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IJSTE - International Journal of Science Technology & Engineering | Volume 1 | Issue 11 | May 2015

ISSN (online): 2349-784X

Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different


Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
Jay P. Patel
M.E Student
Department of Textile Engineering
L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad

Prof. Parthiv R. Patel


Assistant Professor
Department of Textile Engineering
L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad

Hitesh K. Mahera
M.E Student
Department of Textile Engineering
L.D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad

Pankil Patel
Scientific Officer
Department of Composites Division
ATIRA, Ahmedabad

Abstract
Coating and lamination are the finish process designed to add or improve specific properties of fabric and it depends on the
polymer used and its recipe and also nature of substrate. The polymers used for coating comes in various nature from rigid to
flexible according to the requirement. In this project work the polymers used were Thermoplastic polyurethane and poly vinyl
chloride and were applied on polyester fabric by hot melt extrusion. Results were investigated for tear strength, Abrasion
resistance and flexural rigidity keeping in mind fabrics application. Results suggest that TPU have more tear strength than PVC,
also TPU is more abrasion resistant than PVC and more data are shown in the work.
Keywords: Coating, Lamination, TPU, PVC, Tear Strength, Flexibility, Abrasion
________________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
The use of coated fabric as protective clothing, awnings, tarpaulins and various other are being used. Historically , natives of
south America and north America have used natural rubber obtained from the tree in form of latex in order to make waterproof
material was recorded as first use of coated fabrics. For coating conventional materials such as wax, tar, resins are used in order
to make water resistant fabric since a long time. Now due to advancement in technology superior properties are being achieved
through coating in terms of strength, flexibility, water proof, fire proof etc.
There are many advances in the properties of polymer which are being for coating. Today main use of coated fabric is
classified in categories of technical textile in form fire proof material, water proof material etc. which are being used.
Coating is process of directly applying the polymeric material on the textile fabric which improves the core property of the fabric
whereas lamination is the process in which polymeric film is being made by calendaring and then that film is applied on the
fabric by the use of adhesives, lamination mostly improves the surface property of the fabric. Fibrous materials are also used for
reinforcing polymeric materials to form composites for use in tires, conveyor belts, hoses, etc.
Various methods of coating are being developed now a days which include dip, melt coating and lamination. For this different
methods the polymeric material is required in different stages for various method such as paste or solution for spread coating,
solution for dip coating, solid polymer such as granules for melt coating and lamination. The basic stages included in coating are
feeding of the textile material between the rollers under tension in coating or laminating zone, applying the coat and then passing
coated fabric through the oven to volatize the solvents further that cooling of fabric is done and then accordingly winding of
fabric is done on the rolls.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS


A. Sample specifications:
There were four samples made during the experiment, where polyester fabric with plain weave was used in all the samples.

Fabric
Count
(EPI x PPI)
GSM (after coating)

Table - 1
Sample Specifications
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
Polyester Polyester Polyester

Sample 4
Polyester

38 x 38

38 x 38

38 x 38

38 x 38

455

500

460

280

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279

Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
(IJSTE/ Volume 1 / Issue 11 / 047)

Coating material
Thickness (mm)

PVC
0.45

PVC
0.52

TPU
0.54

0.38

Fig. 2: Sample 1 & 2

Fig. 3: TPU Granules

Fig. 4: Sample 3

B. Machine specifications:
Working width=1000/1800/2100/2400 mm
Machine speed=5-40 m/min
Production temp=50-210 C
Appl. Weight= 5-500 g/m2
Viscosity=5000-60000 mPa
After all the samples were created testing parameter such as tear strength, abrasion test and flexural rigidity were carried out
and results were obtained all these results are discussed in next chapter.

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280

Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
(IJSTE/ Volume 1 / Issue 11 / 047)

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


A. Tear Strength Test (ASTM D2261):
Tearing strength is being determined by making samples of fabric and tearing the sample in warp and weft direction so as to give
proper result depending upon the structure of fabric. Force is being applied by jaws to the fabric in warp and weft direction and
following results were obtained
Sample size = 8 x 3 (inch)

Observation
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Mean
S.D.
C.V%

Table 2
Tear Strength Test Warp Way
Sample 1
Sample 2
Single peak
Tear
Single peak
Tear
force(N)
strength(N)
force(N)
strength(N)
383.46
287.15
452.31
336.88
388.8
291.15
463.87
345.49
394.77
295.62
435.69
324.50
394.78
295.63
445.24
331.61
402.44
301.37
494.59
368.37
392.85
294.18
458.34
341.37
7.14
5.35
22.72
16.93
1.82
1.82
4.96
4.96

Sample 3
Single peak
Tear
force(N)
strength(N)
541.26
403.13
550.36
409.91
560.28
417.30
539.14
401.55
552.36
411.40
548.68
408.66
8.62
6.42
1.57
1.57

These are the results of tear strength of fabric in warp direction here and tear strength and single peak force of jaws are
obtained in N. five readings of each specimen were obtained and then according to that mean, standard deviation and C.V.% are
being calculated.
The results was obtained that in warp direction the tear strength of TPU coated fabric was 38.9% greater than PVC coated fabric.

Observation
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Mean
S.D.
C.V%

Table 3
Tear Strength Test Weft Way
Sample 1
Sample 2
Single peak
Tear
Single peak
Tear
force(N)
strength(N)
force(N)
strength(N)
330.55
246.19
359.36
267.65
326.08
242.86
350.21
260.84
329.34
245.29
356.98
265.88
327.52
243.94
348.65
259.67
323.51
240.95
352.38
262.45
327.40
245.16
353.37
264.77
2.47
1.92
4.05
3.08
0.76
0.78
1.15
1.16

Sample 3
Single peak
Tear
force(N)
strength(N)
489.78
364.79
492.36
366.71
495.85
369.31
494.61
368.39
496.05
369.46
493.73
369.71
2.37
1.98
0.48
0.53

These are the results of tear strength of fabric in weft direction here and tear strength and single peak force of jaws are
obtained in N. five readings of each specimen were obtained and then according to that mean, standard deviation and C.V.% are
being calculated.
The results was obtained that in weft direction the tear strength of TPU coated fabric was 50.8% greater than PVC coated fabric.

Graph 1: Tear Strength Result

B. Abrasion Test (D3389-10):


Sample for this test is cutted in circular shape of diameter of 4 inch

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281

Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
(IJSTE/ Volume 1 / Issue 11 / 047)

Abrasion test is being carried out in order to calculate the resistance of fabric from daily wear and tear here these test is depended
upon weight loss where loss of mass is calculated after rubbing the fabric by roller by 5000 times.
The result obtained from testing are obtained and denoted in table below
Table 4
Abrasion Resistance Test
Rubs

GSM
before
testing

specimen
weight (mg)

500

750

1000

2500

5000

Sample 1

455

3685

13.24

28.96

47.99

85.08

118.32

3566.68

Sample 2

500

4050

17.68

38.69

64.11

113.57

157.89

3892.11

Sample 3

460

3726

0.88

1.93

3.2

5.66

7.87

3718.13

Sample 4

280

2268

5.3

11.59

19.2

34.03

47.32

2220.68

final weight (mg)

In this test 5000 rubs where done and different reading were obtained after 500, 750, 1000, 2500 and 5000 rubs respectively.

Graph 2: Abrasion Test Result

The above results obtained denotes that thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) have more abrasive resistance than polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) and also with respect to untreated normal fabric. The results are obtained after consecutive amount of rubs.
TPU have weight loss of 7.87 mg after 5000 rubs and PVC have weight loss of 118-157 mg after 5000 rubs and normal
uncoated fabric have loss of 47 mg after 5000 rubs.

Graph 3: Weight Loss after Abrasion

The above table describes about the comparison of mass loss of various samples of coated fabrics. The abrasion resistance of
fabric depends upon the fabric structure and recipe of polymer used for coating. As the same fabric is used we can conclude that
the recipe of TPU is important for achieving such a good abrasion resistant property. TPU have good abrasion property than
PVC and Untreated fabric.

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Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
(IJSTE/ Volume 1 / Issue 11 / 047)

C. Flexural Rigidity Test:


This test is being carried out in order to calculate the rigidity of fabric of various properties. The test was being carried out on
Shirley stiffness tester which is used to calculate the bending length of the fabric and from that flexural rigidity and bending
modulus can be calculated. The results obtained from the test for all the samples are:-

Sr. No.

Length(Mm)

1
2
3
4
5
6

10
20
30
40
50
60

Table 5
Bending Angle Test
Bending Angle()
Sample 1
2
5
7
10
15
18

Sample 2
2
5
8
12
18
25

Sample 3
3
6
10
19
28
43

Sample 4
6
30
55
70
80
83

This table denotes the angle of fabric at various length from 10-60mm and the fabric was allowed to bend and then the bending
angle was obtained at different length of fabric.

Graph 4: Bending Angle Test

The graph is being created from the table obtained, from the graph it can be seen that the untreated fabric has the highest
bending angle at different length, but for coated fabrics of TPU and PVC, TPU have comparatively 55% more angle at 50mm
and 72% more angle at 60mm.
For calculating flexural rigidity of fabric bending angle C has to be obtained, where
C=length of fabric at bending angle 41.5o
Table 6
Flexural Rigidity Test

1
2
3
4

GSM

Bending
Length(Mm)

Flexural Rigidity(nm)

455
500
460
280

80
72
58
24

2283.008
1828.915
879.5649
37.93306

The flexural rigidity can be calculated as,


Flexural rigidity (G) = 9.8MC3 10-6(Nm)

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283

Effect of PU And PVC Coating on Different Fabrics for Technical Textile Application
(IJSTE/ Volume 1 / Issue 11 / 047)

Graph 5: Flexural Rigidity Test

The above graph denotes that the flexural rigidity of PVC coated fabric is higher than TPU coated fabric. Where the flexural
rigidity of PVC is 2.5 higher than TPU.
So these are the various tests performed on the coated fabric and now analyzing the results we will move on to the conclusion.

IV. CONCLUSION
Coated fabric are included in the technical textile and have very high market demand. There are some superior properties
obtained after coating in terms of strength, waterproofness etc. which enables to do study on various variants of coated fabric.
Many analysis were done on different samples and by doing this project this are the key points which are being concluded.

In flexural rigidity test, the flexibility of untreated fabric was higher but it lacks the property achieved after coating, but
in case of TPU and PVC the flexural rigidity of PVC coated fabric is more than TPU, so more force will be required to
bend the PVC fabric, so it can be concluded that TPU coated fabric is more flexible.
In tear strength, the tear strength of TPU coated fabric was more than PVC and untreated fabric as it has more than
untreated fabric and more flexibility than PVC coated fabric.
In Abrasion resistance, the test was determined by final weight loss of specimen and resistance of TPU was more than
that of PVC and normal fabric. The abrasion resistance depends upon fabric structure and recipe of polymer, but as
same fabric is used for all the samples it is the property of TPU that improves abrasion resistance.

REFERENCES
Research Paper:
[1] V Masteikaitea & V Saceviiene, Study on tensile properties of coated fabrics and laminates, Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research, Vol. 30September 2005-pp 267-272
[2] Kunal singha , A review of coating and lamination in textiles, process and application, American journal of polymer science 2012, vol. 2 issue 3, 39-49.
[3] R.H. Haddad and J.D. Black, Parameters of Woven Construction influencing Coating adhesion, journal of Coated fabrics, vol. 14 April 1985
[4] Hirokazu Minami and Shinya Motobayashi, Experimental research on uniaxial and biaxial tensile strength of coated fabrics with variously shaped defects,
Journal of coated fabrics, vol.11 July 1981
[5] A review of Industrial coated fabric substrates, Journal of Industrial textiles, July 1996 vol. no. 26 issue no.1 45-64
[6] US 6013586 tent material products and method of making tent material products.
[7] VesnaMarijaPotoiMatkovi, ZenunSkenderi, Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Coated Knitted Fabrics,FIBRES& TEXTILES in Eastern Europe
2013; 21, 4(100): 86-91.
Books
[8] Ashish Kumar sen, Coated textiles principles and application
[9] Andreas giessman coating substrates and textiles a practical guide to coating and lamination technology.
[10] Walter fung coated and laminated textiles.
[11] Horrocks and anand handbook of technical textiles.
[12] Walter fung and mike hard castle textile in automotive engineering.
[13] Marcin Adamik Abrasion resistance of materials
Websites
[14] http://www.tikp.co.uk/knowledge/technology/coating-and-laminating/ accessed on 24-09-2014
[15] http://www.google.com/patents/US6013586 accessed on 24-09-2014
[16] http://www.taberindustries.com/test-method-taber-rotary-abraser
[17] http://www.atira.in/Test_PerfomanceTest.aspx
[18] http://nptel.ac.in/courses/116102029/51
[19] http://textilelearner.blogspot.in/2012/02/fabric-stiffness-testing-determination.html

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