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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
The holy Quran has repeatedly discussed perfect position
of females in her roles in family. She is pilot of human civilization.
Therefore,

being

centrifugal

in

acculturation,

socialization

and

motivation of next generation she gets the best attention under Islam
in view of which she has not been described in any criminality in the
historical events related by the Holy Quran, expect that she may
indulge in fornication or illegal sexuality due to circumstances
compulsion of the new around. Female criminality throughout the
history of Islam has least mention. Women in Pakistan have remained
veiled with a chador (sheet) in char Dewari (protected house)with
modesty and sanctity. But now female criminality is on the serious rise,
everywhere, posing new threats to the humanity to be seriously faced
in the 21st century due to increasing feminine activity in daily life
affairs.(Aulokh, 1999)
Female criminal behavior has been commonly perceived as
a less serious problem, however, even more complicated, less
understood, and not subject to easy control than male criminal
behavior (Latif, 2011). Historically, women have been more likely to
commit minor offenses and have made up only a small proportion of
the offender population. Although women remain a relatively small
number of all prisoners, these facts have concealed a trend in the
rising percentage of female offenders, their participation in violent
crime,

and

have

inhibited

the

development

of

gender-specific

programs to address the issue (Research on Women and Girls in the


Criminal Justice System, National Institute of Justice, 1999).

On the whole, female criminality acts are typically less


chronic and often less serious than those of men. Minor offenses
predominate among female delinquent offenders. However, minor
offenses may mask serious problems that girls are experiencing.
Running away from home and other status offenses (such as truancy)
are major components of female criminal behavior (Tariq, N.H., 1981).
Although their offense behavior may not appear to be very
serious, these girls may be escaping from serious problems and
victimization, some involving illegal behavior by adults, which in turn
makes them vulnerable to subsequent victimization and engaging in
other behaviors that violate the law such as prostitution, survival sex
and drug use (Causes and Correlates of Girls' Delinquency, Office of
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2010).
Many risk factors can contribute to women's criminal
behavior, including substance abuse, mental illness, and spousal
abuse. One of the most significant risk factors is prior victimization
(Women Offenders: Programming Needs and Promising Approaches,
National Institute of Justice, 1998).
WHAT IS CRIME?
Crime has been defined variously as An anti-act.
A simple definition of crime is given by Reckless, (1996) that crime is
the omission of an act forbidden by law.
An action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable
by law.
An

act

or

omission

forbidden

by

the

law

under

pain

of

punishment (Encyclopedia Britannica 2003)


2

Crime impairs the overall performance of nation, undermines peoples


spiritual and material well-being, compromises human dignity and
creates a climate of fear and violence that erodes the quality of life.
(The 7th U.N. Congress 1995)
A criminal is a person who has violated or attempted to violate a law
that carries a specific penalty for the illegal conduct. The violation itself
is of course called a crime or an offence. The distinction involves the
conduct

as

well

as

the

age

of

the

individual.

(Roganowiez, 1972)
The criminal law, in a variety of subtle but unmistaken ways, would
affect the functioning of personalities of members of a society, and act
as a social force and educational instruction for imprisonment of
certain legal dictates. (Block and Gies, 1970)
It is known fact that social phenomenon, good or bad, is the outcome
of functioning of society. Social values, traditions and rituals do
contribute in shaping that phenomenon. As it is often said that
societies can be known by the crimes they keep; crime in Pakistan has
a peculiarity of its own because of the socio-cultural conditions
prevailing in the country. Most of the crimes against persons are
murders and hurts committed by otherwise normal citizens on account
of interpersonal conflicts and social value pressures.(Tariq &Durrani,
1980)
Criminal tendencies in one woman may affect the entire
family. As the mother is the first teacher of child. Wrong lesson at
primary stages may lead the child towards understandable behavior. To
save the society from psychological social and economic progression
and to lessen the possibility of producing criminal children, it would
also suggest better measures of prevention and control of female
3

criminality along with recommendations to improve the plight of


female convicts in various prisons of the country. (Tariq, 1981)
Female criminality is of less consideration in Pakistan. Law
enforcers such as Penal Code and Hadood Ordinance (1979) generally
conceal the female offences for her tender role associated with
modesty,

respectfulness,

regard

and

honor

in

society.

Female

criminality has no proper lodging in the police record. Some female


cases are deliberately kept hidden for the reason to not to expose
women folk. As, there is no precise registration, arrest, investigation,
adjudication and penalty matter for record. The authentic data for
quantitative research is lacking.
According to a comprehensive report by UNODC (United
Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Country Office Pakistan) at 2011 a
large proportion of women prisoners in Pakistan were in the cases of
murder (about 40%) while 24% was convicted of drug related offenses.
While

kidnapping

cases

constitute

13%

of

women

prisoners,

commercial sex workers comprised of 12%, theft cases 7% and other


offenses were found to be the main reasons for imprisonment of the
4% of total women prison population.
There are many reasons associated with this deliberate
and complex phenomenon. Theorists correlate female criminality with
physical or psychological traits of personality, whereas in Punjab
female criminality is intolerant approach to commit an offense (Rizvi,
1998).

Domestic

violence,

insecure

relationships,

extra-marital

relationships, male leading crimes such as prostitution, smuggling,


abduction and theft are main and frequent crimes (Kamran, 2004).
Nowadays, people always have existed a prejudice towards
women in status, workplace and even in a developed areas. For
4

example, women have been abused by a deep-rooted sexual


discrimination and unfair competition. Indefinite abusing not only
aggravates the crime problems, but also endangers social balance.
These committing crime such as thieves, murders, lawless behavior in
women all stem from people treat badly to young women; keep
oppressing and pushing them to astray. As a result, it forces females to
commit crime as an outlet and hence rapidly drives up the crime rate
(Jahan, 1988).
Another matter of concern is the registration of female
crimes with the aim of defaming and honor maintaining (Bloch, 1962).
The involvement of women and girls in the criminal justice system has
largely been as crime victims rather than as criminals. While females
make up about half of violent crime victims, they represent a minority
of offenders. However, in order to understand the scope of issues
related to women and the criminal justice system it is important to look
at the incidence and experience of crime against women, as well as
women as offenders(Mittra& Kumar, 2004). It is because of the
relatively small number of females committing crimes that it is crucial
to closely monitor female offending patterns. Otherwise, differences in
the experiences of women and girls in the criminal justice system may
be masked by trends that reflect the larger male offender population
(Mahajan, 2008). This information is necessary to assess responses by
the justice and social systems to females who offend and in the
development of gender-informed crime prevention strategies.
TYPES OF CRIME:
Crimes are defined by criminal law, which refers to a body
of federal and state rules that prohibit behavior the government deems
harmful to society. If one engages in such behavior, they may be guilty
of a crime and prosecuted in criminal court.
5

In todays society, criminal behavior and criminal trials are


highly publicized in the media and commonly the storyline in hit
television shows and movies. As a result, people may consider
themselves well-informed on the different types of crimes. However,
the law can be quite complicated.
There are many different types of crimes but, generally,
crimes can be divided into major categories as follows:
WHITE COLLAR CRIME
White-collar crimes are crimes that committed by people of
high social status who commit their crimes in the context of their
occupation. This includes embezzling (stealing money from ones
employer), insider trading, and tax evasion and other violations of
income tax laws.
White-collar crimes generally generate less concern in the
public mind than other types of crime, however in terms of total
dollars, white-collar crimes are even more consequential for society.
Nonetheless, these crimes are generally the least investigated and
least prosecuted.
ORGANIZED CRIME
Organized crime is crime committed by structured groups
typically involving the distribution of illegal goods and services to
others (William, 2001) Many people think of the Mafia when they think
of organized crime, but the term can refer to any group that exercises
control over large illegal enterprises (such as the drug trade, illegal
gambling, prostitution, weapons smuggling, or money laundering)
(ONeil, 2006).

A key sociological concept in the study or organized crime


is that these industries are organized along the same lines as
legitimate businesses and take on a corporate form (Siegel &Nelen,
2008). There are typically senior partners who control the business
profits, workers who manage and work for the business, and clients
who buy the goods and services that the organization provides.(Lyman
& Potter, 2010)
VIOLENT CRIME
A violent crime or crime by violence is a crime in which the
offender uses or threatens to use violent force upon the victim. This
entails both crimes in which the violent act is the objective, such as
murder, as well as crimes in which violence is the means to an end,
(including criminal ends) such as robbery. Violent crimes include crime
committed without weapons. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014-0211)
PROPERTY CRIME
Property crime is a category of crime that includes, among
other

crimes, burglary, larceny, theft, motor

theft, arson, shoplifting,

vehicle

and vandalism

(Freiberg & Arie, 1996). Property crime involves the taking of property,
and does not involve force or threat of force against a victim (Hall &
Jerome, 1952). Crimes against property are divided into two groups:
destroyed property and stolen property (Bennett, 1981). When
property is destroyed, it could be called arson of vandalism (Poyner
and B.B, Webb, 1991). Examples of the act of stealing property are
robbery

or

embezzlement

(Klaus

&

Patsy,

2006).

Although robbery involves taking property, it is classified as a violent


crime, as force or threat of force on an individual that is present is
7

involved in contrast to burglary which is typically of an unoccupied


dwelling or other unoccupied building (Sorensen, 2004).
Property

crimes

are

high-volume

crimes,

with

cash,

electronics (e.g. televisions), power tools, cameras, and jewelry often


targeted (Ratcliffe& Jerry H., 2001)."Hot products" tend to be items
that are concealable, removable, available, valuable, and enjoyable,
with an ease of "disposal" being the most important characteristic.
(Sutton & Adam, 1996)
SEX CRIME
A number of different offences fall into the sex crime
category, but they generally involve illegal or coerced sexual conduct
against another individual (Kara &Siddhath, 2009). Every state has
laws against prohibiting the various types of sex crimes, such as rape
and sexual assault. Each of the state has its own time limit (or statute
of limitations) in which victims of sex crimes may file a lawsuit against
the alleged offender (Dempsy & Bosworth, 2012).
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CRIME
Crimes are often classified according to the level of seriousness, such
as the distinction between felony and misdemeanor crimes. Generally,
the differences are:
Felony

more serious crimes such as murder, kidnapping and


robbery

Carries a year or more in state prison

Misdemeanor

Less serious crimes such as shoplifting

Usually carries a fine and jail sentence of less than a year,


if at all.

FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF CRIME


There are four elements which go to constitute a crime, these are:i.

Human Being
The first element requires that the wrongful act must be
committed by a human being. In ancient times, when criminal
law was largely dominated by the idea of retribution,
punishments were inflicted on animals also for the injury
caused by them, for example, a pig was burnt in Paris for
having devoured a child, a horse was killed for having kicked
a man. But now, if an animal causes an injury we hold not the
animal liable but its owner liable for such injury (Bonnie,
1997).
So the first element of crime is a human being who- must be
under the legal obligation to act in a particular manner and
should be a fit subject for awarding appropriate punishment
(Donna M. 1987).

ii.

Mens Rea
The second important essential element of a crime is mens
rea or evil intent or guilty mind. There can be no crime of any
nature without mens rea or an evil mind. Every crime requires
a mental element and that is considered as the fundamental
principle of criminal liability (Elizabeth A. Martin, ed.2003).
The basic requirement of the principle mens rea is that the
accused must have been aware of those elements in his act
9

which make the crime with which he is charged (Brent Fisse,


1990).
iii.

Actus Reus (Guilty Act or Omission)


The third essential element of a crime is actus reus. In other
words, some overt act or illegal omission must take place in
pursuance

of

the

guilty

intention.

Actus

reus

is

the

manifestation of mens rea in the external world (Dubber &


Markus D., 2002). Prof. Kenny was the first writer to use the
term actus reus. He has defined the term thus- such result
of human conduct as the law seeks to prevent.
iv.

Injury
The fourth requirement of a crime is injury to another person
or to the society at large. The injury should be illegally caused
to any person in body, mind, reputation or property, the injury
denotes any harm whatever illegally caused to any person in
body, mind, reputation or property (R v Matthews &Alleyne,
2004).

STAGES OF CRIME
If a person commits a crime voluntarily or after preparation the doing
of it involves four different stages. In every crime, there is first
intention to commit it, secondly, preparation to commit it, thirdly,
attempt to commit it and fourthly the accomplishment. The stages can
be explained as under:i.

Intention

10

Intention is the first stage in the commission of an offence and


known as mental stage. Intention is the direction of conduct
towards the object chosen upon considering the motives
which suggest the choice. But the law does not take notice of
an intention, mere intention to commit an offence not
followed by any act, cannot constitute an offence (Zimbardo,
1970). The obvious reason for not prosecuting the accused at
this stage is that it is very difficult for the prosecution to prove
the guilty mind of a person (Wortley, 1997).
ii.

Preparation
Preparation is the second stage in the commission of a crime.
It means to arrange the necessary measures for the
commission of the intended criminal act. Intention alone or
the intention followed by a preparation is not enough to
constitute

the

crime.

Preparation

has

not

been

made

punishable because in most of the cases the prosecution has


failed to prove that the preparations in the question were
made for the commission of the particular crime (Clark &
Hollinger, 1984).
iii.

Attempt
Attempt is the direct movement towards the commission of a
crime

after

the

preparation

is

made

(Milgram,

1974).

According to English law, a person may be guilty of an


attempt to commit an offence if he does an act which is more
than merely preparatory to the commission of the offence;
and a person will be guilty of attempting to commit an offence
even though the facts are such that the commission of the
offence is impossible.
11

There are three essentials of an attempt:a. Guilty intention to commit an offence


b. Some act done towards the commission of the offence
c. The act must fall short of the completed offence
Secondly, attempts to commit offences and commission of
specific offences have been dealt with separately and
separate punishments have been provided for attempt to
commit such offences from those of the offences committed.
Examples are- murder is punished under section 302 and
attempt to murder to murder under section 307; culpable
homicide is punished under section 304 and attempt to
commit culpable homicide under section 308; Robbery is
punished under section 392 and attempt to commit robbery
under section 393.
Thirdly, attempt to commit suicide is punished under section
309.
iv.

Accomplishment or completion
The last stage in the commission of an offence is its
accomplishment or completion. If the accused succeeds in his
attempt to commit the crime, he will be guilty of the complete
offence and if his attempt is unsuccessful he will be guilty of
an attempt only. For example, A fires at B with the intention to
kill him, if B dies, A will be guilty for committing the offence of
murder and if B is only injured, it will be a case of attempt to
murder (Srivastava, 2010).

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CRIME


12

Gender is the single best predictor of criminal behavior:


men commit more crime, and women commit less (Cavan, 1949). This
distinction holds throughout history, for all societies, for all groups, and
for nearly every crime category (Ross, 1962). The universality of this
fact is really quite remarkable, even though many tend to take it for
granted (Kelin, 1996).Most efforts to understand crime have focused on
male crime, since men have greater involvement in criminal behavior.
Yet it is equally important to understand female crime (Kelin, 1996).
Men are more physically aggressive, more physically active
and more logical to see different ways of doing one particular problem
and often have good spatial skills. While on the other hand, females
tend to talk more and have better communication skills than men do
(Cortes and Gatti, 1972). Females are also less physically aggressive or
physically active, but fight more in other ways, like gossip and verbal
aggressiveness (Allen, 1987). The natural mental or psychological
differences of men and women are the reason why their crimes
differ.Men also tend in externalize their emotions through violence or
aggression, while female usually tend to internalize their emotions and
often are able to keep emotions under control(Steffensmeier, 1983).
Males are naturally more physically and emotionally
aggressive and thus commit more aggressive crimes than females
(Daly, 1993). According to a recent report about gender and crime,
men commit more crimes than females overall. Females have lower
arrest rates than males for virtually all crime categories except
prostitution. Prostitution is an illegal and old practice of selling ones
body for money. Prostitution continues to be the chief form of female
offending, especially on the part of drug dependent women and
women facing adverse circumstances, According to recent research
conducted by Jennifer Schwartz and Darrell Steffensmeier.
13

According to The National Crime Victimization Survey,


female offenders

usually

commit

less

violent

crimes,

such

as

shoplifting, fraud, embezzlement, and usually similar to the roles of


gender,

however, of

the

10

most

famous

white-collar

crimes

committed only one female made the list. In addition, females tend
to less bodily harm and less property damage when committing
crimes.
Females do commit violent crimes, but just at a much
lower rate (Rowe 1995). Normally, females tend to stick with lesser
crimes and crimes that relate to domestic roles that provide support
for themselves and family (R. Gregory, 1998). A females temperament
is milder and less violent or aggressive and it shows in the type of
crimes that are committed (Archer, J., 2000).
The main reason females are arrested less is that they
usually commit less crime. However, there are also some other factors
that may answer the question of arrests as well (Moffitt, Terrie &Caspi,
2001). Females tend to commit crimes alone versus males who usually
tend to commit crimes in groups, which may be a major reason for
being caught or reported. Females are good at communication and can
talk their way out a situation than men (Heidensohn, 1995).
People also have a tendency to have more sympathy and
compassion for woman and thus may let her go or give her another
chance after a crime is committed (Frances, 1986). Another important
factor that many people consider when addressing females criminals or
offenders is whether children are involved. Leniency is usually given
more frequently to women than men (Daly &Steffensmeier, 1983)
The criminal justice system's greater "leniency" and
"chivalry" toward females may explain a portion of the lower official
14

offending rates of women in comparison to men. Likewise, the justice


system's tendency to be relatively less lenient and chivalrous toward
females today may help explain recent increases in levels of female
arrests (Johnson, 1964). Although there appear to be relatively small
differences between adult women and men in likelihood of arrest or
conviction, women defendants do appear to have a lower probability of
being jailed or imprisoned. This difference appears to be related to a
variety of factors: pregnancy, responsibilities for small children, the
greater likelihood to demonstrate remorse, as well as perceptions that
women are less dangerous and more amenable to rehabilitation
(Ulmer, and Kramer).
So, there are differences in male and female criminals. The
differences are physical, mental and emotional. Therefore, like the
natural differences of male and females, the crimes of these
individuals differ as well (Hartmann & Boyce, 1983).

ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON FEMALE CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR


Islam has raised the status of women in its cadre for
multiple times. She is blessed to be a mother, wife, sister and
daughter. She is the symbol of modesty, love, affection and patience in
the holy context of Islam. Moreover, teachings of Quran are intended in
such a way, following to those no one can be accused of immoral and
illicit doings. The pious women of Islam like Hazrat Khadija (R.A),
Hazrat Aisha (R.A), Hazrat Umme Ammarah (R.A), BiBi Amna (R.A),
Hazrat Saffiah (R.A), Hazrat Umme Habeeba (R.A) and all other
15

virtuous women has settled remarkable examples for all the women of
Muslim world.
In Islam both Muslims and non-Muslims who are under the
authority of the Islamic State were subject to the punishment of the
judiciary if they were proven to have committed the crimes (Tabassum
& Sadia, 2011). This was because the orders of punishment that
appear in the Quran or hadith are general and do not specify that the
punishments were restricted to Muslims or non-Muslims, e.g. Allah
(SWT) says, And as for the male and female thief, cut off their
hands as a punishment for what they have done. [TMQ 5:38]
If we resort to Islamic teachings and rules than Allah
almighty commands in the holy Quran who revealed the law (to
mosses); there in was guidance and light. By its standard have been
judged by the Jews by the prophet who bowed (as in Islam)to Allahs
will by the rabbis and the doctor of law:foreto them was entrusted
protection of Allahs bath and they was witness theirto:therefore fear
not men but fear me and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any
do fail to judge by(the light of)what Allah hath revealed they are no
better than) unbelieveness. (Al Quran 5;44)
And verily judgment and justice must indeed come to pass (al
Quran 5;6)
Islam attaches profound respect to the female in her capacity as
mother, wife, daughter, sister and aunt. She is the sculpt of chastity,
modesty, sympathy, love and affection.
If woman who has husband and children who are not from her
paternal relative or her people that since he is on other try,
there is no blood money against her about his crime,(Hadith
43,4b agreed on Bukhari)
16

Additionally,

Muhammad

(S.A.W)

administered

the

punishments of hudood upon the Muslims as well as the non-Muslims


(males and females), as was the case when two Jews committed Zina
(fornication), and the ayah was revealed regarding them:
The fornicator and the fornicatress, lash each of them one
hundred stripes. [TMQ 24:2]
If, however the confessor were to withdraw his or her
confession, then the punishment would be stopped immediately, as
guilt could no longer be definitely substantiated. This would also be the
case if, for example, during the punishment the confessor ran away or
began to protest (Bello &Ademola, 2011).
So in the Islamic State the prevention of crime works on three levels:
1) The Taqwa of the believer: The Muslim has conviction in
the rational creed of Islam, which is built upon the study of
reality and use of the mind. This gives them the definite
foundation for their belief in Islam and motivates them to be
subservient to the One and Only True God, Allah (S.W.T).
Crime is a disobedience to Allah (S.W.T). The Muslims longing for the
Paradise and their fear of the punishment of Hellfire will prevent them
from committing crime.
2) Public Opinion: It is one of the mutual rights and duties of
the Muslims that they always look out for and to takecare the
affairs of each other. Thus there will be a constant motivation
and encouragement from all sides for people to observe the
Islamic conduct.

17

Crime will be shunned and rejected by the society at large. Criminals


and cheats will not be accepted, nor will wealth or any perceived
benefits gained illicitly be respected. This pressure from the dominant
values in the society will prevent those who are tempted to commit
crime from doing so.
3) The Punishments: The last resort is the fear of the
consequences of the criminal actions in terms of the punishment.
It is for these reasons that so few incidences of implementation of
hadood and other retributions by the judiciary were necessary in the
history of the Khilafah.
THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO FEMALE CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
The following sections briefly review some of the early
theories of female crime that reflect and incorporate these negative
perceptions. Specifically, we will discuss such theorists as Cesare
Lombroso, Freda Adler, W. I. Thomas, Sigmund Freud, and Otto Pollak.
Cesare Lombroso
Cesare Lombroso is one of the earliest theorists focusing
on the female offender; his book emphasized the physiological and
psychological determinants of female criminality rather than socializing
factors

or

socialstructural

constraints.

For

instance,

Lombroso

summarized some of the anomalies associated with prostitutes and


other female offenders. He noted that prostitutes essentially do not
have any wrinkles but are more likely to have moles, hairiness, large
jaws and cheekbones, and anomalous teeth.
According to Lombroso, women who committed homicides
often had cranial depressions as well as prominent cheekbones.
Lombroso implemented a typology for female offenders similar to the
18

one he did for male offenders. He begins the chapter The Born
Criminal by citing sexist comments such as the following Italian
proverb: Rarely is a woman wicked, but when she is she surpasses the
man.
Other traits of this born criminal include a lack of the
maternal instinct (which was regarded as a biological trait), as well as
an excessive desire for revenge, cruelty, greed and avarice, love of
dress and ornaments, a lack of religious feeling, and untruthfulness.
When summarizing traits of the occasional criminal, Lombroso notes
that occasional offenders can be divided into two classesone that
includes the milder types of born criminals and another that differs
only slightly from the normal, or consisting of normal women in whom
circumstances have developed the fund of immorality which is latent in
every female.
William Issec Thomas
W. I. Thomas argued that there are basic biological
differences between males and females. For instance, maleness is
katabolic, which denotes the animal force that uses the destructive
release of energy, resulting in the potential for creative work.
Femaleness is anabolic, which denotes motionless, lethargic, and
conservative energy.
Thus, females were seen as passive and motionless, while
males were seen as active and dynamic. In his subsequent work,
Thomas focused on female delinquency. This work was noted for a
transition from physiological explanations to more sophisticated
theoretical explanations that incorporate physiological as well as
psychological and socialstructural explanations.
Thomas maintained that humans essentially have four desires:
19

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

the
the
the
the

desire
desire
desire
desire

for
for
for
for

new experience,
security,
response, and
recognition.

The desire for new experience and the desire for response
were the two wishes that influenced criminal behavior. Therefore,
Thomas argued that a woman who went into prostitution did so to
satisfy a desire for excitement and response; for a woman, prostitution
was the most likely option to satisfy those needs.
Environmental factors were also incorporated in Thomass
work. For instance, he maintained that when crime and prostitution
appear as professions they are the last and most radical expressions of
loss of family and community organization.
Sigmund Freud
Many early theories of female deviance embraced the
psychoanalytic writings of Sigmund Freud. Many of these theories
evolved from two key concepts: (1) the structure of the personality and
(2) the psychosexual stages of development of the child.
Freud

perceived

women

as

anatomically

inferior

biologically destined to be wives and mothers. The basis for this


inferiority is that womens sex organs are inferior to mens sex organs.
This is further argued by noting that the girl assumes that she has lost
her penis as a punishment; as a result of this assumption, she is
traumatized and matures with a sense of envy and vengeance. The
boy also realizes that the girl has lost her penis; he fears a similar
punishment and is wary of the girls envy and vengeance. Thus,
women are exhibitionistic, narcissistic, and attempt to compensate for
their lack of a penis by being well dressed and physically beautiful.

20

The Freudian orientation is not just restricted to this form of


penis envy for understanding female deviant behavior. Freud also
maintained that women are inferior because they are more concerned
with personal matters and have very little interest in social issues.
Within this perspective, a deviant woman attempts to be a
man.

Such

woman

is

forcefully

rebellious.

This

drive

to

accomplishment is due to her longing for a penis. Since this drive will
never be fulfilled, the result is that the woman will become neurotic.
According to the Freudian orientation, the best way to treat
such a woman is to help her adjust to her sex role. Thus, this reflects
the notion of individual accommodation that repudiates the possibility
of social change.
Otto Pollak
In his 1950 book "The Criminality of Women", Otto Pollaks
concluding statement was that the criminality of women reflects their
biological nature in a given cultural setting.Pollak argued that women
are more criminal in nature than many have generally perceived. He
suggested that criminologists should address the following three
questions: (1) Are those crimes in which women seem to participate
exclusively, or to a considerable extent, offenses that are known to be
greatly underreported? (2) Are women offenders generally less often
detected than are men offenders? (3) Do women, if apprehended, meet
with more leniency than do men?
This unknown criminality is essentially due to womens
deceitful nature and the masked quality of female criminality. He
maintained

that

the

criminality

of

women

is

largely

masked

criminality.

21

Pollak supported his theory of hidden criminality by


noting such factors as the relative weakness of a woman, which make
deceit necessary as a defense; that all oppressed classes use
subversion as a common tactic; that a womans socialization teaches
her to conceal many things, such as menstruation, aggression, and
marital frustration; and that the biology of the female enables her to
deceive (i.e., she can fake an orgasm, while a man cannot).
It is interesting to stress that while Pollak did consider
biological factors, he incorporated sociological factors as well. Like the
other theorists we have discussed above, these sociological factors
were based on assumptions and prejudices.
In her classic essay on "female crime", Dorie Klein revealed
that theorists such as Lombroso, Thomas, Freud, and Pollak focused
primarily on womens biology (i.e., their sexuality) or some type of
psychological problem. Klein argued that these theorists focused on
womens sexuality or other stereotypical traits, such as women being
manipulative, to explain criminal behavior. They did not, however,
examine economic, political, or social factors that provide a more
comprehensive understanding of female criminality.
Liberation Thesis
The liberation thesis, also referred to as the emancipation
hypothesis, attempts to link the womens liberation movement with
female crime rates. While there were various explanations for the
changing female crime rates, two predominant explanations were (a)
the increased opportunities for women to participate in the labor force
and, thus, increased opportunities to commit certain types of crime,
and (b) the changing self-concept and identity of women and girls due
to the consciousness-raising aspects of the movement. Two often-cited
22

scholars of this perspective are Freda Adler and Rita Simon. It is


essential to stress that these perspectives were offered during the
second wave of feminism. Thus, they were influenced by what was
occurring in the broader social context of that time.
In her 1975 book "Sisters in Crime", Adler argued that as
women continue to strive for equality with men, they will also have
more opportunities to commit crimes that were previously unavailable
to them due to occupational discrimination : Women are closing many
of the gaps, social and criminal, that have separated them from men.
The closer they get, the more alike they look and act. . . . The simplest
and most accurate way to grasp the essence of womens changing
patterns is to discard dated notions of femininity. That is a role that
fewer and fewer women are willing to play.
In the final analysis, women criminals are human beings
who have basic needs and abilities and opportunities. Over the years
these needs have not changed, nor will they. But womens abilities and
opportunities have multiplied, resulting in a kaleidoscope of changing
patterns whose final configuration will be fateful for all of us.
As the position of women becomes similar to that of men,
this will result in women obtaining not only legitimate opportunities in
the labor force but illegitimate opportunities as well.
In her 1975 book Women and Crime, Simon proposed a
similar argument. She did differ from Adler, however, with respect to
the types of crime that would be influenced by the womens
movement. Adler maintained that due to womens liberation, the
violent crime rate among women would increase. Simon suggested
that only the property crime rates among women would increase and
that the violent crime rates among women would, in fact, decrease
23

because womens frustrations would lessen as they were provided


more opportunities in employment and education.
Naffine outlined the assumptions of the womens liberation theory:
(1) The liberation movement can be linked to an increase
in female crime,
(2) The increase in female crime is a function of women
becoming more masculine, and
(3) These increases in female crime are due to women
becoming actively competitive with men.
There are various problems with these assumptions,
including the assumption about the relation between enhanced
structural opportunities and the increase in womens offending rates.
Statistics have revealed that women have not achieved equality in
those high-paying and managerial professions. There have been
additional criticisms of the liberation thesis, including the manipulation
of statistics and attempts to support the assumption that gender
equality produces increases in crime rates among women.
Power-Control Theory
John Hagan and his colleagues developed the power
control theory, incorporating a conflict oriented theory with social
control theory. The powercontrol theory attempted to explain gender
differences in delinquency rates by including family dynamics.
Specifically, Hagan argued that youths from families
characterized as patriarchal (i.e., mother has lower status than father)
revealed greater gender differences in delinquency rates compared
with youths from more egalitarian homes (i.e., parents have same
status or mother is the only parent in the home).The argument was
24

that female youths from more egalitarian families were encouraged to


engage in risk-taking behaviors - just as their brothers were.
Risk-taking behavior is considered to be related to
delinquent behavior. Alternatively, female youths from patriarchal
families were encouraged to avoid risk-taking behaviorunlike their
brothers. Thus, these female youths were less likely to engage in
delinquent behavior. An integral aspect to the relationship between
family dynamics, gender, and delinquency rates was social class.
Hagan and his colleagues stressed the importance of class structure in
the genderdelinquency relationship. While in all classes males are
freer to engage in delinquent behavior than females, males in more
powerful classes are the freest to engage in such behavior compared
with males in less powerful classes.
As a result, individualsespecially those from various
social classesexperience power relationships in the larger society
differently. Specifically, the social reproduction of gender relations
refers to those activities, institutions, and relationships that are
involved in maintaining and reinforcing gender roles. These activities
include those individuals responsible for caring for, protecting, and
socializing children for their adult roles. According to this theoretical
perspective, family class structure shapes the social reproduction of
gender relations, which then influences rates of delinquency.
These power relationships in the larger society are
reflected in the family relationships. Evaluations of the powercontrol
theory reveal inconsistent findings; others have maintained that the
powercontrol theory is just a variation of the liberation thesis (i.e., the
mothers liberation causes the daughters criminal behavior).
Marxist Feminism
25

Marxist theory argues that the economic formation of a


society is the primary determinant of other social relations, such as
gender relations. Marxist feminism emerged in the late 1960s in
response to the masculine bias in the Marxist social theory. Rather as
simply ignoring women as did traditional Marxist theory, Marxist
feminism agreed with liberal feminism that women are dominated by
men and are prevented from full participation in all aspects of society.
As Marxists, they believe that ultimately the key explanatory factor is
the nature of the economy. The gender division of labor is viewed as
the product of the class division of labor. Because women are seen as
being primarily dominated by capital and secondarily by men, the main
strategy for change is the transformation from a capitalist to a
democratic socialist society.
Rape is not common in all societies. Capitalist societies
have the highest rape rates because they produce unequal gender
relations that foster violence. The exploitative modes of production
that have culminated in the formation of class societies have either
produced or intensified sexual inequality or violence.
Radical Feminism
Radical Feminism has dominated feminist perspectives on
woman abuse and it was the first radical perspective to criticize the
assertions of liberal feminism as simplistic. Radical feminists see male
power and privilege as the root cause of all social relations, inequality
and crime. The most important relations in any society are found in
patriarchy (masculine control of the labor power and sexuality of
women). All other relations such as class are secondary and derive
from male female relations.

26

The main causes of gender inequality are (i) the needs of


men to control womens sexuality and reproductive potential, and (ii)
patriarchy. Their work has focused on female victims/survivors of male
violence. Radical feminist theory contends that men physically,
sexually and psychologically victimize women mainly because they
need to desire to control them.
Socialist Feminism
It is informed by both Marxist and radical feminism. Class
and gender relations are viewed as equally important. To understand
class we must recognize how it is structured by gender, conversely to
understand gender requires an examination of how it is structured by
class. In sum, socialist feminists argue that we are influenced by both
gender and class relations. Crime is mainly seen as the product of
patriarchal capitalism.

CAUSES FOR FEMALE CRIMINAL BEHAVIORS


Deform family structures
The deformity family mainly refers to unmarried shack up
family, or the temporary family which made by extramarital love. It
accounts a family structure that lacks basic components of family life.
Such as distrusting ambiance, broken families, parents' separation,
divorce,

widowhood,

step-relations,

imprisonment

of

any family

members, spouse's extra-marital relationships and family tensions


results in psychological distress and lays foundations to the occurrence
of crimes (Campbell and Anne, 1984). Among all the breakdown of the
marriage relationship is a serious psychological blow to women, and it
27

creates psychological crisis. And if there is not a timely manner to ease


the psychological crisis, some women will commit crimes. Such family
imbalances lack legal protection and stability. Hence violence affairs
and sex murder can easily be triggered (Fisher & J. 1999).
Low level Education
As compared to male offenders, female offenders are on a
low level of education. The Economic Survey 2011-12 states that
literacy ratio of female is 46% and male ratio is 69% in Pakistan
respectively. There are only 8% women in Pakistan who have done
their matriculation and 3.4% have done their Bachelors (Source:
Finance Division Government of Pakistan, 2012, p. 34). Most of the
women in prison are either illiterate or belong to poor families or from
both categories simultaneously. It cannot be denied that illiteracy
makes a person ignorant of his/her rights, duties, and laws. In jail,
some women were found who committed the crimes just because of
ignorance of the fact that their acts would be illegal and consequently
they could end up in jail.
A lot of female offenders are illiterate or semi-literate. Their
social knowledge and rendering experiences and their enduring tactics
are weak. They lack analytical skills in dealing with problems and if
they are instigated or enticed by others, they are easy to be coerced or
deceived. Because of the low level of education, their legal awareness
is relatively weak. When they have been violated by unlawful
infringements, they cannot look at and solve the problems from a legal
perspective, but take extreme and violent and lawless ways to solve
the problems. In addition, psychological factors such as vanity,
unrealistically compare, hedonism, narrow-minded, vindictive and so
on also contributes to an important cause of female crime.

28

In Pakistani culture, women are quite emotional about their


close male relatives like father, brother, son, and husband. They have
been groomed in the manner that they are ready to sacrifice for these
loved ones. Women in Pakistan generally dont have their own sources
of earning; therefore, economically they always look towards male
fellows for their needs.
In such conditions, some criminal elements offer them big
amount and bright prospects and in exchange of their services. There
are women who swallow the capsules filled with heroin and keep in
their stomachs and after wards smuggle them.
The criminals know that having a woman as their associate
in their unlawful activities can dodge the police and security agencies
for their objectives. Though in Punjab, departments like Social Welfare
and Women Development have been working, yet no mechanism for
such women who do not have shelters or mean to feed themselves.
There is hardly any system to accommodate economically frustrated
and socially deprived women in the society. When such women will not
have any support from government side there are more chances that
they can be indulged in immoral or illegal activities.
Domestic violence
Domestic violence is one of the macro-criminological issues
that subject stated female to commit crime. Domestic violence firstly is
caused due to the non-economic participatory activities by females.
Male member has the burden to support the family. All stress is ached
by him. Thus, disposition of anger becomes a matter of spouse beating
(Digumarti, 2000).
Though Islam views both male and female with the lens of
equality, however, Islam has raised the status of man by gratifying
29

superiority to the husband. But man has exploited his prestige (Rizvi,
1998). In most of cases, husband's over-possessive behavior towards
wife, conservativeness, distrustful attitude and lack of conformity en
route for rights and responsibilities also endures domestic violence
repeatedly. This unobstructed domestic violence turns to be further
intensified, and the wife turned toward the extreme revenge (Migliaccio
and Todd A., 2001).
Joint Family Culture
In Pakistan, due to disputes of joint family system is
causing various crimes. In certain cases females experience verbal and
physical abuse and gets suffocated. So in desperate condition they can
do something illegal. Revenge is another factor of womens crimes
(Joley, 1889). It happens in Pakistan that in search of children or a
baby-boy, husbands go for other marriages. There are some women
who are unable to adjust themselves with this situation and may go to
any extreme (Corre, 1891).
Deprived family background
Family environment and family education supports the
female in maintaining social status and prestige. Proper family values
and moral values can correctly guide the development of females and
enable them to move ahead in the right direction in life. Because of the
incomplete family structure, such as parental separation, parental
death, children are lack of normal family care, and they are easy to
been received and cheated by bad guys (Donner & Henrike, 2008). The
abnormal family relations such as marital and emotional crisis also are
likely to produce depression and tension. They are easy to develop a
strong dissatisfaction to family and social, and then make an extreme

30

move and sex murder can easily be prompted (Harshav, Michaels &
Barbara, 2004).
Legislative disorder
Primarily, our legislation is meager. It remains inept of
ensuring women right in national context. There are few timeworn
mechanisms to combat domestic violence and protect women's right.
Many legal provisions do not have maneuverability. It makes the law
become "dead law" which hasnt effectiveness. Second, the law
enforcement is ineffective.
Although the "Constitution", the "Labor Law", the "Women
Protection Act" and other laws provide equal rights for citizens,
however, women still get of a lot of discrimination and restrictions in
employment, and the phenomenon that women's legal rights are
violated are still existing (Iqbal, 2009). Such violation of women's rights
imposed by legislation often turns her to be deviant and commit
felonies or major offence (Zahid, 2012).
Influence of unhealthy social phenomenon
The society wherein we have been living is a dynamic one.
But economic development and social transformation is giving birth to
the variety of unhealthy trends and phenomenon, such as mistresses,
extramarital affairs, illegal cohabitation, is on gradual increase
(Thompsan, 1987). By the erosion of these unhealthy ways and
customs, a part of the female cannot maintain the correct values and
world outlook when they are in the face of the temptation of money
(Morvin, Saviz 1962). Some highly educated women have gradually
relaxed their requirements and go into the abyss of crime. And with the
widening social gap between rich and poor, very few female has not a

31

well-balanced mentality and love ease and hate work. This makes the
female crime have considerable space (Ghauri & Irfan, 2009).
Psychological Disorders
There

are

certain

psychological

problems,

primarily

personality disorders, in which cause women to have abusive and


violent characteristics. A diagnosis which is regularly found in women
is; Borderline Personality Disorder, which is a personality disorder
described as a prolonged disturbance of personality function in a
person, generally over the age of eighteen years, although it is also
found in adolescents, characterized by depth and variability of moods.
At least 50% of all domestic abuse and violence against men are
associated with women that suffer from Borderline Personality
Disorder. The disorder also associates with suicidal behavior, severe
mood swings, lying, sexual problems and alcohol abuse (Jillani, Hina &
Eman M.Ahmad, 2004).
Media influence
Media has a crucial role in influencing mass mindset easily.
Media is supposed to be an apex source of information. The content
exhibited by the mass media proves just how much these insatiable
interests in crime by these mass societies have become. Whether it is
in our daily news reports, movies, soap operas, books, video games or
music, crime and deviance have become an indispensable theme for
consumption (Grossman, 2007). This has led societies to question the
role of the media and crime and has led to many debates about the
effects of the media on individuals and on crimes.
At present reenactments of crime cases on TV channels is
a pathway showing how to commit crime. Human nature is so
adaptable. Naturally it is tempted to negativity. In such circumstances,
32

with the development and expansion of themes media and different


forms of reporting, individual interests have soared further with the
content they are now able to access (Ali, Sahar, 2003).
Young girls are mostly stereotyped. They merge with
allusions. They do still believe in Prince Charming, apart from reality.
Heeding their own insinuations, they are easy to be incarceration. The
person on other side usually exploits the embryos, in the name of trust,
love and romance. And it is one of the pathways to female criminality
(Shaikh & Masood, 2004).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The main objectives of the present study are:
1. To explore the factors behind female criminal behaviors
2. To examine the demographic condition of the female convicts
3. To determine the factors / causes leading to criminal behavior
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:
The purpose of the study is to provide insight into general
causes of female crimes. In case of Pakistan, little attention is paid
related to female criminal behaviors or female convicts. Although the
findings of various surveys, researches and journals assume that there
are limited numbers of women with crime dependency problems,
33

however, this assumption is open to question as official surveys and


reports have never been attempted to represent women adequately.
While it may be true that the number of female criminal in significantly
lower than of male criminals. In the context of Pakistan, socio-cultural
and economic factors are the most leading factors in committing crime
for both either male or females. It may cause an obstacle to identify
crime by law professionals and researchers.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
Female criminal behaviors have been a subject constraint
to academic consideration around the world. Except a few thesis
presented by University students and the efforts made by Women
Division of Government of Pakistan, there are no vital and systematic
research over this rising issue. However, the Centre of Excellence of
the
Quaid-e-Azam University, National Institute of Psychology and Interior
Division of Government of Pakistan has been commencing to carry out
research on Female Criminality. Furthermore, Centre of Excellence for
Women Studies offers M. Phil and Ph.D. on female criminality.
Many theorists, researchers and social scientists attempted
to find and present the explanations of female criminal behavior.
34

Lombrso

(1895)

studied

female

criminality

with

measurements of female skulls and photographs, searching for


atavism. He concluded, however, that female criminals were rare and
showed few signs of degeneration because they had evolved less
than men due to the inactive nature of their lives. Lombroso argued it
was females' natural passivity that withheld them from breaking the
law, as they lacked the intelligence and initiative to become criminal
William I. Thomas (1907) published Sex and Society in
which he argued that men and women possessed essentially different
personality traits. Men were more criminal because of their biologically
determined active natures. Women were more passive and less
criminally capable.
Thomas (1923)in his book The Unadjusted Girl argued that
women have a greater capacity to love than men and they suffer more
when they do not receive social approval and affection. The
"unadjusted girls" are those who use their sexuality in a socially
unacceptable way to get what they want from life. The female criminal
forgoes the conventional rewards of
Domesticity by refusing to accept prevailing modes of
sexuality and seeks excitement, wealth, and luxury: a pursuit that may
conflict with the interests of the social group as it also exercises the
freedom to pursue similar goals.
Parsons (1955) said in the modern nuclear family men work
and women stay at home and nurse. Therefore young girls have more
access to their role model than the boys do as the father is working.
Parsons said the boys will reject the mother as a role model and will
seek to be more masculine through aggressive actions, leading to
crime.
35

Otto Pollak (1961) in his landmark book The Criminality of


Women argues that the types of crimes women commit include
shoplifting, domestic thefts, theft by prostitutes, abortions and perjury.
He made the point that these crimes are under-represented in crime
statistics for a variety of reasons; easy concealment, underreporting,
embarrassment on the part of male victims, and male chivalry in the
justice system, he provides examples of lower visibility and detection
of female crime to feminine cunning and deceit. The willingness to
excuse or impose a light punishment on female offenders was
explained away to male nobility.
Freda Adler (1975) believed that the arrival of the Second
Wave of Feminism during the 1970s consequently coincided with a
'dramatic' upsurge in women's criminal activity. She claimed while
'women have demanded equal opportunity in the fields of legitimate
endeavors, a similar number of determined women have forced their
way into the world of major crime such as white collar crime, murder
and robbery. She further said that womens liberation had created
more criminals as women were adopting more male characteristics as
a means of fulfilling male social roles just thinking of the rise of
ladette.
Smart (1976) argues that this determinate model of female
criminality assumes an inherent and natural distinction exists between
the temperament, ability and condition ability of men and women.
Giordano and Cerkovich (1979) conducted studies in 1979
involving women between the ages of 17 and 29. Their findings
suggested that the 'more liberated' the response to questions, the less
delinquent participants were. For example, they found that women who
believed women should enter the workforce and a woman's role was

36

not necessarily that of housewife and mother, were the least


delinquent.
James and Thornton (1980) revealed from studies involving
women prisoners that those confined were primarily from needy and
uneducated backgrounds. When asked why they offended, responses
did not appear to be 'liberation' motivated. In other words, contrary to
Adler's theory of emancipation, feminism appeared to be a positive
force for conformity when there was opportunity to offend.
Box and Hale (1988)questioned Adler arguing the increase
of female criminality is more likely due to inadequate welfare,
unemployment and part-time work as most female criminals are from a
working-class background.
Pat Carlen (1990) stated that a woman's crimes can be
known as the crimes of the powerless as many woman who commit
crimes are powerless in some way. For example, they live in poverty
with little power to change the situation; as children they may have
been badly treated and looked after, perhaps being abused by fathers.
As adults they have often lived under the dominance of male partners
who asserted control - perhaps in the form of violence.
Feinman (1994)percepts that women may be mad because
they 'dared to go against their natural biological givens such as
'passivity' and a 'weakness of compliance' ' appears to originate from
the view that women who conform as pure, obedient daughters, wives
and mothers benefit society and men.
Lloyd, (1995) found that womens entry into the world of
crime is due to different reasons in comparison to their counterpart.

37

Women are not expected to be criminals and if they are, they may be
described as 'mad not bad '.
Denscombe (2001) believes that there has been an
increase in female risk-taking behavior and an adoption of traditionally
male

attitudes.

This

has

led

to

ladette

culture

with

the

consequential increase in behavior that is likely to lead to arrest;


drunken behavior and the violence associated with this.
Rachel Simmons (2002) in her book Odd Girl Out discussed
female bullies and the fact that criminal behavior is a hidden
aggression prevalent in the culture of girls.
Walklate (2005) explained causative factors for criminal
behavior as presence of mental disorder, a particular type of
personality, suffering of physical trauma in childhood, loss of job in the
late life, breakup of a relationship and other stressful situations.
Abbassi (2010) sees female criminal behavior through the
lens of psychoanalysis and correlates anxiety, attachment and guilt
correlating with psychopathy in females.
Mr. Javed Farooqi, Senior Correspondent at Daily Jang
revealed the fact that apart from socio-economic and physiopsychological

factors,

media

is

playing

crucial

role

in

the

intensification of the female deviant behaviors, particularly young girls,


ranging from 15 to 25 years of age. They craft their own fantasy world
after the glamorized icons of industry rather owing realistic approach.
Hence any disappointment tends them to embrace anything either
immoral

or

unlawful

acts

including

run-aways

and

illegitimate

relationships.

38

Dr Sarwat Mirzaserves NAPA as a psychology mentor. She


has

also

served

the

academy

as

Deputy

Director

Research,

Development and Publications. She has an excellent number of


publications on juvenile and female delinquency. She criticized the
innate role of crime in female and regarded the phenomenon as social
and

psychological

situations

resulting

female

misconduct.

She

explained that level of jealousy, distress and insecurity is found higher


among female members of society. Male members have alternatives
and choices to dispose their anger and agony by smoking, drinking,
acquaintances, developing extra-marital relationships or simply by
shattering their partner "as some legal right". However, females are
bound to observe norms and values of the society. Their anger keeps
on thriving intimate that fallout into some extreme conditions that
tends to criminal behaviors.
Ismat Mehdi is a veteran lawyer and women rights activist.
She expressed that crimes committed by women has been on the rise
in Pakistan since the enactment of a controversial women protection
bill that gives protection to women against arrest, giving ammunition
to militant groups to use females in their activities. There is a feeling
of impunity among the female criminals now. When they know that
they will not have to go through rigors of interrogation and
investigation, and will be out of police station within 24 hours, then
they would turn out to be more daring. She further added that there
has been a sharp increase in crimes involving women, especially in
smuggling of explosive material during last one year in Sindh, Punjab,
and Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KPK) provinces.

39

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents research procedures and major
concepts used in the present study. A survey was carried out on the
female inmates of Kot Lakhpat Jail, Lahore, involved in murder, theft,
dacoit, sex-selling, drug addiction and abduction. This chapter has
been divided into two sections: the first section describes sampling
procedures and the sample size, tools of data collection and pretesting; the second data provides information about conceptualization
and operationalization of the variables presented in the current
research. The Inspector General (IG) Prisons, Punjab was requested to

40

provide an access to prisoners in Central Jail, Punjab through special


reference on following conditions:
i)

No male member will be permitted to visit the female

ii)

prison
Anything like camera and mobile will be allowed to take

iii)

away.
The researchers can visit the female cell on Tuesday and

iv)

Thursday only from 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.


No frequent entry or exit in a single visit

A dyad group carried out four (03) visits to the Central Jail in the
second and third week of August, 2014. Miss Shoaibsia Batool,
Superintendent, Women Jail assisted during the interviews and also
provided with the valuable information about the convicts and their
behaviors.
UNIVERSE OF THE STUDY
The universe of the present study is comprised of female
prisoners of Central Jail, Kot lakhpat, Lahore, convicted for murder,
drugs, robbery or dacoit, kidnapping, hurt by means of poisoning and
miscellaneous major and minor offences.

SAMPLE SIZE
A survey was carried out on the convicted individuals using
quota sampling method in Central Jail, Kot Lakhpat in second and third
week of August, 2014. The total number of inmates facing murder,
theft, smuggling, sex-sale and abduction were 133. The researchers
interviewed a sample of 9 convicts. The main objective was to analyze
41

the determinants and patterns of female criminal behavior. The sample


constituted a total of 9 individuals mentioned as follows:
Murderers:
1
Drug abusers:
1
Robbery / Dacoit:
2
Kidnapping:
1
Hurt by means of poisoning:
1
Foreigners:
1
Sex Offender:
2
Total: 9
TECHNIQUES USED FOR DATA COLLECTION
For acquiring relevant information from the respondents,
in-depth interviews were used as a tool for data collection. Face-to-face
interviews enabled the researchers to develop an immediate rapport
with respondents and to get first-hand information. This also proved
42

helpful where respondents had varied educational standards. Probing


the meanings and intentions of the subject become apparent after a
certain period of time. Interview techniques provides a fair idea as to
how individual construct their worlds, the way they understand their
outer world and the way they evaluate the social environment around
them.
During the interviews, the researchers documented the
spontaneous

answers

and

non-verbal

behavior.

Throughout

the

interviews, questions were repeated in a polite way. The medium of


language was Urdu and for foreigners it used English that made the
questions to be answered easily.
PREPARATION AND PRE-TESTING OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Pre-testing is a process to test the validity and reliability of
tool for the data collection. After constructing research instrument, it
was tested. So, for this purpose, 3 respondents at random were
interviewed at Kot Lakhpat Jail, Lahore. The questionnaire was
prepared in English language and all questions in the questionnaire
consisted of the socio-economic and psychological causes of the crime
patterns of the crimes and the levels of awareness. Structures and
semi

structured

questions

were

used

for

the

preparation

of

questionnaire. Before using in the field, the questionnaire was pretested in the District Jail, Lahore, Women Wing, on two prisoners in
order to identify the shortcomings and need for amendments. After
pre-testing, the researchers made few changes in the tool. Such as age
was then asked in class limits instead exact. Certain questions were
modified to attain useful information. Before finalizing the tool,
relevant questions were discussed with other class fellows, friends of
Psychology Department, criminology students and supervisor. After

43

getting reliable information some more modifications were made in not


only questions but also the way of questioning.
CONCEPTS USED IN THE PRESENT STUDY
A. Socio-economic status:
In the present study, the socio-economic status of the convicts is
referred to the following factors:
a. Area of residence:
This includes the locality / area from where the convict
belongs to. It is urban, suburban or rural
b. Size of the house:
Size of the house alongwith the area to identify the
economic status of the respondent
c. Parents / Husbands occupation
It is the exact job, business or labour of the parents or
Fathers only or Husbands.
B. Family Structure
The present studies take into account, the family structure of the
respondents type of the family (e.g. nuclear, joint, conjugal)
C.

Level of Education
It will depict the level of education from illiterate to higher
studies of the respondent.

D.

Leading factors to crime


It will include all those socio-economic and psychological factors
that let the respondent to commit crime.

E.

Behavior towards crime

44

It will calculate pre and post feeling of the respondents on


committing crime.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The findings of present study holds good for similar
convicts. The respondents were 133 individual convict for murder,
drugs, blasphemy, robbery or dacoit, kidnapping, hurt by means of
poisoning

and

miscellaneous

major

and

minor

offences

and

incarcerated in Central Jail, Kotlakhpat jail. It was observed that


convicts were worried as if their personal information regarding their
lives may not be disturbed. However, each of them was completely
assured that not even a single piece of information will be seeped out
and will be kept confidential. Another serious limitation to the study
was inadequacy and non-availability of the literature. Preceding studies
and materials were focusing on crime against females instead crimes
by females. Another hazard was time constraint.

45

CHAPTER 4
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
There are total 32 prisons in Punjab province excluding sole
prison

for

women

which

is

in

Multan

(Wikipedia,

Prisons

in

Punjab).Central Jail Lahore is situated in East of the city at Kot Lakhpat,


few kilometers away from Kanchi Amer Sadhu, Ferozpur Road. This is
one of the biggest jails of Punjab operating since 1967. It covers an
area of about 500 canals and more or less 3500 prisoners are kept
here. It is worth mentioning that actual capacity of the jail is only 800
prisons but about 4 times more inmates were present in the jail. When
it was made, Kot Lakhpat was an out scud of the city; but with the
rapid increase in population and new colonies, now it has turned into a
quite populous and busy part of Lahore.
Unlike the USA and some other western countries, jails in
Pakistan are operated by the public sector. All the prisons in Punjab are
the domain of Home department and its Secretary is the Chief.
However, the operational head of the prisons in Punjab is the Inspector
General Prisons, who is always a senior police officer. For operation and
management of the jails, the Home department has special cadre of its
employees (Wikipedia).

46

The jail has a separate portion / unit for female prisoners


within its premises. The female unit is little away from the block of
male prisoners; however, the main entrance is common for both male
and female prisoners. As far as womens unit is concerned, it has two
barracks and eight small cells called Chakki for the inmates.
The female unit is a single story building and does not
have system of cross ventilation. There are sets of two beds, placed on
one another in a vertical manner to double the capacity. There are total
six washrooms/toilets, which are quite unhygienic and in a bad shape.
It is against clause 12 of the SMRTP. The unit of woman prisoners has
capacity of only 30-40 prisoners; however, 133 inmates were present
at the day of visit. So, it is quite over-stuffed and almost four times
more than its actual capacity. In Lahore, weather conditions are
extreme and temperature in summer goes up to 48 C and in winter
comes down to 2 C.
The convicted prisoners (5.3%) have been sentenced up to
25 years imprisonment; however, under trial prisoners cases (31%)
are in progress in the courts. The third category condemned prisoners
(63.1%) are kept in separate cells. They have been awarded life
sentences or imprisonment for more than 25 years. The prisoners who
violate rules and regulations of the jail can also be kept in cells as
punishment. These cells are very small (4x6) in size and without any
widow for light and air. These cells have carved out a separate sub unit
within the barrack. The condemned prisoners did not have facility of TV
and were not allowed to come out from their sub unit to mingle with
other prisoners.
The female unit is a single story building and does not
have system of cross ventilation. There are sets of two beds, placed on
one another in a vertical manner to double the capacity. There are total
47

six washrooms/toilets, which are quite unhygienic and in a bad shape.


The unit of woman prisoners has capacity of only 30-40 prisoners;
however, 133 inmates were present at the day of visit. So, it is
quite over-stuffed and almost four times more than its actual capacity.
In Lahore, weather conditions are extreme and temperature in summer
goes up to 48 C and in winter comes down to 2 C.
During the visit, it was observed that the unit was clean
and arrangements of drinking water and electricity were quite intact.
There is no restriction on inmates to make their own food if
they can afford, but there is no kitchen or proper place for cooking.
There was a temporary burner made with mud, outside the barrack;
and to set fire, tree branches; and waste material were burned. But in
tough weather conditions like summer and Monsoon, it becomes quite
difficult to cook there. About 4:00 p.m., they are given evening meal,
and then the barracks are locked.

There is a variety of crimes in which woman prisoners are


involved.
Table 1: Distribution of Woman Prisoners according to Crimes
Categories
Murder
Narcotics
Blasphemy
Robbery/Dacoity
Kidnapping and

Frequenc

y
42
30
2
6
12

31.6
22.5
1.5
4.5
9.0
48

Abduction
Hurt by means of
Poisoning
Theft
Miscellaneous
Total

5
15
21
133

3.8
11.3
15.8
100

(Source: Official record of the Prison)


Table 1, shows that murder tops the crimes, and out of 133
woman prisoners, 42 have cases of murder which is an alarming ratio.
Killing of someone by a woman is indeed an extreme kind of act. In
majority cases, women have murdered either their husbands or their
lovers. The most common reason behind such murders was betrayal. In
interviews with Mumtaz, Tehmina, Reema, Madiha and Tasleem, it was
informed that in some cases, many women have killed close relatives
particularly from their in-laws in retaliation of mental or physical abuse.
Some cases have also been noted where women have been falsely
indulged in murder mostly by their relatives to gain money of property.
It reflects the grave situation, the women pass through to commit such
a cruel act. It is worth mentioning that in all cases, the women have
killed men out of frustration and desperation which have been created
by men.
The second highest ratio among woman crime is of
narcotics (22.5%) where women have been working on behest of their
fellow men. Similarly, in robbery/dacoit, kidnapping for ransom and
fraud cases mostly men were behind women. It is pertinent to know
that many criminals prefer to use a female in such heinous activities
because with her presence a crime can be undertaken with ease and at
the same time they can dodge police.
Another reason to involve women in criminal activities is
that they get bails easily from courts as compared to men. Such lenient
49

view of the courts is being exploited by the criminals by employing


women. Another aspect shared by the jail superintendent Mr. Kamal
Anil, was that women generally do not disclose the names of their
male relatives and confess the crimes to save them. However, in theft
cases, a woman commits the crime mostly when her fellow male does
not support her financially, which make her frustrated. So to fulfill their
wishes, women of lower strata sometimes can go to the extent of
stealing or prostitution. The superintendent gave his opinion, men use
women in crimes. However some women do it as a habit, suffering
from kleptomania. Apart from kleptomania, in most of the cases, men
are directly or indirectly behind womens crimes.
Anjuman

Tariq,

representative

of

Social

Welfare

Department informed most of the woman prisoners are either


illiterate or belong to backward areas and many had committed
crimes because of ignorance. Though a room was reserved for
teaching but there was no teacher available for these women to make
them thinking and aware individuals.
It is noted that women involved in organized crimes, like
prostitution and drug trafficking, have financial support and provision
of lawyers from their beneficiaries. But women who commit crimes
accidently or innocently are generally do not have any support and
lawyer. Such women confront more tough times in and outside the jail.

CHAPTER 5
50

A. Life histories of female convicts of Central Jail, Kotlakhpat


I.

Place of Residence
Rukhsana told:
I was born with miseries and dearth. My father was
a massager but for all the time he was out of work.
One of my brothers was seeking training of motor
mechanics and one had been pulling cart of Naan
Pakora. My mother was a maid, gradually she
involved two of my sisters with her and from their
earnings our breads and butter were borne. I lived in
a mud house at Bandd Road. Every time when it
rained, we had suffered a lot. Our roofs start dripping
and we all had been sitting in corner and waiting for
rain end. When I was of 5 years there was no
electricity facility at my house as we were unable to
afford this amenity. We were provided with the
facility when my brothers started earning somehow.
To remove the drought, my brothers planned for theft
but since I was caught red-handed so I was claimed
accused. I miss my house merely. It was depressing
at all.

Residential instability also has been a regular demographic indicator in


neighborhood crime models, surfacing most recently in a growing body
of research that has focused on mounting home foreclosures, which
may have implications not only for levels of crime (Immergluck and
Smith 2006)
II.

Number of Children
Tehmina told:

51

I was married to Atif. He was an ordinary factory worker. He


was in packing sections, against which he was earning
insufficient wages. He was a diabetic person also even before
our marriage. Much of his income was made on his own
medicines. Just within 4 year of our marriage, I became the
mother of 2 sons and a daughter. By then, Atif was going well.
However, with the passage of time his kidneys turned more
infectious and his health conditions were falling. Doctors
advised Atif for weekly dialysis that was much more expansive
than of our financial capabilities. We had to come to Lahore
from Sialkot on every Tuesday. The situation appeared more
worsening when Atif was dismissed from his factory due to his
frequent absences. Atif started borrowing money from here
and there. We were under debt then. Meanwhile, Atif
continued

his

marital

relations

with

me

without

any

precaution. I was reluctant to conceive anymore but Atif did


not heed me. Tehmina explained that I could easily see the
unsustainable health conditions of Atif and then gradually
debt burden was going to make our life not less than hell. For
that reason, I was not willing for one more baby. We were
already living in meager conditions where we could not afford
a new child anymore but as I mentioned that Atif did not
considered me and I delivered a pre-mature baby girl. Her
milk and other incidentals were not in my range and I had
very sentimental and feeble attachments with my youngest.
After my conviction, four of my children stay here with me in
jail. Their future seems so horrible. They cannot stay here
anymore and am just fearful about what would happen to
them.

52

There were six women accompanied by their children. According


to the rules, child up to 7 years of age can stay with mother in jail.
However, it seems quite disturbing that when child crosses 7 years he /
she is detaches from the mother. Indeed, it is neither in the interest of
mother nor of child. With this act a mother as well as child passes
through a stressful condition.
III.

Level of Education
Reema shared:
I was a school-going girl when I ran away from my
house. I was not attentive towards studies rather films
and daramas.I was always fascinated by the romantic
scenes.

wished

there

could

be

someone

who

understand my feelings, who can love me best and who


can fulfill my demands. I bunked my classes and started
joining my senior girls who had been telling me about
their affairs and love stories. A few of them were
engaged and I liked to hear their conversations and
chit-chats with their fianc. A few of those girls had
also boyfriends to whom they had been dating. They
use to come to school on time but then they had been
bribing gate-keepers to skip schools. Their stories were
always so exciting for me. They show me their
expensive gifts by their boyfriends. I was also willing to
be fixed someone, who would be very handsome and
will treat me heavenly. I started going on my friends
dates. It was another stimulating experience of my life
to skip life and enjoy the life. Then, there I met to
Rizwan. He was the friend of my friends boyfriend. In
short time, we fell for each other.

He was working in

Lahore then. Whenever, he came to see me, he brought


exceptional gifts like perfumes, chocolates and earrings
53

etc. I loved to spend time with him and there he


promised me that he will make marry with me as he will
get a better job. It was so fascinating and magical. I was
turned out to be a habitual leave hunter. Such
absentees called queries on my performance and I
failed in my promotional exams but I did not care much
as I was under influence of Rizwans love. Reema
(Kanwal) further explained that I belonged to a religious
family. My father was very much rigid. He laid great
stress on my education but I did not like to study and
failed in promotional exams. He was strict in Soum and
Salat to which I remained submissive. He then tied my
knot with Faisal may paternal cousin. I was very much
hostile as I had promised Rizwan. I refused the proposal
and told my family about Rizwan. My father became
hostile and beat me with rod. He warned if I stepped out
for school even. From there my academic period was
over. It did not sooth my nerves at all. I eroded all my
books and copies as a protest but no one heeded. One
day I met Aisha on roof where she told me about
Rizwans impatience on my absence. He also conveyed
the message that he will come to take me to Lahore
with him. After few days, with the help of Aisha, when
my father left for Namaz, I ran away to Lahore with
Rizwan. I was gone so mad after Rizwan disregarding
the aftermaths.
Most of the woman prisoners are either illiterate or belong to backward
areas and many had committed crimes because of ignorance.
Though a room was reserved for teaching but there was no teacher
available for these women to make them thinking and aware
individuals. The representative of Social Welfare Department said, We
54

are also arranging vocational trainer and teacher. Mass illiteracy and
ignorance of the people is the major cause of large number of crimes.
The number of most of the murders and other petty crimes can be
decreased through spread of education in the country; because most of
the illiterate and ignorant persons commit crime without realizing its
social, economic and psychological implications upon themselves and
their families. Moreover, present day educational system is very
defective. The system of education does not lay stress on morality and
character, which are effective forces for checking crimes.
IV.

Marriage with consent


The disputes in the family and marriage institutions in the
shape of divorce and separation etc. result in serious types of

V.

crimes in both rural and urban areas.


Occupation of Father / Husband
B. Crime history
I.
Nature of crime
Sana told:
I was brought up in orphan house. I did not remember who admitted me
there or when, where and how I was rescued. I was kidnaped and someone
sold me. I served as a servant where I was a victim of domestic violence in
childhood. Resultantly, I engraved all deviant acts, I felt my feelings
negative but I never took that seriously. Then, I came to orphan-house and
from there, I was sent to rehabilitation center and they admit me to a
vocational institute where I was skilling in stitching. When I received my
diploma, I was sent to a factory, where there were hundreds of many other
women. I met Shamim there. She was a lady of about 45 years old. Soon
she became closer one to me. I was paid lesser than may hard work. One
day, when I shared my anger with Shamim, she offered me to work with
her. In the evening, she took me to some strange place, where there were
two other men. They gave me the address of a bank and asked me to visit
and keenly observe the bank on certain parameters like their security
officials, their monitoring screens and many other things viz-a-viz.
55

Shamim guaranteed that once they succeed, they will reward her more
than I expect. Frankly telling, I wasnt eager to make money exactly but
what aroused me was a deviancy. So whatever I did was a result of my
anger that I had been feeding against crude society.
She further stated:
I was actually dragged by my acquaintance namely Shameem. I was
mischievous since my childhood but never planned to into some major
offence. Moreover, I was a social rebel and I had no compassionate
feelings so in a sense I can say that I was easy to be mild soon. When
Shameem and her gang stirred me up, I happened to be willing for the
bank robbery.
She added:
I have no exceptional feelings to be shared. I was caught and now atleast
am a place where I will not be harmed. I will lead a peaceful life until I am
in prison. I am given with three times meal, staff is nice and no one is
hardhearted. So I am fine under Section 395 of Pakistan Panel Code.
It was observed that murder and robbery / dacoit were highly committed crime by the
females. Though, the nature of crimes is quite different from the women who have more
dependency on men and have less exposure and participation in social and economic life.
Lombroso and Ferroro state, The countries that are avenues of criminalities for the
occasional rather than the born female criminal (Lombroso& Ferrero, 1916, p. 213).
II.

What was your situation of crime?


Madiha told:
To begin with, I was not short-tempered but my maid namely Sadaf,
made me so aggressive. Her carelessness blew my temper. I had a
scissoring delivery at the birth time of my third baby. Doctors advised me

56

to have a complete bed rest. I was inept of taking care of my two other
children appropriately, so I hired a full-time maid. She was a young girl of
12 years of age. At first, she was going very quick and excellent but with
the passage of time she started neglecting her duties. Also, she had been
using my personal stuff inhumanly. Initially, to waive out my anger, I
started pushing her physically, banned her meals or sometimes locked her
into the storeroom resultantly.
Madiha continued:
One day, when we were outside for picnic and arrived home early than
expected, I saw Sadaf, watching TV while she was wearing my one of my
expensive dowrys dress, jewelry, heels and my imported make up
roughly. These things really filled me with anger and strain that I started
beating and abusing her wildly. Following me, my husband got started as
well. Once we were done with slapping and kicking, I pushed her to wall
side. There was bold shedding from her lip corner and forehead. I was not
satisfied yet and then I continued with cloth hanger. She was screaming
and resisting but my husband controlled her voices. I was not in senses
then until my husband agitated me by asking me to stop as Sadaf was
passed on. I could not believe for some time because I wanted to see Sadaf
a conscious and obedient maid. My husband realized me that I have killed
a soul. At that moment, I was in mixed feelings of anger, frustration,
shock, bareness and fear. We had hidden her body but next day, her dead
body was found in our laundry. I was convicted under Section 302 of
Pakistan Pannel Code. I appealed for diyyat or Qisaas but her family did
not accept.
III.

Reaction to crime
Mumtaz expressed:

57

After the death of my husband, I was the only supporter of my family. I


had two sons and a daughter. They were incapable to earn money. I started
working in homes as a maid even that was insufficient. My circumstances
were worsening day-by-day. My sons started keeping bad company. One
day when I was on my work, I was told by an acquaintance that police had
arrested my both sons alongwith some other young boys in charge of drug
supplying. I was so much nervous. I had no money for bail even. In the
evening, I rushed to nearby jail where my both sons were locked up. They
assured me that they were fine there and will be released soon.
Mumtaz explained:
My sons told me that some Jaida Bhai will grant their bail. I found my
sons fearless and it happened actually. When my sons returned, they told
me that they had been working as agents for Jaida Bhai who deals in
narcotics and drug supplying. They further told me that when they will
win his confidence, Jaida bhai will reward him a lot of money that will
remove all their deficiencies. As a matter of fact, I was also tired of being
a full-time maid and it was a smart and fast way of making money. If ever,
my sons were caught, Jaida Bhai bailed them out. Sooner, we made
surplus amount of money and now we were in better living conditions. I
could not even think to escape from this supply business as we running
well and if we backed off, might we come to the same meager days again
that I never wished for. But then everything comes to an end. Some men in
simple dresses knocked my door and told that they were here with
reference of Jaida Bhai. I supposed that those were new customers but
after obtaining some details about stuff, they showed me the handcuffs
and told that I and my son were under-arrest. They raided the house and
broke into every corner and discovered the stuff. I was quite relaxed then
as I knew that Jaida Bhai will support us, he will release us but nothing
happened so. Now I am convicted under Section 276 of Pakistan Panel
Code.
58

IV.

Family Reaction
Tasleem expressed:
I was very much willing to get marry to Rizwan, my colleague. He was
already married under family pressure and was equally willing to marry
me. He ensured my parents that he will keep me in a separate house. Since
I was the only daughter to my parents so considering my will, they gave
consent. My father told Rizwan that he had saved 7 laks for my marriage
that he could give to him, rest of the money, Rizwan ensured to bring
about. But as a matter of fact, both I and Rizwan had limited resources of
earning so that we could buy a separate. Meanwhile, a trader family came
into our neighborhood. They were so rich and their business was growing
excellently. One day Rizwan devised a plan and shared with me. He asked
me tohide their youngest daughter Zainab somehow and then we will ask
for taawan to his father. By this we will get an approximate lum-sum
amount that will help us in buying new house. One day when Zainab came
to our home with her mother, I called her in kitchen, sniffed her
chloroform and packed her in a shopper. The quantity of chloroform was
V.

exceeded than required and by this way Zainab was died.


Crime evidences from family
Rukhsana told:
Since we were grown up in poverty, so, yes, my brothers were
often caught for minor offences such as pick-pocketing etc. and my
sisters also were frequent in some way. Such as where they were
working as maids, if their eyes catch anything, they put out it of
sight and bring at home. But none of us had caught red-handed
ever. My parents despite of knowing the facts, never considered
their mischievousness. One of my brothers had always been talking
about jump. He used to discuss that one day he will attempt
higher and will take us away from the gloom of poverty and
miseries.
59

She further shared:


I was also working in a rich house. One day I heard my holder
saying that he will be withdrawing 3.7 million (37 laks) before Eid
so that no tax could be levied on his income. He was discussing
with his wife that they will keep money in their house. At night,
when we all were together, I shared it with my family. Then my
brothers devised a plan to steal that money. Initially, my mother
discouraged them but then my brothers ascertained her that this
will reverse us to good days we never see before. Mother was
agreed and I was made the main part of plan as I was well
observant of the house. My brothers prompted in such a way that I
agreed upon. I just attempted so my family could run in good
health and spirits. I am convicted under Section 392 of PPC and
waiting for my release.
C. Life in Prison
I.
Initial period of settlement
Tasleem shared:
It was so difficult time period for me. My nerves did not accept
the reality at all. I was brought up in a very decent and mild
manner. Moreover, we were two sisters only so I was habitual of
peaceful atmosphere. I was a school teacher by profession. I had
a strict control on my class even. But when I arrived here, I saw
many other females like me; convicted, with different behaviors.
While stepping in to barrack, I smelled a very weird suffocation in
the jail atmosphere. In the sentence, all inmates were assigned
to perform certain tasks like mopping, dishwashing and toilet
cleaning etc. It was also a new thing for me as I never performed
these kinds of domestic chores before. At my home, there was a
maid for such jobs. This made me more uncomfortable here. The
60

food provided here never appealed me. It turned me weaker in


health. My family was also far away so they could not afford
managing food for me but yes they had been providing me
sufficient fruits etc. Additionally, I found many arrogant and
teasing inmates. Most of them were quite aged (around 40).
They were always ready for clash and for that they were
punished by the Jail administration repeatedly. The outlier
inmates were sent to the dark room then. They used to pass
comments on me as well. I remained quiet and tried to avoid any
conflict. As it could result reinforcement. I passed most of my
time by offering prayers and recitations. Later on, I was soon in
conversation with Kalsoom and Faiza. They were also of mature
ages but very much reasonable. They were in imprisonment for
more than 9 years. Then they helped me a lot in adjustment.
They realized me that no one here is innocent, every female was
an offender. So, I do not need to compromise on my self-respect.
This really exhilarated me and I felt my nerves smoothening.
Moreover, when you start living at a certain place with similar
faces, routines and atmosphere, you spontaneously become
habitual.
Initially, most of the female prisoners were found uncomfortable until
they adjust. There were strict rules and regulations of the jails that
were strictly supervised by the Jail Staff. Many convicts claim that jail
atmosphere is suffocating that was mainly because of the body odors
of the inmates. Many females were not easy at performing routine
tasks like mopping and toilet cleaning etc. but they were forced to do
so. Miss Shoaibsia Batool explained that we avoid any kind of
discrimination, so it is obligatory for everyone to do her job by hook or
by crook. In response to a question, Superintendent disclosed that
those women who create disturbance in the jail are then sent to the
61

dark room that is actually a barrack as well. There is no light in the


dark room, not even a single ray can pass. The purpose of such
punishment is to actually teach a lesson by ignoring and isolating the
invasive one.

II.

Period of Adjustment
Adesa (Foreigner) expressed:
For me it was like a messed hell. There were lingual and
cultural differences with other inmates. I better knew that
the local inmates have been cracking voices on me. They
had been mocking at my physical features. At the time of
cleaning the toilets, there was a lady who used to spit
there over and over again. I felt feeble and then I informed
the Deputy Superintendent about this creepiness. She took
action against her and she was sent to dark room. On the
same day, during lunch as I entered in the dining hall,
everyone was whispering about me and then Sana noded
me as thumbs up (Adesa smiled). It encouraged me and I
returned her a smile. After meal Sana came to me and we
there we built a rapport. Sana was not so literate but she
could understand as well as convey the meaning. Also, we
became friends to Tasleem. She is a well-educated girl and
I feel comfortable while talking to her. This friendship
bound really helped me in stay here. After a little, other
inmates,

who

never

talked

to

me

before,

started

responding. They are all (except few) are very interesting.


They had much exciting stuff to share. Tasleem and Sana
translate their conversations for me. Although, life here is
not so honorable but eventually it is becoming easy and
62

comfortable. I alongwith two others, share a shoulder and


friendly grounds for the new arrivals.
At first, there are no rosy situations for inmates. Everyone had to suffer
within the jail circumstances. But with the gradual of time, the
prisoners develop an empathy with each other. Through mutual
understanding, cooperation and compromise, the prisoners flat their
way of living.
There were five foreign national women also in jail and mostly had
charges of narcotics trafficking. All of them were of African origin.
There is a separate room in the barrack for prisoners who belonged to
foreign countries.

III.

Behavior with inmates


Madiha told:
When I arrived here, I was very much emotionally
disturbed. It was another challenging phase of my life. I
was running out of patience and temper. I had been
missing my husband and my children a lot. My maid
namely Sadaf had really turned me impatient and ruthless.
My other inmates were willing to know the reason that why
I am here and I? I was like going to be mad at them and I
will kill or beat them too. I was filled with wicked feelings.
Even now, after my conviction of more than a year, I dont
like to talk with these chatterboxes. They do not have
anything to do except scratching others personal life. They
should understand that a person is unwilling to talk to
them but still they wish to know where my children are
nurturing now. To hell with them (expressed angrily). All the
females have much time to waste by gossiping and
63

discussing other inmates. They have departed my peace of


mind. Therefore, now I do not sit with them and try to
remain impertinent.
Behavior of inmates varies from one to another. As per the
observations,

some

were

very

eloquent,

cheering

and

friendly

however, some were aggressive and arrogant. It was noted that no


arrangement of psychological treatment or therapy for the prisoners. It
was also admitted by the representative of Social Welfare Department
deputed in the Jail. In fact when a woman remains for a longer period
of time in confinement and misses her family then she needs
treatment to overcome psychological problems. Such treatment is also
required to keep the prisoners balanced human beings.
IV.

Behavior with Jail Staf


Sana shared:
I was brought up in an orphan house. I had gone through
with such staff. So I know how to keep the staff nicely
(Sana winked). The staff here is very complaining. They
even took our small information to their officers in order to
please them about latest updates. They exchange
everything like what we were talking about, we were
discussing with whom and about whom, every single part.
When I was in orphan house, except a few, other staff
members were so strict and impassive. They were ruthless
at some points. All what they were doing was their so
called duty.
When I was new here (in jail), I tried my best to cooperate
with Jail staff. I obeyed to their orders but what they
returned? They had been complaining and making false
64

statements about us to the Superintendent and Deputy


Superintendent. After knowing about the fact, I get so
annoyed and then I started to avoid and refused to comply
with staff. Am telling you, the staff is very mean. They steal
most of items given by the relatives of prisoners. They
even openly demand the things and we give them willynilly. If any prisoner does complaint, she will face hard
times and be given some laborious works. If one is not able
to fulfill the demand, Mahina bharo (monthly Rs.1000
almost equal to US $9) she is forced to undertake hard and
difficult duties like cleaning the toilets, sweeping and
poacha (mopping) of barracks etc. They are all a part of
lobby. You cannot complain of the staff member to higherups as the staff vexes you later. As a result, I try my best to
do my work impartially and to avoid them as much as I
can.
It shows that they had fear of the jail administration. It shows that
bribery is part of the jail culture, which facilitates the prisoners who
can afford it. Deputy Superintendent told that this is the labor taken by
the jail authority otherwise they remain idle for the whole day. But it
looks appropriate, if some productive and useful work is taken from
them which will be beneficial for them in future.
V.

Family Behavior in Prison


Nazia shared sadly:
My father died when I was 4 years old. When I reached at
the age of 7, my mother also passed away. I had not
received any momentous affection from them. I had 3 elder
sisters and 2 brothers. I was brought up by them in an
65

esteemed manner. Then one by one all of them were


getting married and became a part of their new lives. My
presence was fading somewhere. got married. So far about
my siblings then ny sisters were married and busy with
their homes and my brothers were married too. They
always had a partial behavior. They acted as they were
braced by their wives. For the whole day, I was obliged to
serve and lend a hand to their wives to whom I always
found dissatisfied with me. In short, it was not so pleasant
at all. Days passed with the same trouble and on one day
my family fixed my marriage to my bhabis some far-flung
relative. I was excited for this new happening of my life.
Shoaib was a good-looking man and had been working in
private company. Shoaib had a brother only, younger than
him, who was married and loving happily with his wife
separately. He was running a small business and was
running more than sufficient. Whereas Shoaib was earning
ordinarily but I had no issue because I was living in a house
that I could call mines one with full liberty and without any
pressure independently. Initial days were really very
exciting and joyful wherein I realized that Shoaib was a
cunning person. He was envious of his younger brother. He
always negated his bother and remained in dispute. I
remained quiet and did not interfere into the brothers
matter. I supposed Shoaib needs affection so I strengthen
my marital relations with him but all in vain. Then a day
came, when Shoaib planned to kidnap Nauman (Shoaibs
younger brother)s daughter. Firstly I discouraged his idea
against which he warned me to divorce if I went beyond or
even I disclosed to anyone. He appeased me fully and I
gave consent. Unfortunately, the little girl deceased due to
66

my negligence and I came under trial. Shoaib did not


support me and started blaming me as it was my fault so I
will undergo. It disheartened me a lot. I distinctly
remember that I never disobeyed Shoaib, I loved him more
than word can say but he left me unattended. When my
siblings came to know about this offence, they cursed me
especially my bhabies did a lot this to me. They told me to
not to expect any kind of favor or backing from their side.
My sisters told me that they were shameful in front of their
in-laws, also that I had disgraced them. I tried to
apprehend them that it was not cautious and I am innocent
but they did not pay attention. They did not even help me
in hiring a prosecutor to justify my defense. It is been
around two and half years, I have been locked up.
Sometimes my elder sister comes to see me especially on
Eid etc., but no other siblings.
This reflects that many families cut the link with woman prisoners
because they do not want to spend money and time on them or for the
sake of their honor in society. Miss Aasia Batool shared that in prison of
male, one can hardly see such case of Jail Appeal. Again it shows the
preferential approach of the family towards male as compared to
female. This biasness is still in vogue because male enjoys greater
social and economic value in the society. It was noticed that women
who commit crimes accidently or innocently are generally do not have
any family support and lawyer.

67

CHAPTER 6
Analysis and interpretations of data are the most important steps while
conducting

social

sciences

research.

Without

these

steps,

generalization and prediction cannot be achieved that is the basic need


in the field of social research. Generalization and conclusion are drawn
on the basis of socio-economic and psychological causes of crime. This
chapter presents analysis and discussion / interpretation of data have
been presented. All the data was gathered by in-depth interviews.
Beside all the data has scrutinized for advance analysis.

DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

After observing the phenomenon, reviewing literature, interviewing the woman


prisoners and other stockholders it is difficult to reject that in most cases women
do not commit crimes by their own. Because the space they have in social and
economic life, generally, does not allow them to operate independently. In fact
most of their acts are due to men or on the behest of men.

It is observed and noted during the interviews that most woman prisoners had
been suffering from economic problems and belonged to marginalized families.
They were heavily dependent on men who led them to be exploited and abused.
68

Their male fellows were either not in a position or not giving them sufficient
money to fulfill their basic needs and run the households. If men allow and
encourage women to undertake some economic activities, the incomes of
households can be increased. In society like Pakistan, women are confined in their
house due to mens prejudice.

In some cases, husbands or lovers betrayed their fellow women and in retaliation
they committed crimes as revenge. So generally men are responsible for
compelling women to go to that extend. There were some women in jail who had
been dragged in cases by their relatives mostly in-laws to grab property.

Most of the cases, it seems, were fabricated and contested by their male family
members. Some cases were identified where family system caused the crime.
Husband could not provide his better half basic needs and left her on the disposal
of his family. It shows the weakness of husband who is the caretaker of his wife
according to establish social yet unable to fulfill his responsibilities. The principal
architect of such anti-woman social and religious norms is man.

Women were found in jail who committed crimes just because of unawareness.
There is no second opinion that in Pakistan, male being the custodians of
households is responsible to keep females illiterate and backward. In the maledominant society, one of the major reasons of womens dependency on men is
their immobility which is the impediment in attaining a better place in the society.
It goes without saying that illiteracy and backwardness keep women away from
pragmatic approach. So they are more inclined towards idealism and associate
everything with Gods will or fate thus they are unable to explore their potential
and strive for them.

A comparatively new trend has emerged of using female in narcotics business,


fraud, kidnapping for ransom, dacoity and arms smuggling. Many women
involved in narcotics cases were found in jail. The Superintendent of jail,

69

Representative of Social Welfare department, Women Rights activist and Police


Officer confirmed the growth of this trend.

Association of a female in undertaking of other criminal activities like dacoity,


kidnapping for ransom and fraud make things easier. Since in Pakistani culture,
women are generally not expected to be involved in such criminal activities thus
police overlook them and do not check them like they check men.

As compare to male, a female gets bail easily and less punishment from the
courts. So certain criminal elements operate through female to take advantage
from the courts also.

Various social, moral and religious norms are incompatible with womens rights,
and therefore, they have been confronting the bias treatment. Form a minor matter
to a major decision of their life; they look upon their male family members. They
are constantly exploited by men mostly on the pretext of social or religious norms.
So sometimes their male fellows use them for economic benefits no matter the
acts are illegal.

It is also found that during the imprisonment or after the imprisonment womans
dependency on men increases manifold and she becomes further vulnerable. Then
she is more prone for exploitation in the hands of men.

In certain cases, after the release from the jail their families accommodate them
but the respect and position earlier they had, never been restored. In many cases,
their relatives and other associates do not accommodate them and look down upon
them. So they carry this stigma for whole of their life which makes them victims
of inferiority complex and they become socially excluded community.

In some cases, their families do not accommodate them so there are greater
probabilities that they may join criminal gangs and become habitual. For such
helpless and shelter-less women there is hardly any support program from the
government as well as from NGOs.
70

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Following are the limitations of the present study:
1. The permission from concerned authority took lot of time so
it made the process of data collection slow
2. The time for data collection was limited
3. Lack of interest and motivation from the participants was
observed
4. Sample would not be considered the representative of the
national situation
SUGGESTIONS FOR RESEARCHER
The research can be improved by some suggestions are related to
sample:
1. More motivation and inters in participants may yield better results
2. The data should be collected when the participants are
relaxed and not involved or busy in any other activity
3. Conditions under which questionnaire was administered
should be appropriate
4. Proper time and instruction should be given to the participants
IMPLICATIONS
1. The

result

of

this

research

would

provide

better

understanding to a person to identify the social, economic


and psychological causes due to which females commit
crime
2. The findings of this research explore the importance of
expression.

71

CHAPTER 7
SUMMARY
Crime is an anti-social behavior which a group rejects and to which it
attaches penalties. Human criminal behavior is not inherited rather it is acquired. Some
social, economic, political and psychological factors may cause to involve the female in
different types of crimes.

72

The main reason for the crime is identified as economic hardships,


domestic and community pressures. The rise in unemployment rate can be identified as
leading cause of gender violence.
It is observed that women are less inclined towards crimes as compare to
men yet they have a complex variety of causes. As far as Pakistani women are concerned,
poverty is considered a common cause among the woman prisoners. As majority of the
women in the Jail, belongs to lower strata of the society. Poverty actually generates a
vicious circle of problems particularly for a female. With poor economic conditions the
first victims would be women because in Pakistani culture they do not have social and
economic value like men. Women heavily depend on their male family members that
make their position even weaker. Due to this dependency, they are unable to make any
decision on their own. So many a time a woman becomes frustrated and can go to any
extent even indulging her in crimes.
Illiteracy is another important cause of womens involvement in crimes.
As compared to male, in Pakistan, female literacy ratio is very low. Most of the women
in Pakistan have been confined in the houses so they dont have exposure to various
social and legal matters. For every outing they need permission and a companion.
Pakistani women are suffering from the problem of immobility, which leads them to
further dependency of men. There is a view, many men and women who participated in
robbery only when the desperation of their circumstances forced them to do so (Kilday,
2007, p. 144). When women of poor families show desires for things like clothes,
ornaments etc., they are snubbed by their male associates because they cannot afford. So
such frustrations make women desperate and they sometimes undertake illegal means to
obtain things of their choice.
In Pakistan, due to disputes of joint family system is causing various crimes. In
certain cases females experience verbal and physical abuse and gets suffocated. So in
desperate condition they can do something illegal. Vengeance is another factor of
womens crimes. Though in Punjab, departments like Social Welfare and Women
Development have been working, yet no mechanism for such women who do not have
73

shelters or mean to feed themselves. There is hardly any system to accommodate


economically frustrated and socially deprived women in the society. When such women
will not have any support from government side there are more chances that they can be
indulged in immoral or illegal activities.
Furthermore, controlling crime requires efforts at the
domestic, community and national level. Also, the individual and social
characteristics play an important role in gender-based crime.
Since, in the most of the cases, women depend emotionally
and financially on the abuses, it becomes critical how women
experience violence and how to intervene to reduce gender-based
intervene

to

reduce

gender-based

violence

effectively.

Lack

of

technical competence and resources, cultural stereotypes, negative


social attitude, institutional constraints and the womens reluctance to
disclose violence are the major barriers in controlling crime.

RECOMMENDATIONS
Female Criminality is a sensitive issue in the context of
Pakistan. Because Pakistan is an Islamic Democratic country and the
status of women is multiple times raised in the light of Islamic

74

teachings. Following suggestion with the interest to maximize the wellbeing can be considered as:

Because some women have low levels of educations and


qualities, they are lack of scientific analytical skills and
discriminations. They easily get impulsive, even go to
extremes. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen the
cultural knowledge educations, especially in rural and

remote areas.
Females shall be given awareness about their rights and

economic independence.
Poverty is the mother of all crimes. Government has to take
some concrete and sustainable macro level measure to
address the problem. It should allocate maximum budget for
social

development

generally

and

women

department

particularly.
Unless and until economic dependency of women is not
minimized, the problem will continue to persist. In this
regard, government should make a policy favoring the
female folk. It should direct banks to give them soft loans to
start their own business and economic activities. Most
scholars are of the view that economic dependency leads to
all other dependencies of the woman on men. Indeed, media
and

intellectuals

can

play

an

important

role

in

the

emancipation of women from the suppression of men.


Considering the causes of female crime, and in order to
reduce and prevent female crime, the whole society should
pay attention to and strengthen the female moral education.
There should be training sessions, also the formal institute
should place some capacity building courses should in the
aspects of the female self-esteem, self-reliance, and selfimprovement. These will enable them to make a clear
75

distinction between right and wrong, and consciously resist


the decadent ideas. They will know how to use reason to
control their behaviors. And their forceful characters to

combat undesirable tendency will been trained.


Since majority of women in the country are illiterate.
Education not only gives awareness but also is a tool to get
jobs. For that matter, government should legislate and
implement a policy and make education compulsory for girls
up to graduation level. Such policy will bring long lasting
effects on their empowerment. Women should be given
more and more social and economic rights and participation.
Government should start vocational institutes, particularly

for women, to teach those demanded skills and crafts.


Role of banks should be ensured in advancing soft loans to
initiate small business. It is not out of context to say that the
more government will invest on women the better it will be
for the overall economy of the country. Such measure will
not only reduce poverty but also reduce dependency of

women on men.
It would be a quantum leap, if government reserves 20% to
30% quota for female in all public sector jobs. It would
encourage parents to educate their girls and would be a

great source of their empowerment.


Social mobility leads to social and economic exposure. In
Pakistan, societal immobility of woman folk is one of the
biggest

hurdles

in

their

empowerment

and

growth.

Government should initiate interest free loan to enable


particularly girl students to buy motor cycles or scoters. If
government can give free laptops to good students then it
should make such policy for girls to enhance their mobility. It
would encourage girls to come out from their houses and
loose the strict restrictions of their male family members.
76

Indeed it would be a trend setter for other female in the

society and make a new culture.


Government should strengthen and activate its departments
like Social Welfare and Women Development for the
provision of timely help to the deserving women. Though
Benazir Income Support Program is a good program for
deserving women but its scope is limited. So it should be

expanded to a larger level.


Many of their childrens behavior and the formation of
characters are derived from the families. Because the
parents educational methods are important to the growth of
adolescent girls, the parents should take the proper methods
to educate their children, especially the adolescent girls

during the rebellious period.


Government should severely crack down on trafficking in
women, forcing women into prostitution and other illegal and
criminal acts to protect womens legal rights and interests. It
should enlarge the propaganda of the sexual equality ideas
and form a good system to make women be treated equally
in all aspects.

SUGGESTION FOR GUARDIANS

Ask girls who they want to be and what they need.


Allow girls to speak up and actively participate in the

services they receive.


Assist girls with their family relationships and help them deal

with family issues.


Assist girls in becoming

spirituality.
Allow girls

environments.
Provide girls with mentors who reflect girls lives and who

the

safety

grounded
and

in

comfort

some
of

form

of

same-gender

model survival, growth, and change.


77

Assist girls with child care, transportation, and safe housing

issues.
Teach girls strategies to overcome domestic violence,

physical and sexual abuse, and substance abuse.


Promote academic achievement and economic

self-

sufficiency for girls.

CONCLUSION
This descriptive research deals with the crucial aspects,
theoretical

explanations

and

factor

identification

associated with female criminal behavior. It insights the


socio-economic and psychological motives laid behind
female

offense

by

and

large

female

prisoners

of

CentralJail, Lahore. Some of them correlate their crime


with God's will. It was quite far away from rational and
pragmatic thought. The female criminals as prisoners are
groomed in such a manner they do not talk about their
rights and unjust socio-cultural system. They do not have
comprehension of their severe dependency on men.
Therefore there is a need to make women more attentive
and realistic by ensuring an education or academic
research. There is grave need to encourage, motivation,
recognizing self-worth and spiritual encroachments to make certain
female's significant and expedient role in society. Hence it is the
responsibility of government to fortify the legislation apparatus,
78

improve economic disparities and provide fair opportunities to


contribute in the economic activities and national income growth in a
respectful manner.

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