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Chapter 1

The Problem

Information technology has been around for a long, long time. Basically as long as people have
been around, information technology has been around because there were always ways of communicating
through technology available at that point in time. There are 4 main ages that divide up the history of
information technology. Only the latest age (electronic) and some of the electromechanical age really
affects us today, but it is important to learn about how we got to the point we are at with technology today.
Ordering system throughout the world has relied on pens and papers. Problems such as missing
orders and information sent to the wrong place arise. Furthermore, some could not be able to handle the
massive volume of orders. Under the old manual ordering systems, it takes up too much time to process.
Real time ordering and improved efficiency has been the focus of entrepreneurs. As with many
business scenarios, getting rid of paper improves efficiency, reduces human error and allows information to
flow to an infrastructure without a time consuming data input process. There is also less chance of
handwritten orders being misread and a higher customer turnaround as customers will be served faster. In
accordance to this, the software developers proposed the Christian Hanz computerized ordering system.
The system is developed specially to meet the needs of Christian Hanz.

Theoretical Framework




1. Their current system

is actually manual. They
have no existing
computerized order and
sales system. Due to the
manual system that
they have, their services
slow down. In their
current system,
problems like missing
order, loss of data, and
wrong delivery details
could possibly occur.
2. The proponents would
like to develop the
ordering system to
address the following
problems of

1. To computerize the
ordering system of
Christian Hanz
2. To monitor the
integration of different
operations, which
includes order database
system, pricing
database system and
payment and billing
database system, there
is a need for
computerization. It
would be convenient for
Christian Hanz to get
information fast and
accurately. Furthermore,
there would be

The user can log in

its username and
password to know its
information and
limitation. The
cashier computes
the order of the
customer and allows
canceling the
transaction if the
input order is error.
The administrator
can view the daily,
weekly, and monthly
report. The manager
can view the
summary of the
daily sales and edit


Figure 1
Hierarchical Input Process Output

Conceptual Framework
A conceptual framework is a tool researchers use to guide their inquiry; it is a set of ideas used to structure
the research, a sort of map that may include the research question, the literature review, methods and data analysis.
Researchers use a conceptual framework to guide their data collection and analysis. A concept is an abstract image
that differs from one individual to another, just like perception. It describes the aspects selected from the theoretical
framework to become the basis of the study. If a concept is being considered in the study, it has to be defined clearly
by identifying indicators or a set of criteria that takes on values that can be measured quantitatively or qualitatively
.These are referred to as variables.
Before implementing the system you need to plan through illustrations and other specifications,
through this diagram this shows the IPO (Input, Output and Process).
Input, This stage involves putting information into the system .You need to gather information
through interview, questionnaires and suggestions. This is to know the different informations regarding the proposed
system. It is very important also to the owner and head pharmacist approves the proposal.
Process, This stage involves doing something with the information. This is on how to analyze the
problems being encountered by the Christian hanz under process you need to start up making the proposed system.
Output, This stage involves displaying results; the researcher takes the opportunity to implement
the proposed system entitled Order and Sales System of Christian Hanz. This is with the approval of the owner
and at the same time the head of Christian Hanz if this system will improve the performance of the users.
Lastly is the Feedback shows if there are some errors and bugs with the proposed system, then the
researcher or developer needs to change and to modify the system for a better result of the project.

Statement of the Problem

The researcher comes up with the general and specific problems in which Christian Hanz
is presently encountered.
The general problem of this study is Christian Hanz wants to have an Order and Sales
System using computer. The users want to avoid experiencing errors and low performance of the system
they are using.

The following are the specific problems encountered by the Christian Hanz in terms of:
Data duplication
Lack of security
Lack of storage.
Too much paper wastage.

Scope and Delimitation

Christian Hanz Order and sales system is an integration of different operations: ordering, pricing,
and billing systems, customers input orders directly into the computer, which communicates the customers
order to the company. The fixed terminal number identifies which customer ordered which. A staff prints out
the bill. Additional orders may be accepted by the company only if the bill hasnt been printed.
Minimum system requirements:
Windows 7
128 MB of RAM
8 GB hard drive
DirectX 9.0

Significance of the Study

To the manager and workers of Christian Hanz -The computerized order and sales system can
lessen the time consume in writing the order of the customer, they can also prevent problems like missing
order, loss of data, and wrong delivery details
To the Researcher - It is important to the developer to have this kind of proposed to convey the
future researchers.
To the future Researcher - The proposed system may help other Employees; this may serve as
their reference for some related studies.

Definition of Terms

Advantage- benefit; profit.

Computerize-convert to a system or form which is controlled, stored, or processed by computer.
Data- facts and statistics used for reference or analysis
Develop-grow or cause to grow and become larger or more advanced.
Inventory - a complete list of items such as goods in stock or the contents of a building.
Modernize- adapt to modern needs; bring up to date.
Requisite- made necessary by particular circumstances or regulations.
Scope-the extent of the area or subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant
Significance - the quality of being significant; importance.
System-a set of things working together as a mechanism or interconnecting network


In the old days, business was done using papers and flat registers. The organization of these
registers was difficult and the storage of huge amounts of data was a real problem. Also, the process of
preparing a report takes a lot of time. But when computers were introduced into the business field,
everything had changed. Databases were used to store huge amounts of data and organize them. Instead
of spending many hours (or maybe days) preparing a report, a query consisting of a number of statements
can perform the job in some seconds.
Although databases were very useful, another problem has appeared. Companies and
corporations spread over wide distances. A single company can have branches in all the governorates of a
country and maybe with some branches outside that country. Data communicating and sharing was a
problem. This problem was solved using computer networks which are the best way for data
communicating. Nowadays, computer networks are essential for any business. Computer networks are
used for file transfer, voice and video conferencing. For this reason, we have chosen our final project to
discuss networks from different sides.
Neil Kokemuller inventory system - While some products maintain stable and consistent
demand year-round, others are more seasonally driven. In these product categories, companies have to
strategize on how to effectively buy and manage seasonal inventory. This is the build-up of higher than
normal levels of certain products to meet temporary seasonal demand.
The holidays are a big driver of seasonal inventory. Supermarkets typically stock up on turkeys and
stuffing the weeks leading up to Easter, Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays, all of which lead to high
prominence of turkey dinners. Similarly, many retailers set up special seasonal aisles before Halloween that
are full of costumes, accessories, and significantly more candy than is normally maintained in stores.
The fashion and apparel industry is very seasonally driven. Fashion buyers and retailers carefully
strategize when to merchandise new fashions in stores to take advantage of peak seasonal demand.
Usually buyers are at trade shows looking at new apparel and styles two to three seasons ahead of when
clothes arrive in stores.


According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, Inventory refers to stocks

of anything necessary to do business (U.S. Small Business Administration, 2010)The U.S. Small Business
Administration publication describes what constitutes successful inventory management balancing cost

benefits of inventory, including Maintaining a wide assortment without spreading the rapidly

moving items too thin, Increasing inventory turnover without sacrificing service, Keeping stock low without
sacrificing performance, Obtaining lower price by making volume purchases ,Maintaining an adequate
inventory without an excess of absolute items.

Like any other country, Thailand is characterized by a unique set of infrastructural,

regulatory, legal, and economic conditions. Cheap labor coupled with a relatively stable economic and
political climate has attracted Multinational Corporations (MNCs) to Thailand. As multinationals invest
billions of dollars into Thai operations, it is essential that they design and manage systems that are
congruent with the local needs. One key operational area of interest is the management of inventories.
Inventory systems can be affected by a host of international, product, and supply factors. In this
research we attempt to empirically ascertain how inventory systems are influenced by industry type and
look for interactions with cultural, infrastructural and economic issues. This research is expected to be of
value to MNC managers in designing inventory systems that work more effectively in Thailand. In addition,
it could also provide direction to nations making the transition to Newly Industrial Countries (NIC) status
from that of developing one.
A significant amount of literature is available on inventory systems. A majority of the findings are
derived from experiences in the US, Japan and Western Europe. Some inventory systems however, can be
affected by variations in local conditions such as infrastructure, customs, duties, and regulations. Hence, it
is essential to view such systems in an international context

Program Features
*User Friendly interface
*Unlimited number of products
*Unlimited number of customer
*Maintainable records of data

*accurate computation of percentage

Key Concepts of the Scientific Method Research about the different methodologies
There are several important aspects to research methodology. This is a summary of the key
concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science.
He way you approach your question will have a profound effect upon the way you construct your
dissertation, so this section discusses the types of research you might undertake for your dissertation. The
use of literature and case studies is considered and the merits of primary research are debated and advice
is given on the use of existing research data. You may not be fond of statistics, but the potential relevance
of a quantitative approach should be considered and similarly, the idea of qualitative analysis and
conducting your own research may yield valuable data. The possibilities of using quantitative and
qualitative data are also discussed.
Research Design
The design is the structure of any scientific work. It gives direction and systematizes the research.
Different types of research designs have different advantages and disadvantages.
Research Locale
This research revision was furthermore established with the advantage of internet, research papers
and certain thesis books and certain opinions was concentrated on the internet and vocabularies and finally
the design of codes was likewise concentrated on the internet with definite lavish developers and
programmers in the world.
Research locale is a term that refers to a specified area and/or subject that is being studied in a
research project.
Research Subjects
To protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects at the University of Rochester. To
accomplish this, we review, approve the initiation of, and conduct periodic review of research involving
human subjects
Source of Data
That has not been processed for meaningful use to become Information. Risks Often when data is
captured in one electronic system and then transferred to another, there is a loss of audit trail or the
inherent data cannot be absolutely verified.
Research Tools
We typically think of observations as having been seen "with our own eyes," but in science,
observations can take many forms. Of course, we can make observations directly by seeing, feeling,
hearing, and smelling, but we can also extend and refine our basic senses with tools

Library and Internet Research

Conducting library and Internet research helps you quickly find the information you need. This page
provides useful suggestions about how to conduct Boolean searches, for instance, and offers advice about
how to identify whether you should begin your research using the Open Web, the Gated Web, or the
Hidden Web.
A form containing a set of questions, especially one addressed to a statistically significant number
of subjects as a way of gathering information for a survey.
Data Flow Diagram
Is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system, modeling its
process aspects. A DFD is often used as a preliminary step to create an overview of the system, which can
later be elaborated.
System Flowchart
Is the graphical representation of the flow of data in the system, and represents the work process
of the system.
IPO (Input Process Output)
Is done by people who have faith in the future and a vision of the future adequate to form the basis
for planning

Research Procedure
A conceptual model used in project management that describes the stages
involved in an information system development project, from an initial feasibility
study through maintenance of the completed application.

System Planning
Specializes in supporting defense, national security, and domestic preparedness programs

System Analysis
Use of experimental approach (simulation) in understanding the behavior of
an economy, market, or other complex phenomenon

System Implementation

Is the construction of the new system and the delivery of that system into production (that is, the
day-to-day business or organization
System Design
Is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces,
and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements? Systems design could be
seen as the application of systems theory to product development.

System Testing
Software or hardware is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the
system's compliance with its specified requirements? System testing falls within the scope of black box
testing, and as such, should require no knowledge of the inner design of the code or logic.

The process of maintaining or preserving someone or something, or the state of being maintained.
Statistical Treatment of Data
Two important, though often neglected, parts of an analysis are error analysis and correct results
reporting. Results should always be reported along with some estimation of the errors involved. The best
way to do this is to report the most likely value along with a confidence interval. The confidence interval
gives the range of values thought to contain the "true" value. The statistical treatment of data involves
basing the error estimation on firm theoretical principles. This laboratory exercise on treatment of data
should help you understand and apply these principles.

Chapter IV


This Chapter covers the Presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data gathered. The study covers
analysis of existing system and proposed System.
PERCENTAGE = Answer of respondents *100/total Number of respondents (10) wherein, the total number
of respondents (clients) is equivalent to 10.

Table 1:
Failure of operation of the existing manual system

Causes of the Failure of the Patient Admission and

Consultation System

Late Distribution of forms data collections


Lack of funds


Lack of trained personnel


Lack of cooperation from data source


Limited time for data gathering


Irrelevant Data


Wrong Input Data


Table 1: The perception of the Respondents on the possible causes of the Failure of operation of the
Existing Manual System

System Objectives

Looking into the problems being encountered by the supply officer, the researcher comes up with
the general objectives:
The general objective of the study is do design and developed a system in which it will benefit the
users. It will be entitled Order and Sales System. It will be design and developed to improve the
performance of the process of the work and at the same time this is to lessen their efforts instead they will
consume their time in making inventory.
The following are the specific objectives that are supposed to be meeting by the developer:

To be able to comprehend a work.

To be able to get the work more efficient.

To be able to identify if system is convenient to handle.

To be able to recognize if system output is satisfactory.



This chapter presents the summary of the study. It also include the conclusion as a result of the
findings and shows the recommendations based from the findings in the previous Chapter.
Summary Findings
The Researcher conducted a study regarding the existing system was found
to be completely manual, i.e. all data was captured with pen and paper. The user
has difficulty in computing the customer order due to the manual process. Receiving
the order from the customer took a lot of time in writing the order of the
customer .Due to the manual system that they have, their services slowdown in
their current system. In their current system, problems like missing order, loss of
data, and wrong product details.
Basing on the findings and analysis, computerization of order and sales
system is venture worth to invest in. Once taken seriously and embraced, there are
a lot of benefits that can be realized there in. Both company and community it is
serving will benefit on it. For example the percentage of the other establishments is
much higher to Christian Hanz customers especially peak hours, if Christian Hanz
uses an ordering system, it would lighten the load for the staff and likewise enhance
customer service
Errors like missing order, loss of data that were resulting from lack of
information for ordering system, on the part of manager/employees will be
minimize. Order database system, pricing database system and payment and billing
database. It will be convenient for Christian Hanz to get information and compute
the order fast and accurately, furthermore, there will be consistent operations and
Therefore there will be the right information at the point of care.
Ordering, Pricing and Billing which are generated with the helped of computer
are more accurate and quick.
Therefore with the introduction of computerization, the problem of too much
paper wasted and errors in the reports will be no more.

A more comprehensive study to exploit the full benefits of the new
technology in this field of Order and Sales system is recommended. This may be
able to unveil more gaps and therefore improve on the system more than this study
has been able to do.
The manager should step into have the two branch units computerize their
order and sales system by providing the necessary funds for such projects.
Training of the employees in minimum computer skills is paramount. It was
found out that most of employees are computer illiterate. Without these skills
system implementation will be difficult therefore it is recommended that a training
program be made a priority.