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TERM PAPER

ON
"WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS"
Submitted to
AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

SUBMITTED BY:PRABHJIT SINGH WALIA [A2305208077] [697]


NITIN JAIN
[A2305208103] [676]
PULKIT AGGARWAL
[A2305208108] [736]
PRATEEK TYAGI
[A2305208092] [716]
PRATYUSH GUPTA
[A2305208069] [720]
CLASS:CS-7 'X'
DEPARTMENT:
GUIDED BY:
MRS.VANDANI VERMA
ASET

Amity University, Uttar Pradesh

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT....................................................................................3
INTRODUCTION..........................................................................4

OBJECTIVE AND CURRENT WORK.......................................5

WIRELESS DEVICES

- BLUETOOTH..................................................................................7
- GPRS..................................................................................................9
- INFRARED.......................................................................................11
- WI-FI.................................................................................................14
- WLAN................................................................................................16
- WIRELESS USB...............................................................................18
- ZIGBEE.............................................................................................20
- TRANSFER JET...............................................................................22
DISCUSSION.....................................................................................24
.
CONCLUSIONS................................................................................26
REFERENCES..................................................................................27

ABSTRACT
As technology become increasingly user-friendly and focused on the consumer,it is
evident that the user have become more dependenton wireless technological devices
as mechanisms that promote convenience,survival and economic prosperity.This
project report consists primarily of a comprehensive literature review of wireless
communication technology to establish an historical beckdrop outlining the growth of
todays communication system.This study demonstrates the absolute importance of
personal and business forms of wireless technologies in todays increasingly complex
society.Attention has been given to those wireless technologies which offer moderate
to long range communication capabilities.Wireless technologies that support either
simpler or duplex communication has been examined and reviewed..In
addition,personal experiences demonstrate the significance of wireless devices in
daily living.Each of the technologies has been reviewed extensively in seperte
chapters that make up the body of full research report.This paper includes various
case studies which demonstrate how such stratergies were developed and have been
deemed successful.Succesful management of wireless technology which should not
just be considered a lone technology but should also be considered as stratergic
development.This term paper provides detailed analysis which includes history and
progress of various Wreless Communication Devices which are use in today or are
being in development.

INTRODUCTION

Wireless communication is generally considered to be a branch of telecommunications.


Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are
impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in
the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g., radio
transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.)
which use some form of energy (e.g. radio frequency (RF), infrared light, laser light, visible
light, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is
transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two way radios, cellular
telephones, personal digital assistants (Pdas), and wireless networking. Other examples of
wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers and or garage doors, wireless
computer mice, keyboards and headsets, satellite television and cordless telephones.

The birth of wireless communication dates from the late 1800s, when M.G.Marconi did the
pioneer work establishing the first successful radio link between a land-based station and a
tugboat. Since then, wireless communication system have been developing and evolving
with a furious pace. The number of mobile subscribers has been growing tremendously in
the past decades. The number of mobile subscribers throughout the world increased from
just a few thousand in the earlier 20th century to close to 1.5 billion in 2004.

Wireless communication is enjoying its fastest growth period in history due to enabling
technologies which permit widespread deployment. Historically,growth in the mobile
communication has come slowly,and has been coupled closely tom technological
improvements . The ability to provide wireless communication to an entire population was
not even conceived until Bell Laboratories developed the cellular concept in the 1960s and
1970s.With the development of highly reliable, miniature, solid state radio frequency
hardware in the 1970s, the wireless communication era was born.

OBJECTIVE OF THE TERM PAPER


&
CURRENT WORK IN THIS AREA
DEFINATION:Wireless communication

is generally considered to be a branch of


telecommunications. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications,
that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires

OBJECTIVE:The objective of this Term Paper is to Find out what the term Wireless
Communication means,what are the devices or technologies which constitute it and what is The
Future of this technology..

CURRENT WORK IN THIS AREA


1.A Canadian professor will work with his counterpart at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)
in New Delhi to find solutions to wireless communication problems as part of a new research
partnership between the two countries.
Robert Schober of Vancouver-based University of British Columbia will work with Ranjan
Mallik of IIT Delhi to tackle some of the most pressing problems in wireless communication
system design under the Canadian governments newly launched International Research Chairs
Initiative (IRCI).
The two researchers will concentrate on ultra-wideband technologies, which offer data rates of
hundreds of megabit per second, significantly faster than current wireless data transfer rates, the
statement said. Their work could help enable faster data transmission and improve power efficiency,
battery life and range for billions of people using wireless devices, the statement added.
To accelerate fast technology transfer between the two countries, Mallik and Schober will work
with Bell Canada, Sierra Wireless, fSONA Systems of Canada; and Sasken,
STMicroelectronics, GM India Science Laboratory of India.
2.Wireless Communication Research Group - The Focus of the group has been on the 802.11
(WiFi) and 802.16 (WiMAX) based systems. Work on the Physical (PHY) and Medium Access
Control (MAC) Layers has been ongoing for the past 6 years. Joint work with Brovis Wireless
Networks has led to outdoor access products. Chromepet, Chennai 600044.
Email: contact-wireless@au-kbc.org
3.Uday B. Desai received the B. Tech. degree from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, in
1974, the M.S. degree from the State University of New York, Buffalo, in 1976, and the Ph.D.
degree from The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, U.S.A., in 1979, all in Electrical
Engineering. His research interest is in wireless communication, wireless sensor networks and
statistical signal processing. He is interested in connectivity for rural India - the objective being to
bring the advantages of modern day telecommunication and information technology to rural and
small town India.
5

4.SINTEF-In the 1980s SINTEF department was involved in the development of the mobile phone
system that we today know as GSM. In the 1990s we contributed to the standardisation of the
digital broadcast (DVB) system. Today this standard is used for digital transmission of TV channels,
and in the future it will also be used for broadcasting HDTV (High Definition Television).
Their research is directed at all kinds of wireless communications, from short range to satellite
communication. Depending on the application and system requirements, we utilise either wellknown international standards, or develop tailor-made solutions when existing technologies do not
meet the user requirements.
LINK->http://www.sintef.no/Home/Information-and-Communication-TechnologyICT/Communication-Systems/Research-Areas/Wireless-Communication/
SINTEF's head office in Trondheim:
SINTEF
NO-7465 Trondheim Norway
5.3G SPECTRUM auctions in india for private companies will be held shortly by TRAI(Telecom
regulatory authority of india) whereas government's telecom company BSNL has already launched
3g services in Delhi.
6.Bluetooth 3.0 has been launched on april 29,2009 and it will be accomodated in the new products
to be available in the market soon.

BLUETOOTH
TRANSMISSION RATES
It is capable of transmitting data at a gross rate of 1Mb/s
RANGE
The standard range within a room is 10 meters, although there is an option to extend it to 100
meters within a house. Such systems are referred to as 'Wireless Personal Area Networks' or
WPANs.
WHAT IT IS?
Bluetooth is a short-range radio technology developed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group
(SIG). Bluetooth is designed to allow the exchange of voice and data between devices such as
mobile phones and portable PCs without proprietary cables. Bluetooth is an open wireless protocol
for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices, creating personal area
networks (PANs).It can connect several devices, overcoming problems of synchronization.It is
expected to make these digital devices much user-friendlier. To promote its rapid adoption, the
Bluetooth SIG has offered the technology on a royalty free basis and surrendered intellectual
property rights to those companies that have joined the initiative.
HOW DOES IT WORK?
Bluetooth uses a radio technology called frequency-hopping spread spectrum, which chops up the
data being sent and transmits chunks of it on up to 79 frequencies.Bluetooth provides a way to
connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, telephones, laptops,
personal computers, printers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, digital cameras, and
video game consoles through a secure, globally unlicensed Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM)
2.4 GHz short-range radio frequency bandwidth.
Each Bluetooth-enabled device can communicate with a number of other devices, creating a
'piconet'. All devices within a piconet share a common connection known as the master.

HOW DID WORD BLUETOOTH CAME ABOUT?


Bluetooth started as the code name for the association when it was first formed and the name stuck.
The name "Bluetooth" is from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blatand - or Harold Bluetooth
in English. King Blatand was instrumental in uniting warring factions in parts of what is now
Norway, Sweden, and Denmark - just as Bluetooth technology is designed to allow collaboration
between differing industries such as the computing, mobile phone, and automotive market
VERSIONS
a)Bluetooth 1.0 and 1.0B
#Versions 1.0 and 1.0B had many problems
# Versions 1.0 and 1.0B also included mandatory Bluetooth hardware device address
transmission in
the Connecting process (rendering anonymity impossible at the protocol level),
which was a major setback for certain services planned for use in Bluetooth environments.
b)Bluetooth 1.1
# Many errors found in the 1.0B specifications were fixed.
# Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI).
c)Bluetooth 1.2
# Faster Connection and Discovery
# improved voice quality of audio links by allowing retransmissions of corrupted packets
d)Bluetooth 2.0
# This version of the Bluetooth specification was released on November 10, 2004. It is backward
compatible with the previous version 1.2
# Lower power consumption through a reduced duty cycle.
e)Bluetooth 2.1
# Bluetooth Core Specification Version 2.1 is fully backward compatible with 1.2, and was
adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on
July 26, 2007
# Secure Simple Pairing (SSP),It is expected that this feature will significantly increase its use.
F)Bluetooth 3.0
# The 3.0 specification was adopted by the Bluetooth SIG on April 21st, 2009. Its main new
feature is AMP (Alternate
MAC/PHY),as a high speed transport.
FUTURE OF BLUETOOTH

BLUEJACKING
* Bluejacking is the sending of either a picture or a message from one user to an unsuspecting
user through Bluetooth
wireless technology. Common applications are short messages (e.g.,
"Youve just been bluejacked!"), advertisements (e.g., "Eat at Joes"), and business information.
Bluejacking does not involve the removal or alteration of any data from the device.
* Broadcast Channel: enables Bluetooth information points. This will drive the adoption of
Bluetooth into mobile phones, and enable advertising models based around users pulling
information from the information points, and not based around the object push model that is used in
a limited way today.
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GPRS
The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a new non-voice value added service that
allows information to be sent and received across a mobile telephone network.It is a step ahead to
provide a massive boost to mobile data usage and usefulness. In the 2G systems, GPRS provides
data rates of 56-114 kbit/s. the net connection is a slow process.
GPRS TECHNOLOGY
GPRS enables high-speed access to internet-based content and services via a mobile terminal. It
enables a number of data applications, including e-commerce, email and data transfer. The
implementation of the GPRS network solution includes the serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
and the gateway GPRS support node (GGSN).
GPRS, which has been standardised by ETSI as part of the GSM Phase 2+ developments, represents
the first implementation of packet switching within GSM, which is essentially a circuit-switched
technology. Rather than sending a continuous stream of data over a permanent connection, packet
switching only uses the network when there is data to be sent.
GPRS enable T-Mobil users to send and receive data at speeds of up to 115Kbps (kilobits per
second).
FEATURES
# SPEED
A GPRS can achieve speeds up to 171.2 kilobits per second (kbps) using all eight timeslots at
the same time. This is thrice as fast as current data transmission systems.
# IMMEDIACY
GPRS facilitates instant connections whereby information can be sent or received immediately
as the need arises, subject to radio coverage. No dial-up modem connection is necessary.
# NEW APPLICATIONS, BETTER APPLICATIONS
GPRS facilitates several new applications that have not previously been available over GSM
networks due to the limitations in speed of Circuit Switched Data (9.6 kbps) and message length of
the Short Message Service (160 characters). GPRS will fully enable the Internet applications you
are used to on your desktop from web browsing to chat over the mobile network.

WHAT DO YOU NEED FOR A GPRS ?

* To begin with, a mobile phone or terminal that supports GPRS.


*A subscription to a mobile telephone network that supports GPRS. Knowledge of how to send
and/ or receive GPRS information using their specific model of mobile phone, including software
and hardware configuration.
*A destination to send or receive information through GPRS. Whereas with SMS this was often
another mobile phone, in the case of GPRS, it is likely to be an Internet address, since GPRS is
designed to make the Internet fully available to mobile users for the first time.
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KEY NETWORK FEATURES OF GPRS

# PACKET SWITCHING GPRS


Involves overlaying a packet based air interface on the existing circuit switched GSM network.
This gives the user an option to use a packet-based data service. With GPRS, the information is split
into separate but related "packets" before being transmitted and reassembled at the receiving end.
# INTERNET AWARE
GPRS fully enables Mobile Internet functionality by allowing inter-working between the
existing Internet and the new GPRS network.

LIMITATIONS OF GPRS

# LIMITED CELL CAPACITY FOR ALL USERS


There are only limited radio resources that can be deployed for different uses- use for one purpose
precludes simultaneous use for another. For example, voice and GPRS calls both use the same
network resources. The extent of the impact depends upon the number of timeslots,
# SPEEDS MUCH LOWER IN REALITY
Achieving the theoretical maximum GPRS data transmission speed of 171.2 kbps would require a
single user taking over all eight timeslots without any error protection.

APPLICATIONS OF GPRS

# CHAT
Because of its synergy with the Internet, GPRS would allow mobile users to participate fully in
existing Internet chat groups rather than needing to set up their own groups that are dedicated to
mobile users.
#TEXTUAL AND VISUAL INFORMATION
You can receive information, which is in the form of not only text, but maps, graphs or other
visuals.
#MOVING IMAGES
You will also be able to receive moving images and receive transmission from anywhere.
#WEB BROWSING
You will also be able to use the GPRS for browsing the net.This lets different people in different
places work on the same document at the same time.
#FILE TRANSFER
You may download sizeable data across the mobile network.
FUTURE OF GPRS
The implementation of GPRS could bring a number of benefits to GSM network operators. It brings
the internet protocol (IP) capability to the GSM network and enables a connection to a wide range
of public and private data networks, using industry-standard data protocols such as TCP/IP and
X.25. GPRS is efficient in its use of scarce spectrum resources and enables GSM operators to
introduce a wide range of value-added services for market differentiation. GPRS is ideal for
'bursty'-type data applications such as email or internet access The key to GPRS technology is that
it offers a higher data speed, allows users to pay by volume and not time and there is also a
permanent virtual connection.
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INFRARED
WHAT IS INFRARED?
Infrared technology allows computing devices to communicate via short-range wireless signals.
With infrared, computers can transfer files and other digital data bidirectionally. The infrared
transmission technology used in computers is similar to that used in consumer product remote
control units.
TECHNICAL DETAILS
This form of radio transmission - a focused ray of light in the infrared frequency spectrum - is
modulated with information and sent from a transmitter to a receiver. The frequency spectrum is
measured in terahertz (trillions of hertz) at cycles per second.
The communication between the devices requires that each has a transceiver (a combination of a
transmitter and a receiver) in order to communicate. This capability is provided by microchip
technology.
TRANSMISSION RATES
The IrDA 1.1 standard has a maximum data transmission size of 2,048 bytes and a maximum
transmission rate of 4Mbps. It is forecast that this will rise to 16Mbps in the near future.
Performance - Infrared technology used in local networks exists in three different forms:
* IrDA-SIR (slow speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 115 Kbps
* IrDA-MIR (medium speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 1.15 Mbps
* IrDA-FIR (fast speed) infrared supporting data rates up to 4 Mbps
RANGE
Infrared communications span very short distances. Place two infrared devices within a few feet (no
more than 5 meters) of each other when networking them. Unlike Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
technologies, infrared network signals cannot penetrate walls or other obstructions and work only in
the direct "line of sight."
IrDA standard only specifies compliance for the interconnection of products of up to 1m in
distance, many IrDA-compliant products can connect at distances of much more than this.
However, the maximum effective distance is approximately 1 mile, with a maximum bandwidth of
16Mbps.
DISADVANTAGE
One technological disadvantage is that IR uses a line-of-sight transmission. Thus, it is sensitive to
atmospheric conditions and bad weather, particularly fog.

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APPLICATIONS
The main benefits and applications are:
* Sending a document from your notebook computer to a printer
* Co-ordinating schedules and telephone books between desktop and hand-held (notebook)
computers
* Sending faxes from a hand-held computer, via a public telephone, to a distant fax machine
* Beaming images from digital cameras to a desktop computer
* Exchanging messages, business cards, and other information between hand-held personal
computers
FUTURE OF IR TECHNOLOGY
# Infrared technology claims to be as secure as cable applications. For example, the access to LANs
requires the user to be an authorised user of the network.
# It is more reliable than wired technology as it obviates wear and tear on the hardware used.
# It is forecast that this technology will be implemented in copiers, fax machines, overhead
projectors, bank ATMs, credit cards, game consoles and headsets.

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WI-FI
USES
A Wi-Fi enabled device such as a Pc, game console, mobile phone, MP3 player or PDA can connect
to the internet when within range of a wireless network connected to the Internet. The coverage of
one or more interconnected access points called a hotspot can comprise an area as small as a
single room with wireless-opaque walls or as large as many square miles covered by overlapping
access points. Wi-Fi technology has served to set up mesh network, for example, in London. Both
architectures can operate in communicating networks
In addition to restricted use in homes and offices, Wi-Fi can make access publicly available at Wi-Fi
hotspots provided either free of charge or to subscribers to various providers. Organizations and
businesses such as airports, hotels and restaurants often provide free hotspots to attract or assist
clients. Wi-Fi also allows connectivity in peer-to-peer (wireless ad-hoc network) mode, which
enables devices to connect directly with each other. This connectivity mode can prove useful in
consumer electronics and gaming applications.
Routers which incorporate a DSLem or a cable-modem and a Wi-Fi access point, often set up in
homes and other premises, provide Internet -access and internetworking to all devices connected
(wirelessly or by cable) to them.

Advantages and challenges


Operational advantages
Wi-Fi allows local area networks (LANs) to be deployed without wires for client devices, typically
reducing the costs of network deployment and expansion. Spaces where cables cannot be run, such
as outdoor areas and historical buildings, can host wireless LANs.
Wireless network adapters are now built into most laptops. The price of chipsets for Wi-Fi continues
to drop, making it an economical networking option included in even more devices.
Different competitive brands of access points and client network interfaces are inter-operable at a
basic level of service. Products designated as "Wi-Fi Certified" by the Wi-Fi Alliance are backwards
compatible Wi-Fi is a global set of standards. Unlike mobile telephones, any standard Wi-Fi device
will work anywhere in the world.
Wi-Fi is widely available in more than 220,000 public hotspots and tens of millions of homes and
corporate and university campuses worldwide. The current version of Wi-Fi Protected Access
encryption (WPA2) is not easily defeated, provided strong passwords are used
below is an example of sattellite dish for wi-fi in Venezuela

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RANGE
Wi-Fi networks have limited range. A typical Wi-Fi home router using 802.11b or 802.11g with a
stock antenna might have a range of 32 m (120 ft) indoors and 95 m (300 ft) outdoors. The new
IEEE 802.11n however, can exceed that range by more than double.[citation needed] Range also
varies with frequency band. Wi-Fi in the 2.4 GHz frequency block has slightly better range than WiFi in the 5 GHz frequency block. Outdoor range with improved (directional) antennas can be
several kilometres or more with line-of-sight.Wi-Fi performance decreases roughly quadratically as
distance increases at constant radiation levels.

THREATS TO SECURITY
The most common wireless encryption standard, Wired Equivalent Privacy or WEP, has been
shown to be easily breakable even when correctly configured. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and
WPA2), which began shipping in 2003, aims to solve this problem and is now available on most
products. Wi-Fi Access Points typically default to an "open" (encryption-free) mode. Novice users
benefit from a zero-configuration device that works out of the box, but this default is without any
wireless security enabled, providing open wireless access to their LAN. To turn security on requires
the user to configure the device, usually via a software graphical user interface (GUI). Wi-Fi
networks that are open (unencrypted) can be monitored and used to read and copy data (including
personal information) transmitted over the network, unless another security method is used to
secure the data, such as a VPN or a secure web page.
The main issue with wireless network security is its simplified access to the network compared to
traditional wired networks such as ethernet. With wired networking it is necessary to either gain
access to a building, physically connecting into the internal network, or break through an external
firewall. Most business networks protect sensitive data and systems by attempting to disallow
external access. Thus being able to get wireless reception provides an attack vector, if encryption is
not used or can be defeated.
Attackers who have gained access to a Wi-Fi network can use DNS spoofing attacks very
effectively against any other user of the network, because they can see the DNS requests made, and
often respond with a spoofed answer before the queried DNS server has a chance to reply.
A WI-FI ANTTENA

A WIRELESS ANTTENA

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HARDWARE

An embedded RouterBoard

Access Point and UMTS/GSM Gateway in 1 device

A wireless access point (WAP) connects a group of wireless devices to an adjacent wired LAN. An
access point is similar to a network hub, relaying data between connected wireless devices in
addition to a (usually) single connected wired device, most often an ethernet hub or switch,
allowing wireless devices to communicate with other wired devices.
Wireless adapters allow devices to connect to a wireless network. These adapters connect to devices
using various external or internal interconnects such as PCI, miniPCI, USB, ExpressCard, Cardbus
and PC card. Most newer laptop computers are equipped with internal adapters. Internal cards are
generally more difficult to install.
Wireless routers integrate a Wireless Access Point, ethernet switch, and internal Router firmware
application that provides IP Routing, NAT, and DNS forwarding through an integrated WAN
interface. A wireless router allows wired and wireless ethernet LAN devices to connect to a
(usually) single WAN device such as cable modem or DSL modem. A wireless router allows all
three devices (mainly the access point and router) to be configured through one central utility. This
utility is most usually an integrated web server which serves web pages to wired and wireless LAN
clients and often optionally to WAN clients. This utility may also be an application that is run on a
desktop computer such as Apple's AirPort.
. Two wireless bridges may be used to connect two wired networks over a wireless link, useful in
situations where a wired connection may be unavailable, such as between two separate homes.
Wireless range extenders or wireless repeaters can extend the range of an existing wireless network.
Range extenders can be strategically placed to elongate a signal area or allow for the signal area to
reach around barriers such as those created in L-shaped corridors. Wireless devices connected
through repeaters will suffer from an increased latency for each hop. Additionally, a wireless device
connected to any of the repeaters in the chain will have a throughput that is limited by the weakest
link between the two nodes in the chain from which the connection originates to where the
connection ends.

15

WIRELESS LAN
WHAT IS IT?
It is a wireless local area network that links two or more computers or devices using spreadspectrum or OFDM modulation technology based to enable communication between devices in a
limited area. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be
connected to the network.
For the home user, wireless has become popular due to ease of installation, and location freedom
with the gaining popularity of laptops. Public businesses such as coffee shops or malls have begun
to offer wireless access to their customers; some are even provided as a free service. Large wireless
network projects are being put up in many major cities:
BENEFITS
The popularity of wireless LANs is a testament primarily to their convenience, cost efficiency, and
ease of integration with other networks and network components. The majority of computers sold to
consumers today come pre-equipped with all necessary wireless LAN technology.
Convenience: The wireless nature of such networks allows users to access network resources from
nearly any convenient location within their primary networking environment (home or office). With
the increasing saturation of laptop-style computers, this is particularly relevant.
Mobility: With the emergence of public wireless networks, users can access the internet even
outside their normal work environment. Most chain coffee shops, for example, offer their customers
a wireless connection to the internet at little or no cost.
Deployment: Initial setup of an infrastructure-based wireless network requires little more than a
single access point. Wired networks, on the other hand, have the additional cost and complexity of
actual physical cables being run to numerous locations.
Expandability: Wireless networks can serve a suddenly-increased number of clients with the
existing equipment. In a wired network, additional clients would require additional wiring.

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Cost: Wireless networking hardware is at worst a modest increase from wired counterparts. This
potentially increased cost is almost always more than outweighed by the savings in cost and labor
associated to running physical cables.
DISADVANTAGES
Security
Wireless LAN transceivers are designed to serve computers throughout a structure with
uninterrupted service using radio frequencies.
Range
The typical range of a common 802.11g network with standard equipment is on the order of tens of
metres. While sufficient for a typical home, it will be insufficient in a larger structure.
Speed
The speed on most wireless networks (typically 1-108 Mbit/s) is reasonably slow compared to the
slowest common wired networks (100 Mbit/s up to several Gbit/s). There are also performance
issues caused by TCP and its built-in congestion avoidance.
Radio Emissions
Wireless LANs utilize radio emissions for communication, which can cause interference in other
devices and may have potentially deleterious effects on human health.

A Wireless PC LAN Card


Types of wireless LANs
Peer-to-peer

Peer-to-Peer or ad-hoc wireless LAN


A peer-to-peer (P2P) network allows wireless devices to directly communicate with each other.
Wireless devices within range of each other can discover and communicate directly without
involving central access points. .
17

WIRELESS USB

WHAT IT IS?
It is a short-range, high-bandwidth wireless radio communication protocol created by the Wireless
USB Promoter Group. Wireless USB is sometimes abbreviated as "WUSB", although the USB
Implementers Forum discourages this practice and instead prefers to call the technology "Certified
Wireless USB" to differentiate it from competitors. Wireless USB is based on the WiMedia
Alliance's Ultra-WideBand (UWB) common radio platform, which is capable of sending 480 Mbit/s
at distances up to 3 meters and 110 Mbit/s at up to 10 meters. It was designed to operate in the 3.1
to 10.6 GHz frequency range, although local regulatory policies may restrict the legal operating
range for any given country.
An upcoming 1.1 specification will increase speed to 1 Gbit/s and working frequencies up to 6
GHz.

Uses
Wireless USB is used in game controllers, printers, scanners, digital cameras, MP3 players, hard
disks and flash drives. It is also suitable for transferring parallel video streams. Kensington released
a Wireless USB universal docking station in August, 2008.

Development
The Wireless USB Promoter Group was formed in February 2004 to define the Wireless USB
specification. The group consists of Agere Systems (now merged with LSI Corporation), HewlettPackard, Intel, Microsoft, NEC Corporation, Philips and Samsung. In May 2005, the Wireless USB
Promoter Group announced the completion of the Wireless USB specification.
In June 2006, five companies showed the first multi-vendor interoperability demonstration of
Wireless USB. A laptop with an Intel host adapter using an Alereon PHY was used to transfer high
definition video from a Philips wireless semiconductor solution with a Realtek PHY, all using
Microsoft Windows XP drivers developed for Wireless USB.

Compatibility options for older hardware


The WUSB architecture allows up to 127 devices to connect directly to a host. Because there are no
wires or ports, there is no longer a need for hubs. However, to facilitate the migration from wired to
wireless, WUSB introduced a new Device Wire Adapter (DWA) class. Sometimes referred to as a
"WUSB hub", a DWA allows existing USB 2.0 devices to be used wirelessly with a WUSB host.
WUSB host capability can be added to existing PCs through the use of a Host Wire Adapter
(HWA). The HWA is a USB 2.0 device that attaches externally to a desktop or laptop's USB port
18

.
WUSB also supports dual-role devices (DRDs), which in addition to being a WUSB device, can
function as a with limited capabilities. For example, a digital camera could act as a device when
connected to a computer and as a host when transferring pictures directly to a printer.

Relation to ultra-wideband (UWB)


A common source of confusion is about the relationship between WUSB, WiMedia, and UWB. The
UWB and WUSB technologies are not the same, and the terms WUSB and UWB are not
synonymous.UWB is a general term for a new type of radio communication using pulses of energy
which spread emitted Radio Frequency energy over 500 MHz+ of spectrum or exceeding 20%
fractional bandwidth within the frequency range of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz as defined by the FCC
ruling issued for UWB in Feb. 2002. UWB is NOT specific to WiMedia or any other company or
group and there are in fact a number of groups and companies developing UWB technology totally
unrelated to WiMedia. Some companies[which?] use UWB for ground penetrating radar, through
wall radar and yet another company Pulse-LINK uses it as part of a whole home entertainment
network using UWB for transmission over both wired and wireless media. WUSB is a protocol
promulgated by the USB-IF that uses WiMedia's UWB radio platform. Other protocols that have
announced their intention to use WiMedia's UWB radio platform include Bluetooth and the
WiMedia Logical Link Control Protocol.

Comparing digital RF systems


Wireless USB
802.11a/b/g
Bluetooth

vs.
&

Frequency band
Bandwidth
Distance

Wireless
USB
Bluetooth 4.0 (proposed)
Specification Rev. 1.0
3.1 GHz10.6 GHz
UWB (not decided)
480 Mbit/s / 110 Mbit/s 53 - 480 Mbit/s
3 m / 10 m
unknown distance

Modulation

MB-OFDM

Specification

MB-OFDM

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IEEE 802.11n
2.4 GHz/5 GHz
Max. 600 Mbit/s
100 m
DSSS,
DBPSK,
DQPSK,
CCK, OFDM

ZIGBEE
WHAT IS IT?
It is a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital
radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs),
such as wireless headphones connecting with cell phones via short-range radio. The technology
defined by the ZigBee specification is intended to be simpler and less expensive than other WPANs,
such as Bluetooth. ZigBee is targeted at radio-frequency (RF) applications that require a low data
rate, long battery life, and secure networking.
ZigBee is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh networking standard. The low cost allows the
technology to be widely deployed in wireless control and monitoring applications, the low powerusage allows longer life with smaller batteries, and the mesh networking provides high reliability
and larger range.
The ZigBee Alliance, the standards body which defines ZigBee, also publishes application profiles
that allow multiple OEM vendors to create interoperable products. The current list of application
profiles either published or in the works are:

Home Automation

ZigBee Smart Energy

Commercial Building Automation

Telecommunication Applications

Personal, Home, and Hospital Care

Because Zigbee can activate (go from sleep to active mode) in 15 msec or less, the latency can be
very low and devices can be very responsive -- particularly compared to Bluetooth wake-up delays
which are typically around three seconds. Because Zigbees can sleep most of the time, average
power consumption can be very low, resulting in long battery life.
USES
ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications requiring low data rates and low
power consumption. ZigBee's current focus is to define a general-purpose, inexpensive, selforganizing mesh network that can be used for industrial control, embedded sensing, medical data
collection, smoke and intruder warning, building automation, home automation, etc. The resulting
network will use very small amounts of power -- individual devices must have a battery life of at
least two years to pass ZigBee certification.

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DEVICES TYPES
There are three different types of ZigBee devices:

ZigBee coordinator(ZC): The most capable device, the coordinator forms the root of the
network tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in
each network since it is the device that started the network originally. It is able to store
information about the network, including acting as the Trust Centre & repository for security
keys.

ZigBee Router (ZR): As well as running an application function a router can act as an
intermediate router, passing data from other devices.

ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to the parent node
(either the coordinator or a router); it cannot relay data from other devices. This relationship
allows the node to be asleep a significant amount of the time thereby giving long battery
life. A ZED requires the least amount of memory, and therefore can be less expensive to
manufacture than a ZR or ZC.

APPLICATIONS OF ZIGBEE

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TRANSFER JET
WHAT IS IT?
It is a new type of close proximity wireless transfer technology developed by Sony and initially
demonstrated publicly in early 2008. By touching (or bringing very close together) two electronic
devices, TransferJet allows high speed exchange of data. The concept of TransferJet consists of a
touch-activated interface which can be applied for applications requiring high-speed data transfer
between two devices in a peer-to-peer mode without the need for external physical connectors.
TransferJet's maximum physical layer transmission rate is 560 Mbit/s. After allowing for error
correction and other protocol overhead, the effective maximum throughput is 375 Mbit/s.
TransferJet will adjust the data rate downward according to the wireless environment, thereby
maintaining a robust link even when the surrounding wireless condition fluctuates.
TransferJet has the capability of identifying the unique MAC addresses of individual devices,
enabling users to choose which devices can establish a connection. By allowing only devices inside
the household, for example, one can prevent data theft from strangers while riding a crowded train.
If, on the other hand, one wishes to connect the device with any other device at a party, this can be
done by simply disabling the filtering function.
TransferJet uses the same frequency spectrum as UWB, but occupies only a section of this band
available as a common worldwide channel., it can operate in the same manner as that of UWB
devices equipped with DAA functionality. In addition, this low power level also ensures that there
will be no interference to other wireless systems, including other TransferJet systems, operating
nearby.
By reducing the RF power and spatial reach down to about 3 cm (1.25 inches), a TransferJet
connection in its most basic mode does not require any initial setup procedure by the user for either
device, and the action of spontaneously touching one device with another will automatically trigger
the data transfer. More complex usage scenarios will require various means to select the specific
data to send as well as the location to store (or method to process) the received data.
TransferJet utilizes a newly developed TransferJet Coupler based on the principle of electric
induction field as opposed to radiation field for conventional antennas. The functional elements of a
TransferJet Coupler consist of a coupling electrode or plate, a resonant stub and ground. Compared
to conventional radiating antennas, the TransferJet Coupler achieves high transmission gain and
efficient coupling in the near-field while providing sharp attenuation over longer distances. Because
the Coupler generates longitudinal electric fields, there is no polarization and the devices can be
aligned at any angle.

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Specifications
Center Frequency
4.48 GHz
Transmission Power
Below -70 dBm/MHz (average)
Corresponds to low-intensity radio wave regulation in Japan, and with local regulations in
othercountries and regions.
Transmission Rate
560 Mbit/s (max) / 375 Mbit/s (effective throughput)
System can adjust the transmission rate depending on the wireless environment.
Connection Distance
About 3 cm (nominal)
Topology
1-to-1, Peer-to-Peer
Antenna Element
Electric induction field coupler
Although sometimes confused with Near Field Communication, TransferJet depends on an entirely
different technology and is also targeted for different usage scenarios focusing on high-speed data
transfer. Thus the two systems will not interfere with each other and can co-exist in the same
location.
The TransferJet Consortium was established in July 2008 to advance and promote the TransferJet
Format, by developing the technical specifications and compliance testing procedures as well as
creating a market for TransferJet-compliant, interoperable products. As of February 2009, the
Consortium has eighteen member companies, consisting of: Canon, Casio, Eastman Kodak, Hitachi
Ltd, JVC-Kenwood Holdings, KDDI, NEC, Nikon, NTT docomo, Olympus, Panasonic, Pioneer,
Samsung, Seiko Epson, Sharp, Sony, Sony Ericsson and Toshiba.

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DISCUSSION
Wireless communication is, by any measure, the fastest growing segment of the
communications industry. As such, it has captured the attention of the media and the
imagination of the public. Cellular systems have experienced exponential growth over the
last decade and there are currently about two billion users worldwide.indeed cellular phones
have become a critical business tool and part of everyday life in most developed countries
and they are rapidly supplanting antiquated wireline systems in many developing countries.
In addition, LAN currently supplement or replace wired networks in many homes, business
and campuses. Many new applications including wireless sensor networks, automated
highways and factories, smart homes and appliances and remote telemedicine- are emerging
from research ideas to concrete systems. The explosive growth of wireless systems coupled
with the proliferation of laptops and palmtop computers suggests a bright future for wireless
networks, both as standalone systems and as part of the larger networking infrastructure.
Many technical challenges must be addressed to enable the wireless applications of the
future. These challenges extend across all aspects of the system design. As wireless
terminals add more features, these small devices must incorporate multiple modes of
operation in order to support the different applications and media. Computers process, voice,
image, text and video data but breakthrough in circuit design are required to implement the
same multimode operation in a cheap, lightweight, handheld device. Consumers dont want
large batteries that frequently need recharging, so transmission and signal processing at the
portable terminal must consume the minimal power. . Thus wireless infrastructure based
network, such as wireless LANs and cellular systems, place as much of the processing
burden as possible on fixed sites with large power resources. . Design of wireless networks
differs fundamentally from wired network design owing to the nature of the wireless
channel. This channel is an unpredictable and difficult communications medium. A regional
or global system operating in a given frequency band must obey the restrictions for that
band set forth by the corresponding regulatory body. Spectrum can also be very expensive:
in many countries spectral licenses are often auctioned to the highest bidder.
In the United States, companies spent over $9 billion for second-generation cellular licenses,
and the auctions in Europe for third-generation cellular spectrum garnered around $100
billion (American). The spectrum obtained through these auctions must be used extremely
efficiently to receive a reasonable return on the investment, and it must also be reused over
and over in the same geographical area, thus requiring cellular system designs with high
capacity and good performance. At frequencies around several gigahertz, wireless radio
components with reasonable size, power consumption, and cost are available. However, the
spectrum in this frequency range is extremely crowded. Thus, technological breakthroughs
to enable higher-frequency systems with the same cost and performance would greatly
reduce the spectrum shortage. However, path loss at these higher frequencies is larger with
omnidirectional antennas, thereby limiting range. As a signal propagates through a wireless
channel, it experiences random fluctuations in time if the transmitter, receiver, or
surrounding objects are moving because of changing re-flections and attenuation.
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Hence the characteristics of the channel appear to change randomly with time, which makes
it difficult to design reliable systems with guaranteed performance. Security is also more
difficult to implement in wireless systems, since the airwaves are susceptible to snooping by
anyone with anRF antenna. The analog cellular systems have no security, and one can easily
listen in on conversations by scanning the analog cellular frequency band. All digital cellular
systems implement some level of encryption. However, with enough knowledge, time, and
determination, most of these encryption methods can be cracked; indeed, several have been
compromised. To support applications like electronic commerce and credit-card
transactions, the wireless network must be secure against such listeners.
Wireless networking is also a significant challenge. The network must be able to locate a
given user wherever it is among billions of globally distributed mobile terminals. It must
then route a call to that user as it moves at speeds of up to 100 km/ hr. The finite resources
of the network must be allocated in a fair and efficient manner relative to changing user
demands and locations. Moreover, there currently exists a tremendous infrastructure of
wired networks: the telephone system, the Internet, and fiber optic cables which could be
used to connect wireless systems together into a global network. However, wireless systems
with mobile users will never be able to compete with wired systems in terms of data rates
and reliability. Interfacing between wireless and wired networks with vastly different
performance capabilities is a difficult problem.
Perhaps the most significant technical challenge in wireless network design is an overhaul of
the design process itself. Wired networks are mostly designed according to a layered
approach, whereby protocols associated with different layers of the system operation are
designed in isolation, with baseline mechanisms to interface between layers.The large
capacity and good reliability of wired networks make these inefficiencies relatively benign
for many wired network applications, although they do preclude good performance of delayconstrained applications such as voice and video. The situation is very different in a wireless
network. Wireless links can exhibit very poor performance, and this performance, along
with user connectivity and network topology, changes over time. In fact, the very notion of a
wireless link is somewhat fuzzy owing to the nature of radio propagation and broadcasting.
The dynamic nature and poor performance of the underlying wireless communication
channel indicates that high-performance networks must be optimized forthis channel and
must be robust and adaptive to its variations, as well as to network dynamics.

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CONCLUSION
Wireless communication will allow multimedia communication from anywhere in the world using a
small handheld device or laptop. Wireless networks will connect palmtop, laptop, and desktop
computers anywhere within an office building or campus, as well as from the corner cafe. In the
home these networks will enable a new class of intelligent electronic devices that can interact with
each other and with the Internet in addition to providing connectivity between computers, phones,
and security/monitoring systems. Such smart homes can also help the elderly and disabled with
assisted living, patient monitoring, and emergency response. Wireless entertainment will permeate
the home and any place that people congregate. Video teleconferencing will take place between
buildings that are blocks or continents apart, and these conferences can include travelers as well
from the salesperson who missed his plane connection to the CEO off sailing in the Caribbean.
Wireless video will enable remote classrooms, remote training facilities, and remote hospitals
anywhere in the world. Wireless sensors have an enormous range of both commercial and military
applications.Such systems in turn enable automated highways, mobile robots, and easily
reconfigurable industrial automation.
The exponential growth of cellular telephone use and wireless Internet access has led to great
optimism about wireless technology in general. Obviously not all wireless applications will
flourish. While many wireless systems and companies have enjoyed spectacular success, there have
also been many failures along the way, including first-generation wireless LANs, the Iridium
satellite system, wide area data services such as Metricom, and fixed wireless access (wireless
cable) to the home. Indeed, it is impossible to predict what wireless failures and triumphs lie on
the horizon. Moreover, there must be sufficient flexibility and creativity among both engineers and
regulators to allow for accidental successes. It is clear, however, that the current and emerging
wireless systems of today coupled with the vision of applications that wireless can enable ensure
a bright future for wireless technology.
But in the end the the conclusion that we draw from this term paper is that Wireless Technology is
here to stay and to expand.Some of the devices are still in development and some have
revolutionised the way we communicate with each other.with the corporate world taking its stance
and personally getting involved in developing wireless technology we can conclude that
"Wireless services are an excellent example of how just how far technology has
come. Wireless networking holds the key to a new era of telecommunications"

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REFERENCES:

1."ATIS Telecom Glossary 2007". atis.org. . [used in bluetooth,Infrared,Gprs]


2. BOOK :Design and Performance of 3G Wireless Networks and Wireless Lans
Publisher : Springer US
3.David Meyer (2009-04-22). "Bluetooth 3.0 released without ultrawideband". zdnet.co.uk.[used in
future of bluetooth]
4.GOOGLE [used to collect images]
5.Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.
6."How Bluetooth Technology Works". [journal used for bluetooth]
7.J.C. Bose, Collected Physical Papers. New York, N.Y.: Longmans, Green and Co., 1927[used to
collect transmission rates of various devices]
8.Story, Alfred Thomas (1904). A story of wireless telegraphy. New York, D. Appleton and Co..
[used in drawing conclusion and discussion]
9."What is bluejacking?". Helsinki University of Technology.[used in bluetooth]
10. "Wireless Communication". [used for writing abstract ,introduction,discussion]
11.WIKIPEDIA [used throughout the term paper]
12.http://www.sintef.no/Home/Information-and-Communication-Technology-ICT/CommunicationSystems/Research-Areas/Wireless-Communication/
[used to collect information of current
progress of SINTEF in the field of wireless communication]

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