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johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)

This print-out should have 24 questions.


Multiple-choice questions may continue on
the next column or page find all choices
before answering.
001 10.0 points
A 50 kg woman balances on one heel of a pair
of high-heeled shoes.
If the heel is circular with radius 0.516 cm,
what pressure does she exert on the floor?
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 5.85797 106 N/m2 .
Explanation:
Let :

m = 50 kg ,
g = 9.8 m/s2 ,
r = 0.516 cm .

and

The pressure is equal to the force she exerts


on the floor (which is equal to her weight)
divided by the area of the heel:
mg
r2
2

100 cm
(50 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )

=
(0.516 cm)2
1m

P =

= 5.85797 106 N/m2 .

Since the suction cup is exhausted, the force


on it given by the atmospheric pressure is F =
Patm A, where A is the area of the suction cup.
In order to support the student, this force
must be equal in magnitude to the students
weight, so
mg
(118 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
A=
=
Patm
1.013 105 Pa
= 0.0114156 m2 .
003 10.0 points
Determine the absolute pressure at the bottom of a lake that is 28.1 m deep. The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 and atmospheric
pressure is 1.01 105 Pa .
Correct answer: 3.7638 105 Pa.
Explanation:
Let : g = 9.8 m/s2 ,
Patm = 1.01 105 Pa ,
h = 28.1 m , and
w = 1000 kg/m3 .
The pressure at the bottom of the lake is
equal to the pressure at the surface plus the
pressure given by the mass of water above, so
P = Patm + w g h
= 1.01 105 Pa
+ (1000 kg/m3 ) (9.8 m/s2 ) (28.1 m)
= 3.7638 105 Pa .

keywords:
002 10.0 points
What must be the contact area between a suction cup (completely exhausted) and a ceiling
in order to support the weight of a 118 kg student? The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

004 10.0 points


A collapsible plastic bag contains a glucose
solution.
Glucose
solution

Correct answer: 0.0114156 m2 .


Explanation:
Let :

m = 118 kg ,
g = 9.8 m/s2 , and
Patm = 1.013 105 Pa .

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


If the average gauge pressure in the vein is
12600 Pa, what must be the minimum height
of the bag in order to infuse glucose into the
vein? Assume that the specific gravity of the
solution is 1.01. The acceleration of gravity is
9.8 m/s2 .

Correct answer: 5.54 cm.


Explanation:
Let :

Correct answer: 1.27298 m.


Explanation:
Let : Pgauge = 12600 Pa and
= 1.01 water = 1010 kg/m3 .
The gauge pressure of the fluid at the level
of the needle must equal the gauge pressure
in the vein:
Pgauge = g h
Pgauge
h=
g
=

12600 Pa
(1010 kg/m3 ) (9.8 m/s2 )

= 10 cm ,
= 446 kg/m3 , and
h = 1000 kg/m3 .

Because the liquid in the U-tube is static,


the pressure exerted by the heavy liquid column of height h in the left branch of the
tube must balance the pressure exerted by
the liquid of height h poured into the right
branch, so
P0 + ( h) h g = P0 + g .



h= 1
h


446 kg/m3
= (10 cm) 1
1000 kg/m3
= 5.54 cm .

= 1.27298 m .
005 10.0 points
A simple U-tube that is open at both ends is
partially filled with a heavy liquid of density
1000 kg/m3 . A liquid of density 446 kg/m3 is
then poured into one arm of the tube, forming
a column 10 cm in height, as shown.

10 cm

006 10.0 points


One method of measuring the density of a liquid is illustrated in the figure. One side of the
U-tube is in the liquid being tested, and the
other side is in water of density 1000 kg/m3 .
The air is partially removed at the upper
part of the tube and the valve is closed. The
height of the water above its pool surface is
0.57 m . The height of the liquid above its
pool surface is 0.35 m . The difference in the
heights of the pool surfaces is 0.07 m .
Valve

light liquid
446 kg/m3

0.57 m
0.35 m
heavy liquid
1000 kg/m3
What is the difference in the heights of the
two liquid surfaces?

0.07 m
test liquid

water

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


Find the density of the liquid on the left.
Correct answer: 1628.57 kg/m3 .
Explanation:
Let : w = 1000 kg/m3 ,
hw = 0.57 m ,
h = 0.35 m , and
h = 0.07 m .
The pressure at the upper surface of each
liquid is given by

According to Pascals law, the pressure exerted on A1 must be equal to the one exerted
F
on A2 . The pressure P1 =
must be equal
A1
W
due to the load.
to the pressure P2 =
A2
F
W
=
,
A1
A2
(2.8 cm2 )
A1
W =
(16000 N)
F =
A2
(66 cm2 )
= 678.788 N .

P = Patm w g hw = Patm g h.
Therefore,
=

hw
(0.57 m)(1000 kg/m3 )
w =
h
0.35 m

= 1628.57 kg/m3 .
007

008 10.0 points


Suppose that a volleyball A floats on the water, and a bowling ball B, being denser than
water, is completely submerged in water. Assume they have the same volume.

10.0 points
A

The small piston of a hydraulic lift has a


cross-sectional area of 2.8 cm2 and the large
piston has an area of 66 cm2 , as in the figure
below.

F
Which feels a greater buoyant force?
area
2.8 cm2
66 cm2

1. volleyball A
2. bowling ball B correct
3. They feel the same buoyant force.

What force F must be applied to the small


piston to maintain the load of 16 kN at a
constant elevation?
Correct answer: 678.788 N.

4. Unable to determine
Explanation:
The bowling ball feels a greater buoyant
force because it displaces more water.

Explanation:
Let : A1 = 2.8 cm2 ,
A2 = 66 cm2 , and
W = 16 kN .

009 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


A beaker of mass 1.1 kg containing 2.8 kg of
water rests on a scale. A 2.6 kg block of a
metallic alloy of density 5400 kg/m3 is suspended from a spring scale and is submerged

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


in the water of density 1000 kg/m3 as shown
in the figure.

Explanation:
The total weight is supported by both
scales, so
F + F2 = (mb + mw + ma ) g

F2 = (mb + mw + ma ) g F
= (1.1 kg + 2.8 kg + 2.6 kg) (9.8 m/s2 )
20.7615 N

2.6 kg

= 42.9385 N .
What does the hanging scale read? The
acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 20.7615 N.
Explanation:
Let : mb
mw
ma
a
w
g

= 1.1 kg ,
= 2.8 kg ,
= 2.6 kg ,
= 5400 kg/m3 ,
= 1000 kg/m3 ,
= 9.8 m/s2 ,

and

F =W B
= ma g ma g

w
a

10
i correct
9


10
i
2. 1
9


9
i
3. 1
10
1
4.
i
10
1.

The buoyant force on the metallic alloy is


the weight of the water displaced by the alloy.
ma
The volume of the alloy is given by V =
a
1
and B = w V g = w ma g , so the force
a
applied to the upper scale is


011 10.0 points


An iceberg is floating on sea water such that
only 10% of its volume is above the water
level.
What is the density of sea water expressed
in terms of the density i of ice?



1000 kg/m3
= (2.6 kg) (9.8 m/s ) 1
5400 kg/m3

5. i
9
i
10
1
7. i
9

6.

Explanation:
Let :

f = 10% = 0.1 .

= 20.7615 N .
010 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
What does the lower scale read?
Correct answer: 42.9385 N.

Denote the volume of the water displaced by


the ice block by Vsw and the volume of the ice
block by Vi . Since the buoyant force equals
the weight of the iceberg,
i Vi g = sw Vsw g
Vsw
i
=
,
Vi
sw

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)

and the fraction f of ice above the water level


is
f =1

Let :

Vsw
i
=1
Vi
sw

i
=1f
sw
i
10
i
=
=
i .
sw =
1f
1 0.1
9
012 10.0 points
Two identical containers A and B are each
filled with water up to the brim. Container A
has only water in it. Container B has a block
of wood floating in the water; the block of
wood sticks up above the surface of the water.
Compare the weight of system A (only water) with that of system B (which includes
both water and the block of wood).

M = 200 g ,
w = 1 g/cm3 ,
D = 3.8 cm .

By Archimedes Law, the buoyant force on


a body equals to the weight of the water it
displaces,
B = w Vsubm g ,
where Vsubm is the volume of the submerged
part of the body.
For the brass tube in question, the submerged part is a cylinder of diameter D =
3.8 cm and height h = Z equal to the depth
of the bottom end of the tube, so

1. More information is needed.


Vsubm =
2. Systems A and B weigh the same. correct
3. The weight of A is greater than B.
4. The weight of B is greater than A.
Explanation:
According to Archimedes principle, the
weight of the block of wood is the same as
the weight of the amount of water displaced.
Since the difference between A and B is that
in A the wood is replaced by exactly that
amount of water, the weights of both systems
are the same.
013 10.0 points
A hollow brass tube has outer diameter D =
3.8 cm. The tube is sealed at one end and
loaded with lead shot to give it a total mass
of M = 200 g. The tube floats in water (of
density 1 g/cm3 ) in vertical position, loaded
end down.
What is the depth of the bottom end of the
tube?
Correct answer: 17.6349 cm.
Explanation:

and

D2
Z
4

and
B = w g

D2 Z
.
4

Since the brass tube floats in equilibrium,


its weight equals the buoyant force,
M g = B = w g

D2 Z
4

D2 Z
M
=
4
w
4M
Z=
w D 2
4 (200 g)
=
(1 g/cm3 )(3.8 cm)2
= 17.6349 cm .

014 10.0 points


A light spring of constant 176 N/m rests vertically on the bottom of a large beaker of water.
A 4.73 kg block of wood of density 612 kg/m3
is connected to the top of the spring and
the block-spring system is allowed to come to
static equilibrium.

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)

A massless balloon is filled with 2.6 m3 of


helium.
What is the maximum weight that it can lift
in air? Assume the density of air is 1.2 kg/m3
and that of helium is 0.177 kg/m3 . The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .

m
L
k

Correct answer: 26.066 N.

Explanation:
(a)

(b)

What is the elongation L of the spring?


The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 .
Correct answer: 16.6976 cm.
Explanation:
Let : k
water
wood
mwood
g

mwood
Vwood

= 9.8 m/s2 ,
= 1.2 kg/m3 ,
= 0.177 kg/m3 ,
= 2.6 m3 .

and

Buoyant force is defined by


= 176 N/m ,
= 1000 kg/m3 ,
= 612 kg/m3 ,
= 4.73 kg , and
= 9.8 m/s2 .

The buoyant force is B = water V g,


wood =

Let : g
a
h
V

and

Vwood =

mwood
.
wood

At equilibrium
X
Fy = B Fspring W = 0,

so the spring force is

Fspring = B W
k L = water Vblock g mwood g .
water mwood g mwood g

L =
k wood
k
"


3
1000 kg/m (4.73 kg) 9.8 m/s2
=
(176 N/m) (612 kg/m3 )
# 

(4.73 kg) 9.8 m/s2
100 cm

176 N/m
1m

F = V g
The air presses down and the helium and its
load move up. The volume of air involved is
the same as the volume of the balloon, so
Fa = Wload + Fh
a V g = Wload + h V g
Wload = a V g h V g
= (1.2 kg/m3 )(2.6 m3 )(9.8 m/s2 )
(0.177 kg/m3 )(2.6 m3 )(9.8 m/s2 )
= 26.066 N .
016 10.0 points
A constriction in a pipe reduces its diameter
from 7.4 cm to 3.2 cm . Where the pipe is
wider, the fluid velocity is 8 m/s .
Find the fluid velocity where the pipe is
narrow.
Correct answer: 42.7812 m/s.
Explanation:

= 16.6976 cm .

r1 = 3.7 cm ,
r2 = 1.6 cm ,
v1 = 8 m/s .

015

A1 v1 = A2 v2 = constant

10.0 points

Let :

and

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


r12 v1 = r22 v2
v2 = v1

r1
r2

2

= (8.0 m/s)

3.7 cm
1.6 cm

2

= 42.7812 m/s .

to a height of 270 cm . The barrel has on its


top a small hole to guarantee contact with the
atmospheric pressure. The tap of the barrel
is at a height of 16 cm from the bottom of the
barrel. The opening of the tap faces towards
you and does not point downward.

Correct answer: 130.419 g/s.


Explanation:

270 cm

017 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points


Calculate the flow rate of blood (of density
1.41 g/cm3 ) in an aorta with a cross-sectional
area of 2.82 cm2 if the flow speed is 32.8 cm/s .

m
v
v
= m = V = Av
t
d
d
= (1.41 g/cm3 ) (2.82 cm2 ) (32.8 cm/s)

16 cm

Let : = 1.41 g/cm3 ,


A = 2.82 cm2 , and
v = 32.8 cm/s .
x

F=

= 130.419 g/s .
018 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points
Assume the aorta branches to form a large
number of capillaries with a combined crosssectional area of 4470 cm2 .
What is the flow speed in the capillaries?
Correct answer: 0.0206926 cm/s.
Explanation:
Let : A = 4470 cm2 .
From the equation of continuity, we have


A
2.82 cm2

v = v=
(32.8 cm/s)
A
4470 cm2
= 0.0206926 cm/s .
019 10.0 points
You are visiting a winery for a wine tasting. A
large storage barrel (diameter 4.2 m) is filled

Figure: Not drawn to scale.


If you hold your wine glass at the same
height level as the bottom of the barrel, how
far away from the tap do you have to hold the
glass so that the wine stream hits it exactly?
Correct answer: 127.499 cm.
Explanation:
Let : h0 = 270 cm ,
h = 16 cm , and
d = 4.2 m .
From Bernoullis equation,
1
P + v 2 + g y = constant
2
The velocity of the wine at the top of the
barrel is 0, and the pressure at the top of the
barrel and at the tap are both Pair . Thus
1
Pair + g h0 = Pair + vx2 + g h
2
1
2
g (h0 h) = vx
2
p
vx = 2 g (h0 h)

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


The time of projectile motion is
s
2h
t=
, so
g

x = vx

2h p
= 2 g (h0 h)
g

house, what is the pressure difference at the


roof between the inside and outside air? Use
an air density of 1.29 kg/m3 .
Correct answer: 1382.68 Pa.
s

Explanation:
2h
g

p
= 2 h (h0 h)
p
= 2 16 cm (270 cm 16 cm)
= 127.499 cm .

020 10.0 points


A jeep-like vehicle has a canvas top that seals
around all sides. When the jeep is at rest, the
canvas roof is flat and level.
If all the windows of the jeep are rolled up,
and the jeep is traveling along the road at
high speed, how does the canvas roof react?
1. The roof will arc upward at the sides and
bow downward in the middle.
2. The roof will arc upward. correct
3. The roof will remain level since it is the
jeep that is moving, not the air.
4. The roof will arc upward at the leading
edge of the roof, and bow downward at the
trailing edge, but will be flat in between.
5. The roof will bow downward at the sides
and remain flat in the middle.
6. The roof will bow downward.
Explanation:
The air pressure inside the jeep is normal,
but the pressure outside is much lower, because the air is moving rapidly relative to the
surfaces of the jeep. Therefore the canvas
roof will bulge upward and outward into the
air stream moving across the roof of the jeep.
021 (part 1 of 2) 10.0 points
If wind blows at 46.3 m/s over the roof of your

Let : v1 = 46.3 m/s and


= 1.29 kg/m3 .
Choose point 2 just beneath the roof where
the velocity of the air is zero and point 1 just
above the roof. The difference in height between these points is negligible, so Bernoullis
equation reduces to
1
v1 2
2
1
= (1.29 kg/m3 )(46.3 m/s)2
2
= 1382.68 Pa .

P2 P1 =

022 (part 2 of 2) 10.0 points


What net force does this pressure difference
produce on a roof having an area of 177 m2 ?
Correct answer: 2.44734 105 N.
Explanation:
P2 P1 and the net force are directed upward. This produces a net force on the roof
of
F = (P2 P1 ) A = (1382.68 Pa)(177 m2 )
= 2.44734 105 N .
023 10.0 points
The horizontal constricted pipe illustrated in
the figure (a Venturi tube), can be used to
measure flow velocities in an incompressible
fluid.

P1
P2
v1
v2

johnson (blj542) Homework 07 yao (91833)


The ratio for the cross section areas of the
A2
tube is
= 0.575, the difference in the
A1
pressures is P1 P2 = dP = 16.4 Pa , and the
density of the fluid is 2.37 kg/m3 .
Find the speed of the fluid near the right
hand end of the tube (i.e., find v2 ).

Calculate the gauge pressure of the compressed air inside the extinguisher; that is,
the pressure difference
gauge
inside
outside
Pair
= Pair
Pair
.
The acceleration of gravity is 9.8 m/s2 . Water
density is 1000 kg/m3 and the extinguishers
body is much wider than the water jet.

Correct answer: 4.54703 m/s.


Correct answer: 46.2928 kPa.

Explanation:

Explanation:
Let :

A2 = 0.575 A1 ,
dP = 16.4 Pa , and
= 2.37 kg/m3 .

From the continuity equation


A2
v1 =
v2 ,
A1
and since there is no change in the gravitational potential energy,
 2
1
A2
1
P1 +
v22 = P2 + v22
2
A1
2
v
u 2 (P P )
u
1
2
v2 = u "
 2 #
u
t 1 A2
A1
s
2 (16.4 Pa)
=
(2.37 kg/m3 ) [1 (0.575)2 ]
= 4.54703 m/s .
024 10.0 points
The picture below shows water forced out of
a fire extinguisher by compressed air. The
water jets out at speed 7.36 m/s from a nozzle
located at height 1.96 m above the water level
inside the extinguisher.

v
h

Let : vjet = 7.36 m/s ,


h = 1.96 m ,
g = 9.8 m/s2 , and
= 1000 kg/m3 .
This problem is a straightforward application
of Bernoullis equation

P + g y + v 2 = const.
2
The flow begins at the water level inside the
extinguisher and continues all the way to the
jet emerging from the nozzle. At the inside
water level, the pressure of the water equals
the pressure of the compressed air inside the
extinguisher. In the jet emerging from the
nozzle, however, the water pressure equals the
atmospheric pressure of the inside air. Thus,
2
2
outside
inside
= Pair
+ vjet
+gh
Pair
+ vinit
2
2
so that
gauge
inside
outside
Pair
= Pair
Pair

2
2
= gh+
vjet vinit
.
2
Since the extinguishers body is much wider
than the jet, the initial speed of the water
flow inside the extinguisher is much slower
than the jet (vinit vjet ) so
2
2
2
vjet
vinit
vjet
,
and consequently
2
gauge
Pair
g h + vjet
2
= (1000 kg/m3 ) (9.8 m/s2 ) (1.96 m)
1000 kg/m3
(7.36 m/s)2
+
2
= 46292.8 Pa .