformers in the fleet and thus identify units that are
approaching or at end-of-life (EOL). Numerous post mortems have revealed that standard diagnostic
test results must be used with caution. In particular the reliability of furan test results in predicting
Degree of Polymerization in paper insulation is poor specially at medium to low furan levels. EOL and
Remaining Life determination remain a big challenge. Current data shows that aging of the
transformer fleet has yet to significantly affect performance. While unavailability has been higher in
the older transformer groups, overall failure rates have remained constant over the last 20 years.
Benchmarking conducted with similar North American utilities shows that Hydro Ones overall failure
rates are low and comparable to its peers. An Asset Retirement Model was developed at Hydro One
to forecast the long term transformer replacement rate and associated budget levels for Business
Planning purposes. It uses probabilistic projections of transformer life and applies them to the
demographic information. For an average life expectancy of 60 years, the model calculated a
replacement rate of 20 transformers per year. To maintain overall performance and minimize the risk
of failure of the aging transformer fleet, Hydro One has embarked on a multi-million, multi-year
program consisting mainly of (a) Renewing the Spares Inventory and (b) Pro-active EOL
Replacements.
C109

EFFECTS OF ON-LINE RECLAIMING ON THE CORROSIVE SULPHUR CONTENT OF


TRANSFORMER OIL
M. DAHLUND, P. LORIN, P. WERLE

The harmful effects of corrosive sulphur compounds in transformer oil are by now well known. The use
of metal passivators to block reactions between sulphur and copper is a well established mitigation
technique. As an alternative approach, viz. to remove the corrosive sulphur from oil, we have applied
the well established technology of on-line reclaiming with reactivating sorbent. Total removal of DBDS
and other disulfides was achieved, and treated oil tested as non-corrosive in IEC 62535 and ASTM
D1275B (the newest and most severe standard tests). This was proven both in pilot scale on oil in
tanks, and on large units in service. Also with oil where the corrosive effects are due to other sulphur
compounds than DBDS we achieved good results. The treatment can be carried out within a
reasonable time, that cost-wise makes reclaiming attractive compared to oil exchange. One potential
problem with on-line reclaiming has emerged. At least with some types of oil, certain reclaiming rigs
seem to make some oils more corrosive, not only to copper, but also to silver. It seems to be mainly
an effect of conversion of some sulphur species into more corrosive forms. We have shown that free
sulphur is likely to be at least one of the corrosive sulphur species formed, possibly the most
important. Further studies are under way to understand better this phenomenon, and to find mitigation
techniques.
C110

A PATH-WAY TO COPE WITH THE DILEMMA OF AGEING ASSETS, LIMITED CAPITAL


EXPENDITURE, REDUCED BUDGETS FOR MAINTENANCE AND THE REMAINING NEED
TO SUPPLY ELECTRICITY AT UNCHANGED QUALITY
B. SCHMITZ, A. CHAUDRY, J. MOCKENHAUPT, G. BUCHGRABER, U. THIESS

The TLM concept consists of a comprehensive set of solutions to minimize and avoid any type of
unplanned or pre-mature failures of any brand Power transformers. The reasons for ageing, and
possible failures und unplanned outages will be described. A series of remedial maintenance and lifecycle techniques will be described as part of the integrative and comprehensive asset management
concept, which is labeled TLM Transformer Lifecycle Management. Single-focused actions for service,
which are aiming to solve individual problems is the most frequently employed maintenance method.
Because Transformers happen to be technically complex assets when it comes to evaluate their
operational availability, perform condition assessments, diagnostics, or any preventative, corrective or
curative maintenance. The TLM Lifecycle Management concept combines a comprehensive and
modular set of solutions, which are always supported with the expertise from well-educated and
experienced transformer experts is the best recommended action path to follow when the operator
intents to maintain the transformers at peak operating condition for well extended periods of service
life.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

C111

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF EVALUATION OF POWER TRANSFORMER


INSULATION AGING TAKING INTO ACCOUNT RANDOM EXPLOITATION FACTORS
V.P. VASIN, A.P. DOLIN

At present several approaches are applied to evaluate and control the destruction level, the resource
consumption and the residuary resource of the solid insulation in oil-filled power transformers. Among
them can be mentioned the following approaches: by the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper
insulation, by the degree of thermal aging of insulation calculated by means of Montzingers formula
and its modifications, according to the concentration of furan derivatives in the oil of the transformer
tank, as well as according to the content of oxides and 2.To some extent all these methods
help to solve the problem of calculating the destruction level of paper insulation, but no exact way to
evaluate the consumption resource and the residuary resource has been found yet. Evaluating the
aging level of paper insulation by the degree of its polymerization is considered to be the principle one,
as well as the most sound of all. A special place is given to the expert methods of evaluating the
current operational state of transformers, including the evaluation of the residuary resource in the
whole, and the solid insulation in particular. The main criteria of applicability of this or that method is
their susceptibility to the incompleteness of data and the interference of various factors occurring
simultaneously with the operational monitoring of the equipment technical condition. A thorough
examination of this aspect shows that taking this fact into consideration makes it necessary to
reconsider the approach to resource evaluation itself.

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 2


STUDY COMMITTEE A3 HV EQUIPMENT

C201

OPTIMIZED ASSET MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS AND POWER


NETWORK OPERATION BASED ON EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
F. ENDO, R. SHIOMI, Y. SUZUKI, H. KOJIMA, N. HAYAKAWA, H. OKUBO

A transmission and distribution (T&D) system consists of many aged equipment, and faces to be
correctly operated and controlled by maintaining the balance between cost efficiency and quality of
electric power supply. Proposed Intelligent Grid Management System (IGMS) is a tool to solve this
issue. IGMS analyzes impacts of failures of individual equipment on the entire T&D system, and by
minimizing the impacts, the optimal maintenance strategies are predicted. IGMS are applied to the
T&D network model which is composed of many aged equipment, and most favorable maintenance
strategies are derived for each equipment depending on their age, including the optimal power flow
routes.
C202

RESIDUAL LIFE CONCEPTS APPLIED TO HV GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR


C. JONES, W. DEGEN, P. GLAUBITZ, P. COVENTRY, P. FLETCHER, B. SKYBERG, A.
MJELVE, Z. LEFTER, E. DUGGAN, K. KWEON, K. POHLINK, M. MASANARI, M. REUTER,
K. UEHARA, T. YOKOTA

For HV GIS equipment, some of which has been in service for 40 years, residual life is becoming a
more and more important issue. There is a need to identify the factors which determine the expected
residual life of HV GIS. These factors have to be considered alongside associated operational risks so
that guidance can be given on the full evaluation of the residual life of any particular HV GIS
installation. CIGRE WG B3.17 is preparing a user guide which will include options for maintenance
procedures, repair, refurbishment, retrofit or replacement for users so that they can make an
assessment of the appropriate approach. The impact of GIS materials and design, monitoring and
diagnostics is part of the guide as well as operating duties and environmental conditions. Practical
examples are used as much as possible to demonstrate experience and different approaches.
Procedures for end of life treatment (recycle and disposal) of HV GIS are relatively straightforward but
are included within the scope of the guide. The decision of end of life is be determined under service
aspects as well. This paper presents on overview and selected parts of the work for the guide which is
under final stages of preparation.

JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE COLLOQUIUM


SESSION 2

STUDY COMMITTEE A3

HV EQUIPMENT

as well as the most sound of all. A special place is given to the expert methods of evaluating the
current operational state of transformers, including the evaluation of the residuary resource in the
whole, and the solid insulation in particular. The main criteria of applicability of this or that method is
their susceptibility to the incompleteness of data and the interference of various factors occurring
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
COMMITTEE
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
simultaneously
with the
operational
monitoring &ofJOINT
the STUDY
equipment
technicalA2,condition.
A thorough
examination of this aspect shows that taking this fact into consideration makes it necessary to
reconsider the approach to resource evaluation itself.

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 2


STUDY COMMITTEE A3 HV EQUIPMENT

C201

OPTIMIZED ASSET MANAGEMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGE SUBSTATIONS AND POWER


NETWORK OPERATION BASED ON EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE
F. ENDO, R. SHIOMI, Y. SUZUKI, H. KOJIMA, N. HAYAKAWA, H. OKUBO

A transmission and distribution (T&D) system consists of many aged equipment, and faces to be
correctly operated and controlled by maintaining the balance between cost efficiency and quality of
electric power supply. Proposed Intelligent Grid Management System (IGMS) is a tool to solve this
issue. IGMS analyzes impacts of failures of individual equipment on the entire T&D system, and by
minimizing the impacts, the optimal maintenance strategies are predicted. IGMS are applied to the
T&D network model which is composed of many aged equipment, and most favorable maintenance
strategies are derived for each equipment depending on their age, including the optimal power flow
routes.
C202

RESIDUAL LIFE CONCEPTS APPLIED TO HV GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR


C. JONES, W. DEGEN, P. GLAUBITZ, P. COVENTRY, P. FLETCHER, B. SKYBERG, A.
MJELVE, Z. LEFTER, E. DUGGAN, K. KWEON, K. POHLINK, M. MASANARI, M. REUTER,
K. UEHARA, T. YOKOTA

For HV GIS equipment, some of which has been in service for 40 years, residual life is becoming a
more and more important issue. There is a need to identify the factors which determine the expected
residual life of HV GIS. These factors have to be considered alongside associated operational risks so
that guidance can be given on the full evaluation of the residual life of any particular HV GIS
installation. CIGRE WG B3.17 is preparing a user guide which will include options for maintenance
procedures, repair, refurbishment, retrofit or replacement for users so that they can make an
assessment of the appropriate approach. The impact of GIS materials and design, monitoring and
diagnostics is part of the guide as well as operating duties and environmental conditions. Practical
examples are used as much as possible to demonstrate experience and different approaches.
Procedures for end of life treatment (recycle and disposal) of HV GIS are relatively straightforward but
are included within the scope of the guide. The decision of end of life is be determined under service
aspects as well. This paper presents on overview and selected parts of the work for the guide which is
under final stages of preparation.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM

C203

GAS-INSULATED SWITCHGEAR FOR 1100 KV CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPMENT AND


TESTING
U. RIECHERT, W. HOLAUS, U. KRSI, D. SOLOGUREN

Current switchgear projects are strengthening research, development and standardization in the ultrahigh voltage (UHV) sector. Many years of experience at voltage levels of up to 800 kV are available as
the basis for developing gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) for 1100 kV. Nevertheless, the individual
components such as circuit breakers and disconnectors differ greatly from the known designs in some
cases. As regards the circuit breaker, for instance, it emerges that a design with the closing resistor in
a parallel tank is advantageous. The VFTO (Very Fast Transient Overvoltages) become more
important as regards the disconnector design. However, major challenges for the development and
testing of a UHV GIS are posed not only by the design but also by the limited testing possibilities, in
particular for disconnector switching and power tests. The outlay for development and type tests
increases substantially because the tests have to be carried out in different laboratories distributed
across the world. The laboratories' limits are reached - and in some cases even exceeded - by many
of the tests. This also results in new terms of reference for the standardization sector in order to
accommodate the special requirements for the UHV level. The experience gained by the
manufacturers and institutions participating in the UHV demonstration project may be helpful here.
C204

CONDITION MONITORING ON HIGH-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT-BREAKERS


A. BOSMA

An important part of asset management is determining a cost effective maintenance strategy.


Deregulation and associated national and international competition on the electricity market has
resulted in a shift from Time Based Maintenance (TBM) towards Condition Based Maintenance (CBM)
and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). High Voltage circuit-breakers are an essential part of
the power network as they are used for planned switching operations and, more importantly, for fault
interruption. As such, circuit-breaker reliability and availability have quantifiable values in dollar terms.
Equally, it is possible to quantify the cost of operation of a circuit-breaker, including its life time
maintenance costs. It is therefore of particular importance for the asset manager to be able to
determine the condition of the circuit-breaker in order to ascertain an optimal balance between
operational costs and benefits. One of the tools that can be used to determine the condition of an
asset is condition monitoring. The use of condition monitoring should be carefully considered, taking
into account where the circuit-breaker is located, its frequency of operation and its importance in the
power network. This paper discusses the economic justification of, and gives recommendations for,
application of condition monitoring. The recommendations include which parameters to monitor..
C205

ANALYTICAL MAINTENANCE OPTIMISATION FOR HV CIRCUIT BREAKERS


T. KRONTIRIS, G. BALZER, B. RUSEK

The present work deals with the optimisation problem of time-based maintenance (TBM) for power
systems. The objective is to determine a method for maintenance optimisation with limited informational requirements. Indeed, the proposed model uses only a few, already available reliability indices
while accounting for both preventive maintenance activities as well as regular inspections. In a first
step, reliability of high-voltage circuit breakers (HVCB) is expressed in a closed analytical form as a
function of maintenance and inspection frequency. HVCB play a crucial role for power sys-tems
overall reliability and have been therefore chosen for investigation. After determining an analyti-cal
relationship, various objective functions can be set up. In this work, optimisation objective was a
minimal unavailability of the HVCB; however, cost minimisation can also be easily performed, provided the respective cost factors for maintenance are known. A case study for a HVCB fleet of a large
German utility is finally provided with the objective of minimising outage time of the units. A discussion of the results points out the main advantages of the proposed methodology.

6th SOUTHERN AFRICA


AFRICA REGIONAL
REGIONAL CONFERENCE
CONFERENCE &
& JOINT
JOINT STUDY
STUDY COMMITTEE
COMMITTEE A2,
A2,A3,
A3,B3,
B3 COLLOQUIUM

C206

RESIDUAL LIFE ASSESSMENT AND ASSET MANAGEMENT DECISION SUPPORT BY


HAZARD RATE FUNCTIONS
A. JANSSEN,

R. JONGEN

Residual life assessment based on the increase of failure rates with time (bath-tub curve) is treated
and a number of practical problems and hands-on examples are given. The question addressed is
whether the residual life of a population of equipment can be determined based on information
available within a utility. Here a distinction has to be made between Major Failures (MF), that influence
the serviceability, and minor failures (mf), which may lead to MF, but do not (yet) interfere with the
serviceability. Available life time data are discussed for several kinds of equipment (transformers,
cable joints, switchgear) as well the possibilities of statistical life time data analysis: function fitting with
e.g. Weibull, extrapolation to future failure rates, residual life estimation in relation to the required
reliability. Examples are given of the influence of the size of the population, the number of failures, the
estimation of the age at the moment of the failure, the influence of overhaul, etc. Attention is given to
singularities and the possibility of a sudden change in the characteristics is discussed. Examples show
how the results of the statistical analysis support asset management decisions with respect to
maintenance, replacement and spare parts policies. At the end, however, it is still required that asset
managers know how to deal with confidence limits and how to define B-life levels, aspects which do
not relieve their task to give a final judgement about the alternatives.
C207

USE OF DATA FROM CIGRE HIGH VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY SURVEY


F. WAITE, D. KOPEJTKOVA, K. MESTROVIC, J.E. SKOG, C.E. SLVER

When undertaking a survey into the reliability of electrical equipment it is important to consider how
utilities/manufacturers/universities apply and benefit from the calculated availability, failure rates and
other parameters in the survey. Electrical networks worldwide have an increasingly aged population of
electrical equipment. The surveys application helps the owners and operators of these networks to
understand the impact of aged equipment (SF6 breakers, instrument transformers, GIS, disconnectors
and earthing switches) on network performance and helps mitigate the effects through proper
operation, effective maintenance, monitoring, asset refurbishment and asset replacement. For new
and expanding networks, the survey will help to optimise design and help define operation,
maintenance and monitoring of the assets to achieve the desired level of network performance.
Additionally the survey will aid in adopting a more statistical approach to asset management including
maintenance and replacement. A review of survey data applications and benefits is described. Two
case studies are presented, one for network performance and the other for asset (equipment)
performance. Reliability data from the survey will have numerous uses, both when looking at network
and asset (equipment) performance. This data is becoming more important as many electrical
networks have ageing assets and many electrical networks are facing increased development.

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 3


STUDY COMMITTEE B3 SUBSTATIONS

C301

ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC FIELD EXPOSURE IN A 765 KV OPEN AIR SUBSTATION


A CASE STUDY
P.H.PRETORIUS, K.R. HUBBARD

In view of Eskoms current network expansion at 765 kV, it was necessary to address occupational
exposure of substation workers to electric fields, particularly in 765 kV substations with busbar height
of 12 m. This paper reports on the assessment of 50Hz electric field levels that substation workers
may be exposed to in 765kV open air substation. It is shown that at 12 m busbar height, at 800 kV, the
maximum calculated electric field, 21,9 kV/m, exceeds the ICNIRP Reference Level (20 kV/m) at 2
locations covering a small area (the larger about 11 m x 6 m) in the HV yard. Although the Reference
Level is exceeded, it is shown that the ICNIRP Basic Restriction of 10 mA/m2 is met. This is important
in view of possible future regulation of EMF exposure limits in South Africa. Electric field
measurements close to primary equipment have been shown not to exceed the ICNIRP Reference
Level. Protection against contact and discharge current is advisable.

JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE COLLOQUIUM


SESSION 3

STUDY COMMITTEE B3

SUBSTATIONS

case studies are presented, one for network performance and the other for asset (equipment)
performance. Reliability data from the survey will have numerous uses, both when looking at network
and asset (equipment) performance. This data is becoming more important as many electrical
networks
have ageing
and many
electrical&networks
are facing
increased
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICAassets
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A2,development.
A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM

Joint Study Committee Colloquium Session 3


STUDY COMMITTEE B3 SUBSTATIONS

C301

ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRIC FIELD EXPOSURE IN A 765 KV OPEN AIR SUBSTATION


A CASE STUDY
P.H.PRETORIUS, K.R. HUBBARD

In view of Eskoms current network expansion at 765 kV, it was necessary to address occupational
exposure of substation workers to electric fields, particularly in 765 kV substations with busbar height
of 12 m. This paper reports on the assessment of 50Hz electric field levels that substation workers
may be exposed to in 765kV open air substation. It is shown that at 12 m busbar height, at 800 kV, the
maximum calculated electric field, 21,9 kV/m, exceeds the ICNIRP Reference Level (20 kV/m) at 2
locations covering a small area (the larger about 11 m x 6 m) in the HV yard. Although the Reference
Level is exceeded, it is shown that the ICNIRP Basic Restriction of 10 mA/m2 is met. This is important
in view of possible future regulation of EMF exposure limits in South Africa. Electric field
measurements close to primary equipment have been shown not to exceed the ICNIRP Reference
6th SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3 COLLOQUIUM
Level. Protection against contact and discharge current is advisable.
C302

PRESENTATION OF THE SF6 TIGHTNESS GUIDE


J.M. BIASSE, S. STANGHERLIN on behalf of the CIGRE WG B3.18

State-of-the-art electric power equipment is designed and manufactured to maintain integrity and
tightness for decades so that it is compatible with the environment for the whole service life. This
implies: (i) Very low leakage rates: the quality of the encapsulation including its material, the
machining process, the design of gaskets, the sealing material itself, the quality of secondary
connections (e.g. piping, valves, sensors, bursting disk) and the factory testing procedures are of
major importance; (ii) Very low handling losses: smaller gas compartments, reduced frequency of
maintenance activity (e.g. opening a gas compartment for inspection, checking the gas quality,
checking the gas density/pressure with an external density/pressure gauge), more sophisticated tools
and instruments to handle and to check the gas quality, specific training of designated personnel.
Refer to CIGRE Brochure N. 276 - Guide for the Preparation of Customised SF6 Handling
Instructions for further information. The guide reviews all significant aspects of measuring and
ensuring the tightness of electric power equipment containing SF6 as a pure gas or combined with
other gases (i.e.: N2) to form a gas mixture. Requirements from the International Standards are
critically reviewed. A functional description concerning state-of-the-art test procedures, test methods
and instrument devices is then performed. The difference between what can be measured (and how it
can be done) and what can be assessed forms the conclusions. Type-testing, factory routine testing,
on-site testing during service are described, continuous on-line monitoring (i.e.: supervision of the SF6
density using on-line monitoring systems) is included. Any mechanical withstanding or rupture test
(i.e.: water rupture test), performed at pressures above the maximum operating gas pressure, is
carried out for safety purpose and therefore are not covered in this document except for the Impact of
mechanical pressure test procedures on tightness test results.
C303

SIMPLIFICATION AND INTEGRATION OF HV AIS SWITCHGEAR GIVES OPERATIONAL


AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
C.E. SLVER

A series of development steps makes it possible to integrate all high voltage equipment needed, e.g.
for a complete 420 or 550 kV air insulated transformer bay, into one compact switchgear assembly.
The resulting one bay one footing design leads to a compact and optimal bay solution. The circuit
breaker is simplified and optimized by removal of grading capacitors, and by use of composite
insulators instead of porcelain. In addition switching transients are minimized by means of controlled
switching. Conventional disconnectors are removed by use of disconnecting circuit breakers, which
combine the functions of normal disconnectors and circuit breakers into one single device.
Conventional current transformers are replaced by optical devices, which may be integrated into the
disconnecting circuit breaker.
C304

THE BREAKER AND A HALF CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR THE ESKOM 765KV AIS
NETWORK
E. NAICKER, A. AMOD

The current Eskom Transmission network boundary voltages range from 220kV to 765kV, and
comprises systems with nominal operating voltage levels of 220kV, 275kV, 400kV and 765kV. The
network spans an area of 1,219,090 km2 with the longest 765kV line of 425 route-kilometres nearing
construction phase. High Voltage substation layouts have historically been based on the single
breaker, double busbar configuration, with or without the breaker bypass facility, or with a transfer

insulators instead of porcelain. In addition switching transients are minimized by means of controlled
switching. Conventional disconnectors are removed by use of disconnecting circuit breakers, which
combine the functions of normal disconnectors and circuit breakers into one single device.
Conventional current transformers are replaced by optical devices, which may be integrated into the
6th SOUTHERNcircuit
AFRICA
REGIONAL CONFERENCE & JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE A2, A3, B3, COLLOQUIUM
disconnecting
breaker.
C304

THE BREAKER AND A HALF CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR THE ESKOM 765KV AIS
NETWORK
E. NAICKER, A. AMOD

The current Eskom Transmission network boundary voltages range from 220kV to 765kV, and
comprises systems with nominal operating voltage levels of 220kV, 275kV, 400kV and 765kV. The
network spans an area of 1,219,090 km2 with the longest 765kV line of 425 route-kilometres nearing
construction phase. High Voltage substation layouts have historically been based on the single
breaker, double busbar configuration, with or without the breaker bypass facility, or with a transfer
busbar to provide full transfer facility for feeders only. The original two 765kV substations (Alpha and
Beta) use GIS technology and are configured for double busbar selection with a bypass facility on the
feeder bays that employ a single circuit breaker. However, due to cost amongst other factors, the
current extensions to the 765kV network have employed AIS technology with GIS dead tank circuit
breakers with inbuilt current transformers. Having evaluated the risks to the network using the current
switching philosophy, reliability being the most important criterion, Eskom decided to change the policy
of
busbar
selection
with bypass
to the breaker-and-a-half
arrangement.A2,
This
will discuss
6thdouble
SOUTHERN
AFRICA
REGIONAL
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY COMMITTEE
A3,paper
B3 COLLOQUIUM
the application of the breaker-and-a-half (1 breaker) switching scheme for one of Eskoms most
strategic power corridors the 1470km 765kV backbone.
C305

GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEAR (GIS) SEISMIC QUALIFICATION


P. GLAUBITZ, D.W. RDER, C. WALLNER

This paper presents different aspects concerning seismic withstand capability in conjunction with gas
insulated switchgear, which have been used world wide in substations for more than 40 years. To
achieve a high availability and reliability in earthquake prone regions, the design and substation layout
needs a sufficient seismic withstand capability. Requirements from applicable standards, design rules
and results of seismic calculations are discussed and the results from seismic tests of high voltage
switchgear are presented.
C306

800 KV-AC AND 600 KV-DC BRAZILIAN TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS EXPERIENCE AND
FUTURE TRENDS
J. AMON, R. A. A. GONALVES, C. P. R. GABAGLIA, P. C. FERNANDEZ, S. ESPIRITO, G.
SARCINELLI

This paper is basically divided in two parts and aims to present the Brazilian experience regarding
UHV transmission systems and the foreseen future trends related to the use of such technology. The
first part shows Brazilian knowledge and experience on dealing with UHV transmission systems (800
kV AC and 600 kV DC), describing some aspects and faced problems, from planning and operating
experience point of views. FURNAS Centrais Eltricas, as a generation and bulk power transmission
utility, owned by the Brazilian Federal Government, was responsible for developing the transmission
solution in order to integrate Itaipu power plant generation into the Brazilian national transmission
network, performing the planning studies, equipment specification, factory and laboratory tests,
erection on site, commissioning tests (factory and on-site acceptance tests), among other tasks.
FURNAS was created in 1957 and started the operation of the 800 kV AC and 600 kV DC systems
in 1982 and 1984, respectively, integrating the Itaipu power plant generation into the Brazilian
National Transmission Network, and then, being the utility detainer of the Brazilian know-how on UHV
transmission issues [1]. Itaipu hydroelectric power plant is located on Paran River, at the border
between Brazil and Paraguay and belongs to a company of same name: Itaipu Binacional. It is a
power generation utility owned by both governments of Brazil and Paraguay in equal shares. The
power plant has 20 generating units of 700 MW each, resulting in a 14,000 MW installed power
capacity enterprise enable to produce around 100 TWh of energy per year. As these countries rated
power frequencies are different from each other, the frequency of half of the generating units
belonging to Brazil is 60 Hz, while the other half belonging to Paraguay has a frequency of 50 Hz. This
has been established as a consequence of an international treaty celebrated between both countries.
However, Brazil has agreed, by contract, to buy the whole of 50 Hz energy, except that consumed by
Paraguay, which means that 75 % of the 50 Hz energy, in average, was consumed by the Brazilians in
the last year. In the second part of the paper the Brazilian future trends and challenges regarding the
use of such UHV transmission system technologies are presented, as for the transmission solution
associated to the foreseen planned major hydro power plants in the Amazon region (transfer of high
amounts of power between 6,000 and 10,000 MW across long distances of about 2,400 km. The
consequent impacts on existing network are considered by pointing out the need of reinforcing the
receiving network, as well as the need of investigating procedures for limitation of short-circuit current
levels exceeding existing equipment ratings. Also, the new challenges may demand IEC standards
review, due to the special UHV new equipment withstand requirements.
C307

HYDRO-MECHANICAL SPRING OPERATING MECHANISM - THE ULTIMATE SOLUTION


TO OPERATE HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

use of such UHV transmission system technologies are presented, as for the transmission solution
associated to the foreseen planned major hydro power plants in the Amazon region (transfer of high
amounts of power between 6,000 and 10,000 MW across long distances of about 2,400 km. The
consequent
impacts
onREGIONAL
existing network
are considered
by pointing
out theA2,
need
of reinforcing
the
6th SOUTHERN
AFRICA
CONFERENCE
& JOINT STUDY
COMMITTEE
A3, B3,
COLLOQUIUM
receiving network, as well as the need of investigating procedures for limitation of short-circuit current
levels exceeding existing equipment ratings. Also, the new challenges may demand IEC standards
review, due to the special UHV new equipment withstand requirements.
C307

HYDRO-MECHANICAL SPRING OPERATING MECHANISM - THE ULTIMATE SOLUTION


TO OPERATE HIGH VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS

D.
FUECHSLE,LL.HEINEMANN
HEINEMANN
D FUECHSLE,
Within this paper a comparison of different operating mechanism technologies is described, such as
pneumatic, hydraulic, spring and hydro mechanical spring operating mechanism. It gives a trend in the
circuit breaker technology and makes a sensible judgment on the reliability comparison when using
Cigr statistics for high voltage circuit breakers 200 kV. It is shown, that mechanical spring operating
mechanisms are less reliable than hydraulic and pneumatic operating mechanism, as they intend to
be
higher voltages
other technologies
andSTUDY
illustrates
the benefits
of hydro
mechanical
6thfor
SOUTHERN
AFRICAcompared
REGIONALtoCONFERENCE
& JOINT
COMMITTEE
A2, A3,
B3 COLLOQUIUM
spring operating mechanisms.
C308

INCREASED AVAILABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLINESS OF A GIS BY THE


COMBINATION OF THE DISCONNECTOR AND EARTHING SWITCH

D.
FUECHSLE,W.
W. HOLAUS,
HOLAUS, D.
D. SOLOGUREN
SOLOGUREN
D FUECHSLE,
This paper describes the beneficial use of combined disconnector / earthing switch for high voltage
applications. It compares the different solution on the market in different technologies (single-phase or
3-phase encapsulated) and illustrates the advantages of combined functions compared to separate
functions in respect of safety, environment and operation. It also shows the trend towards 3-phase
encapsulated technology and the hurdles to apply this technology for higher rated voltages than 245
kV.
C309

OPTIMAL OPPORTUNITY TO REDUCE THE SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE GAS EMISSIONS

ZHANG
ZHANGKUI,
WANGJINPING,
DINGZHAOMING
MAKE
Zhang Zhangkui,
ChaiCHAI
Wei, WEI,
Wangjinping,
Dingzhaoming
Guojiayang GUOJIAYANG
Make
The paper focuses on the application study for SF6 Emission Reductions in Nth China Grid which
based on the methodology AM0035 under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and mainly
introduces the analysis of additionality, the determination method for baseline emissions, the
technology and management methods for reduce the project emissions and the realistic and feasible
method for monitoring emission reductions. So far, Grids have been the main consumer of SF6 due to
SF6 is commonly used as insulator in the utility equipments which mass-installed in Grids of the
developing countries. Due to the global warming potential (GWP) of SF6 is 23900 times than CO2
according to IPCC 2006, to reduce SF6 emissions efficiently in Grids is the best contribution for
tackling the climate change, and is also the optimal opportunity for rehabilitating the Grids to green in
the developing countries..
C310

SUBSTATION PLANNING AND DESIGN FOR LARGE-SCALE ONSHORE WIND


INTEGRATION
YU SUN, QUNJU LI, TAO WU, JIAYANG GUO

With the constant increase of wind farm capacity, it becomes fairly important to calculate and analyze
the influence of large scale onshore wind energy integration on local power network and regional grid
in the planning and design phase of wind farms and substations related to wind farms. Based on the
general operating situation of wind farms in China and features of North China Grid, a series of
problems to be taken into consideration have been discussed in the paper and as well as the
corresponding measures.