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ASME Impact Test Requirement

The ASME Impact Test Requirement article provides you with information about
impact test requirements in pressure vessel design and construction.
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Let's say, you have a pressure vessel under design, process and construction has not
started yet.
Based on the ASME impact test requirement, you need to make assessment to see that
either your pressure vessel is exempted from impact testing, or you need to carry out
the test.
There are 4 steps for impact test exemption assessment. You need to know these steps.
You might be exempted in the first, second or third steps and might not be exempted
even in step 4.
So if you are in step 4 and you have not exempted, then you need to carry out the test.
I will explain the process for exemption in this article.
Basic Concept:
You may know carbon steels and low alloy steels exhibit a drastic change in their
room temperature ductility at sub-zero service temperatures. Different types of
materials exhibit different types of transition behavior.
We can see there is a sudden, phenomenal drop in their notch-toughness properties
below the "transition" range of temperature, which should be a matter of concern for
us.
Body centered cubic or Ferritic alloys exhibit a significant transition in behavior when
impact tested over a range of temperatures. Above transition temperature range,
impact specimens fracture in a "ductile" manner, absorbing relatively large amounts of
energy.

At lower temperatures, i.e. below the transition temperature range, the impact test
specimens are found to fracture in a brittle (cleavage) manner, absorbing less energy.
And within the transition temperature range, the fracture is a mixture of ductile and
brittle nature.
A material would be invulnerable to a sudden drop in notch-toughness at the lowest
specified service (or design) temperature, if it is proved by conducting Charpy Vnotch Impact tests on representative test samples, at reference (the lowest service)
temperature.
Grain refined carbon steel forgings and wrought materials (thoroughly worked and
normalized) generally exhibit good notch toughness.
ASME Code Section VIII Div 1 exemption rules for ASME Impact Test
Requirement:
There are specific rules in ASME Code for exemption from ASME Impact Test
Requirement. This test is very expensive, so pressure vessel manufacturers are trying
to be exempted for this costly test.
You need to follow the following clauses to make exemption assessment for ASME
impact test requirement:
UG-20(f) UCS-66(a) UCS-66(b) UCS-68(c)
First you have to keep your pressure vessel design data available and then refer to
UG-20 (f). If you are exempted from this clause, you do not need proceed further.
But if you are not exempted by UG-20 (f), you have to proceed to UCS-66(a), but
again if you are exempted, there is no need for more assessment.
But if not, you have to proceed to UCS-66(b). If you are exempted now, there is no
need for more assessment; otherwise, you have to proceed to UCS-68(c), and again if
you are still not exempted, you have to carry out impact testing.

For some cases, You might be exempted from the ASME impact test requirement in
the first stage in UG-20 (f). In others, You might be exempted in UCS-66(a) or UCS66(b) or UCS-68(c). If you are not exempted, you must prepare yourself for doing this
costly test.
This test would be more costly out of the US because of Laboratory Accreditation
requirements. Also, there are fewer accredited labs in Europe and the Middle East, and
their price is high as well.
UG-20(f)
We will start with UG-20(f) for the ASME impact test requirement. If your MOC
(Material of Construction) is categorized in P-No. 1 or 2 (Refer to ASME Code
Section IX for P-No Definition) and your MOC thickness has the limited value
defined in this clause, then you might be exempted from impact testing.
But you need to refer to Fig UCS-66 in ASME Code Section VIII Div 1 and see in
which A, B, C or D curves your MOC is listed. All ASME carbon steel and low alloy
steel material is distributed in these 4 groups (Curves) of materials.
You need to know that the materials listed in curve D have the best toughness
property, better than the materials listed in curve C. Similarly materials listed in curve
C have better toughness properties compared to materials listed in curve B and
materials listed in Curve B have better toughness than materials listed in Curve A .
See Following Fig UCS-66(a):
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When you determine your MOC curve, then you have to review UG-20(f) and look
for the possibility of exemption from the ASME impact test requirement. There are
some other conditions in this clause, which you should consider for exemption.
For instance, the vessel should be hydrostatically tested after completion, and the
thermal and mechanical loading can not be a design controlling factor.
For example, if your MOC is a normalized SA 516 Gr.70 with 0.75 inch thickness you
will be exempted from ASME impact test requirement.
Your thickness, in this example, is 0.75 of an inch, and is listed in curve D
which is up to 1 inch, you are exempted by this clause. Of course, you will be
carry out hydro-static test and ensure that the mentioned loadings are not a design
controlling factor in your considered pressure vessel.
UCS-66(a)
So assume that in the above example, your MOC thickness is 1.125 inch instead of 1
inch, you will not be exempted by UG-20(f) and you have to refer to UCS-66(a);
But for assessment, based on this clause, you need to know your pressure vessel
MDMT (Minimum Design Metal Temperature). Assume that is -20 degree F, so you
should now go to Fig. UCS-66 and locate 1.125 inch in the horizontal axis and draw a
vertical line.
In a similar way, locate -20 degree F in the vertical axes and draw a horizontal line.
These two lines will cross each other.
See above Figure, the lines are identified in red.
If the cross point falls above the curve D (because your MOC is listed in curve D) you
are exempted. Otherwise you are not, but for the current example, you are above the
curve D so you are exempted from impact testing.
To simplify your assessment for the ASME impact test requirement, the Fig-66 has
been converted to the table(table UCS-66). For any MOC with specific thickness you
can go to this table and see what is the minimum permissible temperature without
impact testing.
See following UCS-66(a) Table:

In the above example (normalized SA 516 Gr.70, Curve D, 1.125 inch thickness), the
minimum permissible temperature without impact test is -26 degree F. This means
that, if in the above example your MDMT changes from -20 degree F to -27 degree F,
then you cannot be exempted from the ASME impact test requirement by UCS-66(a),
and you have to proceed to UCS-66(b)
UCS-66(b)
Let us explain this clause with the above example. Your MDMT from above is -27
degree F, nominal thickness is 1.125 inch, normalized SA 516 Gr.70 listed in curve D
and you are not exempted by UCS-66(a)
So you are here to continue your assessment to find a chance for exemption. You have
to refer to Fig UCS-66.1 and calculate the following formula:
Ratio= tr E / (tn c)
tr is the required design thickness for all applicable loading. We assume for the above
example that is 0.95 inch. E is your joint efficiency, and we assume for this vessel it is
1. This means your vessel is RT2, tn is your nominal thinness, which in the example
from above it is 1.125 inches, and C is corrosion allowance, and we assume it is 0.125
inches; so let calculate:
Ratio = 0.95x1/(1.125 0.125) Ratio= 0.95
See following Fig UCS-66(b):

Then go to the Figure UCS-66(b) and in the vertical axes locate Ratio and draw a
horizontal line. Then locate the cross point with the graph and draw a vertical line to
cross the horizontal axis.
You will be able to reach a value of 8 in the horizontal axes. This 8, is your 8 degree F
bonus from table UCS-66, which you can reduce by 8 degrees F minimum permissible
temperature in table without impact testing.
In the above example, your MDMT is -27 degree F, and in the UCS 66 table, the
minimum permissible temperature without impact testing designated -26 degree F. So
with this clause you can reduce it to -36 degree F(-26 -8 = -34). Your MDMT is -27
degree F, so you are exempted from impact testing with this clause.
UCS-68(c)
Let us change one variable in the above example. Let's assume you need to have -45
degree F for your MDMT. Other variable are the same; it means normalized SA 516
Gr.70 listed in curve D, thickness 1.125, so you can see you are not exempted by
UCS-66(b);
This is because the minimum permissible temperature is -36 degree F, but your
MDMT is -45 degree F, so UCS-68(c) might be helpful.
It says that if post weld heat treatment is not a code requirement and your P-No is 1
and you carry out post weld heat treatment, a 30 degree F bonus will be granted to you
to reduce the minimum permissible temperature in table UCS-66.

So when post weld heat treatment is code requirement?


It is code requirement when your service is lethal and when your thickness for P-No. 1
is greater than 1.5 inch;
So, for our example, our service is not lethal and our P-No. is 1 and thickness is 1.125
and it is less than 1.5 inch: therefore, post weld heat treatment is not code requirement.
It means if you carry out post heat treatment, a 30 degree F bonus will be granted by
this clause. For this example our minimum permissible temperature would be -3630=-66 degree F, and your MDMT is -45 degree F, so you are exempted from impact
testing.
Now the worst case: in the above, assume you need to have -70 degree F for your
MDMT; you can see with this new condition you cannot be exempted even by UCS68(c) and you have to carry out impact testing.