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# Explosive energy distribution theory

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## Explosive energy distribution

2DFace incorporates two methods for calculating and displaying the distribution of energy of explosives in 3D
space.

## 4D dynamic explosive energy distribution.

Explosive energy distribution may be expressed in several units: kg/tonne, kg/m 3, MJ/tonne, MJ/m3 and MJ/m2. The
first four unit types (excluding MJ/m2) available in the explosive distribution model are analogous to the conventional
powder factor calculation (kg of explosive divided by tonnes or volume of rock blasted), the fifth unit is an Energy
Flux value.

## Static 3-D Explosive Distribution

The three dimensional explosive energy distribution of a charge does not take timing into account and is determined
in 2DRing following the approached developed by Kleine et al (1993).
The traditional powder factor calculation was extended by considering a small infinitesimal segment of charge and
writing the equation for the resulting explosive concentration at a point "P" for a sphere centred at the charge
segment, the general form of the equation is as follows:

(6)
Equation (6) can be integrated and rewritten as:

(7)
Special conditions apply to the above relationships at the charge axis (ie. h=0) and at very large distances (ie. h at
infinity ). The explosive concentration at any point in 3D is determined by solving the appropriate integrated form of
the equation for each explosive charge and summing the values.

Dynamic 4D Explosive
Distribution
The 4D explosive
energy
distribution differs
from
a
3D
calculation,
in

04-08-2015

## Explosive energy distribution theory

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that
the
detonation timing is considered as the fourth dimension. The model is based in the 3D analysis and incorporates a
weighting factor which is a function of the time a deck detonates and a rock mass specific factor called "cooperation
time".

As part of the 4D energy distribution analysis, a timing simulation must be carried out first. The 4D energy
distribution tessellates points on a plane specified by the user just like the 3D energy distribution. For each
calculation point, the nearest charged deck is found. The time at which this deck detonates is used as a reference
time (tnd ). A weighting function is determined based on the cooperation time and detonation time of charges. For
every explosive deck in the timing simulation the 3D explosive energy value is calculated and multiplied by the term
given by the following weighting function:
where td is the time the deck detonated, tnd is the time the nearest deck to the calculation point
detonated and tc is the co-operation time. The graph of this weighting function is shown below.
The cooperation time affects how steeply the weighting goes to zero and is the time interval within which decks
adjacent to a detonating deck will assist in the fragmentation of the rock mass. After this time interval, the interaction
of decks reduces significantly due to the movement of the rock mass. The time is approximately the time to first
burden movement and is very much a rock mass dependent property.