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2G main KPIs as follows.

TCH drop rate.

SD drop rate.
TCH congestion.
SD congestion.
TCH blocking.
SD blocking.
TCH Assignment Success rate.
TCH utilization rate.

TCH Drop Rate:-

TCH Drop
<2% (BBH)

{[Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)]+[Call Drops in

TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)]}/{[Successful TCH Seizures
(Traffic Channel)]+[Successful TCH Seizures in TCH Handovers
(Traffic Channel)]}

A call drops when it is terminated abnormally. For example, a call is terminated because
the BSC or the MS releases the TCH due to an exception.
Call drop measurement: When receiving a Connection Failure or an Error Indication
message from the BTS, the BSC sends the Clear Request message to the MSC and
measures one call drop in a corresponding performance counter based on the cause value.





Connection failure
Error indication

Clear request
Calculate call drop counter

In normal cases, most call drops are caused by Um interface problems, and therefore
you need to focus on these call drops. Call drops caused by Um interface problems are
measured as CM33C and classified into call drops in the stable state and call drops due to

CM33:Call Drops on Traffic Channel

CM33C:Call Drops on Radio Interface (Traffic Channel)

CM330:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State
(Traffic Channel)
CM331:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State
(Traffic Channel)
CM332:Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time
(Traffic Channel)
CM333:Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure
(Traffic Channel)
CM334:Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (Traffic
CM335:Call Drops due to Forced Handover (Traffic

Call Drop(RF Cause)

M3030A:Call Drops on TCH(TA)


M3030B:Call Drops on TCH(Uplink Received Level)

M3030C:Call Drops on TCH(Downlink Received Level)
M3030D:Call Drops on TCH(Uplink and Downlink Received Level)
M3030G:Call Drops on TCH(Uplink and Downlink FER)
M3030H:Call Drops on TCH(Uplink Quality)
M3030I:Call Drops on TCH(Downlink Quality)
M3030J:Call Drops on TCH(Uplink and Downlink Quality)


M3030K:Call Drops on TCH(Other)


SD drop rate

<=2% (BBH)

(Call Drops on SDCCH)/(Successful SDCCH Seizures)

CRH increase to reduce freq location update (dB, 0dB to 14 dB0 , baseline is 6dB, if less ping pong
LAU occur)
T3212:- Location update timer (Baseline 20, step of 6 mins each. Ie 20*6= 120mins=2hrs after
every 2hrs update location)
Reasons for poor SDCCH call drop rate are as follows:

Hardware failure
Version upgrade
Parameter setting
Intra-network and inter-network interference

Coverage, antenna system, and imbalance between uplink and downlink

Radio link and cell parameters

Parameter setting as
SACCH Multi-Frames (SACCH period (480ms)) and Radio Link Timeout(SACCH period
(480ms)) are set to too small values.
RACH Min.Access Level(dBm) is set to a too small value.
T200 SDCCH(5ms) and N200 of SDCCH are set to too small values.
MAIO is set improperly.
Handover parameters:
SDCCH HO Allowed is set to Yes.
T3103A(ms) and T3103C(ms) are set to too small values.
T3109(ms) is set to a too small value.
T3111(ms) is set to a too small value.
The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value.
Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value.
The network planning is improper after the Um interface is synchronized.
Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small values.

TCH congestion/blocking

TCH Blocking

[Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel)]/[TCH

Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)]

HW Fault.
Improper Parameter Setting.
Faulty TRX.
Transmission Issues.
Increase in Customer base or Over utilized cell (less dedicated TCH channels defined)

Improvement:Resolve the alarms & HW fault

Replace the faulty TRX
Add TRX or Timeslot based on the blocking
what is TCH Blocking and Drop?
TCH call Blocking , it present how many subscriber asks for
TCH channel andnetwork reply with no available resource.
so it present how many subscriber request TCH channel to reject this request

SD congestion/blocking


(Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH)/(SDCCH Seizure


Add SD resources
Factors of SDCCH Congestion Rate in GSM

Congestion Caused by Faults on Equipment or Transmission

Congestion Caused by Insufficient Signalling Resources


The heavy traffic and burst traffic cause the SDCCH congestion

Congestion Caused by Improper Data Configuration

The SDCCH congestion relates to the relevant parameters of the BSC

such as SDCCH Availability, LAC and T3101 (the timer used in the
immediate assignment procedure), and T3212 (the timer used for
periodic updating)

Congestion Caused by Interference



(100-SDCCH Congestion Rate(%))*(100-SDCCH

Drop Call Rate(%))*TCH Assignment Rate/10000

Reasons for poor call set-up performance

Possible reasons for poor call set-up performance could be:
TCH Congestion
SDCCH Congestion
Incorrect Parameter Settings
HW Problems
Poor coverage

TCH Assignment Success rate.

TCH Assignment Rate

K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic

Channel)/K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic

Influencing Factors
Hardware Fault
Transmission Problem
Parameter Setting Problem
The parameters related to the paging on the BSC side are as follows: CCCH Conf

RACH Min.Access Level


Paging Times



MS MAX Retrans

SDCCH Dynamic Allocation Allowed

Random Access Error Threshold


RACH Busy Threshold

CCCH Load Threshold

Abis Flow Control Permitted

A-interface collaboration paging switch (software parameter)

Paging lifecycle (software parameter 29)

Interference Problem
Coverage Problem
Uplink and Downlink Balance Problem

Reasons:Check the formula counters properly. TCH assign fail in stable state & TCH assign fail in
HO state.. If failure high in HO state, check the C2C HO report. Find the cells with max ho
fail. Optimize the cell with high ho fail.
K3010A:TCH Seizure
Requests (Traffic Channel)

K3013A:Successful TCH
Seizures (Traffic Channel)

Seizure Requests in
TCH Handovers

K3013B:Successful TCH
Seizures in TCH handovers
(Traffic Channel) (none)

(Traffic Channel)


HOSR= {[Number of Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers]+ [Successful Outgoing

External Inter-Cell Handovers]} x {100%}/{[Number of Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover
Requests]+ [Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests]}

Coverage problem
Hardware faults
Transmission faulty
Version/software issue
MS problem
Improper parameter setting
Unbalanced traffic
Interference (Intra & Inter network)


PS Drop Rate / TBF drop Rate.

PDCH Congestion.
PD throughput.

PS Drop Rate / TBF drop Rate.

A9206:Number of Uplink EGPRS TBF Abnormal Releases due to N3101 Overflow (MS No Response)
+ A9006:Number of Uplink GPRS TBF Abnormal Releases due to N3101 Overflow (MS No

PDCH Congestion.


Downlink TBF Congestion Rate

={[Number of Failed Downlink GPRS TBF Establishments due to No
+[Number of Failed Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishments due to No
Channel]} x {100%}/
{[Number of Downlink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts]
+[Number of Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts]}
(A9103 + A9303) x 100%/(A9101 + A9301)

Downlink TBF Establishment Success Rate


Downlink TBF Establishment Success Rate

={[Number of Successful Downlink GPRS TBF Establishments]
+[Number of Successful Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishments]} x
{[Number of Downlink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts]
+[Number of Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts]}
(A9102 + A9302) x 100%/(A9101 + A9301)