Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

WelcometoMATH226.3x:NonlinearDifferentialEquations:OrderandChaos.

This
syllabusprovidesageneraldescriptionofthecoursecontent,theschedule,the
assessmentsandgrading,andgeneralguidelines.Pleasecheckthesyllabusifyouhave
anyquestionsregardingtheoperationofthiscourse.

Nonlinear Differential Equations


Phenomenaasdiverseasanautomobilessuspensionsystem,theswayingofabridge,
andthedampingofaskyscraperaregovernedbydifferentialequations.MATH226xisan
introductiontothemathematicaltheoryofordinarydifferentialequations.Thiscourse
adoptsamoderndynamicalsystemsapproachtothesubject.Thatis,equationsare
analyzedusingqualitative,numerical,andifpossible,symbolictechniques.

MATH226.3xisthecapstonecourseinthethreeMOOCsequenceofcoursesthat
togetherareMATH226x.Wewillapplythetheoryandrelevanttechniquesfrom
MATH226.1xandMATH226.2xtothestudyofnonlinearsystemsofordinary
differentialequations.Thereisnosystematicapproachthatappliestoallnonlinear
systemsofdifferentialequations,butinthiscoursewepresentahandfuloftechniques
thataddressawiderangeofsystems.

Wedonothesitatetosacrificerigorforintuition.Weareabletodiscussadvancedtopics
suchaslinearizationandHamiltoniansystemsbyignoringcertaintechnicaldetailsand
byrestrictingourdiscussiontoautonomoussystemswithtwodependentvariables.Inthe
finalmoduleofthecourse,wediscussathreedimensionalsystemthatwasfirststudied
byEdwardLorenzatMITintheearly1960s.Inthatdiscussion,weintroducesomeofthe
termsandconceptsrelatedtothestudyofchaoticdynamicalsystems.Overallour
treatmentin226.3willbelesssystematicthanitwasin226.1and226.2,butwehopethat
itwillpersuadeyoutocontinueyourstudyofnonlineardifferentialequationsafter
completingthiscourse.

About the Team


PaulBlanchardisprofessorofmathematicsatBoston
University.HegrewupinSutton,Massachusetts,USA,
andspentthreeundergraduateyearsatBrownUniversity.
Duringhissenioryear,hedecidedtohaveanadventure
andlearnanewlanguage,sohewasanoccasionalstudent
attheUniversityofWarwickinEngland.Hereceivedhis
Ph.D.fromYaleUniversity.Hehastaughtmathematics
formorethanthirtyfiveyears,mostatBostonUniversity.
Hismainareaofmathematicalresearchiscomplex
analyticdynamicalsystemsandtherelatedpoint
setsJuliasetsandtheMandelbrotset.HeisaFellowof
theAmericanMathematicalSociety.

Formanyofthelasttwentyyears,hiseffortshavefocused
onmodernizingthetraditionalsophomoreleveldifferentialequationscourse.Thateffort
hasresultedinnumerousworkshopsandminicourses.Hehasalsoauthoredfiveeditions
of
DifferentialEquations
withRobertL.DevaneyandGlenR.Hall.Whenhebecomes
exhaustedfixingtheerrorsmadebyhistwocoauthors,heheadsforthegolfcourseto
enjoyadifferenttypeoffrustration.
PatrickCummingsisaPh.D.candidateintheDepartmentof
MathematicsandStatisticsatBostonUniversity.Hisresearch
involvesextendingthetheoryoffinitedimensionaldynamical
systemstoinfinitedimensionaldynamicalsystemsdefinedby
partialdifferentialequations.PatrickreceivedhisBachelorof
ArtsdegreeinMathematicsfromMaristCollegein2012.
WhileatBostonUniversity,hehasbeenateachingassistant
forMA226,theresidentialequivalentofMATH226x.

Course Outline
Module
Module1:NonlinearSystems
ReleasedonThursday,July30at1:00PMEDT
Module2:EquilibriumPointAnalysis

ReleasedonThursday,July30at1:00PMEDT

Content
We introduce four important examples of
nonlinear systems. These examples illustrate
many important concepts and will reappear
throughout the course.
In MATH226.2x, we were able to understand the
solutions of linear systems both qualitatively and
analytically. Unfortunately, nonlinear systems are
in general much less amenable to the analytic and
algebraic techniques that we have developed, but
we can use the mathematics of linear systems to

Module3:QualitativeAnalysis
ReleasedonThursday,August6at1:00PM
EDT

Module4:HamiltonianSystems
ReleasedonThursday,August6at1:00PM
EDT

Module5:DissipativeandGradient
Systems
ReleasedonThursday,August13at1:00PM
EDT
Module6:ChaosandtheLorenzAttractor
ReleasedonThursday,August20at1:00PM
EDT

FinalExam

ReleasedonThursday,August27at1:00PM
EDT
DueonThursday,September3at1:00PM
EDT
EndofCourse
Monday,September3at1:00PMEDT

understand the behavior of solutions of nonlinear


systems near their equilibrium points.
The process of linearization discussed in Module
2 gives us a powerful technique for
understanding the behavior of solutions of a
nonlinear system near an equilibrium point.
Unfortunately it provides local information
onlyinformation that can be used only near
equilibrium points. So far our only general
techniques for the study of the behavior of
nonlinear systems away from equilibrium points
are numerical. In this module we develop
qualitative techniques that can be used in
combination with linearization and numerics.
Nonlinearsystemsofdifferentialequationsare
almostimpossibletosolveexplicitly.Thesolution
curvesofsystemsbehaveinmanydifferentways,
andtherearenoqualitativetechniquesthatare
guaranteedtoworkinallcases.Fortunatelythere
arecertainspecialtypesofnonlinearsystemsthat
ariseofteninphysicalsystemsandforwhichthere
arespecialtechniquesthatenableustogainsome
understandingofthephaseportrait.Inthismodule
wediscussoneofthemostimportantofthese
specialtypes.
The Hamiltonian systems discussed in Module 4
are idealized systems. In this module we discuss
systems for which there is a quantity that
dissipates over time.

In1963EdwardLorenzpublishedapaperthat
wouldeventuallyhaveaprofoundeffectonthe
mathematicalanalysisofnonlinearequations.We
endMATH226xwithadiscussionofthesystem
thatnowcarrieshisname.Wewillalsoattemptto
conveyitsplaceinthedevelopmentofthe
mathematicsthatunderlieschaostheory.
Thisexamwilltestalltopicspresentedinthis
courseandwillbeworth60%ofyouroverall
grade.

Thecourseofficiallyendsatthistime.Thecontent
willstillbeavailableafterthecoursecloses,but
thoseseekingacertificatemustachieveanoverall
gradeof50%bythisdate.

Assessments and Grading


Eachmoduleconsistsofaseriesofvideosinterspacedwithbriefexercisesdesignedto
helpyouassessyourunderstandingofthematerialdiscussedinthevideo.Thesecontent
checkexerciseswillbeworth10%ofyouroverallgrade.
Attheendofeachmoduletherewillbeanexercisesetthatwillprovidemoredetailed
practicewiththeconceptspresentedinthemodule.Theseexercisesetswillbeworth
30%ofyouroverallgrade.
ThefinalexamforthecoursewillbereleasedonThursday,August27at1:00PM
(EDT).Itwillcoverallofthematerialdiscussedinallsixmodules.Toreceivecredit,
youmustsubmityouranswersbySeptember3at1PM(EDT).Thefinalexamwillbe
worth60%ofyouroverallgrade.
Thedeadlineforallassessmentswillbetheendofthecourse,thatis,September3at1
PM(EDT).Youmaydelaycompletionofthecontentcheckexercisesandexercisesets
untiltheendofthecoursewhilestillgettingcredit.However,westronglyrecommend
thatyoucompleteallexercisesasyougo.

Discussion Forum Guidelines


Wehopethatyoufindthediscussionforumstobeausefulcomponentofthiscourse.
Theyaremeanttobeanareawherethestudentscaninteractwitheachother,ask
questions,ortalktothecoursestaff.Wegreatlyencourageyoutousetheseforumsona
regularbasis.

Wesupportandencouragetheuseoftheforumtodiscussoraskquestionsabout
exercisesandconsequentlytheirsolutions.Wewillnotdeletequestionsordiscussions
thatcontainsolutionshowever,wedoaskthatyoudonotabusetheforumsasawayto
shareanswerstoexercises.
Weaskthatyoudonotpostcommentsthatarederogatory,defamatory,orinanyway
attackotherstudents.Becourteousandshowthesamerespectyouhopetoreceive.
Discussionforummoderatorswilldeletepoststhatarerude,inappropriate,orofftopic.
Commenterswhorepeatedlyabusethispublicforumwillberemovedfromthecourse.
Thereisafeatureinthediscussionforumsthatallowsyoutoselectfromtwoposttypes,
QuestionandDiscussion.TheQuestiontypeismeantforspecificissueswiththe
platformorwithcontent,andtheDiscussiontypeismeanttoshareideasandstart
conversation.Pleasekeepthisdistinctioninmindwhenpostingtothediscussionforum.

FAQ
Q
:ShouldIemailtheprofessororanypersonsinvolvedwiththiscoursedirectly?
A
:No.Ifyoufeeltheneedtocontactthecoursestaffinvolvedinthiscourse,pleasedoso
throughtheDiscussionForum.
Q
:DoIneedtobuyanypersonalmaterialstotakethiscourse?
A
:No.Youdonotneedtopurchasetextbooksoranymaterialstoaidyouincompleting
thecourse.
Q
:I'venevertakenanedXcoursebeforeandthisisconfusing.WhatdoIdo?
A
:ThereisaprecourseedXwalkthroughthatbeginnerscanwatch.Itexplainsindetail
howtousetheedXplatform.Forfurtherinformation,pleasevisitthe
demoedXcourse
.
Q
:Ifoundamistakeinthecourse.WheredoIreportit?
A
:OntheWikipage,thereisaspecificsectionforErrata.Youcangothere,editthe
page,andpostinformationconcerninganyerrorsorissuesyouhavefound.Wewilltryto
fixthemassoonaspossible.
Q
:HowdoIlearnmoreaboutthemathematicsdiscussedinModulex?
A
:Manyofthemodulesdiscusstopicsthatcanbestudiedinmuchmoredetail.Ifyou
findatopicespeciallyinterestingandwouldliketoknowmore,thenpleaseposta
questiononthediscussionforum.Ifweknowofagoodreferenceorresource,thenwe
willpostitonthewiki.

Time Zones
Anoteabouttimereferences:TimewillbereportedbycoursestaffasEasternDaylight
Time,NorthAmerica(EDT).AnytimeslistedbyedX,suchasduedateslistedonthe
coursesite,willbereportedinUniversalTimeCoordinated(UTC).Thecoursestaffwill
makeeveryefforttomaketimesandtimezonesasclearaspossible.Therearevarious
timezoneconvertersonthewebsuchas
http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/converter.html
.

Honor Code
TheedXplatformassumesacertainlevelofdecorumandresponsibilityfromthose
takingthiscourse.PleasereviewtheedXHonorCode,whichisreproducedbelow.
ByenrollinginanedXcourse,IagreethatIwill:

Completeallmidtermsandfinalexamswithmyownworkandonlymyown
work.Iwillnotsubmittheworkofanyotherperson.
Maintainonlyoneuseraccountandnotletanyoneelseusemyusernameand/or
password.
Notengageinanyactivitythatwoulddishonestlyimprovemyresults,orimprove
orhurttheresultsofothers.
Notpostanswerstoproblemsthatarebeingusedtoassessstudentperformance.

UnlessotherwiseindicatedbytheinstructorofanedXcourse,learnersonedXare
encouragedto:

Collaboratewithothersonthelecturevideos,exercises,homeworkandlabs.
Discusswithothersgeneralconceptsandmaterialsineachcourse.
PresentideasandwrittenworktofellowedXlearnersorothersforcommentor
criticism.

Credits and Acknowledgements


Aswithanymajoreffort,thiscoursewouldnotbepossiblewithoutlargecontributions
frommanysources.Wewouldliketoextendaspecialthankstothevariousteamswho
haveputinuncountablehoursofworktohelpcreatethiscourse.Specifically,wewantto
thankthefollowingpeopleandorganizationsthathavecontributedalargeamountof
efforttomakethiscoursebecomeareality:RomyRuukel,TimBrenner,VanessaRuano
formanagingthisprocessandbeingresponsibleforeveryaspectofthemakingofthis
courseJoeDwyerforeditingtheannotatedslidevideosthatappearinthiscourseandfor
filmingandeditingtheaboutvideoKellanReckforhisgraphicsintheaboutvideo
CourtneyTeixeirawhodrewtheimagesonthetitlecardsAndrewAbrahamsonand
AdamBrillaofBUsMetropolitanCollegewhohelpeduswithourtabletcaptureintheir
mediaroomKacieCleary

ofBUsInformationServicesandTechnologywhohelpedus
withtabletcaptureinMugarMemorialLibraryDanielShankforaccuracychecking
ProfessorJohnPolkingofRiceUniversityforlettingususehisprogrampplaneinthis
courseMathWorksforprovidinglicensesforMATLABduringthecourseJohn
Kotwicki,BrandonArmstrong,andespeciallyErinByrneofMathWorksfortheir
assistancewithMATLABHubertHohnwhoworkedwithusdesigningand
implementingDETools,softwarethatweusewhenweteachdifferentialequations
CengageLearningforprovidingpartialsupportduringthedevelopmentofDEToolsand
theDigitalLearningInitiativeandtheDepartmentofMathematicsandStatisticsat
BostonUniversityforsupportingPaulBlanchardandPatrickCummingsduringthe
developmentofthiscourse.
ThiscoursewouldnothavebeenpossibleiftheNationalScienceFoundationhadnot
partiallyfundedtheBostonUniversityDifferentialEquationsProjectfrom1993to1998.

ManyundergraduateandgraduatestudentshaveworkedontheBUDifferential
EquationsProjectovertheyears:GarethRoberts,AlexKasman,BrianPersaud,Melissa
Vellela,SamKaplan,BillBasener,SebastianMarotta,StephanieR.Jones,AdrianVajiac,
DanielCuzzocreo,DuffCampbell,LeeDeville,J.DougWright,DanLook,Nuria
Fagella,NickBenes,AdrianIovita,KinyaOno,andBeverlySteinhoff.
PaulBlanchardwouldespeciallyliketothankhiscolleaguesandcoauthors,RobertL.
DevaneyandGlenR.Hall,formanyyearsofenjoyablecollaborationonthedevelopment
ofmaterialsusedtoteachdifferentialequations.

Terms of Service
Forfurtherinformation,pleasereviewtheedXTermsofService
(
https://www.edx.org/edxtermsservice
).