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EHS TRAINING

FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE FIGHTING


Detecting and
fighting fire

Detectio Warnin Escape


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Immediat
FI
RE e
Attack Fire
brigade
Methods of Fire Extinguishing (SBC)

There are three different methods of fire extinguishing.

Starvation - Removal of Fuel


Blanketing/Smothering - Removal of Oxygen
Cooling - Removal of Heat

Fire can be extinguished by removing any one of the


above three elements like Fuel, Oxygen or Heat.
Starvation - Removal of fuel.

This is a method in which the


surrounding materials are removed
from the seat of fire and making the
fire to starve, without supply of fuel
the fire will be starved and
extinguished.
Blanking/Smothering -
Removal of Oxygen.
In this method the oxygen supply to the fire areas
will be cut off. The fire will be off because of lack of
oxygen, It is not necessary to prevent the total
oxygen supply to the fuel area. This action can be
achieved by using cotton blankets plywood sheets
or corrugated boxes over the fuel. Even closing the
doors and windows will also serve the same purpose
of cutting off the oxygen supply to the affected
area. There are different extinguishing medias
through which the removal of oxygen can be
achieved.
Cooling - Removal of Heat.

Water is normally used for cooling the fire because


it has the greatest heat absorbing properties.
Water is the best fire fighting media for solid fires
like wood, leaves, cotton and charcoal.
Since water is the best conductor of electricity it
should not be used in electrical equipment, Water
density is more than the density of other burning
liquid fuels, hence in direct form it should not be
used for any liquid fuels.
• At the time of emergency all the above three principles

can be used in the combined way.


• Removing the flammable materials from the adjacent
areas and also by continuous cooling of the
surrounding areas, convection, conduction and
radiation are taken care and heat transfer can be
prevented and fire can be kept under control.
Class A - Wood, paper, cloth, trash, plastics

Class B - Flammable liquids: gasoline, oil, grease,


acetone
Any non-metal in a liquid state, on fire. This classification
also includes flammable gases.  
 

Class C - Electrical: energized electrical equipment


As long as it's "plugged in," it would be considered a class
C fire.  (Class C fires generally deal with electrical
Current.)
 

Class D - Metals: potassium, sodium,


aluminum, magnesium
1. WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

1. Water type Fire Extinguisher are used for class.


A fire involving organic materials like paper, Plunger
wood, textile etc. (knob)
Safety Clip
2. Fire is extinguished by the cooling action of Discharge
water. Nozzle

3. Mechanism and Operation:-


• Remove the safety clip and strike the knob. Handle

• The piercing needle will puncture the gas


cartridge and the cylinder will be
pressurized with the CO2 gas.
• The water will be thrown out through the
discharge nozzle.
• Water type Fire extinguishers should not be
used in fires involving electrical equipment
and flammable liquid fires
. FOAM TYPE FIRE EXTINGISHER

1. Foam Extinguishers are used fir class B


fires involving flammable liquids like oil,
Plunger
petrol products paints and spirits. (knob)
2. Foam covers the surface of the liquid and Safety Clip

cuts of oxygen supply, i.e., through


Blanketing or smothering method it puts
out fire.
3. Mechanism and Operation:- Handle
Discharge
• Remove the safety clip and strike the knob. Hose
• The piercing needle will puncture the gas
cartridge and the cylinder will be
pressurised with the CO2 gas.
• The Foam Concentrate solution will be
thrown out through the discharge hose.
Discharge
• While passing through the branch pipe Nozzle

sucks air and foam will be generated.


CARBON DI OXIDE TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

CO2 is the media for Fighting Flammable liquids, gases and electrical fires.
Safety
pin
CO2 gas puts out fire by smothering action by removing the oxygen. Handle

Mechanism and Operation:-


Flow Control
valve
emove the Locking pin.

Unscrew the control valve in anti-clockwise.


Discharge Horn
Direct the CO2 gas at base of fire.

CO2 extinguishers are not to be used in fires involving


eactive metals like sodium potassium and magnesium.

CO2 does not have any cooling effect, hence not advisable for class A Fires.
DRY CHEMICAL POWDER TYPE EXTINGUISHER

1. DCP extinguishers are multipurpose type and


are suitable for flammable liquids like gases
metals and also for fires in electrical Plunger
equipments. (knob)

2. DCP puts out fire by smothering method Safety Clip


Discharge
Hose
3. Mechanism and operation:
Handle
• Remove the safety clip
• Hold the discharge hose firmly and strike the
knob.
• CO2 gas cartridge will be pierced and the high
pressure carbon d oxide gas will be released
to the outer container.
• Sodium bi carbonate powder will be thrown out
through the discharge hose.
4. DCP can also be used for small surface fires of
class A

5. DCP is not effective for class A fires as there is


Portable Fire Extinguisher
Training

The P.A.S.S. Method


Aim the hose
or nozzle.

Pull the pin.

Squeeze the lever.

Sweep
the
agent.