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Dorian invasion

This article is about a hypothetical event of prehistoric


Greece. For other uses, see Dorian (disambiguation).
The Dorian invasion[1] is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece to explain the replacement of preclassical dialects and traditions in southern Greece by the
ones that prevailed in Classical Greece. The latter were
named Dorian by the ancient Greek writers after the historical population that owned them, the Dorians.
Greek legend asserted that the Dorians took possession
of the Peloponnesus in an event called the Return of the
Heracleidae (Ancient Greek: ). Classical scholars saw in the legend a hypothetically real event they termed the Dorian invasion. The
meaning of the concept has changed several times, as
historians, philologists and archaeologists used it in attempts to explain the cultural discontinuities expressed in
the data of their elds. The pattern of arrival of Dorian Heracles and Athena. Attic red-gure vase.
culture on certain islands in the Mediterranean, such as
Crete, is also not well understood. The Dorians colonised
down. It means a descent from uplands to lowlands, or
a number of sites on Crete such as Lato.[2]
from the earth to the grave, or a rushing down upon as a
Despite nearly 200 years of investigation, the actual- ood, or sweeping down upon as a wind or a ship, or those
ity of the Dorian invasion has never been established. returning from exile (which typically would have to be by
The meaning of the concept has become to some degree ship). It is never used as a simple return home, which
amorphous. The work done on it has mainly served to is a nostos[4] (as in nostalgia or the returns from Troy).
rule out various speculations. The possibility of a real The Heracleidae are not returning to a former home for
Dorian invasion remains open. Likewise, there have been which they are homesick, they are sweeping down upon
attempts to link them or their victims with the emergence the Peloponnesus in war, thus inviting the English transof the equally mysterious Sea Peoples.
lation of invasion.

There is, however, a distinction between Heracleidae and


Dorians. George Grote summarizes the relationship as
follows:[5]

Return of the Heracleidae

The ancient tradition tells that the descendants of


"Herakles himself had rendered inesHeracles (the Heracleidae), exiled after his death, retimable aid to the Dorian king Aegimius, when
turned after some generations in order to reclaim dominthe latter was hard pressed in a contest with
ion their ancestor Heracles had held in the Peloponnesus.
the Lapithae .... Herakles defeated the LapiThe Greece to which the traditions refer is the mythic
thae and slew their king Koronus; in return for
one, now considered to be Mycenaean Greece. The
which Aegimius assigned to his deliverers one
theme of the return of the Heracleidae" is considered
third part of his whole territory and adopted
legendary. The exact descent diers from one ancient auHyllus as his son.
thor to another, the salient point being that in each case a
traditional ruling clan traced its origin, thus its legitimacy, Hyllus, a Perseid, was driven from the state of Mycenae
to Heracles.
into exile after the death of Heracles by a dynastic rival,
[6]
The translation of return is strictly English; the Greek Eurystheus, another Perseid:
connotations are quite dierent. The Greek words are kaAfter the death ... of Herakles, his son
tienai[3] and katerchesthai, literally to descend, come
down or go down or less commonly be brought
Hyllos and his other children were expelled and
1

2
persecuted by Eurystheus ... Eurystheus invaded Attica, but perished in the attempt ....
All the sons of Eurystheus lost their lives ...
with him, so that the Perseid family was now
represented only by the Herakleids ....

THE TERM INVASION

by a revolution in Peloponnesus so complete that, except in the rugged province of Arcadia, nothing remained
unaltered.[8]
In 1824 Karl Otfried Mller's Die Dorier was published in German and was translated into English by
Tufnel and Lewis for publication in 1830. They use
such terms as the Doric invasion[9] and the invasian
of the Dorians[10] to translate Mllers Die Einwanderung von den Doriern (literally: the migration of the
Dorians),[11] which was quite a dierent concept.

The Pelopid family now assumed power. The Heraclids


endeavored to recover the possessions from which they
had been expelled but were defeated by the Ionians at
the Isthmus of Corinth. Hyllus staked peace for three
generations against immediate reoccupation on a single
On one level the Einwanderung meant no more than the
combat and was killed by Echemus of Arcadia.
Heraklidenzug, the return of the Heracleidae. However,
The Heracleidae now found it prudent to claim the Do- Mller was also applying the sense of Vlkerwanderung
rian land granted to Heracles:[5] and from this moment to it, which was being used of the Germanic migrations.
the Herakleids and Dorians became intimately united to- Mllers approach was philological. In trying to explain
gether into one social communion. Three generations the distribution of tribes and dialects he hypothesized that
later the Heracleidae with Dorian collusion occupied the aboriginal or Pelasgian population was Hellenic. His
the Peloponnesus, an event Grote terms a victorious rst paragraph of the Introduction asserts:[12]
invasion.[6]

The term invasion

The Dorians derived their origin [der Ursprung des dorischen Stammes] from those districts in which the Grecian nation bordered
toward the north upon numerous and dissimilar races of barbarians. As to the tribes
which dwelt beyond these borders we are indeed wholly destitute of information; nor is
there the slightest trace of any memorial or
tradition that the Greeks originally came from
those quarters.
Mller goes on to propose that the original Pelasgian language was the common ancestor of Greek and Latin,[13]
that it evolved into Proto-Greek and was corrupted in
Macedon and Thessaly by invasions of Illyrians. This
same pressure of Illyrians drove forth Greeks speaking
Achaean (including Aeolian), Ionian, and nally Dorian
in three diachronic waves, explaining the dialect distribution of Greek in classical times.[14]

6th-century cup from Laconia, the very center of the classical


Dorians, representing Nike, the goddess of victory, attending
upon a Spartan warrior.

The rst widespread use of the term Dorian invasion


appears to date to the 1830s. A popular alternative was
the Dorian migration. For example, in 1831 Thomas
Keightly was using Dorian migration in Outline of History; by 1838 in The Mythology of Ancient Greece and
Italy he was using Dorian invasion.
Neither of those two words exactly ts the events, as
they imply an incursion from outside a society to within;
but the Dorians were not outside of either Greece or
Greek society. William Mitford's History of Greece
(17841810)[7] described a Dorian conquest followed

Following this traditional view, Thumb noticed that in


the Peloponnesus and in the islands, where the Dorians
established themselves, their dialect showed elements of
the Arcadian dialect. This can be explained if the Dorians conquered a Pre-Doric population, which was pushed
into the Arcadian mountains. Where the Dorians were a
minority, there is a mixed dialect, as in Boeotia, or the
Dorians adopted the existing dialect, as in Thessaly.[15]
To the Achaeans described by Homer belongs the AeolicArcadian dialect in the whole of eastern Greece, with
the exception of Attica, where the Ionians were conned.
The Ionians must be considered the oldest rst wave of
the Greek migration.[16]
In 1902, K. Paparigopoulos, calling the event the Descent of the Heraclidae, stated that the Heraclidae came
from Thessaly after being expelled by the Thessalians living in Epirus.[17]

Kretschmers external Greeks

THRACIAN

MACEDONIAN

ILLYRIAN

Propontis

Chalcidice

Toward the end of the 19th century the philologist Paul


Kretschmer made a strong case that Pelasgian was a preGreek substrate, perhaps Anatolian,[18] taking up a classical theme of remnant populations existing in pockets among the Greek speakers, in mountainous and rural Arcadia and in inaccessible coasts of the far south.
This view left Mllers proto-Greeks without a homeland, but Kretschmer did not substitute the Heracleidae
or their Dorian allies from Macedon and Thessaly. Instead he removed the earliest Greeks to the trail leading from the plains of Asia, where he viewed the ProtoIndo-European language as having broken up about 2500
BC. Kretschmer suggested that somewhere between that
Asian homeland and Greece a new cradle of the Greek
tribes developed, from which Proto-Ionians at about 2000
BC, Proto-Achaeans at about 1600 BC and Dorians at
about 1200 BC came to swoop down on an increasingly less aboriginal Greece as three waves of external
Greeks.[19]
Kretschmer was condent that if the unknown homeland
of the Greeks was not then known, archaeology would
nd it. The handbooks of Greek history from then on
spoke of Greeks entering Greece. As late as 1956 J.B.
Bury's History of Greece (3rd edition) wrote of an invasion which brought the Greek language into Greece.
Over that half-century Greek and Balkan archaeology
united in an eort to locate the Dorians further north
than Greece. The idea was combined with a view that the
Sea Peoples were part of the same north-south migration
about 1200 BC.

Lemnos

Larissa

Epirus
Corcyra

Dodona

Thessaly

Ambracia

Lesbos

Delphi

Boeotia

Euboea

Thebes

Cephallonia

Zacynthos

Achaea
Elis
Olympia

Ionian Sea

Corinth

Argolis
Arcadia Argos Epidaurus

Messenia Sparta

Pylos

Chalkis

Megara Attica
Athens

Pergamum

Aeolia

Skyros
Leucas

Smyrna

Aegean Sea

LYDIAN

Chios

Ionia
Ephesus

Andros
Samos

Miletus

Cyclades

CARIAN

Naxos

Laconia

Kos
Thera
Rhodes

Greek dialects in the classical period


Western group:
Doric

Northwest Greek

Achaean Doric

Sea of Crete

Central group:
Aeolic

Arcado-Cypriot

Crete

Eastern group:
Attic

Cyprus

Ionic

Greek dialects after the event or events termed the Dorian


invasion. Before this, the dialect spoken in the later Dorian
range (except for Doris itself) is believed to have been Achaean,
from which Attic, Ionic and Aeolic descended. Doric displaced
Achaean in southern Greece.

king, was postulated to be derived from a reconstructed


form *wanak- (F). In the Linear B texts appears
the form
, wa-na-ka, sometimes accompanied by the
, wa-na-sa (F, queen).

Ernst Risch lost no time in proposing that there was never


more than one migration, which brought proto-Greek into
Greece. Proto-Greek is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek and then dissimilated
into dialects within Greece.[22] Meanwhile the linguists
closest to the decipherment were having doubts about the
classication of proto-Greek. John Chadwick summarizThe weakness in this theory[20] is that it requires both an ing in 1976 wrote:[23]
invaded Greece and an external area where Greek evolved
and continued to evolve into dialects contemporaneously
Let us therefore explore the alternative
with the invaded Greece. However, although the invaded
view. This hypothesis is that the Greek lanGreece was amply represented by evidence of all sorts,
guage did not exist before the twentieth century
there was no evidence at all of the external homeland.
B.C., but was formed in Greece by the mixture
Similarly, a clear Greek homeland for the Sea Peoples
of an indigenous population with invaders who
failed to materialize. Retaining Mllers three waves and
spoke another language .... What this language
Kretschmers Pelasgian pockets the scholars continued to
was is a dicult question ... the exact stage
search for the Dorians in other quarters. Mllers comreached in development at the time of the armon ancestor of Greek and Latin had vanished by 1950;
rival is dicult to predict.
and by 1960, although still given lip service, the concept
of Greek developing outside of Greece was in decline.[21]
Georgiev suggested that:[24]

Greek origin in Greece

The Proto-Greek region included Epirus,


approximately up to in the north
including Paravaia, Tymphaia, Athamania,
Dolopia, Amphilochia, and Acarnania, west
and north Thessaly (Hestiaiotis,, Perrhaibia,
Tripolis, and Pieria), i.e. more or less the territory of contemporary northwestern Greece

Additional progress in the search for the Dorian invasion resulted from the decipherment of Linear B inscriptions. The language of the Linear B texts is an early form
of Greek now known as Mycenaean Greek. Comparing it with the later Greek dialects scholars could trace
the development of the dialects from the earlier Myce- In another ten years the alternative view was becoming
naean. For example, classical Greek anak-s (), the standard one. JP Mallory wrote in 1989 concerning

5 DESTRUCTION AT THE END OF MYCENAEAN IIIB

the various hypotheses of proto-Greek that had been put Blegen follows Furumark[28] in dating Mycenaean IIIB
forward since the decipherment:[25]
to 13001230 BC. Blegen himself dated the Dorian invasion to 1200 BC.
Reconciliation of all these dierent theories seems out of the question ... the current state of our knowledge of the Greek dialects can accommodate Indo-Europeans entering Greece at any time between 2200 and
1600 BC to emerge later as Greek speakers.

A destruction by Dorians has its own problems (as discussed in the next section) and is not the only possible
explanation. At approximately this time Hittite power in
Anatolia collapsed with the destruction of their capital
Hattusa, and the late 19th and the 20th dynasties of Egypt
suered invasions of the Sea Peoples. A theory, reported
for instance by Thomas and Conant, attributes the ruin of
[29]
By the end of the 20th century the concept of an invasion the Peloponnesus to the Sea Peoples:
by external Greek speakers had ceased to be the mainstream view, (although still asserted by a minority); thus
Evidence on the Linear B tablets from the
Georey Horrocks writes:[26]
Mycenaean kingdom of Pylos describing the
dispatch of rowers and watchers to the coast,
for instance, may well date to the time that the
Greek is now widely believed to be the
Egyptian pharaoh was expecting the arrival of
product of contact between Indo-European imfoes.
migrants and the speakers of the indigenous
languages of the Balkan peninsula beginning c.
2,000 B.C.
The identity of the foes remained a question. The evidence suggests that some of the Sea Peoples may have
If the dierent dialects had developed within Greece no been Greek. However, most of the destroyed Mycenaean
subsequent invasions were required to explain their pres- sites are far from the sea, and the expedition against Troy
at the end of this period shows that the sea was safe. Desence.
borough believes that the sea was safe in central and south
Aegean in this period.[30]

Destruction at the end of Mycenaean IIIB

Michael Wood suggests relying on tradition, especially


that of Thucydides:[31]
"[L]et us not forget the legends, at least as
models for what might have happened. They
tell us of constant rivalries with the royal clans
of the Heroic Age Atreus and Thyestes,
Agamemnon and Aigisthes, and so on ....

A record of Pylos, preserved by baking in the re that destroyed


the palace about 1200 BC, according to the excavator, Carl Blegen. The record must date to about 1200, as the unbaked clay,
used mainly for diurnal or other short-term records, would soon
have disintegrated.

In summary, it is possible that the Mycenaean world


disintegrated through feuding clans of the great royal
families.[31] The possibility of some sort of internal
struggle had long been under consideration. Chadwick,
after following and critiquing the development of dierent views, in 1976 settled on a theory of his own:[32] there
was no Dorian invasion. The palaces were destroyed by
Dorians who had been in the Peloponnesus all along as a
subservient lower class (Linear B:
, do-e-ro, male
slave"; latter Greek form: ),[33] and now were
staging a revolution. Chadwick espoused the view that
northern Greek was the more conservative language, and
proposed that southern Greek had developed under Minoan inuence as a palace language.

Meanwhile the archaeologists were encountering what


appeared to be a wave of destruction of Mycenaean
palaces. Indeed, the Pylos tablets recorded the dispatch
of coast-watchers, to be followed not long after by the
burning of the palace, presumably by invaders from the
sea. Carl Blegen wrote:[27]
Mylonas joins two of the previous possibilities. He believes that some developments in Argolis and attempts for
the telltale track of the Dorians must be
recovery after 1200 BC, can be explained by an internal
recognized in the re-scarred ruins of all the
ghting, and by an enemy pressure, by the Dorians. Even
if the Dorians, were one of the causes of the Bronze age
great palaces and the more important towns
collapse, there is evidence that they brought with them
which ... were blotted out at the end of Mycesome new elements of culture. It seems that the Doric
naean IIIB.

5
clans moved southward gradually over a number of years, The scholars were now faced with the conundrum of an
and they devastated the territory, until they managed to invasion at 1200 but a resettlement at 950. One explaestablish themselves in the Mycenaean centres.[34]
nation is that the destruction of 1200 was not caused by
them, and that the quasi-mythical return of the Heracleidae is to be associated with settlement at Sparta c. 950.
It is possible that the destruction of the Mycenaean cen6 Invasion or migration
tres, was caused by the wandering of northern people (Illyrian migration). They destroyed the palace of Iolcos
(LH III C-1), the palace of Thebes ( late LH III B), then
they crossed Isthmus of Corinth (end of LH III B) they
destroyed Mycenae, Tiryns and Pylos, and nally they
returned northward. However Pylos was destroyed by
a sea-attack, the invaders didn't leave behind traces of
weapons or graves, and it cannot be proved that all the
sites were destroyed about the same time.[36] It is also possible that the Doric clans moved southward gradually over
a number of years, and they devastated the territory, until
they managed to establish themselves in the Mycenaean
centres.[34]

7 Closing the gap

The Dorian migration in H.G. Wells' The Outline of History


(1920).

After the Greek Dark Ages, much of the population of the


Peloponnesus spoke Dorian, while the evidence of Linear
B and literary traditions, such as the works of Homer,
suggests that the population spoke Achaean Mycenaean
Greek before. In addition, society in the Peloponnesus
had undergone a total change from states ruled by kings
presiding over a Palace economy to a caste system ruled
by a Dorian master ethnos at Sparta.
According to the scholar H. Michell:[35] If we assume
that the Dorian invasion took place some time in the
twelfth century, we certainly know nothing of them for
the next hundred years. Blegen admitted that in the subMycenaean period following 1200:[27] the whole area
seems to have been sparsely populated or almost deserted.
The problem is that there are no traces of any Dorians
anywhere until the start of the Geometric period about
950 BC. This simple pottery decoration appears to be
correlated with other changes in material culture, such as
the introduction of iron weapons and alterations in burial
practices from Mycenaean group burials in tholos tombs
to individual burials and cremation. These can certainly
be associated with the historical Dorian settlers, such as
those of Sparta in the 10th century BC.[35] However, they
appear to have been general over all of Greece; moreover,
the new weapons would not have been used in 1200.

Proto-geometric pottery, but of Athens, not Sparta.

The quest for the Dorian invasion had begun as an attempt


to explain the dierences between Peloponnesian society
depicted by Homer and the historical Dorians of classical Greece. The rst scholars to work on the problem
were historians researching the only resources available
to them: the Greek legends. The philologists (later linguists) subsequently took up the challenge but in the end
only brought the problem into sharper denition. Finally
the archaeologists have inherited the issue. Perhaps some

9 NOTES
speaking, do not exist. That is, there is no cultural trait surviving in the material record for
the two centuries or so after 1200 which can
be regarded as a peculiarly Dorian hallmark.
Robbed of their patents for Geometric pottery, cremation burial, iron-working and, the
unkindest prick of all, the humble straight pin,
the hapless Dorians stand naked before their
creator or, some would say, inventor.

Geometric pottery, Dorian Argos.

C.Moss suggests that there is not any archaeological evidence that a Doric civilization substituted the Achaean
civilization, and that the Dorian methods of a war-society,
was a myth created by the scientists who were based on
the Spartan delusion. The Dorians who spoke a dierent dialect were mixed with the local population, when
they migrated to the new lands [38]
The question remains open to further investigation.

distinctively Dorian archaeological evidence will turn up


or has turned up giving precise insight as to how and when
Peloponnesian society changed so radically.

8 See also

The historians had dened the Greek Dark Ages, a period


of general decline, in this case the disappearance of the
palace economy and with it law and order, loss of writing, diminishment of trade, decrease in population and
abandonment of settlements (destroyed or undestroyed),
metals starvation and loss of the ne arts or at least the
diminution of their quality, evidenced especially in pottery. By its broadest denition the dark age lasted between 1200 and 750, the start of the archaic or orientalizing period, when inuence from the Middle East via the
overseas colonies stimulated a recovery.

Ancient Greek dialects

A dark age of poverty, low population and metals starvation is not compatible with the idea of great population movements of successful warriors wielding the latest
military equipment sweeping into the Peloponnesus and
taking it over to rebuild civilization their way. This dark
age consists of three periods of art and archaeology: subMycenaean, Proto-geometric and Geometric. The most
successful, the Geometric, seems to t the Dorians better, but there is a gap, and this period is not localized to
and did not begin in Dorian territory. It is more to be
associated with Athens, an Ionian state.

Historical linguistics

Still, the Dorians did share in the Geometric period and


therefore to nd its origin might be perhaps to nd the
origin of the Dorians. The Geometric originated by clear
transition from the Proto-geometric. The logical break
in material culture is the start of the Proto-geometric at
about 1050 BC, which leaves a gap of 150 years. The year
1050 oers nothing distinctively Dorian either, but if the
Dorians were present in the Geometric, and they were not
always in place as an unrecorded lower class, 1050 is most
likely time of entry. Cartledge says humorously:[37]
It has of late become an acknowledged
scandal that the Dorians, archaeologically

Comparative method
Dorians
Doric Greek
Doris
Dorus, the eponymous founder
Greek Dark Ages

Sparta
Vedic Period

9 Notes
[1] About the so-called Dorians Issue cf. Francesco Perono Cacciafoco, Sulle piste dei Dori. Ipotesi a confronto tra
Linguistica, Archeologia e Storia [On the Traces of the Dorians. Compared Hypotheses According to Linguistics, Archaeology, and History], Pisa University Press (Edizioni
PLUS), Pisa 2009, link book.
[2] Hogan, C. Michael (10 January 2008). Lato Hillfort.
The Modern Antiquarian. Julian Cope.
[3] Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (2007) [1940].
"". Greek-English Lexicon. Medford: Perseus
Digital Library, Tufts University.
[4] "". Liddell & Scott.
[5] George Grote, Greece Part I, Chapter XVIII, Section I:
Return of the Herakleids into Peloponnesus.

[6] George Grote, Greece Chapter IV: Heroic Legends : Exile of the Herakleids.
[7] Mitfords single-volume rst edition came out in 1784 to
be followed by a second edition containing Volumes I and
II in 1789. The remainder of the initial 8-volume set was
published by 1810. The third edition of 1821 had more
volumes. Some 29 editions more followed. Mitfords
work features marginal notes stating the ancient sources.
[8] Mitford, William. The History of Greece. Volume I.
Boston: Timothy Bedlington and Charles Ewer, Cornhill.
p. 197.
[9] Mller 1830, p. 107.
[10] Mller 1830, p. 97.
[11] Mller 1844, p. 85.
[12] Mller 1830, p. 1.
[13] Mller 1830, pp. 67.
[14] Mller 1830, pp. 1119.
[15] A.Thumb: Handbuch der griechischen Dialekte 1932 :
Martin Nilsson Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion
C.F.Beck Verlag, Munchen, p. 330
[16] J.L.Myres, Who were the Greeks? 1930 : Martin Nilsson
Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion C.F.Beck Verlag,
Munchen, p. 330
[17] Paparigopoulos, K., 1902, History of the Greek Nation,
(re-edited in demotic Greek, 1995), v. 1, p. 189
[18] Hall, Jonathan M. (2002). Between Ethnicity and Culture.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 40. ISBN 0226-31329-8. Paul Kretschmer ... had pointed to elements in Greek vocabulary ... that appeared to be nonHellenic, and therefore pre-Hellenic ... for example, the
-nth- sux in Tirynthos ... which Kretschmer believed
had been transmitted to Greece from Anatolia.
[19] Drews 1988, p. 8. Paul Kretschmer concluded that
there had been three Greek invasions of Greece during
the Bronze Age. The last of these, ca. 1200 B.C., was
surely the Dorian Invasion.
[20] A survey of the problems connected with the historicity
of the Dorian invasion may be found Hall, J.M. (2007).
A History of the Archaic Greek World ca. 1200479 BCE.
Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 3. A number of ISBNs, including 0631226672.
[21] Drews 1993, p. 63. The old view that the Dorian
invasion proceeded from the central Balkans and that it
occurred ca. 1200 is now maintained by only a few
archaeologists and against increasing evidence to the contrary.
[22] Risch, Ernst (1955). Die Gliederung der griechischen
Dialekte in neuer Sicht. Museum Helveticum 12: 6175.
The argument is summarized, and Risch is cited, in Drews
1988, p. 39.
[23] Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 23. ISBN 0-521-21077-1.

[24] Georgiev, Vladimir Ivanov (1981). Introduction to the history of the Indo-European languages. Pub. House of the
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. p. 156.
[25] Mallory, J.P. (1991). In Search of the Indo-Europeans:
Language, Archaeology and Myth. New York: Thames
and Hudson. p. 71. ISBN 0-500-27616-1.
[26] Horrocks, Georey (1997). Homers Dialect. In Morris, Ian; Powell, Barry B. A New Companion to Homer.
Leiden, Boston: Brill. pp. 193217. ISBN 90-04-099891.
[27] Blegen, Carl (1967), The Mycenaean Age: The Trojan
War, the Dorian Invasion and Other Problems, Lectures
in Memory of Louise Taft Semple: First Series, 19611965,
Princeton: Princeton University Press, p. 30, LC 6714407.
[28] Furumark, Arne (1972). Mycenaean Pottery. Svenska institutet i Athen. ISBN 91-85086-03-7. This book, a pottery lookup reference, arranges pottery by stylistic groups,
assigning relative dates correlated when possible to calendar dates, along with the evidence. It is the standard pottery reference for Mycenaean times.
[29] Thomas, Carol G.; Craig Conant (2005). The Trojan War.
Westport, Connecticut: The Greenwood press. p. 18.
ISBN 0-313-32526-X.
[30] G.Mylonas (1966) Mycenae and the Mycenaean age,
Princeton University Press pp. 230,231
[31] Wood, Michael (1987). In Search of the Trojan War. New
York: New American Library. pp. 251252. ISBN 0452-25960-6.
[32] Chadwick, John (1976). Who were the Dorians?".
Parola del Passato 31: 103117. Chadwicks point of
view is summarized and critiqued in Drews 1988, Appendix One: The End of the Bronze Age in Greece
[33] Paleolexicon.
[34] G. Mylonas, Mycenae and the Mycenaean age, pp. 231,
232
[35] Michell, H. (1964). Sparta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 7.
[36] G. Mylonas Mycenae and the Mycenaean age, pp. 227,
228
[37] Cartledge, Paul (2002). Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional
History, 1300362. Routledge. p. 68. ISBN 0-41526276-3.
[38] C.Moss (1984). La Grce archaique, d' Homre Eschyle. Editions du Seuil, p.p 34,35

10 Bibliography
Francesco Perono Cacciafoco, Sulle piste dei Dori.
Ipotesi a confronto tra Linguistica, Archeologia e Storia [On the Traces of the Dorians. Compared Hypotheses According to Linguistics, Archaeology, and

11
History], Pisa University Press (Edizioni PLUS),
Pisa 2009, link book.
Drews, Robert (1988). The Coming of the Greeks:
Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the
Near East. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University
Press. ISBN 0-691-02951-2.
Drews, Robert (1993). The End of the Bronze Age:
Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe CA. 1200
B.C. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University
Press.
Hall, Jonathan M. (2000). Dorians and Heraklidai. Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 5665. ISBN 0-521-78999-0.
Hall, Jonathan M. (2006). Dorians: Ancient Ethnic Group. In Wilson, Nigel. Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 240242. ISBN 0-415-97334-1.
Mller, C.O.; Henry Tufnell (Translator); George
Cornewall Lewis (Translator) (1830). The History
and Antiquities of the Doric Race. Volume I. London: John Murray.
Mller, Karl Otfried (1844). Geschichten hellenischer Stmme und Stdte. Zweiter Band: Die Dorier.
Breslau: J. Max and Company.
Mylonas, George E. (1966). Mycenae and the Mycenaean Age. Princeton UP. ISBN 0-691-03523-7.
Pomeroy, Sarah B.; Stanley M. Burstein; Walter
Donlan; Jennifer Tolbert Roberts (1999). Ancient
Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509742-4.

11

External links

Casson, Stanley (July 1921). The Dorian Invasion


reviewed in the light of some New Evidence. The
Antiquaries Journal (London and elsewhere: Oxford
University Press) I (No. 1): 199221.
Jacob-Felsch, Margrit (2000). Problems in Mycenaean Chronology (PDF). Hephaistos (18)..
Thomas, Carol (Spring 1978). Found: the Dorians (PDF). Expedition Magazine (Penn Museum,
University of Pennsylvania): 2125.

EXTERNAL LINKS

12

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

12.1

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Dorian invasion Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorian_invasion?oldid=671035990 Contributors: Mdebets, Reddi, Wetman, Nat


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