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Real

Time Embedded Systems

Module1 . Architecture of Embedded Systems


Unit 1 Concepts and Examples
Unit 2 Reverse Engineering of a Cell Phone
Unit 3 Reverse Engineering of a Digital Camera
Unit 4 Generic Architecture of an Embedded System
Unit 5 Components of Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Architecture

Real Time Embedded Systems

The Hierarchical Components

System
Subsystems
(PCBs)
Processor Level Components
(Integrated Circuits)
(Microprocessors, Memory, I/O devices etc)

Gate Level Components


Generally inside the
Integrated Circuits rarely outside

Real Time Embedded Systems

Smart Insulin Pen

Real Time Embedded Systems

Digital Camera

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

MCU (Micro Controller Unit)


is responsible for handling ash-light, Status
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), Zoom Lens
PosiGon Sensing, communicaGng through
Infrared port (Ir Rx), BaKery and Universal
Serial Bus (USB) voltage monitoring, Motor
Drive

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

TI Media Processor
is responsible for, USB and RS232C interface,
IEEE-1394 interface (a standard prescribed for
digital cameras) CommunicaGng and
Managing with Analog Front End (AFE) which
is interfaced with the CCD (Charge Coupled
Device) photo sensor, Audio CODEC control,
Memory Management, controlling the TFT
unit (Thin Film Transistor: An LCD screen
technology used in laptop's and some of the
newer type monitors)

Real Time Embedded Systems


CCDC: CCD CMOS Controller, IPIPE: Image Pipe, H3A: Hardware 3A registers
OSD: On Screen Display, VPBE: Video Processing Back End, VPSS: Video Port Subsystem
DLL: Delay Locked Loop, PHY: Physical Layer: AEMIF: Advanced External Memory Interface
ASP: Analog Signal Processing, MMC/SD: Multi Media Card, Secure Digital, SPI: Serial Port Interface
I2C: IC to IC interface, WDT: Watch Dog Timer, GIO: General Purpose IO, RTO: Real Time Output

Real Time Embedded Systems

CCD
A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an image sensor,
consisGng of an integrated circuit containing an array
of linked, or coupled, light-sensiGve capacitors.
Under the control of an external circuit, each
capacitor can transfer its electric charge to one or
other of its neighbors.

More SensiGve Photographic Films


70% compared to just 2% uGlizaGon

Real Time Embedded Systems

Some Sensors

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Real Time Embedded Systems

Some Pictures in a Vehicle


under Low Light (1.3 Lux)

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Very Low Light


0.7 Lux

Real Time Embedded Systems

Bayer Filter

Real Time Embedded Systems

A Bayer lter mosaic is a color lter array (CFA) for


arranging RGB color lters on a square grid of
photosensors. The term derives from the name of its
inventor, Dr. Bryce E. Bayer of Eastman Kodak, and
refers to a parGcular arrangement of color lters
used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in
digital cameras, camcorders, and scanners to create
a color image. The lter paKern is 50% green, 25%
red and 25% blue, hence is also called RGBG or
GRGB.

Real Time Embedded Systems