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International Comparative Studies

Duke University
Application for Formal Program Status
By Frances S. Hasso
July 2012
ABSTRACT: This proposal seeks to convert International Comparative Studies, which has delivered a
major at Duke for almost forty years, from an undergraduate major without authority to appoint regular
rank faculty to a program that can appoint regular rank faculty to teach its core gateway, capstone and
honors courses and advise its majors. ICS is distinctive from other social science and humanities majors
because its structure and intellectual composition explicitly requires transnational/global expertise,
foreign language training, regional expertise, and cross-disciplinary theories and methods. This
configuration of requirements makes it distinct from (though partially overlapping with) political
science, cultural anthropology, sociology, and history. ICS has largely relied on the intellectual interests
and labor of regular rank faculty in established departments and programs, as well as non-regular rank
faculty appointed elsewhere but working in ICS, to design curriculum, teach and advise majors, and lead
and administer the program. While ICS has forged a pioneering and successful project at Duke, the lack
of a sustainable academic infrastructure allowing the program to appoint faculty in partial or full lines is
increasingly challenging and unsustainable.
INTRODUCTION
International Comparative Studies (ICS), formerly Comparative Area Studies, has been conferring a
Bachelor of Arts degree at Duke University since the major was established in 1973-74. About 1,500
Duke students have graduated as ICS majors since 1977 (Appendix I). ICS has involved hundreds of Duke
faculty members since then in teaching, advising, mentoring undergraduate research, administration
and governance, and conferences and reading groups related to research and teaching in the field.
Over the past forty years, regional and transnational studies have become more complex (as has the
world), and courses and programs related to foreign and transnational study have multiplied at Duke.
While the courses and structure of the ICS major have undergone various changes since its inception,
the following continuities have worked very well: training in a region of the world defined flexibly and
dynamically, a related language (including Less Commonly Taught Languages), and transnational and
disciplinarily comparative concepts, problems, theories, and methodologies. ICS uniquely balances
flexibility and structure in its major requirements 1 and language co-requisites. The ICS project has
1

The requirements of the ICS major:


(1) Two Core interdisciplinary courses focused on transnational questions and concerns: ICS 195, Comparative
Approaches to Global Issues, taken during freshman or sophomore year, and ICS 489S, Capstone Seminar in ICS,
taken during senior year.
(2) Four Region Concentration courses chosen from at least two disciplinary or interdisciplinary homes throughout
Duke and focused in one of the following regions of the world: Africa; China and East Asia; Europe; Latin America
and the Caribbean; Middle East; Russia and Central Asia; and South Asia. Alternatively, an ICS major may propose
four courses for a differently conceptualized geographic region focused on a part of the world not captured in or
crossing these region designations, for example, around a body of water or proximal borders.
(3) Four Comparative courses from at least two disciplinary or interdisciplinary homes throughout Duke that are
organized by a connective, transnational, comparative, or international approach to cultural, social, historical,
political, economic, environmental, or discursive dynamics.
(4) Four Foreign Language Co-Requisite courses in one non-English language at any level related to the Region
Concentration, and taken at the university level after completion of secondary school.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 1

attended to the power inequalities that structure social, political, economic, and cultural relations in the
world, as well as to differences in how academic disciplines ask questions and find answers. From its
inception, ICS encouraged and facilitated study abroad and cross-cultural knowledge and interaction,
vertically integrating existing Duke programs such as GEO, DukeEngage, and FOCUS as they were
established. The flexible yet vertical structure of ICS and its organic interdisciplinarity have encouraged
the development of unusually rich undergraduate coursework at Duke in regional and transnational
studies, study abroad programs, and language programs.2
The ICS project has reached a point where its continued vitality and sustainability requires formal
program status and the related capacity to build a dynamic faculty in full, partial, and secondary
appointments at all ranks. Faculty face competing demands for their time. Tenure-track and other
regular rank faculty at Duke are increasingly stretched over many departmental, programmatic, and
institutional obligations, in addition to their research commitments. The ability to appoint regular rank
faculty in the core of ICS will better sustain the delivery of a high quality core curriculum, administration
of ICS, advising of undergraduates, and the continued building of relations with existing departments,
programs, and offices. A change to Program status will also facilitate the ability of faculty and
administrators in ICS to sustain their research agendas and contribute to a range of intellectual and
pedagogical projects on campus and more widely.
HISTORY OF A DISTINCTIVE INTELLECTUAL PROJECT
International Comparative Studies3 has changed over the years to reflect shifts in knowledge, the world,
and the interests of Duke students and faculty dedicated to this project at different historical moments.
In February 1973 a committee of ten faculty members (in economics, history, education, anthropology,
and political science), under the direction of Bernard Silberman (history), applied for a new
undergraduate major called Comparative Area Studies: Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Its intellectual
rationale was to explore the problems of contemporary societies through a study of interactions
between traditional societies and the forces of social and political change. The proposal to establish the
(5) Depth Requirements in ICS (using the course numbering system that commenced in August 2012) allow no
more than one course at the 100 level to fulfill the eight courses required for Region and Comparative categories;
and require at least one course at the 400 level or above in the Region or Comparative categories.
(6) Rising seniors who meet the requirements participate in the ICS Distinction Program through a year-long
honors thesis course sequence. Successful completion of all the requirements of ICS 495S in fall term fulfills the
senior capstone requirement.
(7) ICS allows up to four Study Abroad/GEO courses to count for the major if they fulfill Region, Comparative, or
Language Co-Requisite criteria; ICS treats such courses as intermediate rather than introductory or advanced for
the purposes of the depth requirements.
Further details and lists of approved courses may be found at the following URLs:
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/the_ics_major/major_reqs
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/courses
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/the_ics_major/distinction (accessed 5 July 2012).
2
In the most recent ten years (2002-2012), the 408 students who graduated with an ICS major were most likely to
double major in Spanish (26), Economics (25), and Political Science (25), with Asian and Middle Eastern Studies in
fourth place (19). The most common minor of ICS majors during the same period was History (41). The most
common certificate completed by ICS majors in the past decade was Markets and Management Studies (76),
followed by Global Health (22) (Appendix I).
3
Comparative Area Studies was renamed ICS in 2005-2006 in response to a survey of students indicating they
found the original name confusing and believed the word International made the major more legible to parents
and employers.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 2

major stated that by selecting areas outside western Europe and the United States it is intended to free
the major from the bias which is inherent in many approaches to comparative studies, of assuming that
the institutional forms and developments of the Western world are normative (Appendix II).4
Comparative Area Studies was approved as a committee-directed programme to deliver a Bachelor of
Arts degree beginning in 1973-74. The major required students to choose a regional area of the world
(four courses), a second area (two courses), a discipline (four courses approved by the committee), a
language related to the region to study (four courses), and an interdisciplinary senior seminar examining
major themes comparatively that was designed by involved faculty.5
It is worth noting that the ICS project did not emerge from a Cold War area studies orientation and was
interdisciplinary from the outset. Regional studies projects at Duke were intellectual clusters under the
Duke University Center for International Studies rather than stand alone area studies programs,
certainly until the 1980s. Even through the 2000s, area studies clusters under DUCIS auspices
encouraged undergraduates to complete a region concentration within the framework of ICS.6 Duke
scholars focused on particular regions of the world viewed ICS as a framework that allowed the study of
languages and regional knowledge while challenging regionalism through comparative and transnational
work (empirical, methodological, and conceptual). The ICS project from the outset was disciplinary and
interdisciplinary: scholars in disciplines were the projects main sponsors, administrators, advisors, and
teachers of core and non-core courses; and all areas from literature, dance, and theater to economics
were represented in coursework from the beginning. While coursework was drawn from almost every
corner of humanities and social science fields and appeared to avoid disciplinary nationalism, core
teaching and administrative responsibilities were primarily undertaken by faculty in history, political
science, sociology, geography, and religion. Literature and culture-focused faculty involved in teaching,
administration, and advising primarily came from area studies clusters.7
The following faculty served as directors of CST/ICS from 1973 to 2011: Bernard Silberman, history,
1973-75; William M. OBarr, anthropology, 1975-76; Arturo Valenzuela, political science, 1976-78;
Charles W. Bergquist, history, 1978-81; Margaret A. McKean, political science, 1981-83; A. Kenneth Pye,
law and history, 1983-85; Gary Gereffi, sociology, 1985-87; Andrew Gordon, history, 1987-89; Sheridan
(Dan) Johns III, political science, 1989-92; Bruce Lawrence, religion, 1992-97; Marcy Litle, history (acting
in 1995-96 and co-director in 1996-97); Martin Lewis and Kren Wigen, geography, history, 1997-2002;
Jehanne Gheith and Litle, Slavic studies, history, 2002-11; Frances Hasso, womens studies/sociology,
2011-.
STRUCTURE OF THE MAJOR OVER TIME
An examination of the Undergraduate Bulletin and evidence from interviews with former
administrators, faculty, and staff indicate that ICS has been a dynamic major responsive to changes in

Comparative Area Studies was initiated by faculty involved in the Duke Center for International Studies (DUCIS)
and remained the undergraduate major apparatus used by DUCIS-affiliated projects and faculty studying parts of
the world beyond the United States through the late 1990s, when the formal relationship with DUCIS ceased.
5
Courses could fulfill both a disciplinary and region requirement in a given students trajectory in the major.
6
Asian and Middle Eastern Studies at Duke was established as a Section with tenure track faculty in 1985 and
became a department in 1998. AMES primarily delivers an undergraduate major. AMES courses focus on languages
and cultures, and the major offers concentrations in Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Hindi, Japanese, and Korean.
7
Examples include miriam cooke in Arabic and Jehanne Gheith in Slavic studies.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 3

knowledge, student needs and interests, developments in the world, and the research, teaching, and
intellectual interests of faculty on campus.
The following changes occurred regarding the region concentration aspects of the major through 2011:

By 1975-76, two years after its establishment, the majors name changed to Comparative Area
Studies: Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Russia. Students could also make a case to the advisory
committee of an unlisted area of the world to study.
In 1976-77, the name simply became Comparative Area Studies.
In 1977-78, the major description noted that students in the major were concentrating on the
Middle East, Russia, Latin America, South Asia, East Asia, and Africa. Comparative Area Studies
defined and allowed four-course concentrations in different sub-regions within the developing
world (e.g. Middle East, South Asia, East Asia) if enough courses were offered to allow students
a reasonable chance to take multiple courses from different disciplines on that region (Gereffi).
In 1985-86, Comparative Area Studies shifted from a Third World and Second World focus to
include Western Europe as a possible region concentration in response to pressure from
Europeanist faculty and on the argument that Europe included its own developing regions.8
According to directors from the 1980s, these changes contributed to significant growth in the
number of undergraduate majors (Appendix I).
In the 1990s, Eastern Europe and North America were added as possible region concentrations,
and bulletin copy in 1991-92 mentions Canada and the Caribbean as sub-regional foci chosen by
students.

The following changes occurred with respect to required coursework in the major through 2008:
By the early 1980s, the approved courses and requirements for the major had been organized
into introductory, comparative, international relations (a term understood more
inclusively than in classic political science terms), and area courses. The language, disciplinary,
and interdisciplinary course requirements remained.
Faculty participation in course offerings and advising doubled from 40 at the majors inception
to 80 by 1985.
In the 1984-85 Bulletin, the four-course discipline concentration requirement is replaced with a
four-course concentration in either humanities or social sciences. In addition, a new (nonrequired) Interdisciplinary course was sponsored by Comparative Area Studies, The Political
Economy of Development, co-taught by Bergquist, Gereffi, Smith, and Valenzuela.
The only core required course offered through 1984-85 was the interdisciplinary senior seminar
leading to a high quality relevant research paper, assisted by an outside faculty specialist. The
best papers produced in this seminar, CST 150S (Comparative Area Studies Senior Seminar),
could be submitted for consideration for graduation with honors.
By the mid-1980s, comparative and transnational courses (whose list had grown), were allowed
to fulfill the requirement for a second region concentration.
8

Those who initially resisted this change worried that the rich course offerings focused on Western Europe would
overwhelm the development of intellectual work and course content on other parts of the world. The description
of the major insisted on the importance of placing area specializations in a broad comparative perspective that
stressed the interrelationship of the developed and underdeveloped parts of the world. Moreover, students who
chose to concentrate on Western Europe or Russia were required to select a second concentration (two courses)
from an area of the world that was not Europe or Russia.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 4

In 1985-86, CST 125: Strategies in Comparative Analysis, a cross-disciplinary methodologies


Interdisciplinary course, was offered and required for majors in their sophomore or junior
year. CST 125 was always co-taught, ideally by one professor in the social sciences and one in
the humanities (Gereffi). Albert Eldridge (political science) was probably the first to teach the
course. Gereffi and miriam cooke co-taught the course at least three times in the late 1980s to
early 1990s.9
The curriculum and focus of the major took a more geographic bent with the involvement of
Martin W. Lewis10 and Kren Wigen (history), who came to Duke as a couple in 1990. Lewis
designed and offered a new introductory course, CST 110: Global Human Geography, which
became one of two required courses for majors in their first or second year. The course focused
on world development, modernity, and economics in relation to the physical environment.
During most of the 1990s, CST 125, which continued to be offered as a comparative
methodologies course for sophomores and juniors, was taught in units of about three weeks by
three or four guest faculty (often overseen by Wigen).11 In 1995, the title of CST 125 changed to
its current name, Comparative Approaches to Global Issues.
By the 1990s, majors were required to take two introductory courses, Lewis CST 110 and
another from a list of approved possibilities; four approved courses focused on the societies and
cultures of a region, choosing from different disciplines rather than required to choose a
concentration in either humanities or social sciences; four co-requisite courses in a related nonEnglish language; two courses on a second geographic area (that could be replaced with
comparative courses); and two comparative courses, one of which had to be CST 125.
Sometime in the 1990s, the Comparative Area Studies Senior Seminar became an optional
honors seminar, CST 150S (renamed, Comparative Area Studies Honors Seminar), that was
structured around themes in the major and required the production of a research project.12
By 2004, two years after Lewis and Wigen had left Duke, CST 110 (Global Human Geography)
was dropped for lack of teaching coverage.
In 2004, ICS 125 was required in the first or second year. Its content was structured around a
balance among comparative disciplinary approaches, transnational cross-disciplinary content on
notions of progress and modernity, theories of globalization, and culture and identity in
transnational perspective. The course was now led by one faculty member who primarily taught
9

Also introduced in 1985-86 was Interdisciplinary course CST 109: Contemporary International Problems: Their
Historical Origins and their Implications for Future Policy, as an option for majors at the introductory level.
Through the 1990s, CST 109 continued to be offered, with a focus on questions of nationalism and the nationstate, as well as what is progress?
10
Lewis is an accomplished geographer who completed his PhD in Geography at UC Berkeley. His faculty
appointment is listed as Associate Research Professor in the 1998-1999 Undergraduate Bulletin and was
upgraded to Professor of the Practice at a later point. It is not clear where the position was housed at Duke,
although it was not in the history department. He co-directed CST from 1997 to 2002 and had a significant impact
on the curriculum in the 1990s, designing, teaching or co-teaching many of the core courses. Moreover, he was
involved in the Oceans Connect project discussed below.
11
The course was large in the early 2000s, enrolling about 99 students per class. CST 125 provided a space for
faculty members involved in the program to work out ideas, often with each other. Teaching evaluations indicate
that many undergraduate students benefited from this intellectual give and take and the excitement of faculty
debates; others preferred more baseline work and coherence, experiencing difficulty with disjuncture. Some
students noted the difficulty of the material (others thrived). Many noted the limitations on undergraduate
participation in class discussion in such a large course.
12
The 1996-97 and 1998-99 Undergraduate Bulletins state that completion of research projects in CST 150S were
necessary for graduation with distinction or Latin honors.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 5

its content, with five or so guest faculty from various disciplines visiting to teach one-week
modules on a regional case study related to their expertise.13
In 2004, a required senior seminar was reintroduced for all majors, CST 200S. The seminar was
taught by Marcy Litle, Jehanne Gheith, and an advanced graduate student in years where three
sections had to be offered.
In 2005, ICS honors thesis students were required to enroll in a year-long senior seminar
sequence, ICS 197S and 198S, taught by Litle.
In 2006, the Undergraduate Bulletin for the first time included a long list of hard cross-listed
ICS courses for the Comparative category of the major.
In 2007-2008, the major requirements no longer stated the need for an additional
introduction course from an approved list, although this category of courses continued to be
listed until excised for fall 2012.
In 2008, CST 200S was renamed, Capstone Seminar in International Comparative Studies.

By 2010, it was clear that the program had become very large in course offerings and was robust in
number of student majors. It primarily relied on the commitment and significant labor of faculty not on
the tenure track, indeed, not even in regular rank positions; was under-resourced in staff, space, and
other terms; and seemed to have lost some of its intellectual clarity. In 2011, under a new director, ICS
faculty, working with the Trinity deans and the Trinity Curriculum Committee, began to address these
deficiencies with energy and determination.
The following recent changes were made to the curricular structure:
ICS faculty in discussion with faculty in other departments and programs at Duke developed and
articulated criteria for vetting courses to fulfill region and comparative categories in the
major in summer and fall 2011.14
The second region possibility was dropped so that students fulfilled the four required
comparative courses from explicitly transnational courses.
Students take no more than one introductory-level course in the region and comparative
categories (of eight non-ICS courses in total) and take at least one advanced seminar (400 or
above) among these eight courses.
Registration for ICS 125 was changed to facilitate space for sophomores and first year students
(the existing requirement), with juniors allowed to enroll on a case-by- case basis using criteria
explained on the website.
ICS 125 formally became a prerequisite for enrollment in the senior seminar.
Students are expected to complete ICS 125 before a study-away semester.
The minor in ICS was dropped for lack of curricular integrity.
In 2012, the region concentrations in ICS became: Latin America and the Caribbean; Africa;
Middle East; South Asia; Russia and Central Asia; Europe; and China and East Asia.15 Alternative
to such concentrations, an ICS major may propose a differently conceptualized geographic
13

With Wigens departure in 2002, Litle taught ICS 125 each spring until 2006, when the course was taught by
another non-regular rank faculty member, David Need (religion). In 2008 or 2009, Need offered the course both
semesters to deal with enrollment pressure. Need taught the course for the last time in spring 2012.
14
These criteria and current and archived comparative and region courses can be found at the following URL:
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/courses/comparative-and-region-courses (accessed 11 June 2012).
15
These changes consolidated east and west Europe, dropped North America, added the Caribbean to Latin
America, renamed East Asia as China and East Asia, and renamed Russia as Russia and Central Asia.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 6

region focused on a part of the world not captured in or crossing these region designations, for
example, around a body of water or proximal borders.16
Other clarifications and rationalizations were made related to study-away expectations,
language training, and the distinction program in order to limit case-by-case decision-making by
advisers and the program director.
The ICS website (and bulletin copy) was thoroughly overhauled to better communicate the
expectations and structure of the major to students, faculty, and advisors.
These changes were designed to clarify the curriculum, encourage intentionality in course
choices (making it more difficult for a student to simply fall into an ICS major late in the
undergraduate academic career), better integrate campus and study-away experiences, increase
esprit de corps among graduating cohorts, and improve intellectual depth/verticality in a given
students course plan. These changes were particularly important given the degree to which the
middle of the major was not offered by core ICS faculty.
The following recent changes were made to ICS core courses:
Hasso revised course content for fall 2010, fall 2011, and (in minor ways) fall 2012 for ICS 125,
Comparative Approaches to Global Issues. The intellectual structure of the course is clarified;
expectations of students are increased; the class is taught in highly interactive 50 minute
sessions;17 grade inflation is reduced; a better balance is struck between applied and theoretical
readings; more visual and internet material is included; reading amounts are more feasible;
assignments are redesigned to improve writing and analysis skills and make it difficult to
selectively read or attend class; the cross-disciplinarity of required material was increased; the
number of faculty visitors was reduced to four high-impact guests who Hasso works closely with
improve the overall coherence of the course; and the regional case study idea for visitors was
dropped to stress instead the grounded treatment of key transnational themes from the
discipline or interdiscipline of the visitor on an issue of his or her expertise.18
Beginning in fall 2011, the content of the ICS capstone seminar was collectively redesigned by its
new faculty (informed by Gheith, Litle, and Hassos knowledge and experiences, as well as
student evaluations) to more explicitly revisit core themes in the field in assigned reading and
films, and to require more analytical writing and a research project on a relevant question of
interest using original and secondary sources. From fall 2012, the capstone seminar is numbered
ICS 489S, and all sections fulfill Writing and Research modes of inquiry for Trinity
undergraduates.19

16

The description of the major continues: Cases made for such independently conceived areas should be
thoughtful and intentional rather than ad hoc. The seven ICS regions are based on historical, cultural, political
and/or economic histories of connection. At the same time, the ICS intellectual project understands that state
borders and regions are dynamically produced by different processes and agendas, including transnational. It also
recognizes dramatic variety within these regions.
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/the_ics_major/major_reqs (accessed 12 June 2012)
17
In fall 2011, Hasso began to use a document camera in ICS 125, however, to offer a balance between
powerpoint type of presentation of main points in a large class, with interactive discussion in which emergent
ideas and points could be written and easily seen by students in the class without erasing boards.
18
Hasso syllabi are available on request. The description of ICS 125 can be found at the following URL:
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/courses/core-courses (accessed 11 June 2012).
19
The description of ICS 489S, the capstone seminar, can be found at the following URL:
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/courses/core-courses (accessed 11 June 2012).

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 7

In order to encourage and recognize the best research even in the ICS capstone seminars, ICS
established a book prize for Excellence in Capstone Research for the highest quality projects in a
given academic year beginning for 2012-13 seniors.
While ICS undergraduates have been well represented in producing honors projects of
distinction,20 an internal evaluation of the honors program in 2011 indicated areas that require
more clarity and structure in terms of expectations of students and the external faculty
members supervising a thesis. In addition, faculty established a policy that completion of the fall
semester of honors fulfills the capstone requirement.21 In light of this change, and given that
there are only two core required courses in ICS,22 beginning in spring 2012, the honors seminars
include reading content and assignments that function in a triple manner: to facilitate research
design and initial writing; revisit at an advanced level conceptual issues related to critical
transnationalism; and facilitate a cohort experience among majors through shared assignments
that integrate students experiences during their college careers (including study away) and
participation in campus events. Cheri Ross, the new Distinction Program Coordinator, is
redesigning the honors program for the class of 2012-2013, informed by the above concerns and
goals.23
ICS AS AN INTELLECTUAL PROJECT AS WELL AS AN UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR
An historical analysis indicates that ICS was always part of important intellectual trends on campus,
since its professors and leaders were active in these currents, and participated in teaching, research,
governance, and service in ICS and the departments from which they usually emerged. Given the degree
to which ICS relied on undergraduate courses offered in other programs and departments, it seems clear
that professors teaching, designing and revising such courses were responsive to the audience of
undergraduates taking them under an ICS intellectual framework. Teaching core ICS courses certainly
relied on the intellectual abilities, excitement, labor, and commitment of faculty members in more
established departments, although faculty in non-regular rank positions, such as Lewis and Litle, were
simply dedicated to the ICS project.
The height of campus-wide faculty involvement in ICS beyond teaching at the undergraduate level
appeared to have occurred in the 1990s, especially the period of the research project Oceans Connect:
Culture, Capital and Commodity Flows Across Basins. This project was designed to remap international
studies and was funded by the Ford Foundations Crossing Borders: Revitalizing Area Studies initiative
between 1997 and 2002 (they received a 1997-99 grant and an additional 1999-2002 grant). The Oceans

20

The titles of honors projects between 2004 and 2012 are listed in Attachment III.
In the past, enrollment pressures in the ICS capstone seminars were addressed by excusing on a case-by-case
basis certain students (e.g. those in the honors sequence) from the capstone seminar, or allowing second majors
(AB2) to substitute an advanced course or seminar from another department. Moreover, students who completed
the fall honors seminar but decided or were discouraged from continuing based on their performance were
required to enroll in the capstone seminar in spring, contributing to enrollment pressures and making coverage of
senior requirements chaotic and difficult to plan.
22
There were no more than two required courses taught by core faculty in the CST/ICS major in different periods:
a senior seminar until the mid-1980s; CST 125 and a senior seminar from the mid-1980s; CST 110 (Global Human
Geography) and CST 125 in the 1990s to the early 2000s; ICS 125 and a capstone seminar from 2004. As explained
in the report, majors worked on honors or distinctions projects in a variety of modalities until 2004.
23
The current distinction program structure can be found at the following URL:
http://internationalcomparative.duke.edu/the_ics_major/distinction (accessed 11 June 2012).
21

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 8

Connect project was initiated and led by Kren Wigen and Martin Lewis,24 while the logistics of the
project were coordinated by three different advanced graduate students in successive years.25 The
Oceans Connect project formally emerged under the auspices of DUCIS, and remained connected to
DUCIS, although the leading faculty of the Oceans Connect project were directing the major and
teaching core courses in Comparative Area Studies.26 This was a large initiative that involved many
faculty and graduate students well beyond the program in research projects, conferences, reading
groups, and funding for individual research projects. Wigen and Martin published a special issue of
Geographical Review in April 1999 based on talks given at the first Oceans Connect conference in 1998.27
The grants from the Ford Foundation were matched by funds from Duke University for major crossdisciplinary projects focused on trans-oceanic exchanges across five major seas: the Pacific Ocean, the
Atlantic Ocean (with its extension in the Caribbean Basin), the Mediterranean Sea, the Black and Caspian
Sea nexus, and the Indian Ocean. In addition, the Oceans Connect project included, a series of course
enhancement grants, new course development grants, and student travel awards to encourage
research and curricular initiatives organized around basins.28
ICS has recently reinvigorated extra-curricular aspects of the program in a variety of ways and is
working to rebuild outward linkages. The program committee has been expanded to include more
regular rank faculty at senior and junior levels from a variety of departments. The ICS capstone seminars
more explicitly integrate campus-wide events, including conferences such as the one on the Arab
revolutions co-organized by Hasso and miriam cooke in spring 2012, and the fall 2011 daylong
FHI/Womens Studies workshop on Simone De Beauvoir integrated by Cheri Ross into her ICS capstone
seminar. ICS organized (with many university co-sponsors) the first annual lecture in a very long time in
spring 2012, by Sanjeev Khagram of the University of Washington.29 In addition to his lecture, which was
attended by ICS students, faculty, and program committee members, Khagram met with faculty
unaffiliated with ICS, lunched with six or seven ICS majors, visited a capstone seminar in which students
had been assigned one of his publications, and dined with Duke faculty.30 ICS would also like to revitalize
intellectual links with interested graduate students and their home programs and departments and has
already begun doing so through teaching and other opportunities. The program hired a postdoctoral
24

The website for the Oceans Connect project details its history:
http://ducis.jhfc.duke.edu/archives/oceans/project.html (accessed 11 June 2012).
25
These graduate students were Jessica Harland-Jacobs, who coordinated the program for three years (history,
currently at the University of Florida); Munis Faruqui (history, currently at UC Berkeley); and Linda Rupert (history,
currently at UNC Greensboro).
26
Interestingly, the number of graduating majors dropped during the Oceans Connect years, although scattered
data at my disposal indicates that enrollments in the two core courses were robust.
27
The published articles focused on the crisis in area studies by examining topics related to oceans, seas, ocean
basins and maritime cities in historical perspective. Geographical Review. April 1999, Vol. 89, Issue 2. It is
fascinating that while Ford Foundation, ACLS, Social Science Research Council and other national funding
organizations were understanding a crisis to exist in area studies following the end of the Cold War (I am familiar
with this sense of crisis from my experience as a graduate student at the University of Michigan in the 1990s, and
as a recipient of an ACLS/SSRC dissertation fellowship in 1995-96), at Duke there did not appear to be such an
intellectual crisis in regional and transnational studies, discursively or practically. To a large degree, this was due to
the Comparative Area Studies project and institutional support for innovative regional and transnational
scholarship and teaching.
28
See overview: http://ducis.jhfc.duke.edu/archives/oceans/project.html (accessed 11 June 2012).
29
The lecture was titled, From the Arab Spring to Occupy Wall Street to Greece: The Transnational Political
Economy of Government Accountability.
30
Sanjeev Khagram, Possible Future Architectures of Global Governance: A Transnational
Perspective/Prospective. Global Governance. Jan-Mar 2006; 12, 1; 97-117.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 9

fellow for the first time in its history for 2012-13; she will teach one section each of the two core
courses, assist in advising, and help organize a conference on transnationalism that will involve faculty,
undergraduates, and graduate students in spring 2013.
THE MISSION OF ICS
ICS aims to prepare lifelong learners who can live, work, and thoughtfully engage with people and
problems in a complex, diverse, and interconnected world. The goals of the program are for each
student to: gain knowledge in the culture(s), history, politics, and language relevant to one geographic
region of the world through cross-disciplinary and interdisciplinary coursework, research, and studyaway opportunities; gain knowledge of global and transnational dynamics through cross-disciplinary and
interdisciplinary coursework, research, and study-away opportunities; be alert to the ways questions can
be formulated and addressed using a variety of disciplinary approaches through core courses, advising,
and research mentoring; build a step-wise curricular path to gain knowledge and skill depth over the
course of an ICS career; be a critical thinker, thoughtful, and honorable in academic, social, and
professional interactions; gain skills in information literacy, writing, analysis, and research, especially
through the gateway course, capstone seminar, and distinction experience; and integrate course work,
study away, and other relevant experiences during the senior year through the capstone seminar or
distinction experience.
THE WORK OF ICS
ICS is a labor-intensive and complex project demanding significant coordination with faculty,
departments, and offices across campus to offer undergraduate courses serving a broad range of
student interests in transnational issues. The work includes:
~ developing themes and addressing gaps in the curriculum through the design and redesign of
interdisciplinary core courses that: challenge linear notions of progress, modernity, and development;
examine different approaches to cultural, political, economic, and historical dimensions of globalization
and other transnational processes; encourage students to critically consider self and other, foreign and
national, and the nature of transnational and international knowledge and experience; and address
issues of power and identity in cross-cultural and transnational contexts;
~ vetting region and transnational courses offered throughout the curriculum every semester,
generating accurate course lists, and assuring that ACES/Storm correctly reflect ICS cross-listing and
program listing for courses offered outside the program;
~ teaching two sections per year of the required introductory course, ICS 125; three sections per year of
the required capstone seminar; and the year-long honors seminar sequence;
~ recruiting, interviewing, and training graduate teaching assistants involved in ICS 125 and the honors
thesis sequence;
~ advising pre-majors and majors in recent years declared majors alone number about 130 per
semester, with 50-60 graduating per year;
~ training and interfacing with faculty advisers (approximately 10 at any given time) before and during
registration;

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 10

~ fielding hundreds of study away-related course queries and requests from majors and pre-majors per
year that come before, during, and after study away experiences; ICS majors study abroad at a much
higher rate than their peers in humanities and social science majors averaged over the three most
recent graduating classes (2010-2012), 68% of ICS seniors participated in some form of study abroad
(Duke, non-Duke, and DukeEngage), compared to about 50% of humanities and social science majors;31
CONCLUSION
In her 2002 paper for the American Council of Learned Societies on internationalization at Research I
universities in the United States, Sheila Biddle contends that Duke was unique among the institutions
studied in its significant investment in undergraduate educational efforts, for example by
institutionalizing a foreign language requirement for all students in 1999, requiring courses in crosscultural inquiry, and investing in curriculum and curriculum revision related to transnational study,
going well beyond public relations discourse about aims to produce global citizens or a global
consciousness.32 Biddle argues that the key to improving such projects is to enhance existing programs
and intellectual interests, thereby building on and creating new synergies within a given institutional
cultural, resource, and historical context.
The ICS project at Duke illustrates a path-breaking history of innovative and dynamic education in
regional and transnational studies that has taken undergraduate education seriously. The structure of
the major and core coursework crossed disciplinary and region categories from the majors inception.
ICS has also been successful at keeping humanities and interdisciplinary study at the core of a project
that incorporates history, political science, sociology, international relations, religion, cultural
anthropology, the arts, literature, economics, policy, environment, and health. ICS, moreover, could not
function (past or present) without well-trained region specialists in various departments and programs.
Indeed, all the scholars involved in ICS over the years brought with them deep training and knowledge
related to at least one part of the world.
At the same time, ICS is not sustainable as a dynamic intellectual project in the long-term without formal
program status. This large interdisciplinary undergraduate major faces two significant challenges in its
current form:

retaining and recruiting a nucleus of qualified core faculty who can lead the program, integrate
the program into the intellectual currents of the campus, and offer the core courses in the
major, including the highly complex gateway course; and
recruiting colleagues to participate in advising, guest teaching, and research mentoring in an
institutional context where influence, prestige, resources, and rewards reside in disciplines,
departments, graduate training, and postgraduate research.

Without program status, ICS faculty and staff have often functioned in a crisis mode that relies on
patchwork solutions. Among other problems, this lack has often burned out faculty and underserves and
underestimates the students who continue to insist on the necessity of the kind of interdisciplinary
intellectual project offered by ICS. ICS has forged a distinctive and successful project that requires
further investment in its growth and dynamism. Acquiring formal program status will allow ICS to
31

Analysis provided by David Jamieson-Drake, Director of Institutional Research, Duke University, 14 June 2012.
Sheila Biddle, Internationalization: Rhetoric or Reality. ACLS Occasional Paper, No. 56. American Council of
Learned Societies: http://www.acls.org/Publications/OP/56_Internationalization.pdf (accessed 11 June 2012), esp.
pp. 33-35.
32

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 11

directly appoint qualified faculty of all ranks directly in the program and to offer interested faculty in
other programs and departments the possibility of joint and secondary appointments. Such
appointments are crucial for maintaining the intellectual vitality of a labor-intensive and complex project
and for sustaining faculty involved in teaching, administering, and running the program.
Additional sources and special thanks to: David Jamieson-Drake, Connie Blackmore, Marcy Litle,
Jehanne Gheith, Kren Wigen, Charles Bergquist, Andrew Gordon, Gary Gereffi, Valerie Gillispie, Bruce
Lawrence, Valerie Konczal, Susan Brooks, Jessica Harland-Jacobs, miriam cooke, Martin W. Lewis, Cheri
Ross, Erda Gknar, Robyn Wiegman, Cara Clark, Lisa Poteet, Lee Baker, Angela ORand, and Duke
Undergraduate Bulletins.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 12

APPENDIX I - CUMULATIVE DATA ON ICS MAJORS


Number of ICS Graduating Majors, 1983-2012
GRADYEAR
82-83
83-84
84-85
85-86
86-87
87-88
88-89
89-90
90-91
91-92
92-93
93-94
94-95
95-96
96-97
97-98
98-99
99-00
00-01
01-02
02-03
03-04
04-05
05-06
06-07
07-08
08-09
09-10
10-11
11-12

ICS GRADS
18
15
19
27
36
61
64
99
75
74
71
49
54
60
51
28
32
47
35
38
28
30
29
26
24
37
29
57
56
54

Data generated by David Jamieson-Drake, June 13, 2012

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 13

Summary Note: Approximately 288 students graduated with a CST/ICS major between 1980 and 1989;33
593 between 1990 and 1999; and 490 between 2000 and 2012.
___________________________________________________________
Numbers of ICS Graduating Majors Who Studied Abroad 2005-2012
GLOBTYPE
Global Ed
Hum & SS
ICS/CAS

2004/05
609
483
9

2005/06
549
442
10

2006/07
593
463
26

2007/08
592
447
18

2008/09
576
428
29

2009/10
541
394
24

2010/11
543
397
29

2011/12
582
437
23

Table generated by David Jamieson-Drake, June 13, 2012


____________________________________________________________
ICS Graduating Majors Cumulative GPAs
*divided by all courses taken in humanities, languages, natural sciences, and social sciences

Avg. HUMGPA
Avg. LANGPA
Avg. NSGPA
Avg. SSGPA

2004
3.5487
3.5618
3.1859
3.4

2005
3.6636
3.6083
3.3633
3.491

2006
3.6013
3.4991
3.316
3.4169

2007
3.5883
3.4638
3.1045
3.3938

2008
3.6392
3.6216
3.1941
3.3689

2009
3.59
3.385
3.1125
3.3093

2010
3.7125
3.5761
3.0974
3.4951

2011
3.7171
3.5117
3.1563
3.4568

2012
3.6212
3.5414
3.1453
3.413

Table generated by David Jamieson-Drake, June 13, 2012


Notes: Jamieson-Drake found that these ICS divisional averages are not statistically different from the
averages of non-ICS majors across courses in these divisions at Duke. In an analysis of 54 ICS majors who
graduated in May 2012, Hasso found that 35 percent earned cum laude or above in the Duke Latin
Honors system; that is, 35 percent of ICS majors were in the top 25 percent of the Duke undergraduate
graduating class of 2012.

33

Graduation data earlier than 1983 was not available. For 1980, 1981, and 1982, Hasso estimated that an average
of 16 students completed the Comparative Area Studies major each year.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 14

1
1
1

1
1
1

20

33

35

28

223

4
2
4
2
1

2
1

6
3
5
4
2

1
3

4
5
4
3
2
1
2
1

26
25
25
19
13
13
11
10
8
5
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
410

1
1
1
1
1

1
2
1

1
1

1
1
1

5
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

56

54

1
1
1
1
1
41

28

31

ta

17

2
2
1
1
1
1
1

2
2

29

23

36

29

58

Table generated by Valerie Konczal, 18 June 2012.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 15

To

1
25

-1

11

10

-1

0
09

-1

9
-0

19

08

-0

07

-0

06

20

2
2

20

1
1
3

20

2
3
1
2
2
2
3
1
2

20

2
1
2
3

20

12

2
3
2

20

16

3
1
2

-0

13

20

21

05

-0

4
20

04

-0

03

-0
02

20

SPAN
ECON
POLI
AMES
HIST
PPS
RUS/SES/SLAV
FREN
CA
BIO
PSY
ART/ARV
ENGL
GER
THEA
AFRI
CPS
ENVS
REL
SOC
BMEE
EVANTH
LING
MATH
MDVL
MUS
To ta l

20

No other major

20

MAJ

01

-0

IC S Ma j o rs C o m b i n e d w i th Oth e r Ma j o rs

2
ta

-1

No minor

19

14

14

10

13

21

20

25

159

HIST-MIN

41

SPAN-MIN

35

POLI-MIN

25

AMES-MIN
CA-MIN

ECON-MIN

FREN-MIN
CHEM-MIN

1
1

2
2

RUS/SES/SLAV-MIN3

ART/ARTV-MIN

ITAL-MIN
REL-MIN

1
1

ENGL-MIN

CHIN-MIN

ENVS-MIN
SOC-MIN

1
1

1
3

21

18

1
1

1
2

4
2

2
3

15
12

11

1
1

2
1

8
8

7
6

1
1

BIO-MIN
GER-MIN

1
1

2
1

JAPA-MIN

AMES-MIN

AFRI-MIN

1
1

33

1
2

1
1

5
5

4
4

1
1

4
1

LIT-MIN
MUS-MIN

3
3

WOM-MIN

LING-MIN

THEA-MIN

ARAB-MIN

1
1

2
1
1

HEB-MIN

1
1

PSY-MIN

TURK-MIN

1
33

37

26

33

26

1
1

MATH-MIN
STA-MIN

2
1

EDUC-MIN

48

To

20

11

20

10

-1

20

09

-1

9
-0

8
20

08

-0

7
20

07

-0

6
20

06

-0

5
20

05

-0

4
20

04

-0

3
20

03

-0

20

02

MIN

20

01

-0

IC S Ma j o rs C o m b i n e d w i th Mi n o rs

39

30

61

*Includes 46 students with 2 minors

Table generated by Valerie Konczal, 18 June 2012.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 16

1
62

61

456

GLHLTH-C
LAS-C
DOCST-C

24
5

19
6

24
5

19
3

26
2

19
6

35
12

29
13

33
12

2
3
3

5
3

3
1

22
13
6

3
2

6
3

1
1

2
2
1

JUDAIC-C
MRX-C

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1

SXL-C
41

ta
277
76

HTHPOL-C
IHP-C
ISIS-C

To

19
6

-1

1
20

11

20

10

-1

20

09

-1

9
-0

8
20

30
6

PJRMS-C
ISLST-C
FILM-C
GSP-C

08

-0

7
20

07

-0

6
20

06

-0

5
20

05

-0

4
20

04

-0

3
20

03

-0

20

02

20

C ER T
No certificate
MMST-C

01

-0

IC S Ma j o rs C o m b i n e d w i th C e rtfi ca te s

28

31

25

29

23

36

29

58

*Includes 1 student with 2 certificates

Table generated by Valerie Konczal, 18 June 2012.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 17

56

1
54

1
411

1
Appendix II

NEW
UNDERGRADUATE
MAJOR

COMPAPARATIVE AREA
STUDIES
AFRICA

LATIN AMERICA
ASIA

A unique opportunity to explore the problems of


contemporary societies through a study of
interactions between traditional societies and the
forces of social and political change.
STUDENTS MAY IDENTIFY A PRIMARY DISCIPLINARY
INTEREST AND A GEOGRAPHIC AREA OF INTEREST.

Provision
for
credit
to
students who are qualified to
study abroad in the area of
choice
or
who
will
take
intensive
sum mer
language
programs in the United States,

*
*

*
*
Examine the intellectual,
political, economic,
ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 18

religious and social


movements in the areas of
Africa, South Asia, East
Asia, and Latin America,
Identification of the discipline and area
interest may normally be done at the end of
the Sophomore year, but, if fulfillment of
requirements is possible, this may be also
done at a later stage,
Members of the Major Committee: Silberman
(History); Bronfenbrenner (Economics); Te Paske
(History); DiBona (Education); Johns (Political
Science); Hartw g (History); O'Barr
(Anthropology); Dirlik (History); Mook
(Political
S ience); Valen uela (Political Science),

COMMITTEE
DIRECTED
PROGRAMME

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 19

Appendix II (cont.)
A NEW UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR

DUKE UNIVERSITY
DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 20

DUKE UNIVERSITY
UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR
IN
COMPARATIVE STUDIES
(Africa, Asia, Latin America)
BERNARD SILBERMAN,

Director

The proposed major is intended to serve


those students and faculty who have a special
interest in the societies and cultures of Asia,
Africa, and Latin America.
I. Rationale
By selecting areas outside western Europe
and the United States it is intended to free the
major from the bias which is inherent in many
approaches to comparative studies, of assuming
that the institutional forms and developments
of the Western world are normative. The problems of contemporary societies will be approached through a study of interactions between traditional features of the societies and
the forces of social and political change. Special
attention will be given to institutional characteristics of the different societies. The great
diversity of traditional institutions in the different societies that form the basis for the major
will provide opportunity for examination of
intellectual, political, economic, religious and
social movements. The major in Comparative
Studies will be under the supervision of a committee consisting of faculty members from departments with relevant area interests. The
major is designed to do the following:
l. Provide training in one particular discipline, which will be approximately
equivalent to the existing requirements
in most departments.
2. Provide for concentration on one particular geographic area.
3. Provide for language training, as a necessary prerequisite for understanding of a
culture area and for access to information.
1

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 21

4. To provide seminars and courses that are


interdisciplinary and
intercultural in
theory approach.
II. Procedures
The student must identify his primary disciplinary interest and his geographic area of
interest. This will normally be at the end of his
Sophomore year; but, if fulfillment of requirements is possible, this could be done at a later
stage. The major will be under the direction of
a committee consisting of representatives of
various area study programs and of departments
interested in the major. The Director will be in
charge of the program. Students will apply m
writing for admission to the program.
III.

Study Abroad or on Another Campus


A special feature of the major will be the
provision for students who wish to, and who are
qualified, to study in the area of their choice for
a full academic year, a semester, or an intensive
summer language program in the United States.
Duke students are already eligible for a variety
of programs now operating in India, Japaii;
Taiwan, and Africa.
';
IV. Requirements
(Programs will be approved by the Directdr
of the Program for each student.)
The requirements for the major are as follows:
1. Prerequisite: (Introductory departmental
courses dealing with a number of areas) :
Any two of History 61, 62; Political Science 155; Anthropology 94; Religion 57.
2. Language and Literature:
Four semester courses, of which two shall
be in a language of the area, and the
other two may be a continuation of the
language or two of the following: literature of the area in translation, oi general
linguistics. Students identifying Africa as
their area of interest may offer a relevant

European language (other than English)


in place of an African language.
3. Discipline Courses:
Four semester courses in a discipline, as
approved by the Director of the major.
4. Area Courses: Semester Courses:
Four in the geographic area of special
interest (the area of the language studied)
and two in another one of the areas included in the major. See list in Section

v.
5. Senior Seminar:
Interdisciplinary seminar, bringing together a number of the major themes for
comparative treatment.
While the total semester hours required are
eighteen, the actual number will be less, since
some of the courses can fulfill more than one
requirement. (A history course might fulfill
both discipline and area requirements.) Also,
some of the major requirements will fulfill general undergraduate distribution requirements.
A course used for fulfilling the prerequisite cannot be used to fill another requirement.
V. Courses
The following are courses currently listed
(with the exception of the interdisciplinary
seminar) that will be available for the requirements of the major as listed under Section IV
above.
A. Prerequisites
Anthropology 94. Cultural Anthropology.
Staff.
Political Science 155. Problems of Political
Developments in the New States.
Braibanti.
Religion 57. Introduction to the History of
Religions. Staff.
B. Language and Literature Component

Indian Languages and Literature


Hindi-Urdu 171, 172. Studies in Indian Literatures. Shonek.
3

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 22

Hindi-Urdu 181, 182. Intensive Elementary


Hindi-Urdu. Staff.
Hindi-Urdu 183-184. Intensive Intermediate
Hindi-Urdu. Staff.
Hindi 185, 186. Advanced Hindi Reading
and Composition. Staff.
Hindi-Urdu 200-201. Special Studies in South
Asian Languages. Staff.

Russian
1-2. Elementary Russian. Staff.
63-64. Intermediate Russian. Staff.
And all other courses in Russian literature.
African Language and Literature
(See Swahili for languag-e)
i

Chinese
131, 132. Intensive Elementary Chinese. Rolf.
133, 134. Intensive Intennediate Chinese.
Rolf.
135, 136. Introduction to Modern Chinese
Literature. Rolf.
japanese
131, 132. Intensive Elementary Japanese.
Rolf.
133, 134. Intensive Intennediate Japanese.
Rolf.
135, 136. Introduction to Modern Japanese
Literature. Rolf.

Black Studies 151. Third World Literature.


Clarke.
Black Studies 189. African Thought. Clarke.
Linguistics
English 107. Introduction to Linguistics.
Butters.
Anthropology 238. Languag-e and Society.
Apte.
Anthropology 240. Indo-Aryan Linguistics.
Apte.
Anthropology 260, 261. Linguistic Anthropology. Apte.
C. Area Courses

101, 102. Elementary Swahili. Staff.

(Courses focusing mainly on one of the geographic areas of the major. Other courses may
be included at the discretion of the Director.)

spanish

Anthropology

1-2. Elementary Spanish. Miller and staff.


63. Intermediate Spanish. Cox and staff.
64. Intermediate Spanish. Cox and staff.
155. Spanish American Short Fiction. Fein.
156. The Spanish American Novel. Fein.
255. Modern Latin American Poetry. Fein.
256. Modern Latin American Literature.
Fein.

125. Peoples of the World: Africa. O'Barr.


128. Peoples of the World: Asia. Apte and
Fox.
220. Society and Culture in India. Fox.
222. Topics in African Anthropology.
O'Barr.
238. Language and Society. Apte.
240. Indo-Aryan Linguistics. Apte.
260. Linguistic Anthropology: Phonemics.
Apte.
260. Linguistic Anthropology: Morphology
and Syntax. Apte.

Swahili

Portuguese
181, 182. Portuguese. Miller.
185, 186. Conversation. Miller.
4

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 23

Art

150. Latin American Art. Markman.


241. Problems in Latin American Art.
Markman.
Economics

109. Economic Geography of Latin America.


1 14. Economic Geography of Africa. Tuthill.
120. Economic Geography of Southern Asia.
Tuthill.
219. Economic Problems of Underdeveloped
Areas. Rottenberg, Saville, Spengler.
286S. Latin American Economics.
Education

202. Comparative and International Education: Industrialized Nations. DiBona.


218. Comparative and International Education: Developing Societies. DiBona.
219. Comparative and International Education: South Asia. DiBona.
History

101, 102. Introduction to the Civilizations of


Southern Asia. Apte, DiBona, Embree,
Fox, Braibanti and others.
II5, ll6. History of Africa. Hartwig.
117, 118. European Imperialism and
Colonialism. Cell.
ll9, 120. History of Socialism and Communism. Lerner.
131. Mexico and the Caribbean from the
Wars of Independence to the Present.
TePaske.
132. The Major South American Powers
from the Wars of Independence to the
Present. TePaske.
141, 142. History of China. Dirlik.
143. History of Japan. Bronfenbrenner.
147. History of India to 1707. Embree.

148. History of India and Pakistan, 1707 to


the Present. Embree.
211. The United States and Latin America:
A History of Inter-American Problems.
Lanning.
231-232. The Hispanic Colonies and Republics in America. Lanning.
233-234. The Institutional, Cultural, and
Social History of Hispanic America.
Lanning.
241-242. Modernization and Revolution in
China Since 1850. Dirlik.
247. History of Modern India and Pakistan,
1707-1857. Embree.
248. History of Modern India and Pakistan,
1857 to the Present. Embree.
261-262. Problems in Soviet History. Lerner.
265-266. Modern South America. TePaske.
287-288. History of Modern Japan.
Silberman.
195K-196K. European Expansion and
Imperialism. Cell.
195S-196S. Processes of Development in Modern Japan, 1800 to the Present.
Silberman.
195W-196W. Studies in Modern Indian History. Embree.
Music

173. World Music. Earls.


Political Science

151. Comparative Government and Politics:


Latin America. Valenzuela.
155. Problems of Political Development in
the New States. Braibanti.
165. The Government and Politics of the
U.S.S.R. Kulski.
166. Soviet Foreign Relations. Kulski.
180. Comparative Government and Politics:
Southern Asia I.

ICS Program Status Application, Hasso - 24

181. Comparative Government and


Politics: Southern Asia II.
Braibanti.
182. Comparative Government and
Politics: Japan. Mook.
250. Comparative Government and
Politics: Southern Asia.
Braibanti.
280. Comparative Government and
Politics: Sub-Saharan Africa.
Johns.
124. The New States of Africa in World
Affairs. Johns.
I

Religion

"'

57. Introduction to the History of Religions.


Staff.
140. Religions of South Asia. Bradley.
141. Religions of China and Japan.
Bradley and Corless.
143. Mysticism. Corless.
283. Religions of East Asia.
284. The Religion and History of Islam.
Partin.
285. Religions of India.
289. World Religions and Social Change.
Bradley.
Sociology
136. Sociology of Modern Africa. Tiryakian.
251. The Sociology of Modernization.
Tiryakian and Murch,
Further information may be
obtained from:
The Administrative
Assistant
Center for International
Studies
2101 Campus Drive
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina
27706
Telephone (Area Code 919)
684-2765

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APPENDIX III
Honors Thesis in International Comparative Studies/Comparative Area Studies
Cohorts 2012 to 2004
2011-2012
Uchechukwu Anigbogu, Cultural Comingling: The Impact of Western Medical Conceptions on Igbo
Cultural Understandings of Disease
Stella Rose Dee, "The Thing That God Almighty Put on This Cassette": Translating Leadership in
Mali
Claire Elizabeth Lockerby, Owning the Intangible? A Historical Study of the Roots of Hopi Cultural
Preservation and Knowledge Protection
Ibrahim Maali, Hands Off District Six: A Case Study in Recalling Community Through Militant
Non-Violence
Katherine A. Soltis, "Biting the Bullet" and Banning Guns: The Brazilian National Referendum of
2005 and Its Defeat at the Polls
Michelle Yang Zhang, Mediating Modernity: Constructions of Urban Chinese Women in Ling Long
(1931-1937) and ELLE (1988-1998)
2010-2011
Benjamin Arnstein, Offside: How Football and Ftbol Confound Our Expectations
Kseniya Benderskaya, Suburbanization in St. Petersburg: The Socioeconomic Ramifications of
Residential Deconcentration in the 21st Century
Aislynn Cannon, A Life of Ones Own: Womens Education and Economic Empowerment in Kenya
Yasmina Chergui, Moroccos Years of Lead: A look inside Moroccan Prison Literature
Drolma Gadou, Medicine Alone Will Not Heal You
Nicole Gathany, Antagonism and Syncretism: Spiritual Warfare and the Yoruba Identity
Ju Yon Kang, The Hidden Epidemic: Violence against Women in Haiti
Joyce Kim, Migration, Mobility, and Becoming: Changing definitions of agency and maturity among
migrant youth in Ghana
2009-2010

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Christopher Bobadilla, National Salvation: The Division of Catholicism and the War for the Soul of
Peru
Justin Brunet, The Cultural Appropriation of Flamenco and the Cuban Rumba by Francisco Franco
and Fidel Castro
Angela Chang, Birds of Passage and Sojourners: A Historical and Ethnographic Analysis of
Chinese Migration to Prato, Italy
Isabelle Figaro, Religion and Social Movement Discourse: An Analysis on Why Religion is so Powerful
and Why Social Movement Theory has been Insufficient to Understand its Nature
Diana Garibaldi, El Tango Extranjero: The International Role in Creating a National Symbol
Karolina Haraldsdottir, Flawed Tactics: A Discussion of the U.S. Governments Faulty Approach to
Criminal Drug Flow and the International Framework Required to Address it
Courtney Jamison, And the Winner Is . . . Politics and International Film Festivals
Lucy Jin, Unity Through Diversity, Unity Through Uniformity: Language Reform and the Making of
Modern China and Turkey
Danielle Johns, Historical Influences in Contemporary Discourse: Using History to Understand
Affirmative Action in Ecuador and Brazil
Neelima Navuluri, Provision and Protection: The Consequences of Refugee and Asylum Law and
Policy in Ireland and the United States
Niti Parthasarathy, Strangers and Stranger Places
2008-2009
Katherine Beck, Evoismo: The Essential Element to Effective Land Reform?
Marissa Galizia, Sustainably Cool: Marketing Ecolabels as the New Cool Way to Consume
Guen Han, Inequalities in Application: The International Human Rights Regime and Human Rights
in North Korea and Refugee Rights in China
Tara Hopkins, The Local Case: A Rural Health Clinics Journey through the Boundaries of Health
Andrea Marston, Certified Equality: A Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Mainstreaming Fair
Trade on Rural Craftswomen
Katie Mikush, Creating Gangsters: The Moral Panic Over Latino Youth and Gangs in Durham

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Jessie Weingartner, Expendable Youth: Impacts of Neoliberalism on the Chicago Public School
System and the Belizean Education System
2007-2008
Marjorie Elisabeth Bryan, Next Interface: New Conceptions of the Gendered Body in Postmodern
Feminist Art in East Asia
Andrew JC Cunningham, Rebalancing the Scales in Sino-African Relations: Transitions From
Bilateral to Continental African Responses to Chinas Emerging Hegemonic Interest in Sub-Saharan
Africa
Vasavi Reddy Devireddy, The Social Dynamics of Indias Health: Understanding Caste
Andrea Dinamarco, Marta Suplicy and Benedita da Silva, Paths to Political Power and Electoral
Success in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro
Amy Winter Feagles, Tempted to Torture: A Comparative Analysis of the Use of Torture in the
Algerian War of Independence and the U.S. War on Terror
Laura Ann Heeter, Access to Healthcare and Education: Illustrating the Differential Citizenship
Status of Chinese Migrants
Kayleigh Marie OKeefe, The Hypercommodification of Professional Club Soccer and the Emergence
of Local Global Fan Identities
Kathleen Marie Stanton, Voices Lost in the Crossfire: Internal Displacement in Turkey
2006-2007
Jie Gao, Viewing Japanese Extremism
Amanda Pickens, Assata: A Reflection on Freedom
Nick Renner, Orange and Blue: A Cultural Study of Popular Symbols and the Discourse of
Disengagement in Israel
Melissa Richer, In the Eyes of Hunchbacked Warriors
Jennifer Thompson, Secularity and Modernity: The Turkish Context
2005-2006
Hind Al-Thani, Origin
Emily Antoon, Palestinian Womens Identity in UNRWA, and Modes of Self-Definition
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Beverly Chang, Rationalization and Glocalization of Convenience Stores in Taiwan


Jonathan D. Cichowicz, Organized Crime and the Russian Experience
Abigail Gray, Obstacles and Options: Reforming Muslim Personal Law in India
Yazan Kopty, The Specter Nation: Palestinian Refugees, Nationalism, and the Right of Return
2004-2005
Maital Guttman, Mechina: A Preparation
Milouska Hoppenbrouwer, Perus Truth and Reconciliation Commission: The Limits of Society
Julia Hueckel, Polak-Katolik: The Evolution of National Identity and Modern Political Discourse in
Poland
Judd King, Islamic Politics in the 21st Century: Alternative Modernity or Alternative to Modernity
Stephanie Miller, The Political Economy of Indigenous Identity: Intellectual Property and
Bioprospecting in Peru
Ami Beruriah Paik, Western Zhou Bell-chimes and Mechelen Carillons: A Comparative Analysis of the
Development of Bells Into Their Golden Ages in China and the Low Countries
2003-2004
Jeannette Osterhout, Increasing Access to Resources and Support Networks for Ecuadorian Youth
with Diabetes
Leah Pollak, Articulating Resistance: The Struggle for Autonomy of the Current Mapuche Movement in
Chile
Marlena Sierra Crippin, A Challenge to Hegemonic Stability Theory: Exemplary Cases within the
Organization of American States and the World Trade Organization

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