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Field Theory

10EE44
Field theory(10EE44)

Subject Code : 10EE44


No. of Lecture Hrs./ Week : 04
Total No. of Lecture Hrs. : 52

IA Marks : 25
Exam Hours : 03
Exam Marks : 100

Part-A

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Unit-1:a. Coulombs Law and electric field intensity: Experimental law of Coulomb, Electric
field intensity, Field due to continuous volume charge distribution, Field of a line charge

gr
ou
p.
c

b. Electric flux density, Gauss law and divergence: Electric flux density, Gauss law,
Divergence, Maxwells First equation(Electrostatics), vector operator and divergence theorem
Unit-2: a. Energy and potential : Energy expended in moving a point charge in an electric
field, The line integral, Definition of potential difference and Potential, The potential field of a
point charge and system of charges, Potential gradient, Energy density in an electrostatic field

ud
en
ts

b. Conductors, dielectrics and capacitance: Current and current density, Continuity of current,
metallic conductors, Conductor properties and boundary conditions, boundary conditions for
perfect Dielectrics, capacitance and examples.
Unit-3: Poissons and Laplaces equations:Derivations of Poissons and Laplaces Equations,
Uniqueness theorem, Examples of the solutions of Laplaces and Poissons equations

st

Unit-4: the steady magnetic field: Biot-Savarts law, Ampere circuital law, stokes theorem,
magnetic flux and flux density , scalar and vector magnetic potential

Part-B

.c

ity

Unit-5: Magnetic forces: forces on moving charges, differential current element, force between
differential current element, force and torque on closed circuit.
Magnetic material and inductance: magnetization and permeability, magnetic boundary
condition, magnetic circuit, inductance and mutual inductance

Unit-6: Time varing field and maxwells equation: Faradays law, displacement current,
maxwells equation in point and integral form, retarded potentials.

Unit-7: uniform plane wave: wavce propagation in free space and dielectrics, Poyenting
theorem and wave power, propagationin good conductors, skin effect.
Unit-8: Plane waves at boundaries and in dispersive media: reflection of uniform plane wave
at normal incidence, SWR, Plane wave propagation in general direction

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Page 1

Field Theory

10EE44

Table of contents
Sl.no

4 to 18

Vectors
Unit-1:a. Coulombs Law and electric field
intensity: Experimental law of Coulomb
Electric field intensity

Field of a line charge

gr
ou
p.
c

Field due to continuous volume charge


distribution

b. Electric flux density, Gauss law and


divergence: Electric flux density,
Gauss law
Divergence

19 to 38

ud
en
ts

Maxwells First equation(Electrostatics)

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Page no

Contents

vector operator and divergence theorem

Unit-2: a. Energy and potential : Energy expended


in moving a point charge in an electric field,
The line integral,

Definition of potential difference and


Potential

The potential field of a point charge and


system of charges

Potential gradient

.c

ity

st

Energy density in an electrostatic field

39 to 61

b. Conductors, dielectrics and capacitance:

Current and current density,

Continuity of current

metallic conductor

Conductor properties and boundary

conditions,

boundary conditions for perfect Dielectrics,


capacitance and examples.

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Page 2

Field Theory

10EE44

Unit-3: Poissons and Laplaces


equations:Derivations of Poissons and Laplaces
Equations,
62 to 71

Uniqueness theorem

Examples of the solutions of Laplaces and


Poissons equations

Unit-4: the steady magnetic field:


Biot-Savarts law
Ampere circuital law
stokes theorem
magnetic flux and flux density
scalar and vector magnetic potential
Unit-5: Magnetic forces: forces on moving charges
differential current element
force between differential current element
force and torque on closed circuit.
Magnetic material and inductance: magnetization
and permeability
magnetic boundary condition
magnetic circuit
inductance and mutual inductance
Unit-6: Time varing field and maxwells equation:

72 to 89

Faradays law
displacement current
maxwells equation in point and integral
form

retarded potentials.
Unit-7: uniform plane wave: wave propagation in
free space and dielectrics
Poyenting theorem and wave power
propagationin good conductors
skin effect.
Unit-8: Plane waves at boundaries and in
dispersive media: reflection of uniform plane wave
at normal incidence
SWR
Plane wave propagation in general direction

90 to 101

102 to 113

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

118 to 171

.c

168 to 189

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Page 3

Field Theory

10EE44

Introduction to vectors

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The behavior of a physical device subjected to electric field can be studied either by Field
approach or by Circuit approach. The Circuit approach uses discrete circuit parameters like
RLCM, voltage and current sources. At higher frequencies (MHz or GHz) parameters would no
longer be discrete. They may become non linear also depending on material property and
strength of v and i associated. This makes circuit approach to be difficult and may not give very
accurate results.

gr
ou
p.
c

Thus at high frequencies, Field approach is necessary to get a better understanding of


performance of the device.
FIELD THEORY

The Vector approach provides better insight into the various aspects of Electromagnetic
phenomenon. Vector analysis is therefore an essential tool for the study of Field Theory.
The Vector Analysis comprises of Vector Algebra and Vector Calculus.

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Any physical quantity may be Scalar quantity or Vector quantity. A Scalar quantity is
specified by magnitude only while for a Vector quantity requires both magnitude and direction
to be specified.
Examples :

Scalar quantity : Mass, Time, Charge, Density, Potential, Energy etc.,


Represented by alphabets A, B, q, t etc

ity


A, B, E, B etc.,

st

Vector quantity : Electric field, force, velocity, acceleration, weight etc., represented by
alphabets with arrow on top.

.c


Vector algebra : If A, B, C are vectors and m, n are scalars then

(A B) C

Commutative law
Associative law

(1) Addition

A B B

A ( B C)

(2) Subtraction

A - B A (- B)
(3) Multiplication by a scalar

mA Am

m (n A) n (m A)

(m n) A m A n A

m (A B) m A m B

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Commutative law
Associative law
Distributive law
Distributive law

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Field Theory

10EE44

A vector is represented graphically by a directed line segment.


A Unit vector is a vector of unit magnitude and directed along that vector.

a A is a Unit vector along the direction of A .

Thus, the graphical representation of A and a A are

Vector A

om

A
Unit vector a A

or A a A A

gr
ou
p.
c

Also a A A / A

Product of two or more vectors :


(1) Dot Product ( . )

A Cos

st

B Cos
A.B = B.A

A COS } B , 0

ud
en
ts

A . B A ( B COS OR {

(A Scalar quantity)

ity

(2) CROSS PRODUCT (X)

B SIN n

.c

C=AxB=
Ex.,

where ' ' is angle between A and B ( 0 )

and n is unit vector perpendicular to plane of A and B



directed such that A B C form a right handed system of vectors

A x B - B x A

A x ( B C) A x B A x C

Department of EEE, SJBIT

Page 5

Field Theory

10EE44

CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS :
For an explicit representation of a vector quantity, a co-ordinate system is essential.

Sl.No.
1.
2.
3.

System
Rectangular
Cylindrical
Spherical

Co-ordinate variables
x, y, z
, , z
r, ,

Unit vectors
ax , ay , az
a , a , az
ar , a , a

om

Different systems used :

i.e., x y z , z , r
RECTANGULAR CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM :
Z

ud
en
ts

x=0 plane
az
p

gr
ou
p.
c

These are ORTHOGONAL i.e., unit vectors in such system of co-ordinates are mutually
perpendicular in the right circular way.

y=0
plane
ax
X

ay
z=0 plane

ax . ay ay . az az . ax 0
ay x az ax

ity

az x ax ay

st

ax x ay az

.c

az is in direction of advance of a right circular screw as it is turned from ax to ay

Co-ordinate variable x is intersection of planes OYX and OXZ i.e, z = 0 & y = 0

Location of point P :

If the point P is at a distance of r from O, then


If the components of r along X, Y, Z are x, y, z then

r x ax y ay z az

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r ar

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Field Theory

10EE44

Equation of Vector AB :

If OA A A x a x A y a y A z a z

and OB B Bx a x B y a y Bz a z then


A AB B or AB B - A

where A s , A y & A z are components of A along X, Y and Z

gr
ou
p.
c

and Bs , B y & Bz are components of B along X, Y and Z

om

AB

Dot and Cross Products :


A . B (A x a x A y a y A z a z ) . (Bx a x By a y Bz a z ) A x Bx A y By A z Cz

A x B (A x a x A y a y A z a z ) x (Bx a x By a y Bz a z )

ay
Ay
By

az
Az
Bz

Ax

A . (B x C ) Bx
Cx

Ay
By
Cy

Az
Bz
Cz

st

ax

A x B Ax
Bx

ud
en
ts

Taking ' Cross products' term by term and grouping, we get

ity

If A, B and C are non zero vectors,

.c


(i) A . B 0 then Cos 0 i.e., 900 A and B are perpendicular

A x B 0 then Sin 0
0 A and B are parallel

(ii) A . ( B x C) represents the volume of a parallelopoid of sides A , B and C

Unit Vector along AB


a AB

AB
AB

where
Vector length AB AB

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(AB . AB)

Page 7

Field Theory

10EE44

Differential length, surface and volume elements in rectangular co-ordinate systems

r x a x y a y z a z

r
r
r
dr
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

d r dx a x dy a y dz a z

Differential length dr [ dx 2 dy2 dz 2 ]1/2

om

- - - - -1

Differential surface element, d s

gr
ou
p.
c

1. r to z : dxdy a z
2. r to z : dxdy a z
3. r to z : dxdy a z

------ 2

Differential Volume element


dv = dx dy dz

------ 3

ud
en
ts

dx
p

dy

r d r

st

dz

ity

x
Other Co-ordinate systems :-

.c

Depending on the geometry of problem it is easier if we use the appropriate co-ordinate system
than to use the Cartesian co-ordinate system always. For problems having cylindrical symmetry
cylindrical co-ordinate system is to be used while for applications having spherical symmetry
spherical co-ordinate system is preferred.

Cylindrical Co-ordiante systems :z

P(, , z)
az

x = Cos
y = Sin
z=z

x 2 y2

0
ap

tan -1 y / x
zz

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Page 8

Field Theory

10EE44

r x a x y a y z a z

r Cos a x Sin a y z a z

r
r
r
dr
d
d
dz
- - - - - -1

r
r
Cos a x Sin a y
a h a ; h

r
r

- Sin a x Cos a y
a a ; h

r
a z
hz
z

gr
ou
p.
c

om

r
1

r
1
z

Thus unit vectors in (, , z) systems can be expressed in (x,y,z) system as

a Cos a x Sin a y

a x Cos a Sin a

a - Sin a x Cos a y

a y Sin a Cos a

az az

;
a , a and a z are orthogonal

Further , d r d a d a dz a z
2
and d r d 2 ( d ) 2 (dz)2

ud
en
ts

Differential areas :

ds a z (d ) ( d ) . a z
ds a (dz) ( d ) . a

st

-------3

ity

ds a (d dz) a

------2

Differential volume :

.c

d (d ) ( d ) (dz)
or d d d dz
Spherical Co-ordinate Systems :Z

----- 4

X = r Sin Cos
Y = r Sin Sin
Z = r Cos

0
x

r
y

r Sin

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10EE44

d Sr r 2 Sin d d
d S r 2 Sin dr d
d S r dr d
d v r 2 Sin dr d d

u3

ud
en
ts

General Orthogonal Curvilinear Co-ordinates :z


u1 a3

gr
ou
p.
c

R r Sin Cos a x r Sin Sin a y r Cos a z

R R
a r
/
Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z
r
r

R R
a
/
Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y Sin a z

R R
a
/
- Sin a x Cos a y

R
R
R
dR
dr
d
d
r

dR dr a r r d a r Sin d a

om

Field Theory

a1

u2

a2

st

.c

ity

Co-ordinate Variables : (u1 , u2, u3) ;


Here
u1 is Intersection of surfaces u2 = C & u3 = C
u2 is Intersection of surfaces u1 = C & u3 = C
u3 is Intersection of surfaces u1 = C & u2 = C

a 1 , a 2 , a 3 are ubnit vectors tangentia l to u1 , u 2 & u 3


System is Orthogonal if a 1 . a 2 0 , a 2 . a 3 0 & a 3 . a 1 0

If R x a x y a y z a z & x, y, z are functions of u1 , u 2 & u 3

R
R
R
then d R
du1
du 2
du 3
u1
u2
u3
h1 du1 a 1 h 2 du 2 a 2 h 3 du 3 a 3
where h1 , h 2 , h 3 are scale factors ;

R
R
h1
, h2
u1
u2

R
, h3
u3

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Field Theory

10EE44

Co-ordinate Variables, unit Vectors and Scale factors in different systems


Systems

Co-ordinate Variables Unit Vector

General

u1

Scale factors

u3

a1

a2

a3

h1

h2

h3

Rectangular x

ax

ay

az

Cylindrical

az

Spherical

ar

gr
ou
p.
c

om

u2

r sin

Transformation equations (x,y,z interms of cylindrical and spherical co-ordinate system


variables)
0, 0 2 - < z <

ud
en
ts

Cylindrical : x = Cos , y = Sin , z = z ;

Spherical
x = r Sin Cos , y = r Sin Cos , z = r Sin
r 0 , 0 , 0 2

1
h 1 h 2 h3
1
h1h 2h

A1)

h 1 a 1 h 2 a 2

u1
u2
h1 A1 h 2 A2

1 v
a 3
h 3 u 3

(h 1 h
u2
h

A2)

(h 1 h
u3

A3)

u 3
h3 A3

.c

xA


(h

u1

st

. A

1 v
1 v
a 1
a
h1 u1
h 2 u2

ity

where V V ( u 1 , u 2 , u 3 ) a Scalar field

& A A 1 a 1 A 2 a 2 A 3 a 3 is a Vector field where A1 A1 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 )

A 2 A 2 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 ) and A 3 A 3 (u1 , u 2 , u 3 )

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Field Theory

10EE44

Vector Transformation from Rectangular to Spherical :

Rectangula r : A R A x a x A y a y A z a z

Spherical : AS ( A R a r ) a r (A R a ) a (A R . a ) a
A r a r A a A a
where A r , A , A are related to A x , A y , A z as
a z . a r

a z . a
a z . a

A x
A
y
A z

gr
ou
p.
c

a y . a r
a y . a
a y . a

om

a x . a r
A r


A a x . a
a x . a
A

A field is a region where any object experiences a force. The study of performance in the

presence of Electric field (E) , Magnetic field () is the essence of EM Theory.


P1 : Obtain the equation for the line between the points P(1,2,3) and Q (2,-2,1)

ud
en
ts

PQ a x - 4 a y - 2 a z
P2 : Obtain unit vector from the origin to G (2, -2, 1)

Problems on Vector Analysis


Examples :-

1. Obtain the vector equation for the line PQ between the points P (1,2,3)m and Q (2, -2,
1) m
Z

PQ

st

Q(2,-2,-1)

P (1,2,3)

ity

.c

The vector PQ (x q - x p ) a x (yq - y p ) a y (z q - z p ) a z


(2 - 1) a x (-2 - 2) a y (-1 - 3) a z

(a x - 4 a y - 2 a z )

2. Obtain unit vector from origin to G (2,-2,-1)


G

G
0

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Field Theory

10EE44

The vector G (x g - 0) a x (y g - 0) a y (z g - 0) a z
(2 a x - 2 a y - a z )

G
The unit vector , a g
G

G 22 (-2)2 (-1)2 3

gr
ou
p.
c

3. Given
A 2 a x - 3 a y a z

B - 4 a x - 2 a y 5a z

find (1) A . B and (2) A x B

om

a g (0.667 a x - 0.667 a y - 0.333 a z )

Solution :

(1) A . B (2 a x - 3 a y a z ) . (-4 a x - 2 a y 5 a z )
=-8+6+5= 3
Since ax . ax = ay . ay = az . az = 0 and ax ay = ay az = az ax = 0

ud
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ts

ax ay az

(2) A x B 2 3 1
4 2 5

= (-13 ax -14 ay - 16 az)

.c

ity

st

4. Find the distance between A( 2, /6, 0) and B = ( 1, /2, 2)


Soln : The points are given in Cylindrical Co-ordinate (,, z). To find the distance between
two points, the co-ordinates are to be in Cartesian (rectangular). The corresponding
rectangular co-ordinates are ( Cos, Sin, z)

A 2 Cos a x 2 Sin
a y 1.73 a x a y
6
6

& B Cos a x Sin


a y 2 a z a y 2 a z
6
2

AB (Bx - A x ) a x (By - A y ) a y (Bz - A z ) a z

- 1.73 a x (1 - 1) a y (2 - 0) a z
- 1.73 a x 2 a z

(AB)

1.732 22 2.64

5. Find the distance between A( 1, /4, 0) and B = ( 1, 3/4, )


Soln : The specified co-ordinates (r, , ) are spherical. Writing in rectangular, they are (r
Sin Cos , r Sin Sin , r Cos ).
Therefore, A & B in rectangular co-ordinates,

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Field Theory

10EE44

A (1 Sin Cos 0 a x 1 Sin Sin 0 a y 1 Cos a z )


4
4
4
( 0.707 a x 0.707 a y )

3
3
3
B ( Sin
Cos a x Sin
Sin a y Cos
a z )
4
4
4
( 0.707 a x 0.707 a y )
AB (Bx - A x ) a x (By - A y ) a y (Bz - A z ) a z

om

- 1.414 a x (- 0.707) a y (-0.707) a z


AB ( AB . AB )1/2

gr
ou
p.
c

(2 0.5 0.5)1/2 1.732


6. Find a unit vector along AB in Problem 5 above.

a AB

AB

= [ - 1.414 ax + (-0.707) ay + (-0.707) az]

AB

1
1.732

= ( - 0.816 a x - 0.408 a y 0.408 a z )

ud
en
ts

7. Transform F (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) into F in Cylindrical Co - ordinates.


Soln :

ity

st

FCyl (F . a p ) a p (F . a ) a (F . a z ) a z

[(10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (Cos a x Sin a y )] a

.c

[ (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a


[ (10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z ) . (a x )] a x

(10 Cos - 8 Sin ) a (-10 Sin - 8 Cos ) a 6 a z

x Cos
y Sin

x 2 y 2 12.81
tan -1

y
- 38.660
x

FCyl [ 10 Cos (- 38.66) - 8 Sin ( - 38.66) ] a p [- 10 Sin (- 38.66) - 8 Cos (- 38.66)] a 6 a z


(12.8 a 6 a z )

8. Transform B y a x - x a y z a z into Cylindrical Co-ordinates.

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Field Theory

10EE44

x Cos , y Sin

B Sin a x - Cos a y z a z

BCyl (B. a ) a (B. a ) a (B . a z ) a z


[ ( Sin a x - Cos a y z a z ). (Cos a x Sin a y )] a
[ ( Sin a x - Cos a y z a z ). (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a z a z
[ Sin Cos - Sin Sin ] a [ - Sin 2 - Cos 2 ] a z a z

9. Transform 5 a x into Spherical Co-ordinates.


ASph (A. a r ) a r (A. a ) a (A. a ) a

gr
ou
p.
c

[ 5 a x . (Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z )] a r

om

- a z a z

[ 5 a x . (Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y - Sin a z ] a


[ 5 a x . (- Sin a x Cos a y )] a

5 Sin Cos a r 5 Cos Sin a 5 Sin a

ud
en
ts

10. Transform to Cylindrical Co-ordinates G (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y at Q ( , , z)


Soln :
G Cyl (G. a ) a (G. a ) a (G. a z ) a z

G Cyl [ (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y ] . [ Cos a x Sin a ] a


[ (2 x y) a x - (y - 4x) a y ] . [ - Sin a x Cos a y ] a 0
[ ( 2x y) Cos - (y - 4x) Sin ] a

[ - (2 x y) Sin - (y - 4x ) Cos ] a

ity

st

x Cos , y Sin

.c

G Cyl [ ( 2 Cos Sin ) Cos - ( Sin - 4 Cos ) Sin ] a

[ - ( 2 Cos Sin ) Sin - ( Sin - 4 Cos ) Cos ] a

[ 2 Cos 2 Sin Cos - Sin 2 4 Sin Cos ] a


[ - 2 Sin Cos - Sin 2 - Sin Cos 4 Cos 2 ] a
( 2 Cos 2 5 Sin Cos - Sin 2 ) a
( 4 Cos 2 Sin 2 - 3 Sin Cos ) a

11. Find a unit vector from ( 10, 3/4, /6) to (5, /4, )
Soln :
A(r, , ) expressed in rectangular co-ordinates

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Field Theory

10EE44

gr
ou
p.
c

AB 9.652 3.532 10.6 2 14.77

AB
a AB
(- 0.65 a x - 0.24 a y 0.72 a z )
AB

om

OA r Sin Cos a x r Sin Sin a y r Cos a z

3
A 10 Sin
Cos
a x 10 Sin
Sin
a y 10 Cos
a z
4
6
4
6
4

B 5 Sin Cos a x 5 Sin Sin a y 5 Cos a z


4
4
4

A 6.12 a x 3.53 a y - 7.07 a z B - 3.53 a x 3.53 a z



AB B - A - 9.65 a x - 3.53 a y 10.6 a z

12. Transform F 10 a x - 8 a y 6 a z into F in Spherical Co-orindates.


a r Sin Cos a x Sin Sin a y Cos a z

ud
en
ts

a Cos Cos a x Cos Sin a y - Sin a z


a - Sin a x Cos a y

FSph (F . a r ) a r (F . a ) a (F . a ) a

(10 Sin Cos - 8 Sin Sin 6 Cos ) a r


(10 Cos Cos - 8 Cos Sin - 6 Sin ) a
(- 10 Sin - 8 Cos ) a

st

r 10 2 8 2 6 2 200 ; Cos -1

z
Cos -1
r

64.89 0

200

-8
- 38.66 0
10
Sin Sin 64.69 0.9 Sin Sin (-38.66) - 0.625
Cos Cos 64.69 0.42 Cos Cos (-38.66) 0.781

F (10 x 0.9 x 0.781 - 8 x 0.9 x (-0.625)) a r

.c

ity

tan -1

( 10 x 0.42 x 0.781 - 8 x 0.42 x (0.625)) a


(-10 x - 0.625 - 8 x 0.781) a

F (11.529 a r 5.38 a 0.783 a )

Line Integrals
In general orthogonal Curvilinear Co-ordinate system
dl h1 du1 a 1 h 2 du 2 a 2 h 3 du 3 a 3

F F1 a 1 F2 a 2 F3 a 3

F
. dl h1 F1 du1 h 2 F2 du 2 h 3 F3 du 3
C

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Field Theory

10EE44

Conservative Field A field is said to be conservative if it is such that . dl 0


C
b

. dl d

(b) - (a) (does not depend on the path!). If is electrostatic flux, then

E - represent the electric field intensity and


b

. dl represent the potential between b and a and is zero if it is taken around a closed contour.

om

i.e., . dl 0

EXAMPLES :
13. Evaluate

line

I a . dl

integral

along y 2 x from A (1,1) to B (4,2)

Soln : dl dx a x dy a y

a . dl (x y) dx (y - x ) dy

where

a (x y) a x (y - x) a y

ud
en
ts

y 2 x or 2 dy dy dx

gr
ou
p.
c

Therefore ES flux field is Conservative.

2
2

a . dl (y 2 y) 2y dy (y - y 2 ) dy
1

(2 y3 2 y 2 y - y 2 ) dy
1
2

(2 y 3 y 2 y) dy
1

ity

st

2 y 4
y3
y2

3
2 1
4 2

.c

24
23

3
2
8

8 2 3

1
1
1
-

3
2
2

2
1
1
4
- 1 11
12
3
3
3
3
22
2

14. Evaluate the Integral I E . ds where E x a x and S is hunisphere of radius a


S

Soln:
If S is hemisphere of radius a, then S is defined by

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Field Theory

10EE44

x 2 y2 z2 a 2 , z 0 ;

gr
ou
p.
c

ds a 2 Sin d d a r

E (E . a r ) a r (E. a ) a (E. a ) a

E r x Sin Cos a r ; x a Sin Cos

E . ds E r . ds a ( Sin Cos ) 2 a r . a 2 Sin d d

E . ds a Sin 3 Cos 2 d d
0 / 2 , 0 2
/2
2

2
2 a3
3
3
2
3
E
.
ds

a
Sin

Cos

a
x
x

0
0
3
3

om

ds (a d ) (a Sin ) d a r

where r, r1 , r2 .. rm are the vector distances of q, q1 , qm from origin, 0.



r - rm is distance between charge qm and q.

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

a m is unit vector in the direction of line joining qm to q.

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

Unit-1

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

a. Coulombs Law and electric field intensity: Experimental law of Coulomb


Electric field intensity
Field due to continuous volume charge distribution
Field of a line charge
b. Electric flux density, Gauss law and divergence:
Electric flux density
Gauss law
Divergence, Maxwells First equation(Electrostatics)
vector operator and divergence theorem

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

Electric field is the region or vicinity of a charged body where a test charge experiences a
force. It is expressed as a scalar function of co-ordinates variables. This can be illustrated by
drawing force lines and these may be termed as Electric Flux represented by and unit is
coulomb (C).

om

Electric Flux Density (D) is the measure of cluster of electric lines of force. It is the
number of lines of force per unit area of cross section.

c/m 2
or D n ds C where n is unit vector normal to surface
i.e., D
A
S

F
q1

a 1 N / c
i.e., E
q
4 0 r12

gr
ou
p.
c

Electric Field Intensity (E) at any point is the electric force on a unit +ve charge at that
point.

ud
en
ts

1 q1
D

a
N
/
c

N
/
c
or
D

E
C in vacuum
1
0
0 4 r12
0
In any medium other than vacuum, the field Intensity at a point distant r m from + Q C is

Q
E
a r N / c ( or V / m)
4 0 r r 2

Q
and D 0 r E C or D
a r C
4 r2

Thus D is independent of medium, while E depends on the property of medium.

.c

ity

st

E
+QC
q = 1 C (Test Charge)
Source charge

r,m

Electric Field Intensity E for different charge configurations

1. E due to Array of Discrete charges

Let Q, Q1 , Q2 , Qn be +ve charges at P, P1 , P2 , .. Pn . It is required to find E


at P.
Department of EEE, SJBIT
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Field Theory

10EE44

P1

r2

Q2

r - rm

om

Qm

a m V / m

gr
ou
p.
c

1
4 0

E1

E2

rn

Pr

r1

P2
Qn

Er

En

r1

Q1

2. E due to continuous volume charge distribution

a R

ud
en
ts

v C / m 3

The charge is uniformly distributed within in a closed surface with a volume charge density
dQ
and V
of v C / m3 i.e, Q V dv
dv
V

V V
Q
a R
a R
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 2

(r - r1 ) 2

a R N / C

ity

st

V (r1 )

Er

a R is unit vector directed from source to filed point.

.c

3. Electric field intensity E due to a line charge of infinite length with a line charge
density of l C / m
a R

dl

l C / m
L

Ep

1
4 0

l dl
R2

a R N / C

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Field Theory

10EE44

4. E due to a surface charge with density of S C / m2

ds

a R
P (Field point)

(Source charge)

1
4 0

S ds
R2

a R N / C

om

Ep

gr
ou
p.
c

Electrical Potential (V) The work done in moving a unit +ve charge from Infinity to that is
called the Electric Potential at that point. Its unit is volt (V).
Electric Potential Difference (V12) is the work done in moving a unit +ve charge from one
point to (1) another (2) in an electric field.

ud
en
ts

Relation between E and V


If the electric potential at a point is expressed as a Scalar function of co-ordinate variables
(say x,y,z) then V = V(x,y,z)

f
dV - dl - E . dl
- - - - - - - - (1)
q
V
V
V
Also, dV
dx
dy
dz
x
y
z

dV V . dl

- - - - - - - - - (2)

From (1) and (2) E - V

.c

ity

st

Determination of electric potential V at a point P due to a point charge of + Q C

a R

0
+Q

a l

R dR

At point P, E

Q
a R N / C
4 0 R 2

Therefore, the force f on a unit charge at P.

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Field Theory

10EE44

f 1 x Ep

Q
a R N
4 0 R 2
The work done in moving a unit charge over a distance dl in the electric field is

dV - f . dl - E . dl
R

Q dl
4 0 R 2 (a R . a l ) -

Q
VP
Volt
4 0 R 2

2
0 R

dR

(a scalar field)

om

Vp -

Vpq (Vp - Vq )

Q 1
1

volt
4 0 R p R q

gr
ou
p.
c

Electric Potential Difference between two points P & Q distant Rp and Rq from 0 is

Electric Potential at a point due to different charge configurations.

P
Rm

ud
en
ts

1. Discrete charges
. Q1
.
Q2
Qm

V1P

2. Line charge

st

xP

Qm

1
4 0

V2P

1
4 0

1
4 0

V4P

1
4 0

ll

dl V

l C / m

V3P

xP

S ds
R

s C / m 2

.c

ity

3. Surface charge

4. Volume charge
xP
v C/ m3

V dv

5. Combination of above V5P = V1P + V2P + V3P + V4P

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Field Theory

10EE44

om

Equipotential Surface : All the points in space at which the potential has same value lie on a
surface called as Equipotential Surface.
Thus for a point change Q at origin the spherical surface with the centre of sphere at the
origin, is the equipotential surface.
Sphere of
Radius , R
R
P
0
+Q
equipotential surfaces

gr
ou
p.
c

Potential at every point on the spherical surface is

VR

Q
volt
4 0 R

ud
en
ts

VPQ is difference of potential two equipotential surface potential

Gausss law : The surface integral of normal component of D emerging from a closed
surface is equal to the charge contained in the space bounded by the surface.

i.e., D . n ds Q C
S

(1)

st

where S is called the Gaussian Surface.

ity

By Divergence Theorem,

D
.
n
ds

.
D
dv
----------- (2)

.c

Also, Q V dv

---------- (3)

From 1, 2 & 3,

----------- (4) is point form (or differential form) of Gausss law while
.D
equation (1) is Integral form of Gauss law.
Poissons equation and Laplace equation

In equation 4, D 0 E

. E / 0 or . (- V) / 0
2 V -

Poisson equation

If 0, 2 V 0 Laplace equation
Department of EEE, SJBIT
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Field Theory

10EE44

Till now, we have discussed (1) Colulombs law (2) Gauss law and (3) Laplace equation.

The determination of E and V can be carried out by using any one of the above relations.
However, the method of Coulombs law is fundamental in approach while the other two use
the physical concepts involved in the problem.

om

(1) Coulombs law : Here E is found as force f per unit charge. Thus for the simple case
of point charge of Q C,

1
Q
E

V/ M
4 0 R 2

V E dl Volt

gr
ou
p.
c

(2) Gausss law : An appropriate Gaussian surface S is chosen. The charge enclosed is
determined. Then

D
n ds Qenc
S

Then D and hence E are determined

Also V E dl volt

ud
en
ts

(3) Laplace equation : The Laplace equation 2 V 0

boundary conditions to get V. Then, E - V

is solved subjecting to different

Solutions to Problems on Electrostatics :-

.c

ity

st

1. Data : Q1 = 12 C , Q2 = 2 C , Q3 = 3 C at the corners of equilateral triangle d m.

To find : F on Q3
Solution :

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Field Theory

10EE44

Let Q1 , Q 2 and Q3 lie at P1 , P2 and P3 the corners of equilatera l triangle of side d meter.
If P1 , P2 and P3 lie in YZ plane, with P1
at origin the n
P1 (0,0,0) m

Z
P3

P2 (0, d, 0) m

Y
P2

om

P1

0.5 a y 0.866 a z

ud
en
ts

Substituting,

gr
ou
p.
c

P3 (0, 0.5 d, 0.866 d) m

r1 0

r2 d a y

r3 0.5 d a y 0.866 a z

The force F3 is F3 F13 F23

Q3 Q1
Q

F3
a 13 22 a 23
2

4 0 d
d


0.5 d a y 0.866 d a z
r - r
a 13 3 1
r3 - r1
d

r - r
a 23 3 2 - 0.5 a y 0.866 a z
r3 - r2

2 x 10-6
( - 0.5 a y 0.866 a z )
2
d

st

12 x 10-6
F3 (3 x 10- 6 ) 9 x 109
( 0.5 a y 0.866 a z )
2
d
27 x 10-3 5 a y 12.12 a z

13.11
2
2
d2
5 12.12

F3 0.354 a F N where a F (0.38 a y 0.924 a z )

ity

2. Data : At the point P, the potential is Vp (x 2 y2 z 2 ) V


To find :

(1) Ep (2) VPQ given P(1,0.2) and Q (1,1,2) (3) VPQ by using general expression for V

.c

Solution :

Vp
Vp
Vp
(1) E p - Vp -
a x
a y
a z
y
z
x
- [ 2 x a x 2 y a y 3z 2 a z ] V /m

P
(2) VPQ - E p . dl
Q

2x dx
1

0 y
VQ - VP - 1 V

2 0

(3) VPQ

2
2y dy 3z dz

0 -1 V

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

3. Data : Q = 64.4 nC at A (-4, 2, -3) m

To find : E at 0 (0,0,0) m
Solution :

Q
a AO N / C
4 0 (AO)2
64.4 x 10- 9
[ a AO ] N/ C
10-9
2
4 x
(AO)
36

AO (0 4) a x (0 - 2) a y (0 3) a z 4a x - 2 a y 3 a z
AO

AO

1
(AO) (0.743 a x - 0.37 a y 0.56 a z )
29

64.4 x 9
E0
a AO 20 a AO N / C
29

ud
en
ts

4. Q1 = 100 C at P1 (0.03 , 0.08 , - 0.02) m


Q2 = 0.12 C at P2 (- 0.03 , 0.01 , 0.04) m
F12 = Force on Q2 due to Q1 = ?
Solution :

gr
ou
p.
c

a AO

om

E0

E0

Q1 Q 2
F12
a 12
2
4 0 R 12

R12 R 2 - R 1 (-0.03 a x 0.01 a y 0.04 a z ) - (0.03 a x 0.08 a y - 0.02a z )
( - 0.06 a x - 0.07 a y 0.06 a z ) ; R12 0.11 m
a 12 ( - 0.545 a x - 0.636 a y 0.545 a z )

ity

st

100 x 10- 6 x 0.121 x 10- 6


F12
x 9 x 109 a 12
2
0.11

F12 9 a 12 N

.c

5. Q1 = 2 x 10-9 C , Q2 = - 0.5 x 10-9 C C

(1) R12 = 4 x 10-2 m , F12 ?

(2) Q1 & Q2 are brought in contact and separated by R12 = 4 x 10-2 m F12` ?

Solution :

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Field Theory

F12

2 x 10-9 x - 0.5 x 10-9


10-9
4 x
x ( 4 x 10- 2 ) 2
36

a 12

-9
x 10-5 a 12 5.63 N (attractive)
16
1
(Q1 Q 2 ) 1.5 x 10-9 C
2
1.52

x 9 x 10-18 13 a 12 12.66 N a 12
16

F12`
F12`
6.

( 1.5 x 10-9 ) 2
10-9
4 x
x ( 4 x 10- 2 ) 2
36
12.66 N (repulsive)

a 12

om

(2) When brought into contact Q1` Q`2

Y
x

P3
x

P2
x

P1
0

ud
en
ts

Q1 = Q2 = Q3 = Q4 = 20 C
QP = 200 C at P(0,0,3) m

gr
ou
p.
c

(1)

10EE44

P1 = (0, 0 , 0) m P2 = (4, 0, 0) m
P3 = (4, 4, 0) m P4 = (0, 4, 0) m
FP = ?

.c

Fp

ity

st

Solution :

Fp F1p F2p F3p F4p

R 1p 3 a z R 1p 3 m a 1p a z

R 2p - 4 a x 3 a z ; R 2p 5 m a 2p - 0.8 a x 0.6 a z

R 3p - 4 a x - 4 a y 3 a z ; R 3p 6.4 m ; a 3p - 0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z

R 4p - 4 a y 3 a z ; R 4p 5 m ; a 4p - 0.8 a y 0.6 a z

Qp

10
36

Q1

Q2
Q3
Q4
2 a 1p 2 a 2p 3 a 3p 2 a 4p
R 2p
R 3p
R 4p
R 1p

-9

1
1
1

a z 2 ( - 0.8 a x 0.6 a z )
(-0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z )
2
2

3
5
6.4
200 x 10- 6 x 9 x 109
20 x 10- 6
1 ( - 0.8 a 0.6 a )

y
z
52

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Field Theory

10EE44

100
100
100

a z
(- 0.8 a x 0.6 a z )
(-0.625 a x - 0.625 a y 0.47 a z )

9
25
40.96
200x10 - 6 x9x10 9 x10 9 x10 - 6 x 10- 2

100 ( - 0.8 a 0.6 a )

y
z
25

gr
ou
p.
c

7. Data : Q1 , Q2 & Q3 at the corners of equilateral triangle of side 1 m.


Q1 = - 1C, Q2 = -2 C , Q3 = - 3 C

To find : E at the bisecting point between Q2 & Q3 .


Solution :
Z
P1 Q1
P1 : (0, 0.5, 0.866) m
P2 : (0, 0, 0) m
P3 : (0, 1, 0) m
P : (0, 0.5, 0) m
Q2
P E1P
Q3
Y
P2
E2P
E3P
P3

ud
en
ts

E P E1P E 2P E 3P

Q1

1
Q2
Q
a 2P 3 2 a 3P
2 a 1P
2
4 0 R 1P
R 2P
R 3P

- 0.866 a z
R1P 0.866
a 1P - a z

R1P

om

0.36 (3.2 1.526) a x


(-1.526 - 3.2) a y (11.11 2.4 1.15 2.4) a z )
2
6.4

(- 1.7 a x - 1.7 a y 17 a z ) N 17.23 a p N

R 2P 0.5 a y
R 3P - 0.5 a y

R 2P 0.5

a 2P a y

R 3P 0.5

a 3P - a y

- 1 x 10- 6

1
- 2 x 10- 6
- 3 x 10- 6

(
a
)

(
a
)

(
a
)
z
y
y

-9
10
0.8662
0.52
0.52

4
36
9 x 103 1.33 a z - 8 a y 12 a y

ity

st

EP

.c

9 x 103

4 a

1.33 a z 36 a y 12 a z 03 V / m 37.9 180 k V/m

Z
E1P

EP

( EP ) = 37.9 k V / m
Y

(E3P E2P)

E2P

E3P

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Field Theory

10EE44

8. Data Pl = 25 n C /m on (-3, y, 4) line in free space and P : (2,15,3) m


To find : EP
Solution :
Z
l = 25 n C / m
A

(2, 15, 3) m
P

om

gr
ou
p.
c

X
The line charge is parallel to Y axis. Therefore EPY = 0

ud
en
ts

R AP (2 - (-3)) a x (3 - 4) a z (5 a x - a z ) ; R 5.1 m

R
a R
(0.834 a x - 0.167 a z )
R

l
25 x
EP
a R
a R
10-9
2 0 R
2
x 5.1
36

E P 88.23 a R V / m

ity

st

9. Data : P1 (2, 2, 0) m ; P2 (0, 1, 2) m ; P3 (1, 0, 2) m


Q2 = 10 C ; Q3 = - 10 C
To find : E1 , V1
Solution :

1 Q2
Q3
E1 E 21 E 21
a
2 a 21
2 31
4 0 R 21
R 31

R 21 (2 a x a y - 2 a z )
R 21 3 a 21 0.67 a x 0.33 a y - 0.67 a z

R 31 a x 2 a y 2 a z
R 31 3 a 31 0.33 a x 0.67 a y 0.67 a z

.c

-6

10- 6
9 10

E1 9 x 10
(0.67 a x 0.33 a y - 0.67 a z )
(0.33 a x 0.67 a y 0.67 a z )
9
9

3
10 [ a x a y ] 14.14 (0.707 a x 0.707 a y ) V / m

1
V1
4 0

-6
Q2
Q3
10- 6
9 10

9 x 10
3000 V
3
3
R 21 R 31

E1 14.14 V / m

V1 3000 V

10. Data : Q1 = 10 C at P1 (0, 1, 2) m ; Q2 = - 5 C at P2 (-1, 1, 3) m


P3 (0, 2, 0) m

To find : (1) E3 (2) Q at (0, 0, 0) for E3x 0


Solution :
Department of EEE, SJBIT
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Field Theory

10EE44

Q1

Q2

a
2 a 13

23
2
R 23
R 13

R 13 (2 - 1) a y (0 - 2) a z a y - 2 a z
R13 5

R 23 (0 1) a x (2 - 1) a y (0 - 3) a z a x a y - 3 a z

R13
a 13 ( 0.447 a y - 0.894 a z )
R 13

R 23
a 23
0.3 a x 0.3 a y - 0.9 a z
R 23
1
4 0

R 23 11

om

(1) E 3

- 1.23 a

gr
ou
p.
c

-6

- 5 x 10- 6
9 10 x 10
E 3 9 x 10
(0.447 a y - 0.894 a z )
(0.3 a x 0.3 a y - 0.9 a z )
2
2
( 11)
( 5)

(8 a y - 16 a z ) (-1.23 a x - 1.23 a y 3.68 a z )

6.77 a y - 12.32 a z 103 V / m

ud
en
ts

Q

Q
Q
(2) E 3 9 x 109 12 a 13 22 a 23
a 03 ; R 03 2 a y
2
R 23
R 03
R13

E 3x - 1.23 a x

E 3x cannot be zero

.c

ity

st

11. Data : Q2 = 121 x 10-9 C at P2 (-0.02, 0.01, 0.04) m


Q1 = 110 x 10-9 C at P1 (0.03, 0.08, 0.02) m
P3 (0, 2, 0) m

To find : F12
Solution :

Q1 Q 2
F12
a 12 N ; R12 - 0.05 a x - 0.07 a y 0.02 a z
2
4 0 R12

121 x 10-9 x 110 x 10-9


F12
[a 12 ]
R12 0.088
10-9
-3
4
x 7.8 x 10
36

F12 0.015 a 12 N

12. Given V = (50 x2yz + 20y2) volt in free space

Find VP , E P and a np at P (1, 2, - 3) m


Solution :

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Field Theory

10EE44

VP 50 (1) 2 (2) (-3) 20 (2) 2 - 220 V

E - V V a x V a y V a z
x
y
z

E - 100 x y z a x - 50 x 2 z a y - 50 x 2 y a z

E P - 100 (2) (-3) a x - 50 (-3) a y - 50 (2) a z


600 a x 150 a y - 100 a z

om

62 6.5 a P V / m ; a P 0.957 a x 0.234 a y - 0.16 a z

Additional Problems

A dz

R AP
z
P

dEPz

ud
en
ts

dEPy

d EP

a P

gr
ou
p.
c

A1. Find the electric field intensity E at P (0, -h, 0) due to an infinite line charge of density
l C / m along Z axis.
+
Z

ity

Solution :

st

Source : Line charge l C / m. Field point : P (0, -h, 0)

dQ
l dz
a R
a R V / m ; R AP - z a z - h a y
2
2
4 0 R
4 0 R

R AP z 2 h 2

R
1

- h a y - z a z
R
R

.c

dE P

a R

z
h

- R a y - R a z d E Py a y d E Pz a z

l dz h
l dz z
a y dE Pz a z
2
4 0 R R
4 0 R 2 R

dE P
dE Py

l dz
4 0 R 2

Expressing all distances in terms of fixed distance h,


h = R Cos or R = h Sec ; z = h tan , dz = h sec2 d

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Field Theory
l h Sec2 d
x Cos
4 0 h 2 Sec2

l
Cos d
4 0 h

l
l
l
[ Sin ]- / /22 x2 a y
4 0 h
4 0 h
2 0 h

dEPz -

l h Sec2 d
4 0 h 2 Sec2

E Pz

l
[ Cos ]- / /22 0
4 0 h

E -

l
a y V / m
2 0 h

h tan
l
Sin d
h Sec
4 0 h

om

E Py -

gr
ou
p.
c

dEPy

10EE44

An alternate approach uses cylindrical co-ordinate system since this yields a more general
insight into the problem.
Z +
A

dz

P ( , / 2, 0)
Y

ud
en
ts

P
/2

AP

.c

ity

st

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Field Theory

10EE44

dQ l dz is the elemental change at Z.


The field intensity dE P due to dQ is
dE P

dQ

2 a R V / m
4 0 R

where R a - z a z

and a R

1
( a - z a z )
R

om

dQ l dz C

R a - R a z dE P a dE P z a z

l
l
(i) dE P
dz ; (ii) dE P z z dz
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 2
Taking OP A as integratio n variable , and expressing all distances in terms of and

z tan , dz Sec 2 d and R


Sec
Cos
x x Sec 2
l
(i) dE P l
d
Cos d
3
3
4 0 Sec
4 0
E P

gr
ou
p.
c

l dz
4 0 R 2

l
l
l
[ Sin ]- / 2/ 2
x 2
4 0
4 0
2 0

(ii) dE P z

ud
en
ts

dE P

l x tan x Sec 2
l
d
(- Sin ) d
3
3
4 0 Sec
4 0

l
[ Cos ]- / 2/ 2 0
4 0

l
EP
a V / m
2 0

Thus, E is radial in direction

st

EP z

2
1

.c

ity

A2. Find the electric field intensity E at (0, -h, 0) due to a line charge of finite length along Z
axis between A (0, 0, z1) and B(0, 0, z2)
Z
B (0, 0, z2)

dz
A(0, 0, z1)

Y
X

Solution :

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Field Theory

10EE44
z
h
R a y - R a z

l dz
4 0 R 2

z2

EP d EP -

2
l
l
Cos d a y
4 0 h 1
4 0 h

z1

Sin d a

l
l
(- Sin )12 a y
( Cos )12 a z
4 0 h
4 0 h

EP

l
(Sin 1 - Sin 2 ) a y (Cos 1 - Cos 2 ) a z V / m
4 0 h

If the line is extending from - to ,

EP

, 1 -

- l
a y V / m
2 0 h

gr
ou
p.
c

om

dE P

A3. Two wires AB and CD each 1 m length carry a total charge of 0.2 C and are disposed

as shown. Given BC = 1 m, find E at P, midpoint of BC.

1m

ud
en
ts

P
.

1m

Solution :

ity

st

(1)

1 = 1800 2 = 1800
P

1m

l
- (Sin 2 - Sin 1 ) a y Cos 2 - Cos 1 a z
4 0 h

.c

E PAB

(2)

0
(Indeterminate)
0

az
Pay
C
1

1 = - tan-1
2 = 0

1
= - 63.430
0 .5

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Field Theory

E PCD

10EE44

- (Sin

l
4 0 h

- Sin 1 ) a y (Cos 2 - Cos 1 ) a z

0.2 x 10- 6
- (Sin (-63.43)) a y (Cos 0 - Cos 63.43) a z
10-9
4
0.5
36
3.6 x 103 - 0.894 a y (1 - 0.447) a z (-3218 a y 1989.75 a z )

d
dy
y

A
L

dE P

l dy
a R V / m
4 0 R 2

dEPy

ud
en
ts

1
R (L d - y) a R ; a R (-a y )
R
l a y
dE Py
dy
4 0 (L d - y)2

gr
ou
p.
c

Since E AB is indeterminate, an alternate method is to be used as under :


Z
dEPz

om

E PCD

1
Ld
1
y L;t
d

Let L d - y - t ; - dy - dt ; y 0 , t

st

- l
dt
4 0 t 2

ity

dE P

.c

l
EP
4 0

Ld

l 1
1

4 0 d L d

l 1
1
V/ m

4 0 d L d

EP

t 1

0.2 x 10-6 1
1
E PAB
a y
-9
10 0.5 1.5
4
36

E PAB 1800 [ 2 - 0.67] a y 2400 a y V/ m

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Field Theory

10EE44

E P E PAB E PCD

2400 a y - 3218 a y 1990 a z


(-820 a y 1990 a z )

2152 a P V / m
where a P (- 0.381 a y 0.925 a z )

om

A4. Develop an expression for E due to a charge uniformly distributed over an infinite
plane with a surface charge density of S C / m2.

AP R

Y
d

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

Solution :
Let the plane be perpendicular to Z axis and we shall use Cylindrical Co-ordinates. The
source charge is an infinite plane charge with S C / m2 .
dEP Z

AP AO OP - OA OP

R ( - a z a z )
a R

1
( - a z a z )
R

ity

st

The field intensity dE P due to dQ = S ds = S (d d) is along AP and given by


d d
S
dE P S
a R
( - a z a z ) d d
2
4 0 R
4 0 R 3

.c

Since radial components cancel because of symmetry, only z components exist

dE P

S z
d d
4 0 R 3

S
E P dE P
4 0
S

z d

0 d 0 R 3 4 S0 x 2

z is fixed height of above plane and let OP A be integration variable. All distances
are expressed in terms of z and
= z tan , d = z Sec2 d ; R = z Sec ; = 0, = 0 ; = , = / 2

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Field Theory

EP S
2 0

10EE44

z z tan

2
0 z3 Sec 3 z Sec d 2 S 0

/2

Sin d

S
[- Cos ]0 / 2 a z
2 0

S
a z (normal to plane)
2 0

X
Solution :
Given : = 5 m, h = 5 m and Q = 500 C
To find : fp & qp = 50 C

ud
en
ts

f P E P x q P where E P S a z
2 0

gr
ou
p.
c

om

A5. Find the force on a point charge of 50 C at P (0, 0, 5) m due to a charge of 500 C that
is uniformly distributed over the circular disc of radius 5 m.
Z
P
h =5 m

st

Q
A a z
2 0

.c

ity

f P 1131 x 103 a z x 50 x 10- 6

f P 56.55 a z N

500 x 10- 6
a z
-9
10
2 ( 52 ) x
36
500

x 36 x 103 a z
2 x 25
1131 x 103 a z N / C

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Field Theory

10EE44

Unit-2

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

a. Energy and potential : Energy expended in moving a point charge in an


electric field
The line integral
Definition of potential difference and Potential
The potential field of a point charge and system of charges
Potential gradient, Energy density in an electrostatic field
b. Conductors, dielectrics and capacitance: Current and current density
Continuity of current metallic conductors
Conductor properties and boundary conditions
boundary conditions for perfect Dielectrics, capacitance

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Field Theory

10EE44

An electric field surrounds electrically charged particles and time-varying magnetic fields. The
electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically
charged particle the field is surrounding. The concept of an electric field was introduced
by Michael Faraday.

om

The electric field is a vector field with SI units of newtons per coulomb (N C1) or,
equivalently, volts per metre (V m1). The SI base units of the electric field are kgms3A1.
The strength or magnitude of the field at a given point is defined as the force that would be
exerted on a positive test charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point; the direction of the field is
given by the direction of that force. Electric fields contain electrical energy withenergy
density proportional to the square of the field amplitude. The electric field is to charge as
gravitational acceleration is to mass and force densityis to volume.

gr
ou
p.
c

An electric field that changes with time, such as due to the motion of charged particles in the
field, influences the local magnetic field. That is, the electric and magnetic fields are not
completely separate phenomena; what one observer perceives as an electric field, another
observer in a differentframe of reference perceives as a mixture of electric and magnetic fields.
For this reason, one speaks of "electromagnetism" or "electromagnetic fields". In quantum
electrodynamics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called photons, and the energy of
photons is quantized.

ud
en
ts

Consider a point charge q with position (x,y,z). Now suppose the charge is subject to a
force Fon q due to other charges. Since this force varies with the position of the charge and by
Coloumb's Law it is defined at all points in space, Fon q is a continuous function of the charge's
position (x,y,z). This suggests that there is some property of the space that causes the force which
is exerted on the charge q. This property is called the electric field and it is defined by

.c

ity

st

Notice that the magnitude of the electric field has units of Force/Charge. Mathematically,
the E field can be thought of as a function that associates a vector with every point in space.
Each such vector's magnitude is proportional to how much force a charge at that point would
"feel" if it were present and this force would have the same direction as the electric field
vector at that point. It is also important to note that the electric field defined above is caused
by a configuration of other electric charges. This means that the charge q in the equation
above is not the charge that is creating the electric field, but rather, being acted upon by it.
This definition does not give a means of computing the electric field caused by a group of
charges.

From the definition, the direction of the electric field is the same as the direction of the force
it would exert on a positively charged particle, and opposite the direction of the force on a
negatively charged particle. Since like charges repel and opposites attract, the electric field is
directed away from positive charges and towards negative charges.

Array of discrete point charges


Electric fields satisfy the superposition principle. If more than one charge is present, the total
electric field at any point is equal to the vector sum of the separate electric fields that each point
charge would create in the absence of the others.

The total E-field due to N point charges is simply the superposition of the E-fields due to
each point charge:

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Field Theory

10EE44

where ri is the position of charge Qi,

the corresponding unit vector.

Continuum of charges

om

The superposition principle holds for an infinite number of infinitesimally small elements of
charges i.e. a continuous distribution of charge. The limit of the above sum is the integral:

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

where is the charge density (the amount of charge per unit volume), and dV is
the differential volume element. This integral is a volume integral over the region of the charge
distribution.

The electric field at a point is equal to the negative gradient of the electric
potentialthere,

st

Coulomb's law is actually a special case of Gauss's Law, a more fundamental description of the

ity

relationship between the distribution of electric charge in space and the resulting electric field.
While

in

static
or
in
motion.
Gauss's
equations governing electromagnetism.

law

is

one

of Maxwell's

either

.c

Columb's law (as given above) is only true for stationary point charges, Gauss's law is true for all
charges

Gauss's law allows the E-field to be calculated in terms of a continuous distribution of charge
density

where is the divergence operator, is the total charge density, including free
and bound charge, in other words all the charge present in the system (per unit
volume).

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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10EE44

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Field Theory

ud
en
ts

where is the gradient. This is equivalent to the force definition above, since electric potential
is defined by the electric potential energy U per unit (test) positive charge:

and force is the negative of potential energy gradient:

ity

st

If several spatially distributed charges generate such an electric potential, e.g. in a solid,
an electric field gradient may also be defined

.c

where is the potential difference between the plates and d is the distance separating the
plates. The negative sign arises as positive charges repel, so a positive charge will experience a
force away from the positively charged plate, in the opposite direction to that in which the
voltage increases. In micro- and nanoapplications, for instance in relation to semiconductors, a
typical magnitude of an electric field is in the order of 1 volt/m achieved by applying a voltage
of the order of 1 volt between conductors spaced 1 m apart.

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

is similar to Newton's law of universal gravitation:

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Parallels between electrostatic and gravitational fields

This suggests similarities between the electric field E and the gravitational field g, so sometimes
mass is called "gravitational charge".
Similarities between electrostatic and gravitational forces:
Both act in a vacuum.

Both are central and conservative.

st

Both obey an inverse-square law (both are inversely proportional to square of r).

ity

Differences between electrostatic and gravitational forces:

.c

Electrostatic forces are much greater than gravitational forces for natural values of charge and
mass. For instance, the ratio of the electrostatic force to the gravitational force between two
electrons is about 1042.

Gravitational forces are attractive for like charges, whereas electrostatic forces are repulsive for
like charges.
There are not negative gravitational charges (no negative mass) while there are both positive and
negative electric charges. This difference, combined with the previous two, implies that
gravitational forces are always attractive, while electrostatic forces may be either attractive or
repulsive.
Electrodynamic fields are E-fields which do change with time, when charges are in motion.
An electric field can be produced, not only by a static charge, but also by a changing magnetic
field. The electric field is given by:

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

in which B satisfies
and denotes the curl. The vector field B is the magnetic flux density and the vector A is
the magnetic vector potential. Taking the curl of the electric field equation we obtain,

om

which is Faraday's law of induction, another one of Maxwell's equations.


Energy in the electric field

gr
ou
p.
c

The electrostatic field stores energy. The energy density u (energy per unit volume) is given by

where is the permittivity of the medium in which the field exists, and E is the electric field
vector.
The total energy U stored in the electric field in a given volume V is therefore

ud
en
ts

Line integral

.c

ity

st

Line integral of a scalar field

Definition

For some scalar


smooth curve C U is

field f : U Rn R,

the

line

integral

along

a piecewise

defined as

where r: [a, b] C is an arbitrary bijective parametrization of the curve C such that r(a)
and r(b) give the endpoints of Cand
.

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

10EE44

The function f is called the integrand, the curve C is the domain of integration, and the
symbol ds may be intuitively interpreted as an elementary arc length. Line integrals of scalar
fields over a curve C do not depend on the chosen parametrization r of C.
Geometrically, when the scalar field f is defined over a plane (n=2), its graph is a
surface z=f(x,y) in space, and the line integral gives the (signed) cross-sectional area bounded
by the curve C and the graph of f. See the animation to the right.
Derivation

gr
ou
p.
c

om

For a line integral over a scalar field, the integral can be constructed from a Riemann
sum using the above definitions off, C and a parametrization r of C. This can be done by
partitioning the interval [a,b] into n sub-intervals [ti-1, ti] of length t = (b a)/n, then r(ti)
denotes some point, call it a sample point, on the curve C. We can use the set of sample
points {r(ti) : 1 i n} to approximate the curve C by a polygonal path by introducing a
straight line piece between each of the sample points r(ti-1) and r(ti). We then label the
distance between each of the sample points on the curve as si. The product of f(r(ti)) and
si can be associated with the signed area of a rectangle with a height and width of f(r(ti))
and si respectively. Taking the limit of the sum of the terms as the length of the partitions
approaches zero gives us

ud
en
ts

We note that, by the mean value theorem, the distance between subsequent points on the
curve, is

Substituting this in the above Riemann sum yields

ity

st

which is the Riemann sum for the integral

Line integral of a vector field

.c

For a vector field F : U Rn Rn, the line integral along a piecewise smooth curve C U, in
the direction of r, is defined as

where is the dot product and r: [a, b] C is a bijective parametrization of the curve C such
that r(a) and r(b) give the endpoints of C.
A line integral of a scalar field is thus a line integral of a vector field where the vectors are
always tangential to the line.
Line integrals of vector fields are independent of the parametrization r in absolute value, but they
do depend on its orientation. Specifically, a reversal in the orientation of the parametrization
changes the sign of the line integral.

Department of EEE, SJBIT


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Field Theory

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om

Electric Potential Difference


In the previous section of Lesson 1, the concept of electric potential was introduced. Electric
potential is a location-dependent quantity that expresses the amount of potential energy per unit
of charge at a specified location. When a Coulomb of charge (or any given amount of charge)
possesses a relatively large quantity of potential energy at a given location, then that location is
said to be a location of high electric potential. And similarly, if a Coulomb of charge (or any
given amount of charge) possesses a relatively small quantity of potential energy at a given
location, then that location is said to be a location of low electric potential. As we begin to apply
our concepts of potential energy and electric potential to circuits, we will begin to refer to the
difference in electric potential between two points. This part of Lesson 1 will be devoted to an
understanding of electric potential difference and its application to the movement of charge in
electric circuits.

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

Consider the task of moving a positive test charge within a uniform electric field
from location A to location B as shown in the diagram at the right. In moving the
charge against the electric field from location A to location B, work will have to
be done on the charge by an external force. The work done on the charge changes
its potential energy to a higher value; and the amount of work that is done is equal to the change
in the potential energy. As a result of this change in potential energy, there is also a difference in
electric potential between locations A and B. This difference in electric potential is represented
by the symbol V and is formally referred to as the electric potential difference. By definition,
the electric potential difference is the difference in electric potential (V) between the final and
the initial location when work is done upon a charge to change its potential energy. In equation
form, the electric potential difference is

.c

ity

st

The standard metric unit on electric potential difference is the volt, abbreviated V and named in
honor of Alessandro Volta. One Volt is equivalent to one Joule per Coulomb. If the electric
potential difference between two locations is 1 volt, then one Coulomb of charge will gain 1
joule of potential energy when moved between those two locations. If the electric potential
difference between two locations is 3 volts, then one coulomb of charge will gain 3 joules of
potential energy when moved between those two locations. And finally, if the electric potential
difference between two locations is 12 volts, then one coulomb of charge will gain 12 joules of
potential energy when moved between those two locations. Because electric potential difference
is expressed in units of volts, it is sometimes referred to as the voltage.

Electric Potential Difference and Simple Circuits

Electric circuits, as we shall see, are all about the movement of charge between varying locations
and the corresponding loss and gain of energy that accompanies this movement. In the previous
part of Lesson 1, the concept of electric potential was applied to a simple battery-powered
electric circuit. In thatdiscussion, it was explained that work must be done on a positive test
charge to move it through the cells from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. This work
would increase the potential energy of the charge and thus increase its electric potential. As the
positive test charge moves through the external circuit from the positive terminal to the negative
terminal, it decreases its electric potential energy and thus is at low potential by the time it
returns to the negative terminal. If a 12 volt battery is used in the circuit, then every coulomb of
charge is gaining 12 joules of potential energy as it moves through the battery. And similarly,
every coulomb of charge loses 12 joules of electric potential energy as it passes through the
external circuit. The loss of this electric potential energy in the external circuit results in a gain in
light energy, thermal energy and other forms of non-electrical energy.

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Field Theory

10EE44

gr
ou
p.
c

om

With a clear understanding of electric potential difference, the role of an electrochemical cell or
collection of cells (i.e., a battery) in a simple circuit can be correctly understood. The cells
simply supply the energy to do work upon the charge to move it from the negative terminal to the
positive terminal. By providing energy to the charge, the cell is capable of maintaining an
electric potential difference across the two ends of the external circuit. Once the charge has
reached the high potential terminal, it will naturally flow through the wires to the low potential
terminal. The movement of charge through an electric circuit is analogous to the movement of
water at a water park or the movement of roller coaster cars at an amusement park. In each
analogy, work must be done on the water or the roller coaster cars to move it from a location of
low gravitational potential to a location of high gravitational potential. Once the water or the
roller coaster cars reach high gravitational potential, they naturally move downward back to the
low potential location. For a water ride or a roller coaster ride, the task of lifting the water or
coaster cars to high potential requires energy. The energy is supplied by a motor-driven water
pump or a motor-driven chain. In a battery-powered electric circuit, the cells serve the role of the
charge pump to supply energy to the charge to lift it from the low potential position through the
cell to the high potential position.

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

It is often convenient to speak of an electric circuit such as the simple circuit discussed here as
having two parts - an internal circuit and an external circuit. The internal circuit is the part of
the circuit where energy is being supplied to the charge. For the simple battery-powered circuit
that we have been referring to, the portion of the circuit containing the electrochemical cells is
the internal circuit. The external circuit is the part of the circuit where charge is moving outside
the cells through the wires on its path from the high potential terminal to the low potential
terminal. The movement of charge through the internal circuit requires energy since it is
an uphill movement in a direction that isagainst the electric field. The movement of charge
through the external circuit is natural since it is a movement in the direction of the electric field.
When at the positive terminal of an electrochemical cell, a positive test charge is at a
highelectric pressure in the same manner that water at a water park is at a high water pressure
after being pumped to the top of a water slide. Being under high electric pressure, a positive test
charge spontaneously and naturally moves through the external circuit to the low pressure, low
potential location.

As a positive test charge moves through the external circuit, it encounters a variety of types of
circuit elements. Each circuit element serves as an energy-transforming device. Light bulbs,
motors, and heating elements (such as in toasters and hair dryers) are examples of energytransforming devices. In each of these devices, the electrical potential energy of the charge is
transformed into other useful (and non-useful) forms. For instance, in a light bulb, the electric
potential energy of the charge is transformed into light energy (a useful form) and thermal
energy (a non-useful form). The moving charge is doing work upon the light bulb to produce two
different forms of energy. By doing so, the moving charge is losing its electric potential energy.
Upon leaving the circuit element, the charge is less energized. The location just prior to entering
the light bulb (or any circuit element) is a high electric potential location; and the location just
after leaving the light bulb (or any circuit element) is a low electric potential location. Referring
to the diagram above, locations A and B are high potential locations and locations C and D are
low potential locations. The loss in electric potential while passing through a circuit element is
often referred to as a voltage drop. By the time that the positive test charge has returned to the
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Field Theory

10EE44

negative terminal, it is at 0 volts and is ready to be re-energized andpumped back up to the high
voltage, positive terminal.
Electric Potential Diagrams

gr
ou
p.
c

om

An electric potential diagram is a convenient tool for representing the electric potential
differences between various locations in an electric circuit. Two simple circuits and their
corresponding electric potential diagrams are shown below.

st

ud
en
ts

In Circuit A, there is a 1.5-volt D-cell and a single light bulb. In Circuit B, there is a 6-volt
battery (four 1.5-volt D-cells) and two light bulbs. In each case, the negative terminal of the
battery is the 0 volt location. The positive terminal of the battery has an electric potential that is
equal to the voltage rating of the battery. The battery energizes the charge to pump it from the
low voltage terminal to the high voltage terminal. By so doing the battery establishes an electric
potential difference across the two ends of the external circuit. Being under electric pressure, the
charge will now move through the external circuit. As its electric potential energy is transformed
into light energy and heat energy at the light bulb locations, the charge decreases its electric
potential. The total voltage drop across the external circuit equals the battery voltage as the
charge moves from the positive terminal back to 0 volts at the negative terminal. In the case of
Circuit B, there are two voltage drops in the external circuit, one for each light bulb. While the
amount of voltage drop in an individual bulb depends upon various factors (to be
discussed later), the cumulative amount of drop must equal the 6 volts gained when moving
through the battery.

ity

Electric Potential from a Point Charge


The potential a distance r from a point charge Q is given by:

.c

V = kQ/r

As with electric field, potential can be represented by a picture. We draw equipotential surfaces
that connect points of the same potential, although in two dimensions these surfaces just look
like lines.
For a 2-D representation of the equipotentials from a point charge, the equipotentials are circles
centered on the charge. The difference in potential between neighboring equipotentials is
constant, so the equipotentials get further apart as you go further from the charge. In 3-D the
equipotentials are actually spherical shells.
Potential energy in a uniform field is U = qEd, so potential is:
V = U/q = Ed
d here is some distance moved parallel to the field, and is measured from some convenient
reference point.
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Field Theory

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More important is the potential difference, which increases as you move in the opposite direction
of the field:
DV = EDd
Even more generally, DV = -E Dr
Equipotentials
Equipotential surfaces are always perpendicular to field lines.

No work is required to move a charge along an equipotential.

Equipotentials connect points of the same potential. They are similar to contour lines on a
topographical map, which connect points of the same elevation, and to isotherms (lines of
constant temperature) on a weather map.

gr
ou
p.
c

om

ud
en
ts

The calculation of potential is inherently simpler than the vector sum required to calculate
the electric field.

The electric field outside a spherically


symmetric charge distribution is identical to that of a point charge as can be shown byGauss'
Law. So the potential outside a spherical charge distribution is identical to that of a point charge.

.c

ity

st

Potential due to a System of Charges

Potential at a point due to a system of charges is the sum of potentials due to individual charges
Consider a system of charges q1, q2, q3, qn with positive vectors r1, r2, r3,..rn relative to the
origin P.

The potential V1 at P due to charge 'q1' is given by

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Field Theory

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Similarly, the potential at P due to charge 'q2' is


We know the potential at 'P' is the due to total charge configuration and is the algebraic sum of
potentials due to individual charges (By superposition principle).

gr
ou
p.
c

om

V = V1 + V2 + v3 + .. + Vn

ud
en
ts

From our previous chapter, we learnt that for a uniformly charged spherical shell, the electric
field outside the shell is as if the entire charges are concentrated at the centre. Thus, the potential
outside the shell is given by

where 'q' is the total charge on the shell and 'R' the radius.
Potential gradient

Fundamentally - the expression for a potential gradient F in one dimension takes the form:[1]

.c

ity

st

where is some type of potential, and x is displacement (not distance), in the x direction. In the
limit of infinitesimal displacements, the ratio of differences becomes a ratio of differentials:

In three dimensions, the resultant potential gradient is the sum of the potential gradients in each
direction, in Cartesian coordinates:

where ex, ey, ez are unit vectors in the x, y, z directions, which can be compactly and neatly
written in terms of the gradient operator ,

Vector calculus
The mathematical nature of a potential gradient arises from vector calculus, which directly has
application to physical flows, fluxes and gradients over space. For any conservative vector
field F, there exists a scalar field , such that the gradient of the scalar field is equal to
the vector field;[2]
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Field Theory

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using Stoke's theorem, this is equivalently stated as


meaning the curl of the vector field vanishes.

om

In physical problems, the scalar field is the potential, and the vector field is a force field, or
flux/current density describing the flow some property.

Current and current density


In electromagnetism,

and

related

fields

in solid

state

physics, condensed

matter

gr
ou
p.
c

physics etc. current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section. It is defined as
a vector whose magnitude is the electric current per cross-sectional area. In SI units, the electric
current density is measured in amperes per square metre

Charge carriers which are free to move constitute a free current density, which are given by
expressions such as those in this section.

Electric current is a coarse, average quantity that tells what is happening in an entire wire. At

ud
en
ts

position r at time t, the distribution of charge flowing is described by the current density:[5]

where J(r,t) is the current density vector, vd(r,t) is the particles' average drift velocity (SI
unit: ms1), and

is the charge density (SI unit: coulombs per cubic metre), in which n(r,t) is the number of

st

particles per unit volume ("number density") (SI unit: m3), q is the charge of the individual
particles with density n (SI unit: coulombs).

ity

A common approximation to the current density assumes the current simply is proportional to the

.c

electric field, as expressed by:


where E is the electric field and is the electrical conductivity.

Conductivity is

the reciprocal (inverse)

of

electrical resistivity and

has

the

SI units

of siemens per metre (S m1), and E has the SI units of newtons per coulomb (N C1) or,

equivalently, volts permetre (V m1).


A more fundamental approach to calculation of current density is based upon:

indicating the lag in response by the time dependence of , and the non-local nature of response
to the field by the spatial dependence of , both calculated in principle from an underlying
microscopic analysis, for example, in the case of small enough fields, the linear response
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Field Theory

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function for the conductive behaviour in the material. See, for example, Giuliani or
Rammer.[6][7] The integral extends over the entire past history up to the present time.
The above conductivity and its associated current density reflect the fundamental mechanisms
underlying charge transport in the medium, both in time and over distance.
A Fourier transform in space and time then results in:

om

where (k,) is now a complex function.

In many materials, for example, in crystalline materials, the conductivity is a tensor, and the
current is not necessarily in the same direction as the applied field. Aside from the material

gr
ou
p.
c

properties themselves, the application of magnetic fields can alter conductive behaviour.
Continuity equation

Since charge is conserved, current density must satisfy a continuity equation. Here is a derivation
from first principles.[11]

The net flow out of some volume V (which can have an arbitrary shape but fixed for the

ud
en
ts

calculation) must equal the net change in charge held inside the volume:

where is the charge density, and dA is a surface element of the surface S enclosing the
volume V. The surface integral on the left expresses the current outflow from the volume, and
the negatively signed volume integral on the right expresses the decrease in the total charge

ity

.c

Hence:

st

inside the volume. From the divergence theorem:

This relation is valid for any volume, independent of size or location, which implies that:

and this relation is called the continuity equation


Boundary conditions on the electric field

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Figure 44:
What are the most general boundary conditions satisfied by the electric field at the interface
between two media: e.g., the interface between a vacuum and a conductor? Consider an
interface
between two media
and . Let us, first of all, apply Gauss' law,
(632)

gr
ou
p.
c

om

to a Gaussian pill-box
of cross-sectional area
whose two ends are locally parallel to the
interface (see Fig. 44). The ends of the box can be made arbitrarily close together. In this limit,
the flux of the electric field out of the sides of the box is obviously negligible. The only
contribution to the flux comes from the two ends. In fact,

(633)

ud
en
ts

where is the perpendicular (to the interface) electric field in medium


at the interface, etc. The
charge enclosed by the pill-box is simply
, where
is the sheet charge density on the
interface. Note that any volume distribution of charge gives rise to a negligible contribution to
the right-hand side of the above equation, in the limit where the two ends of the pill-box are very
closely spaced. Thus, Gauss' law yields
(634)

at the interface: i.e., the presence of a charge sheet on an interface causes a discontinuity in the
perpendicular component of the electric field. What about the parallel electric field? Let us apply
Faraday's law to a rectangular loop
whose long sides, length , run parallel to the interface,

ity

st

(635)

.c

The length of the short sides is assumed to be arbitrarily small. The dominant contribution to the
loop integral comes from the long sides:

(636)

where

is the parallel (to the interface) electric field in medium

at the interface, etc. The

flux of the magnetic field through the loop is approximately


, where
is the
component of the magnetic field which is normal to the loop, and
is the area of the loop.
But,
as the short sides of the loop are shrunk to zero. So, unless the magnetic field
becomes infinite (we shall assume that it does not), the flux also tends to zero. Thus,
(637)

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Field Theory

10EE44

i.e., there can be no discontinuity in the parallel component of the electric field across
an interface.

Boundary Conditions at Dielectric Surfaces

om

Boundary conditions at dielectric surfaces state how the electric vectors E and D change at the
interface between two different media (e.g. vacuum and a dielectric, two different dielectrics
etc).

gr
ou
p.
c

Consider a plane interface between two media 1 and 2 (these can be vacuum, or insulators). They
have dielectric constants k1 and k2 (permittivity 1 and 2 respectively). For generality it is
assumed that there is a free charge density f due to charge q at the interface. E1 and E2 are
electric field intensity vectors making angles 1 and 2 with the normal to the interface.
Corresponding displacement vectors D1 and D2 will make angles 1 and 2 with normal (shown
in the figure 2.6).

ud
en
ts

A) Consider the Gaussian surface at the interface in the from of a cylinder. If its height is made
infinitesimally small, then the electric flux through only the two flat end (top and bottom)
surfaces needs to be considered.Applying Gausss law (Integral form) over closed surface for D.

st

n1 and n2 are unit vectors normal to the surfaces S1 and S2 respectively.

ity

n1 = n2;dS1 = dS2 = dS; in the limit

.c

D1n D2n = q

where Dn is the component of D normal to the surface. This result shows that the normal
component of the vector D is discontinuous if charge q is present across the interface.
If charge is absent then q = 0 = > D1n = D2n
The normal component of electric displacement vector is same on the two sides of the boundary
i.e. D is continuous at the interface.
B) Consider the closed loop at the interface in the form of a rectangular path. The electric field is
conservative, the work done (given by the line integral) around the closed path is zero. If the

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Field Theory

10EE44

height of the rectangle is made infinitesimally small then the only contribution to the line integral
is from the top and bottom edges of the rectangle.

om

Where Et is the tangential component of E.

gr
ou
p.
c

Hence E1t = E2t


The tangential component of E is continuous across any interface.

C) Now consider a general case where an E-field (and hence D-field) passes from a first
dielectric to a second. If there is no surface charge at the interface then

ud
en
ts

E1sin1 = E2sin2(E tangential)

D1cos1 = D2cos2(D normal)

st

but D1 = 0k1E1 = r1E1 and D2 = 0k2E2 = r2E2

ity

E1r1cos1 = E2r2cos2

.c

Finally dividing expressions for D and E in terms of E

Or Tan1 / Tan2 = k1 / k2
It can be said that while crossing the interface between two dielectrics, the electric field incident
at an angle 1 in the first medium having dielectric constant k1 gets refracted at an angle 2 in the
second medium having dielectric constant k2.

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10EE44

om

Field Theory

gr
ou
p.
c

Fig. 2.7 Boundary Conditions for Field Vectors D and E (at the boundary between two
media)
We have the phasor form of the 1st Maxwells curl eqn.

H E j E J c J disp

where J c E conduction current density ( A/m2 )

J cond

J disp

ud
en
ts

J disp j E displacement current density ( A/m2 )

We can choose a demarcation between dielectrics and conductors;

1 is conductor.

1 is dielectric.

ity

st

Cu: 3.5*108 @ 30 GHz


Mica: 0.0002 @ audio and RF

& are independent of freq.

* For most dialectics,

& are function of freq.

.c

* For good conductors,

is relatively constant over frequency range of interest

Therefore dielectric constant

dissipation factor D

if D is small, dissipation factor is practically as the power factor of the dielectric.


PF = sin
= tan-1D
PF & D difference by <1% when their values are less than 0.15.
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Field Theory

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Example
Express

E y 100 cos 2 108 t 0.5 z 300 v / m as a phasor


E y Re 100 e j 2 10

t 0.5 z 300

Therefore phasor form of Eys = 100e0.5 z 30

om

Drop Re and suppress ejwt term to get phasor


0

Note: 0.5z is in radians; 300 in degrees.


Example 11.2
Given

gr
ou
p.
c

Whereas Ey is real, Eys is in general complex.

20 500 ay
40 2100 az
,V / m
Es 100 300 ax

find its time varying form representation

ud
en
ts

Let us rewrite Es as

20e j 50 ay
40e j 210 az
.V / m
Es 100e j 30 ax
0

E Re Es e j t
j t 300
j t 500
j t 2100
Re 100e
20e
40e
V /m

st

E 100 cos t 300 20 cos t 500 40 cos t 210 0 V / m

ity

None of the amplitudes or phase angles in this are expressed as a function of x,y or z.
Even if so, the procedure is still effective.

.c

a) Consider

0.1 j 20 z

A/ m
ax

H s 20e

0.1 j 20 z

H t Re 20e
ax
e j t

A/ m
20e 0.1z cos t 20 z ax

E x E x x, y , z
Note :

consider

Ex

Re E x x, y , z
t
t
Re j E x e j t

e j t

Therefore taking the partial derivative of any field quantity wrt time is equivalent to multiplying
the corresponding phasor by j .
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Field Theory

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Example
Given

200 j 600 az
e j 0.4 x V / m
E0 s 500 400 ay
Find a

a) From given data,

0.4 0 0
0.4 3 108

4 107

120 106

10
36 9

ud
en
ts

f 19.1 106 Hz
b) Given,

gr
ou
p.
c

om

b E at 2, 3,1 at t 0
c E at 2, 3,1 at t 10 ns.
d E at 3, 4, 2 at t 20 ns.

200 j 600 az
e j 0.4 x
Es 500 400 ay
632.456e j 71.565 e j 0.4 x az

500e j 40 e j 0.4 x ay
0

st

500e

j 0.4 x 400

ay 632.456e

ity

E t 500 Re e j t e

j 0.4 x 400

j 0.4 x 71.5650

az

j 0.4 x 71.565


ay 632.456 e j t e
az

.c

632.456 cos t 0.4 x 71.565 az

500 cos t 0.4 x 400 ay


291.076 az
V /m
36.297 ay

632.456 0.4 x 71.565 az

E at 2,3,1 t 0 500 cos 0.4 x 400 ay

c)

E at t 10 ns at 2, 3,1

500 cos 120 106 10 109 0.4 2 400 ay

632.456 cos 120 106 10 10 9 0.4 2 71.5650 az


417.473 az
V /m
477.823 ay

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Field Theory

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d)
at t = 20 ns,

E at 2,3,1

om

631.644 az
V /m
438.736 ay
D 11.2:
320 ay
e j 0.07 z
Given H s 2 400 ax

(b) Hx at p(1,2,3) at t = 31 ns.

(e j z term)

(a) we have p = 0.07

0.07

(c) H at t=0 at the origin.

0.07
0.07 3 108 21.0 106 rad / sec

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

(a)

A / m for a UPW traveling in free space. Find

21.0 106 rad / sec


(b)

3 e j 20 e j 0.07 z ay
e j t
H t Re 2 e j 40 e j 0.07 z ax

st

3 cos t 0.07 z 20 0 ay

2 cos t 0.07 z 400 ax

ity

H x (t ) 2 cos t 0.07 z 400


H x (t ) at p 1, 2, 3

.c

2 cos 2.1106 t 0.21 400

At t 31n sec; 2 cos 2.1106 3110 9 0.21 400


2 cos 65110 3 0.21 400
1.9333

A/ m

(c)

3cos 0.7 z 0.35 ay

H t at t 0 2 cos 0.07 z 0.7 ax


3cos 0.3 ay

H t 2 cos 0.7 ax
2.82ay

1.53ax
3.20666 A / m
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Field Theory

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In free space,

E z , t 120 sin t z ay
H

z, t
Ey

we have

120

Hx
Ey

Hx

120

sin t z ay
120

120
1

sin t z

z, t

gr
ou
p.
c

om

find

V /m

sin t z ax

Problem 3

Non uniform plans waves also can exist under special conditions. Show that the function

x t

1 2 F
c 2 t 2

ud
en
ts

F e z sin

satisfies the wave equation 2 F

provided the wave velocity is given by

2c 2
e 1
2

st

Ans:

ity

From the given eqn. for F, we note that F is a function of x and z,

2 F
2 F
F

x 2
y 2
F

e z
cos x t
x

2 F

2 e z
z
e
F
x t
sin
x 2

2

F

e z sin
x t
z

2 F

2 e z sin
x t 2 F
2
z

.c

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Field Theory

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2 F 2 2 F

dF


e z cos x t
dt


d 2F

e z sin x t
2
dt

om

2 F
1 2F
F 2
c t 2
2
2
1
2 F 2

c

F
2

2
2
2 2

c
2
2

2 2 2
c

2
2
2 2
c

2c 2

2c 2 2
c

or

c2

2c 2
1
2

2c2
2

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

The given wave equation is

.c

ity

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10EE44

gr
ou
p.
c

Unit-3
Poissons and Laplaces equations

om

Field Theory

Derivations of Poissons and Laplaces Equations

Uniqueness theorem

Examples of the solutions of Laplaces and Poissons equations

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

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Field Theory

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Deriving Poisson's and LaPlace's equations


First we will derive the Divergence Theorem (Gauss's Theorem)
Divergence Theorem and Gauss's Theorem

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Consider flux (flow) of material (force lines) through an infinitesimal box:

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10EE44

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Field Theory

Relationship to Green's Theorem

.c

ity

For gravity,

st

The flux out of a volume V equals the divergence throughout volume V


Poisson's and Laplace's Equations

Consider the net flux out of (or into) a closed volume:

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Field Theory

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Consider the first of Maxwell's Equations


.
Remember that

gr
ou
p.
c

Derivation of Laplace Equation from Maxwell's Equations

om

If M is inside the volume, the surface surrounding the mass takes up the entire "field of view",
which is another way of saying that the total solid angle subtended by the surrounding surface is
4psteradians (a steradian is the 3D equivalent of a radian; the circumference of a unit circle is
2p, hence 2p radians in a circle. Similarly, the surface area of a unit sphere is 4p steradians).

. Since, for static electric fields, we also recognise that

ud
en
ts

Putting these two relationships together yields

This is Poisson's Equation, which, together with suitable boundary conditions, yields the
potential in terms of the distribution of charge density .
In regions where the charge density is zero, Poisson's Equation becomes the Laplace Equation
.

st

The Laplace Equation is very useful problems where potentials are defined on boundaries and
one wishes to compute the field in a source-free region. The Poisson Equation is convenient for
problems where charge distributions are used to compute fields.

ity

General solution of the Poisson Equation

.c

Without sacrificing any generality, we can solve for the "impulse response" of the electrostatic
system by deriving a solution for
.

By integrating this equation over a spherical volume that encloses the origin and applying the
Divergence Theorem, we see that
.

If the sphere is "small", the surface integral on the left-hand-side becomes


.
Rearranging yields
.
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Field Theory

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This is easily integrable in r and we see that the final result for the impulse response potential is

.
is a constant that describes the reference potential (usually zero). Given the spherical
symmetry of the delta function source, we know that this is the complete solution.
, the impulse response can be generalised to any point in space:

om

By shifting the origin to

.
(Hint: use the Divergence Theorem on the

gr
ou
p.
c

It is left to the reader to show that this is the solution of

operator when

The next stage is to show that any distribution of charge


constant value, a potential everywhere in space.

uniquely defines, within a

ud
en
ts

By using Green's Theorem,

.)

we can illustrate what the expression for potential must look like. Assume
is the unknown
potential and
is the "impulse response" function that we found in the first part of this
chapter. All we know is that the function
satisfies Poisson's Equation as well as any necessary
boundary conditions on conductors as well as at infinity (where it must go to zero). Sources
(charges) must be defined over a finite volume.

ity

st

Inserting what we know and changing the integration to primed (source) coordinates yields

.c

Carrying out the volume integration on the left hand side and the surface integration on the right
gives

The surface charge density

in the final surface integral comes about if we recognise that

The first integral on the left did not change. However, the integration of the product of the delta
function and the unknown potential over the problem volume just yields back the potential at the
obervation point in the second term. The surface integral is a bit trickier to understand. At
infinity, contributions to the surface integral vanish. Only surfaces (like conductors, dielectrics)
at finite distances in the problem domain contribute to the potential (since we assume a finite
charge distribution). The first surface integral term (over surfaces where potential is fixed)
actually collapses to a constant value on metallic boundaries, because the conducting boundary
must be an equipotential. As a result, the surface integral
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Field Theory

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is
if (the observation point) lies on a surface source and 0 if the observation point is not
on the surface.
Hence, we find that

om

,
where the first surface integral term vanishes for observation points away from surface sources.

gr
ou
p.
c

If we rearrange, the potential anywhere in space can be written as

In source-free regions (where Laplace's equation is valid) only the surface integral term is
needed. Many useful numerical methods have been developed using

ud
en
ts

as the basis for solving many complicated problems. Furthermore, in source-free regions, we can
make the philosophically important observation that knowing the field along a surface is enough
to know the field everywhere in space!

st

By finding the "impulse response" (known as a "Green's function") of the potential function, we
can use what signal-processing people will recognise as convolution to generate solutions for
general potentials based on a known distribution of charge. Special techniques can also be used
to reconstruct the charge distribution from a known potential distribution. These form the basis
of a wide class of computer simulation techniques known as boundary element models.

.c

ity

Laplace's equation

Laplace's equation is a second-order partial differential equation named after Pierre-Simon


Laplace who first studied its properties. This is often written as:
where = is the Laplace operator and is a scalar function. In general, = is
the LaplaceBeltrami or Laplacede Rham operator.
Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation are the simplest examples of elliptic partial differential
equations. Solutions of Laplace's equation are called harmonic functions.
The general theory of solutions to Laplace's equation is known as potential theory. The solutions
of Laplace's equation are the harmonic functions, which are important in many fields of science,
notably the fields of electromagnetism, astronomy, and fluid dynamics, because they can be used
to accurately describe the behavior of electric, gravitational, and fluid potentials. In the study
ofheat conduction, the Laplace equation is the steady-state heat equation.

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Field Theory

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n three dimensions, the problem is to find twice-differentiable real-valued functions , of real


variables x, y, and z, such that
In Cartesian coordinates

om

In cylindrical coordinates,

In Curvilinear coordinates,

This is often written as

ud
en
ts

or

gr
ou
p.
c

In spherical coordinates,

or, especially in more general contexts,

st

where = is the Laplace operator or "Laplacian"

ity

where = div is the divergence, and = grad is the gradient.

.c

If the right-hand side is specified as a given function, h(x, y, z), i.e., if the whole equation is
written as

then it is called "Poisson's equation".

The Laplace equation is also a special case of the Helmholtz equation.


According to Maxwell's equations, an electric field (u,v) in two space dimensions that is
independent of time satisfies

and
where is the charge density. The first Maxwell equation is the integrability condition for the
differential

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Field Theory

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so the electric potential may be constructed to satisfy

The second of Maxwell's equations then implies that

which is the Poisson equation.

om

It is important to note that the Laplace equation can be used in three-dimensional problems in
electrostatics and fluid flow just as in two dimensions.

Uniqueness theorem

gr
ou
p.
c

The uniqueness theorem for Poisson's equation states that the equation has a unique gradient of
the solution for a large class of boundary conditions. In the case of electrostatics, this means that
if an electric field satisfying the boundary conditions is found, then it is the complete electric
field.

In Gaussian units, the general expression for Poisson's equation in electrostatics is

is the electric potential and

is the electric field.

ud
en
ts

Here

The uniqueness of the gradient of the solution (the uniqueness of the electric field) can be proven
for a large class of boundary conditions in the following way.

ity

Using the identity

st

Suppose that there are two solutions


and . One can then define
which is
the difference of the two solutions. Given that both
and
satisfy Poisson's Equation, must
satisfy

.c

And noticing that the second term is zero one can rewrite this as

Taking the volume integral over all space specified by the boundary conditions gives

Applying the divergence theorem, the expression can be rewritten as

Where

are boundary surfaces specified by boundary conditions.

Since
and
, then
when the surface integral vanishes.

must be zero everywhere (and so

This means that the gradient of the solution is unique when


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The boundary conditions for which the above is true are:


Dirichlet boundary condition: is well defined at all of the boundary surfaces. As
such
so at the boundary
and correspondingly the surface integral vanishes.

om

Neumann boundary condition:


is well defined at all of the boundary suaces. As
such
so at the boundary
and correspondingly the surface integral
vanishes.

gr
ou
p.
c

Modified Neumann boundary condition (where boundaries are specified as conductors with
known charges):
is also well defined by applying locally Gauss's Law. As such, the surface
integral also vanishes.
Mixed boundary conditions (a combination of Dirichlet, Neumann, and modified Neumann
boundary conditions): the uniqueness theorem will still hold.
Example

The electric field intensity of a uniform plane wave in air has a magnitude of 754 V/m and is

Find

ud
en
ts

in the z direction. If the wave has a wave length = 2m and propagating in the y direction.

(i)

Frequency and when the field has the form A cos t z .

(ii)

Find an expression for H .

st

In air or free space,

(i)

ity

c 3 108 m / sec

3 108
f

m / sec 1.5 108 Hz 150 MHz

2m
2
2

3.14 rad / m

2m
Ez 754 cos 2 150 106 t y

.c

(ii)
For a wave propagating in the +y direction,

E
Ez
x
Hz
Hz
For the given wave,
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Ez 754 V / m;

Ex 0

754
754

A/ m
120 377

H 2 cos 2 150 106 t y ax


H x 754

A/ m

Example

1
f

1
1
1

7
7
4 10
5.8 10
f

gr
ou
p.
c

om

find for copper having = 5.8*107 (/m) at 50Hz, 3MHz, 30GHz.

1
66 10 3

23.2 2 f
f

1
1

2
4 5.8 f

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

66 10 3
(i )
9.3459 10 3 m
50
66 10 3
(ii )
3.8105 10 5 m
6
3 10
66 10 3
(iii )
3.8105 10 7 m
6
3 10

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10EE44

Biot-Savarts law
Ampere circuital law
stokes theorem
magnetic flux and flux density
scalar and vector magnetic potential

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

Unit-4:
The steady magnetic field

om

Field Theory

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BiotSavart law
In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the BiotSavart law (is an equation that describes
themagnetic field generated by an electric current. It relates the magnetic field to the magnitude,
direction, length, and proximity of the electric current. The law is valid in the magnetostatic
approximation, and is consistent with both Ampre's circuital law and Gauss's law for magnetism

om

The BiotSavart law is used to compute the resultant magnetic field B at position r generated by
a steady current I (for example due to a wire): a continual flow of charges which is constant in
time and the charge neither accumulates nor depletes at any point. The law is a physical example

gr
ou
p.
c

of a line integral: evaluated over the path C the electric currents flow. The equation in SI units is

where r is the full displacement vector from the wire element to the point at which the field is

ud
en
ts

being computed and r is the unit vector of r. Using this the equation can be equivalently written

where dl is a vector whose magnitude is the length of the differential element of the wire, in the
direction of conventional current, and 0 is the magnetic constant. The symbols in boldface
denotevector quantities.

st

The integral is usually around a closed curve, since electric currents can only flow around closed
paths. An infinitely long wire (as used in the definition of the SI unit of electric current -

ity

theAmpere) is a counter-example.

.c

To apply the equation, the point in space where the magnetic field is to be calculated is chosen.
Holding that point fixed, the line integral over the path of the electric currents is calculated to

find the total magnetic field at that point. The application of this law implicitly relies on

the superposition principle for magnetic fields, i.e. the fact that the magnetic field is a vector

sum of the field created by each infinitesimal section of the wire individually
he formulations given above work well when the current can be approximated as running
through an infinitely-narrow wire. If the current has some thickness, the proper formulation of
the BiotSavart law (again in SI units) is:

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or equivalently

where dV is the differential element of volume and J is the current density vector in that volume.
In this case the integral is over the volume of the conductor.

om

The BiotSavart law is fundamental to magnetostatics, playing a similar role to Coulomb's


law in electrostatics. When magnetostatics does not apply, the BiotSavart law should be

gr
ou
p.
c

replaced byJefimenko's equations.


In the special case of a steady constant current I, the magnetic field B is

i.e. the current can be taken out the integral.

In the case of a point charged particle q moving at a constant velocity v, then Maxwell's

ud
en
ts

equations give the following expression for the electric field and magnetic field:[5]

st

where r is the vector pointing from the current (non-retarded) position of the particle to the point
at which the field is being measured, and is the angle between v and r.

.c

ity

When v2 c2, the electric field and magnetic field can be approximated as[5]

These equations are called the "BiotSavart law for a point charge

Ampre's circuital law


In classical electromagnetism, Ampre's circuital law, discovered by Andr-Marie Ampre in
1826, relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing
through the loop. James Clerk Maxwell derived it again using hydrodynamics in his 1861
paper On Physical Lines of Force and it is now one of the Maxwell equations, which form the
basis of classical electromagnetism.
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It relates magnetic fields to electric currents that produce them. Using Ampere's law, one can
determine the magnetic field associated with a given current or current associated with a given
magnetic field, providing there is no time changing electric field present. In its historically
original form, Ampre's Circuital Law relates the magnetic field to its electric current source.
The law can be written in two forms, the "integral form" and the "differential form". The forms
are equivalent, and related by the KelvinStokes theorem. It can also be written in terms of either

om

the B or H magnetic fields. Again, the two forms are equivalent (see the "proof" section below).
Ampre's circuital law is now known to be a correct law of physics in a magnetostatic situation:

gr
ou
p.
c

The system is static except possibly for continuous steady currents within closed loops. In all
other cases the law is incorrect unless Maxwell's correction is included (see below).
Integral form

In SI units (cgs units are later), the "integral form" of the original Ampre's circuital law is a line
integral of the magnetic field around some closed curveC (arbitrary but must be closed). The
curve C in turn bounds both a surface S which the electric current passes through (again arbitrary

ud
en
ts

but not closedsince no three-dimensional volume is enclosed by S), and encloses the current.
The mathematical statement of the law is a relation between the total amount of magnetic field
around some path (line integral) due to the current which passes through that enclosed path
(surface integral). It can be written in a number of forms.[2][3]
In terms of total current, which includes both free and bound current, the line integral of
the magnetic B-field (in tesla, T) around closed curve C is proportional to the total

ity

st

current Ienc passing through a surface S (enclosed by C):

.c

where J is the total current density (in ampere per square metre, Am2).
in

terms

of free current,

the

line

integral

of

the magnetic

H-

Alternatively

field (in ampere per metre, Am ) around closed curve C equals the free current If, enc through a

surface S:

where Jf is the free current density only. Furthermore

is the closed line integral around the closed curve C,

denotes a 2d surface integral over S enclosed by C

is the vector dot product,

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d is an infinitesimal element (a differential) of the curve C (i.e. a vector with


magnitude equal to the length of the infinitesimal line element, and direction given
by the tangent to the curve C)

dS is the vector area of an infinitesimal element of surface S (that is, a vector with
magnitude equal to the area of the infinitesimal surface element, and direction
normal to surface S. The direction of the normal must correspond with the

curve C and surface S.

where 0 is the magnetic constant.

gr
ou
p.
c

The B and H fields are related by the constitutive equation

om

orientation of C by the right hand rule), see below for further explanation of the

There are a number of ambiguities in the above definitions that require clarification and a choice
of convention.

could go

ud
en
ts

First, three of these terms are associated with sign ambiguities: the line integral

around the loop in either direction (clockwise or counterclockwise); the vector area dS could
point in either of the two directions normal to the surface; and Ienc is the net current passing
through the surface S, meaning the current passing through in one direction, minus the current in
the other directionbut either direction could be chosen as positive. These ambiguities are
resolved by the right-hand rule: With the palm of the right-hand toward the area of integration,

st

and the index-finger pointing along the direction of line-integration, the outstretched thumb
points in the direction that must be chosen for the vector area dS. Also the current passing in the

ity

same direction as dS must be counted as positive. The right hand grip rule can also be used to

.c

determine the signs.

Second, there are infinitely many possible surfaces S that have the curve C as their border.

(Imagine a soap film on a wire loop, which can be deformed by moving the wire). Which of

those surfaces is to be chosen? If the loop does not lie in a single plane, for example, there is no

one obvious choice. The answer is that it does not matter; it can be proven that any surface with
boundary C can be chosen.
Differential form
By the KelvinStokes theorem, this equation can also be written in a "differential form". Again,
this equation only applies in the case where the electric field is constant in time, meaning the
currents are steady (time-independent, else the magnetic field would change with time); see
below for the more general form. In SI units, the equation states for total current:
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and for free current

where is the curl operator.


The electric current that arises in the simplest textbook situations would be classified as "free

om

current"for example, the current that passes through a wire or battery. In contrast, "bound
current" arises in the context of bulk materials that can be magnetized and/or polarized. (All

gr
ou
p.
c

materials can to some extent.)

When a material is magnetized (for example, by placing it in an external magnetic field), the
electrons remain bound to their respective atoms, but behave as if they were orbiting the nucleus
in a particular direction, creating a microscopic current. When the currents from all these atoms
are put together, they create the same effect as a macroscopic current, circulating perpetually
around the magnetized object. This magnetization current JM is one contribution to "bound
current".

ud
en
ts

The other source of bound current is bound charge. When an electric field is applied, the positive
and negative bound charges can separate over atomic distances in polarizable materials, and
when the bound charges move, the polarization changes, creating another contribution to the
"bound current", the polarization current JP.

st

The total current density J due to free and bound charges is then:

ity

with Jf the "free" or "conduction" current density.


All current is fundamentally the same, microscopically. Nevertheless, there are often practical

.c

reasons for wanting to treat bound current differently from free current. For example, the bound

current usually originates over atomic dimensions, and one may wish to take advantage of a
simpler theory intended for larger dimensions. The result is that the more microscopic Ampre's

law, expressed in terms of B and the microscopic current (which includes free, magnetization

and polarization currents), is sometimes put into the equivalent form below in terms of H and the
free current only. For a detailed definition of free current and bound current, and the proof that
the two formulations are equivalent, see the "proof" section below.
Shortcomings of the original formulation of Ampre's circuital law
There are two important issues regarding Ampre's law that require closer scrutiny. First, there is
an issue regarding the continuity equation for electrical charge. There is a theorem in vector
calculus that states the divergence of a curl must always be zero. Hence
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and so the original Ampre's law implies that

om

But in general

which is non-zero for a time-varying charge density. An example occurs in a capacitor circuit

gr
ou
p.
c

where time-varying charge densities exist on the plates

Second, there is an issue regarding the propagation of electromagnetic waves. For example,
in free space, where

but instead

ud
en
ts

Ampre's law implies that

To treat these situations, the contribution of displacement current must be added to the current
term in Ampre's law.

st

James Clerk Maxwell conceived of displacement current as a polarization current in the


dielectric vortex sea, which he used to model the magnetic field hydrodynamically and

ity

mechanically.[9] He added this displacement current to Ampre's circuital law at equation (112)

.c

in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force

Curl Theorem

A special case of Stokes' theorem in which


embedded 2-manifold with boundary in

is a vector field and

is an oriented, compact

, and a generalization of Green's theorem from the

plane into three-dimensional space. The curl theorem states


(1)

where the left side is a surface integral and the right side is a line integral.
There are also alternate forms of the theorem. If
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(2)

then
(3)

om

and if
(4)

gr
ou
p.
c

then

ud
en
ts

Stokes' theorem

In differential geometry, Stokes' theorem (also called the generalized Stokes' theorem) is a
statement about the integration of differential forms onmanifolds, which both simplifies and
generalizes several theorems from vector calculus. Stokes' theorem says that the integral of a
differential form over the boundary of some orientable manifold is equal to the integral of

ity

st

its exterior derivative d over the whole of , i.e.

This modern form of Stokes' theorem is a vast generalization of a classical result first discovered

.c

by Lord Kelvin, who communicated it to George Stokes in July 1850.[1][2] Stokes set the theorem
as a question on the 1854 Smith's Prize exam, which led to the result bearing his name.[2] This

classical KelvinStokes theorem relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field F over a

surface in Euclidean three-space to the line integralof the vector field over its boundary :

This classical statement, as well as the classical Divergence theorem, fundamental theorem of
calculus, and Green's Theorem are simply special cases of the general formulation stated above.
he fundamental theorem of calculus states that the integral of a function f over the interval [a, b]
can be calculated by finding an antiderivative F of f:

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Stokes' theorem is a vast generalization of this theorem in the following sense.

By the choice of F,

. In the parlance of differential forms, this is saying

that f(x) dx is the exterior derivative of the 0-form, i.e. function, F: in other words, that

of F.

A closed interval [a, b] is a simple example of a one-dimensional manifold with

gr
ou
p.
c

instead

om

dF = f dx. The general Stokes theorem applies to higher differential forms

boundary. Its boundary is the set consisting of the two points a and b. Integrating f over
the interval may be generalized to integrating forms on a higher-dimensional manifold.
Two technical conditions are needed: the manifold has to be orientable, and the form has
to be compactly supported in order to give a well-defined integral.

The two points a and b form the boundary of the open interval. More generally, Stokes'
theorem applies to oriented manifolds M with boundary. The boundary M of M is itself

ud
en
ts

a manifold and inherits a natural orientation from that of the manifold. For example, the
natural orientation of the interval gives an orientation of the two boundary points.
Intuitively, a inherits the opposite orientation as b, as they are at opposite ends of the
interval.

So,

"integrating" F over

two

boundary

points a, b is

taking

the

difference F(b) F(a).

In even simpler terms, one can consider that points can be thought of as the boundaries of curves,

st

that is as 0-dimensional boundaries of 1-dimensional manifolds. So, just as one can find the

ity

value of an integral (f dx = dF) over a 1-dimensional manifolds ([a,b]) by considering the antiderivative (F) at the 0-dimensional boundaries ([a,b]), one can generalize the fundamental

.c

theorem of calculus, with a few additional caveats, to deal with the value of integrals (d) over
n-dimensional manifolds () by considering the anti-derivative () at the (n-1)-dimensional

boundaries (d) of the manifold.

So the fundamental theorem reads:

Let

be an oriented smooth manifold of dimension n and let

is compactly supported on

be an n-differential form that

. First, suppose that is compactly supported in the domain of a

single,oriented coordinate chart {U, }. In this case, we define the integral of

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over

as

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Field Theory

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i.e., via the pullback of to Rn.


More generally, the integral of

over

is defined as follows: Let {i} be a partition of

unity associated with a locally finite cover {Ui, i} of (consistently oriented) coordinate charts,

om

then define the integral

where each term in the sum is evaluated by pulling back to Rn as described above. This quantity
is well-defined; that is, it does not depend on the choice of the coordinate charts, nor the partition

Stokes' theorem reads: If

is an (n 1)-form with compact support on

and

denotes

with its induced orientation, then

ud
en
ts

the boundary of

gr
ou
p.
c

of unity.

) for the special case n=2

Here

ity

st

A "normal" integration manifold (here called D instead of

is the exterior derivative, which is defined using the manifold structure only. On the

.c

r.h.s., a circle is sometimes used within the integral sign to stress the fact that the (n-1)manifold

is closed.[3] The r.h.s. of the equation is often used to formulate integral laws; the

l.h.s. then leads to equivalent differentialformulations (see below).

The theorem is often used in situations where

bigger manifold on which the form

is an embedded oriented submanifold of some

is defined.

A proof becomes particularly simple if the submanifold

is a so-called "normal manifold", as in

the figure on the r.h.s., which can be segmented into vertical stripes (e.g. parallel to
the xn direction), such that after a partial integration concerning this variable, nontrivial
contributions come only from the upper and lower boundary surfaces (coloured in yellow and
red, respectively), where the complementary mutual orientations are visible through the arrows.

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gr
ou
p.
c

om

KelvinStokes theorem

An illustration of the KelvinStokes theorem, with surface


vector n.

, its boundary

and the "normal"

This is a (dualized) 1+1 dimensional case, for a 1-form (dualized because it is a statement
about vector fields). This special case is often just referred to as the Stokes' theorem in many
introductory university vector calculus courses and as used in physics and engineering. It is also

ud
en
ts

sometimes known as the curl theorem.


The classical KelvinStokes theorem:

which relates the surface integral of the curl of a vector field over a surface in Euclidean three-

st

space to the line integral of the vector field over its boundary, is a special case of the general

ity

Stokes theorem (with n = 2) once we identify a vector field with a 1 form using the metric on
Euclidean three-space. The curve of the line integral, , must have positive orientation,

.c

meaning that dr points counterclockwise when the surface normal, d, points toward the viewer,

following the right-hand rule.


One consequence of the formula is that the field lines of a vector field with zero curl cannot be

closed contours.
The formula can be rewritten as:

where P, Q and R are the components of F.


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om

These variants are frequently used:

gr
ou
p.
c

Magnetic flux

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or B) through a


surface is the component of the B field passing through that surface. The SI unit of magnetic flux
is the weber (Wb) (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the CGS unit is the maxwell. Magnetic
flux is usually measured with a fluxmeter, which contains measuring coils and electronics that
evaluates the change of voltage in the measuring coils to calculate the magnetic flux.

ud
en
ts

The magnetic interaction is described in terms of a vector field, where each point in space (and
time) is associated with a vector that determines what force a moving charge would experience at
that point (see Lorentz force). Since a vector field is quite difficult to visualize at first, in
elementary physics one may instead visualize this field with field lines. The magnetic flux
through some surface, in this simplified picture, is proportional to the number of field lines
passing through that surface (in some contexts, the flux may be defined to be precisely the

st

number of field lines passing through that surface; although technically misleading, this

ity

distinction is not important). Note that the magnetic flux is the net number of field lines passing
through that surface; that is, the number passing through in one direction minus the number

.c

passing through in the other direction (see below for deciding in which direction the field lines
carry a positive sign and in which they carry a negative sign). In more advanced physics, the

field line analogy is dropped and the magnetic flux is properly defined as the component of the

magnetic field passing through a surface. If the magnetic field is constant, the magnetic flux

passing through a surface of vector area S is

where B is the magnitude of the magnetic field (the magnetic flux density) having the unit of
Wb/m2 (Tesla), S is the area of the surface, and is the angle between the magnetic field
lines and the normal (perpendicular) to S. For a varying magnetic field, we first consider the
magnetic flux through an infinitesimal area element dS, where we may consider the field to be
constant:
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A generic surface, S, can then be broken into infinitesimal elements and the total magnetic flux
through the surface is then the surface integral

om

From the definition of the magnetic vector potential A and the fundamental theorem of the

gr
ou
p.
c

curl the magnetic flux may also be defined as:

where the line integral is taken over the boundary of the surface S, which is denoted S.
Gauss's law for magnetism, which is one of the four Maxwell's equations, states that the total
magnetic flux through a closed surface is equal to zero. (A "closed surface" is a surface that
completely encloses a volume(s) with no holes.) This law is a consequence of the empirical

ud
en
ts

observation that magnetic monopoles have never been found.


In other words, Gauss's law for magnetism is the statement:

for any closed surface S.

While the magnetic flux through a closed surface is always zero, the magnetic flux through

st

an open surface need not be zero and is an important quantity in electromagnetism. For example,

ity

a change in the magnetic flux passing through a loop of conductive wire will cause
an electromotive force, and therefore an electric current, in the loop. The relationship is given

.c

by Faraday's law:

where

is the EMF,
B is the magnetic flux through the open surface ,
is the boundary of the open surface ; note that the surface, in general, may be in
motion and deforming, and so is generally a function of time. The electromotive force is
induced along this boundary.
d is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ,
v is the velocity of the boundary ,

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E is the electric field,


B is the magnetic field.
The two equations for the EMF are, firstly, the work per unit charge done against the Lorentz
force in moving a test charge around the (possibly moving) surface boundary and, secondly,
as the change of magnetic flux through the open surface . This equation is the principle behind
generator.

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

an electrical

The magnetic vector potential

Electric fields generated by stationary charges obey

ity

st

(315)

This immediately allows us to write

.c

(316)

since the curl of a gradient is automatically zero. In fact, whenever we come across an
irrotational vector field in physics we can always write it as the gradient of some scalar field.
This is clearly a useful thing to do, since it enables us to replace a vector field by a much simpler
scalar field. The quantity

in the above equation is known as the electric scalar potential.

Magnetic fields generated by steady currents (and unsteady currents, for that matter) satisfy
(317)
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Field Theory

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This immediately allows us to write


(318)

om

since the divergence of a curl is automatically zero. In fact, whenever we come across a
solenoidal vector field in physics we can always write it as the curl of some other vector field.

gr
ou
p.
c

This is not an obviously useful thing to do, however, since it only allows us to replace one vector
field by another. Nevertheless, Eq. (318) is one of the most useful equations we shall come
across in this lecture course. The quantity

is known as the magnetic vector potential.

We know from Helmholtz's theorem that a vector field is fully specified by its divergence and its
curl. The curl of the vector potential gives us the magnetic field via Eq. (318). However, the
divergence of

has no physical significance. In fact, we are completely free to choose

ud
en
ts

to be whatever we like. Note that, according to Eq. (318), the magnetic field is invariant under
the transformation

(319)

st

In other words, the vector potential is undetermined to the gradient of a scalar field. This is just
. Recall that the electric scalar potential

ity

another way of saying that we are free to choose

is undetermined to an arbitrary additive constant, since the transformation

.c

(320)

leaves the electric field invariant in Eq. (316). The transformations (319) and (320) are examples

of what mathematicians call gauge transformations. The choice of a particular function


particular constant

or a

is referred to as a choice of the gauge. We are free to fix the gauge to be

whatever we like. The most sensible choice is the one which makes our equations as simple as
possible. The usual gauge for the scalar potential
gauge for

is such that

at infinity. The usual

is such that
(321)

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Field Theory

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This particular choice is known as the Coulomb gauge.

It is obvious that we can always add a constant to

so as to make it zero at infinity. But it is not

at all obvious that we can always perform a gauge transformation such as to make
Suppose that we have found some vector field

zero.

whose curl gives the magnetic field but whose

om

divergence in non-zero. Let

The question is, can we find a scalar field


we are left with

such that after we perform the gauge transformation

. Taking the divergence of Eq. it is clear that we need to find a

which satisfies

ud
en
ts

function

gr
ou
p.
c

(322)

But this is just Poisson's equation. We know that we can always find a unique solution of this
equation (see Sect. 3.11). This proves that, in practice, we can always set the divergence of

st

equal to zero.

-axis and carrying a current

ity

Let us again consider an infinite straight wire directed along the

.c

. The magnetic field generated by such a wire is written

We wish to find a vector potential

whose curl is equal to the above magnetic field, and whose

divergence is zero. It is not difficult to see that

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Field Theory

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fits the bill. Note that the vector potential is parallel to the direction of the current. This would
seem to suggest that there is a more direct relationship between the vector potential and the
current than there is between the magnetic field and the current. The potential is not very wellbehaved on the

-axis, but this is just because we are dealing with an infinitely thin current.

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Let us take the curl of Eq. We find that

where use has been made of the Coulomb gauge condition We can combine the above relation
with the field to give

st

ud
en
ts

Writing this in component form, we obtain

ity

But, this is just Poisson's equation three times over. We can immediately write the unique

.c

solutions to the above equations:

These solutions can be recombined to form a single vector solution

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Field Theory

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gr
ou
p.
c

om

Of course, we have seen a equation like this before:

Equations are the unique solutions (given the arbitrary choice of gauge) to the field equations
(they specify the magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials generated by a set of stationary
charges, of charge density

, and a set of steady currents, of current density

Incidentally, we can prove that Eq. satisfies the gauge condition

), and using the fact that

for

.c

ity

st

steady currents.

and

by repeating the

ud
en
ts

analysis of Eqs. (with

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Field Theory

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Part-B
Unit-5: Magnetic forces:

differential current element

force and torque on closed circuit.

gr
ou
p.
c

force between differential current element

om

forces on moving charge

Magnetic material and inductance:


magnetization and permeability

magnetic circuit

ud
en
ts

magnetic boundary condition

.c

ity

st

inductance and mutual inductance

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Field Theory

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Magnetic Force on a Moving Charge:


The force on a moving charge in a magnetic field is equal to the cross product of the
particles velocity with the magnetic field times the magnitude of the charge.

The direction of the Magnetic Force is always at right angle to the plane formed by the
velocity vector v and the magnetic field B. (Right-hand rule)

The Magnetic Force depends upon the size of the charge q, the magnitude of the
magnetic field B, and how fast the charge is moving v perpendicular to the magnetic
field (equivalently, the size of v and the component of B perpendicular to the direction of
the moving charge).

Also see the motion of a free charge moving in a magnetic field.

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

When q <
0, F is
in
the
opposite
direction.
If the sign of the charge on the particle is inverted, then the direction of the magnetic
force will be opposite that of a positive charge. The magnitude of the magnetic force
remains the same, only its direction is inverted.

.c

Properties of the Magnetic Field acting on a Moving Charge at one moment:

When v is
parallel
to B,
then F =
0.
There is one direction in space where the moving particle will experience no magnetic
force acting on it; this direction is along the direction of the magnetic field.
The direction of the magnetic force is always at 90 o to the direction of motion of the
particle.

The direction of the magnetic force is always at 90 o to the direction of the magnetic field.
(See Right-hand rule)

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Field Theory

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Plane
formed
by v and B
All positive particles which have v-B planes that are identical (or parallel) will
experience a magnetic force in the same direction independent of the angle
between v and B. Changing the angle between v and Bwithout changing the orientation
of the v-B plane will not change the direction of the magnetic force on the charge. This
direction is perpendicular to the v-B plane and determined by the right-hand rule.

If the direction of the motion of the particle is changed, then the magnitude of the
magnetic force may or may not change.

When
If a particle moves in a plane that is perpendicular to B, then the magnitude of the
magnetic force will always have the same size (but necessarily the same direction) no
matter which direction the particle moves in the plane perpendicular to B. In this plane
the magnetic force will be maximum.

F is
maximum,
when =
90 o.
The magnitude of the magnetic force is greatest when the charge is moving at right
angles to the magnetic field.

If the charge is not constrained by other forces then magnetic force will cause the free
charge to change its direction each moment. The end results is that the free charge will
move in a helix around the axis of the magnetic field. See Free Charge in Magnetic Field.

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Forces between differential current elements

We need to find the force between two conductors without calculating the magnetic field
H

Assume two current loops

The magnetic field at point P2 due to P1 is

I 1dl1 a12
4 R122

I 1dl1 a12
4 R122

The magnetic field at P2 due to loop 1 is

ity

dH 2

st

H2

.c

l1

The force on P2 due to loop 1 is dF2 I 2 dl 2 B 2

This leads to:

F2

dl 2 B 2

l2

F2

o I 1 I 2
dl1 a12
dl

2
R122
4 l
l
2

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Field Theory

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Finally we get

F2

o I 1 I 2
4

l2

l1

a12 dl1
dl 2
R122

We can notice that this form is more complicated than calculating H2 first, then

om

calculating F2

A magnetic field exerts on a force on a wire (or other conductor) when a current passes
through it.
The general formula for determining the size and direction of the magnetic force on a
current-carrying wire involves a complicated integral
There are several cases in which the solution is relatively easy: (note that each one
involves a cross product of two vectors)
o Straight wire in uniform magnetic field:
o
F = I (L x B)

o
o

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

Force and torque on closed circuit

Curved wire in uniform magnetic field:


F = I (L' x B)

where L' is a straight vector from the starting point of the wire to its end point

ity

Although the force on a closed loop of current in a uniform magnetic field is zero,
the torque is not.
If one defines a special "area vector" A, the magnitude of which is the area of the closed
loop, and the direction of which is perpendicular to the plane of the loop (as given by
right-hand rule), then the torque on the loop is
tau = I (A x B)
The torque acts to make the "area vector" parallel to the direction of the magnetic field
The magnetic moment "mu" of a closed circuit loop is a vector quantity, the product of
its current and "area vector". One can express the torque on a loop as
tau = mu x B

.c

Closed circuit loop in a magnetic field:


F=0

st

o
o

Permeability (electromagnetism)
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the
formation of a magnetic field within itself. In other words, it is the degree of magnetization that a
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Field Theory

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material obtains in response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetic permeability is typically


represented by the Greek letter . The term was coined in September, 1885 by Oliver Heaviside.
The reciprocal of magnetic permeability is magnetic reluctivity.
In SI units,
permeability
is
measured
in henrys per
meter
(Hm1),
2
or newtons per ampere squared (NA ). The permeability constant (0), also known as
themagnetic constant or the permeability of free space, is a measure of the amount of resistance
encountered when forming a magnetic field in a classicalvacuum. The magnetic constant has the
exact (defined)[1] value 0 = 4107 1.2566370614106 Hm1 or NA2).

gr
ou
p.
c

om

A closely related property of materials is magnetic susceptibility, which is a measure of the


magnetization of a material in addition to the magnetization of the space occupied by the
material.

ud
en
ts

In electromagnetism, the auxiliary magnetic field H represents how a magnetic field B influences
the organization of magnetic dipoles in a given medium, including dipole migration and
magnetic dipole reorientation. Its relation to permeability is

where the permeability, , is a scalar if the medium is isotropic or a second rank tensor for an
anisotropic medium.

.c

ity

st

In general, permeability is not a constant, as it can vary with the position in the medium, the
frequency of the field applied, humidity, temperature, and other parameters. In a nonlinear
medium, the permeability can depend on the strength of the magnetic field. Permeability as a
function of frequency can take on real or complex values. In ferromagnetic materials, the
relationship between B and H exhibits both non-linearity and hysteresis: B is not a single-valued
function of H, but depends also on the history of the material. For these materials it is sometimes
useful to consider the incremental permeability defined as

This definition is useful in local linearizations of non-linear material behavior, for example in
a NewtonRaphson iterative solution scheme that computes the changing saturation of a
magnetic circuit.
Permeability is the inductance per unit length. In SI units, permeability is measured in henrys per
metre (Hm1 = J/(A2m) = N A2). The auxiliary magnetic field H has dimensions current per
unit length and is measured in units of amperes per metre (A m1). The product H thus has
dimensions inductance times current per unit area (HA/m2). But inductance is magnetic flux per
unit current, so the product has dimensions magnetic flux per unit area. This is just the magnetic
field B, which is measured in webers (volt-seconds) per square-metre (Vs/m2), or teslas (T).
B is related to the Lorentz force on a moving charge q:

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The charge q is given in coulombs (C), the velocity v in meters per second (m/s), so that the
force F is in newtons (N):

om

H is related to the magnetic dipole density. A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric
current. The dipole moment has dimensions current times area, units ampere square-metre
(Am2), and magnitude equal to the current around the loop times the area of the
loop. The H field at a distance from a dipole has magnitude proportional to the dipole moment
divided by distance cubed,[4] which has dimensions current per unit length.
Relative permeability and magnetic susceptibility

gr
ou
p.
c

Relative permeability, sometimes denoted by the symbol r, is the ratio of the permeability of a
specific medium to the permeability of free space, 0:

where 0 = 4 107 N A2. In terms of relative permeability, the magnetic susceptibility is

Magnetic circuit

ud
en
ts

m, a dimensionless quantity, is sometimes called volumetric or bulk susceptibility, to distinguish


it from p (magnetic mass or specific susceptibility) and M (molar or molar mass susceptibility).

ity

st

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The
flux is usually generated by permanent magnets orelectromagnets and confined to the path
by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps
or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic
fields in
many
devices
such
as electric
motors, generators, transformers, relays,
lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads.

.c

The concept of a "magnetic circuit" exploits a one-to-one correspondence between the equations
of the magnetic field in an unsaturated ferromagnetic material to that of an electrical circuit.
Using this concept the magnetic fields of complex devices such as transformers can be quickly
solved using the methods and techniques developed for electrical circuits.

Some examples of magnetic circuits are:

horseshoe magnet with iron keeper (low-reluctance circuit)


horseshoe magnet with no keeper (high-reluctance circuit)
electric motor (variable-reluctance circuit)

Similar to the way that EMF drives a current of electrical charge in electrical
circuits, magnetomotive force (MMF) 'drives' magnetic flux through magnetic circuits. The term
'magnetomotive force', though, is a misnomer since it is not a force nor is anything moving. It is
perhaps better to call it simply MMF. In analogy to the definition of EMF, the magnetomotive
force around a closed loop is defined as:

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The MMF represents the potential that a hypothetical magnetic charge would gain by completing
the loop. The magnetic flux that is driven is not a current of magnetic charge; it merely has the
same relationship to MMF that electric current has to EMF. (See microscopic origins of
reluctance below for a further description.)

om

The unit of magnetomotive force is the ampere-turn (At), represented by a steady, direct electric
current of one ampere flowing in a single-turn loop of electrically conducting material in
a vacuum. The gilbert (Gi), established by the IEC in 1930 [1], is the CGS unit of
magnetomotive force and is a slightly smaller unit than the ampere-turn. The unit is named
after William Gilbert (15441603) English physician and natural philosopher.

gr
ou
p.
c

The magnetomotive force can often be quickly calculated using Ampre's law. For example, the
magnetomotive force
of long coil is:
,

where N is the number of turns and I is the current in the coil. In practice this equation is used for
the MMF of real inductors with N being the winding number of the inducting coil.
In electronic circuits, Ohm's law is an empirical relation between the EMF
element and the current I it generates through that element. It is written as:

ud
en
ts

applied across an

where R is the electrical resistance of that material. Hopkinson's law is a counterpart to Ohm's
law used in magnetic circuits. The law is named after the British electrical engineer, John
Hopkinson. It states that[1][2]

ity

st

where is the magnetomotive force (MMF) across a magnetic element, is the magnetic
flux through the magnetic element, and
is the magnetic reluctance of that element. (It shall
be shown later that this relationship is due to the empirical relationship between the H-field and
the magnetic field B, B=H, where is the permeability of the material.) Like Ohm's law,
Hopkinson's law can be interpreted either as an empirical equation that works for some materials,
or it may serve as a definition of reluctance.
Magnetic reluctance, or magnetic resistance, is analogous to resistance in
an electrical circuit (although it does not dissipate magnetic energy). In likeness to the
way an electric field causes an electric current to follow the path of least resistance,
a magnetic field causes magnetic flux to follow the path of least magnetic reluctance. It is
a scalar, extensive quantity, akin to electrical resistance.

.c

The total reluctance is equal to the ratio of the (MMF) in a passive magnetic circuit and
the magnetic flux in this circuit. In an AC field, the reluctance is the ratio of the
amplitude values for a sinusoidal MMF and magnetic flux. (see phasors)

The definition can be expressed as:

where

is the reluctance in ampere-turns per weber (a unit that is equivalent to turns per henry).

Magnetic flux always forms a closed loop, as described by Maxwell's equations, but the path of
the loop depends on the reluctance of the surrounding materials. It is concentrated around the
path of least reluctance. Air and vacuum have high reluctance, while easily magnetized materials
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Field Theory

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such as soft iron have low reluctance. The concentration of flux in low-reluctance materials
forms strong temporary poles and causes mechanical forces that tend to move the materials
towards regions of higher flux so it is always an attractive force(pull).
The inverse of reluctance is called permeance.

om

Its SI derived unit is the henry (the same as the unit of inductance, although the two concepts are
distinct).

gr
ou
p.
c

Inductance

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of a conductor by which a


change in current in the conductor "induces" (creates) avoltage (electromotive force) in both the
conductor itself (self-inductance)[1][2][3] and any nearby conductors (mutual inductance).[4][5] This
effect derives from two fundamental observations of physics: First, that a steady current creates a
steady magnetic field (Oersted's law)[6] and second, that a time-varying magnetic field induces
a voltage in a nearby conductor (Faraday's law of induction).[7] From Lenz's law,[8] in an electric
circuit, a changing electric current through a circuit that has inductance induces a proportional
voltage which opposes the change in current (self inductance). The varying field in this circuit
may also induce an e.m.f. in a neighbouring circuit (mutual inductance).

ud
en
ts

The term 'inductance' was coined by Oliver Heaviside in February 1886.[9] It is customary to use
the symbol L for inductance, in honour of the physicist Heinrich Lenz.[10][11] In the SI system the
unit of inductance is the henry, named in honor of the scientist who discovered
inductance,Joseph Henry.
To add inductance to a circuit, electronic components called inductors are used, typically
consisting of coils of wire to concentrate the magnetic field and so that the magnetic field is
linked into the circuit more than once.

ity

st

The relationship between the self inductance L of an electrical circuit in henries, voltage, and
current is

.c

where v denotes the voltage in volts and i the current in amperes. The voltage across an inductor
is equal to the product of its inductance and the time rate of change of the current through it.

All practical circuits have some inductance, which may provide either beneficial or detrimental
effects. In a tuned circuit inductance is used to provide a frequency selective circuit. Practical
inductors may be used to provide filtering or energy storage in a system. The inductance of
a transmission lineis one of the properties that determines its characteristic impedance; balancing
the
inductance
and
capacitance
of
cables
is
important
for
distortionfree telegraphy and telephony. The inductance of long power transmission lines limits the AC
power that can be sent over them. Sensitive circuits such as microphone and computer
network cables may use special cable constructions to limit the mutual inductance between
signal circuits.
The generalization to the case of K electrical circuits with currents im and voltages vm reads

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Inductance here is a symmetric matrix. The diagonal coefficients Lm,m are called coefficients of
self inductance, the off-diagonal elements are called coefficients of mutual inductance. The
coefficients of inductance are constant as long as no magnetizable material with nonlinear
characteristics is involved. This is a direct consequence of the linearity of Maxwell's equations in
the fields and the current density. The coefficients of inductance become functions of the
currents in the nonlinear case, see nonlinear inductance.
The inductance equations above are a consequence of Maxwell's equations. There is a
straightforward derivation in the important case of electrical circuits consisting of thin wires.

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Consider a system of K wire loops, each with one or several wire turns. The flux linkage of
loop m is given by

Here Nm denotes the number of turns in loop m, m the magnetic flux through this loop,
and Lm,n are some constants. This equation follows from Ampere's law - magnetic fields and
fluxes are linear functions of the currents. By Faraday's law of induction we have

ud
en
ts

where vm denotes the voltage induced in circuit m. This agrees with the definition of inductance
above if the coefficients Lm,n are identified with the coefficients of inductance. Because the total
currents Nnin contribute to m it also follows that Lm,n is proportional to the product of turns NmNn
Mutual Inductance of Two Coils

ity

st

In the previous tutorial we saw that an inductor generates an induced emf within itself as a result
of the changing magnetic field around its own turns, and when this emf is induced in the same
circuit in which the current is changing this effect is called Self-induction, ( L ). However, when
the emf is induced into an adjacent coil situated within the same magnetic field, the emf is said to
be induced magnetically, inductively or by Mutual induction, symbol ( M ). Then when two or
more coils are magnetically linked together by a common magnetic flux they are said to have the
property of Mutual Inductance.

.c

Mutual Inductance is the basic operating principal of the transformer, motors, generators and
any other electrical component that interacts with another magnetic field. Then we can define
mutual induction as the current flowing in one coil that induces an voltage in an adjacent coil.
But mutual inductance can also be a bad thing as "stray" or "leakage" inductance from a coil can
interfere with the operation of another adjacent component by means of electromagnetic
induction, so some form of electrical screening to a ground potential may be required.
The amount of mutual inductance that links one coil to another depends very much on the
relative positioning of the two coils. If one coil is positioned next to the other coil so that their
physical distance apart is small, then nearly nearly all of the magnetic flux generated by the first
coil will interact with the coil turns of the second coil inducing a relatively large emf and
therefore producing a large mutual inductance value.
Likewise, if the two coils are farther apart from each other or at different angles, the amount of
induced magnetic flux from the first coil into the second will be weaker producing a much
smaller induced emf and therefore a much smaller mutual inductance value. So the effect of
mutual inductance is very much dependant upon the relative positions or spacing, ( S ) of the two
coils and this is demonstrated below.
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gr
ou
p.
c

om

Mutual Inductance between Coils

st

ud
en
ts

The mutual inductance that exists between the two coils can be greatly increased by positioning
them on a common soft iron core or by increasing the number of turns of either coil as would be
found in a transformer. If the two coils are tightly wound one on top of the other over a common
soft iron core unity coupling is said to exist between them as any losses due to the leakage of
flux will be extremely small. Then assuming a perfect flux linkage between the two coils the
mutual inductance that exists between them can be given as.

Where:

ity

o is the permeability of free space (4..10-7)

.c

r is the relative permeability of the soft iron core

N is in the number of coil turns

l is the coils length in meters

A is in the cross-sectional area in m2

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Field Theory

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om

Mutual Induction

gr
ou
p.
c

Here the current flowing in coil one, L1 sets up a magnetic field around itself with some of these
magnetic field lines passing through coil two, L2 giving us mutual inductance. Coil one has a
current ofI1 and N1 turns while, coil two has N2 turns. Therefore, the mutual inductance, M12 of
coil two that exists with respect to coil one depends on their position with respect to each other
and is given as:

ud
en
ts

Likewise, the flux linking coil one, L1 when a current flows around coil two, L2 is exactly the
same as the flux linking coil two when the same current flows around coil one above, then the
mutual inductance of coil one with respect of coil two is defined as M21. This mutual inductance
is true irrespective of the size, number of turns, relative position or orientation of the two coils.
Because of this, we can write the mutual inductance between the two coils as: M12 = M21 = M.

and

ity

st

Hopefully we remember from our tutorials on Electromagnets that the self inductance of each
individual coil is given as:

.c

Then by cross-multiplying the two equations above, the mutual inductance that exists between
the two coils can be expressed in terms of the self inductance of each coil.

giving us a final and more common expression for the mutual inductance between two coils as:
Mutual Inductance Between Coils

However, the above equation assumes zero flux leakage and 100% magnetic coupling between
the two coils, L 1 and L 2. In reality there will always be some loss due to leakage and position,
so the magnetic coupling between the two coils can never reach or exceed 100%, but can become
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Field Theory

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very close to this value in some special inductive coils. If some of the total magnetic flux links
with the two coils, this amount of flux linkage can be defined as a fraction of the total possible
flux linkage between the coils. This fractional value is called the coefficient of coupling and is
given the letter k.
Coupling Coefficient

Coupling Factor Between Coils


or

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Generally, the amount of inductive coupling that exists between the two coils is expressed as a
fractional number between 0 and 1 instead of a percentage (%) value, where 0 indicates zero or
no inductive coupling, and 1 indicating full or maximum inductive coupling. In other words,
if k = 1 the two coils are perfectly coupled, if k > 0.5 the two coils are said to be tightly coupled
and if k < 0.5 the two coils are said to be loosely coupled. Then the equation above which
assumes a perfect coupling can be modified to take into account this coefficient of
coupling, k and is given as:

Example No1

ud
en
ts

When the coefficient of coupling, k is equal to 1, (unity) such that all the lines of flux of one coil
cuts all of the turns of the other, the mutual inductance is equal to the geometric mean of the two
individual inductances of the coils. So when the two inductances are equal and L 1 is equal to L 2,
the mutual inductance that exists between the two coils can be defined as:

.c

ity

st

Two inductors whose self-inductances are given as 75mH and 55mH respectively, are positioned
next to each other on a common magnetic core so that 75% of the lines of flux from the first coil
are cutting the second coil. Calculate the total mutual inductance that exists between them.

In the next tutorial about Inductors, we look at connecting together Inductors in Series and the
affect this combination has on the circuits mutual inductance, total inductance and their induced
voltages.

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Unit-6

gr
ou
p.
c

Faradays law
displacement current
maxwells equation in point and integral form
retarded potentials.

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

om

Time varing field and maxwells equation

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Faraday's law of induction


Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic
field will interact with an electric circuit to produce anelectromotive force (EMF). It is the
fundamental

operating

principle

of transformers, inductors,

and

many

types

of electrical motors and generators.

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Faraday's law of induction makes use of the magnetic flux B through a hypothetical surface
whose boundary is a wire loop. Since the wire loop may be moving, we write (t) for the surface.
The magnetic flux is defined by a surface integral:

where dA is an element of surface area of the moving surface (t), B is the magnetic field,
and BdA is a vector dot product (the infinitesimal amount of magnetic flux). In more visual
terms, the magnetic flux through the wire loop is proportional to the number of magnetic flux
lines that pass through the loop.

ud
en
ts

When the flux changesbecause B changes, or because the wire loop is moved or deformed, or
bothFaraday's law of induction says that the wire loop acquires an EMF , defined as the
energy available per unit charge that travels once around the wire loop (the unit of EMF is
the volt).[2][15][16][17]Equivalently, it is the voltage that would be measured by cutting the wire to
create an open circuit, and attaching a voltmeter to the leads. According to the Lorentz force
law (in SI units),

st

the EMF on a wire loop is:

ity

where E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field (aka magnetic flux density, magnetic
induction), d is an infinitesimal arc length along the wire, and the line integral is evaluated
along the wire (along the curve the conincident with the shape of the wire).

.c

The EMF is also given by the rate of change of the magnetic flux:

where
is the magnitude of the electromotive force (EMF) in volts and B is the magnetic
flux in webers. The direction of the electromotive force is given by Lenz's law.
For a tightly wound coil of wire, composed of N identical loops, each with the same B,
Faraday's law of induction states that

where N is the number of turns of wire and B is the magnetic flux in webers through
a single loop.

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The MaxwellFaraday equation states that a time-varying magnetic field is always accompanied
by a spatially-varying, non-conservative electric field, and vice-versa. The MaxwellFaraday
equation is

om

(in SI units) where


is the curl operator and again E(r, t) is the electric field and B(r, t) is
the magnetic field. These fields can generally be functions of position r and time t.

where, as indicated in the figure:

gr
ou
p.
c

The MaxwellFaraday equation is one of the four Maxwell's equations, and therefore plays a
fundamental role in the theory of classical electromagnetism. It can also be written in an integral
form by the Kelvin-Stokes theorem:[20]

is a surface bounded by the closed contour ,


E is the electric field, B is the magnetic field.

ud
en
ts

d is an infinitesimal vector element of the contour ,

dA is an infinitesimal vector element of surface . If its direction is orthogonal to that


surface patch, the magnitude is the area of an infinitesimal patch of surface.
Both d and dA have a sign ambiguity; to get the correct sign, the right-hand rule is used, as
explained in the article Kelvin-Stokes theorem. For a planar surface , a positive path
element d of curve is defined by the right-hand rule as one that points with the fingers of the
right hand when the thumb points in the direction of the normal n to the surface .

st

The integral around is called a path integral or line integral.

ity

Notice that a nonzero path integral for E is different from the behavior of the electric field
generated by charges. A charge-generated E-field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar
field that is a solution to Poisson's equation, and has a zero path integral. See gradient theorem.

.c

The integral equation is true for any path through space, and any surface for which that
path is a boundary.

If the path is not changing in time, the equation can be rewritten:

The surface integral at the right-hand side is the explicit expression for the magnetic
flux B through .

Displacement current
In electromagnetism, displacement current is a quantity appearing in Maxwell's equations that
is defined in terms of the rate of change of electric displacement field. Displacement current has
the units of electric current density, and it has an associated magnetic field just as actual currents
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Field Theory

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do. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field. In
materials, there is also a contribution from the slight motion of charges bound in
atoms, dielectric polarization.

where:
0 is the permittivity of free space
E is the electric field intensity
P is the polarization of the medium

gr
ou
p.
c

The electric displacement field is defined as:

om

The idea was conceived by James Clerk Maxwell in his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of
Force in connection with the displacement of electric particles in a dielectric medium. Maxwell
added displacement current to the electric current term in Ampre's Circuital Law. In his 1865
paperA Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Maxwell used this amended version
of Ampre's Circuital Law to derive the electromagnetic wave equation. This derivation is now
generally accepted as a historical landmark in physics by virtue of uniting electricity, magnetism
and optics into one single unified theory. The displacement current term is now seen as a crucial
addition that completed Maxwell's equations and is necessary to explain many phenomena, most
particularly the existence of electromagnetic waves.

ud
en
ts

Differentiating this equation with respect to time defines the displacement current density, which
therefore has two components in a dielectric:[1]

The first term on the right hand side is present in material media and in free space. It doesn't
necessarily involve any actual movement of charge, but it does have an associated magnetic
field, just as does a current due to charge motion. Some authors apply the name displacement
current to only this contribution.

.c

ity

st

The second term on the right hand side is associated with the polarization of the individual
molecules of the dielectric material. Polarization results when the charges in molecules move a
little under the influence of an applied electric field. The positive and negative charges in
molecules separate, causing an increase in the state of polarization P. A changing state of
polarization corresponds to charge movement and so is equivalent to a current.

This polarization is the displacement current as it was originally conceived by Maxwell.


Maxwell made no special treatment of the vacuum, treating it as a material medium. For
Maxwell, the effect of P was simply to change the relative permittivity r in the
relation D = r0 E.

The modern justification of displacement current is explained below.


Isotropic dielectric case
In the case of a very simple dielectric material the constitutive relation holds:

where the permittivity = 0 r,

r is the relative permittivity of the dielectric and


0 is the electric constant.

In this equation the use of , accounts for the polarization of the dielectric.
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Field Theory

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The scalar value of displacement current may also be expressed in terms of electric flux:

The forms in terms of are correct only for linear isotropic materials. More generally may be
replaced by a tensor, may depend upon the electric field itself, and may exhibit time dependence
(dispersion).

Maxwells Equations (Integral Form)

gr
ou
p.
c

where e is known as the electric susceptibility of the dielectric. Note that:

om

For a linear isotropic dielectric, the polarization P is given by:

It is sometimes easier to understand Maxwells equations in their integral form; the version
we outlined last time is the differential form.

we want and integrate both sides of each equation over that region:

st

We pick any region

ud
en
ts

For Gauss law and Gauss law for magnetism, weve actually already done this. First, we
write them in differential form:

.c

ity

On the left-hand sides we can use the divergence theorem, while the right sides can simply be
evaluated:where
is the total charge contained within the region . Gauss law tells us
that the flux of the electric field out through a closed surface is (basically) equal to the charge
contained inside the surface, while Gauss law for magnetism tells us that there is no such
thing as a magnetic charge.

Faradays law was basically given to us in integral form, but we can get it back from the
differential form:

We pick any surface

and integrate the flux of both sides through it:

On the left we can use Stokes theorem, while on the right we can pull the derivative
outside the integral:
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Field Theory

10EE44

where
is the flux of the magnetic field through the surface . Faradays law tells
us that a changing magnetic field induces a current around a circuit.

om

A similar analysis helps with Ampres law:

Then we simplify each side.

gr
ou
p.
c

We pick a surface and integrate:

ud
en
ts

where
is the flux of the electric field through the surface , and is the total
current flowing through the surface . Ampres law tells us that a flowing current induces
a magnetic field around the current, and Maxwells correction tells us that a changing
electric field behaves just like a current made of moving charges.
We collect these together into the integral form of Maxwells equations:

st

Retarded potentials

.c

ity

We are now in a position to solve Maxwell's equations. Recall that in steady-state, Maxwell's
equations reduce to
(502)

(503)

The solutions to these equations are easily found using the Green's function for Poisson's
equation (480):
(504)

(505)

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The time-dependent Maxwell equations reduce to


(506)
(507)

om

We can solve these equations using the time-dependent Green's function (499). From Eq. (486)
we find that

. Using the well-known property of delta-functions, these

(509)

(510)

ud
en
ts

with a similar equation for


equations reduce to

gr
ou
p.
c

(508)

st

These are the general solutions to Maxwell's equations. Note that the time-dependent solutions,
(509) and (510), are the same as the steady-state solutions, (504) and (505), apart from the weird
way in which time appears in the former. According to Eqs. (509) and (510), if we want to work
out the potentials at position and time then we have to perform integrals of the charge
density and current density over all space (just like in the steady-state situation). However, when
we calculate the contribution of charges and currents at position
to these integrals we do not

.c

ity

use the values at time , instead we use the values at some earlier time
. What is
this earlier time? It is simply the latest time at which a light signal emitted from position
would be received at position before time . This is called the retarded time. Likewise, the
potentials (509) and (510) are called retarded potentials. It is often useful to adopt the following
notation

(511)

The square brackets denote retardation (i.e., using the retarded time instead of the real time).
Using this notation Eqs. (509) and (510), become
(512)

(513)

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Field Theory

10EE44

The time dependence in the above equations is taken as read.


We are now in a position to understand electromagnetism at its most fundamental level. A charge
distribution
can thought of as built up out of a collection, or series, of charges which
instantaneously come into existence, at some point
and some time , and then disappear
again. Mathematically, this is written

gr
ou
p.
c

om

(514)

Likewise, we can think of a current distribution


as built up out of a collection or series of
currents which instantaneously appear and then disappear:
(515)

ud
en
ts

Each of these ephemeral charges and currents excites a spherical wave in the appropriate
potential. Thus, the charge density at
and
sends out a wave in the scalar potential:

and

sends out a wave in the vector potential:


(517)

st

Likewise, the current density at

(516)

.c

ity

These waves can be thought of as messengers which inform other charges and currents about the
charges and currents present at position
and time . However, these messengers travel at a
finite speed: i.e., the speed of light. So, by the time they reach other charges and currents their
message is a little out of date. Every charge and every current in the Universe emits these
spherical waves. The resultant scalar and vector potential fields are given by Eqs. (512) and
(513). Of course, we can turn these fields into electric and magnetic fields using Eqs. (421) and
(422). We can then evaluate the force exerted on charges using the Lorentz formula. We can see
that we have now escaped from the apparent action at a distance nature of Coulomb's law and the
Biot-Savart law. Electromagnetic information is carried by spherical waves in the vector and
scalar potentials, and, therefore, travels at the velocity of light. Thus, if we change the position of
a charge then a distant charge can only respond after a time delay sufficient for a spherical wave
to propagate from the former to the latter charge.
Let us compare the steady-state law

(518)

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Field Theory

10EE44

with the corresponding time-dependent law


(519)

gr
ou
p.
c

om

These two formulae look very similar indeed, but there is an important difference. We can
imagine (rather pictorially) that every charge in the Universe is continuously performing the
integral (519), and is also performing a similar integral to find the vector potential. After
evaluating both potentials, the charge can calculate the fields, and, using the Lorentz force law, it
can then work out its equation of motion. The problem is that the information the charge receives
from the rest of the Universe is carried by our spherical waves, and is always slightly out of date
(because the waves travel at a finite speed). As the charge considers more and more distant
charges or currents, its information gets more and more out of date. (Similarly, when
astronomers look out to more and more distant galaxies in the Universe, they are also looking
backwards in time. In fact, the light we receive from the most distant observable galaxies was
emitted when the Universe was only about one third of its present age.) So, what does our
electron do? It simply uses the most up to date information about distant charges and currents
which it possesses. So, instead of incorporating the charge density

(i.e., the density evaluated at the retarded

ud
en
ts

electron uses the retarded charge density


time). This is effectively what Eq. (519) says.

Consider a thought experiment in which a charge

appears at position

ity
.c

, persists

(520)

(since there are no currents, and therefore no vector potential is generated),

Now,
so

at time

. What is the electric field generated by such a

st

for a while, and then disappears at time


charge? Using Eq. (519), we find that

in its integral, the

(521)

This solution is shown pictorially in Fig. 37. We can see that the charge effectively emits a
Coulomb electric field which propagates radially away from the charge at the speed of light.
Likewise, it is easy to show that a current carrying wire effectively emits an Amprian magnetic
field at the speed of light.

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10EE44

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Field Theory

Figure 37:

ud
en
ts

We can now appreciate the essential difference between time-dependent electromagnetism and
the action at a distance laws of Coulomb and Biot & Savart. In the latter theories, the field-lines
act rather like rigid wires attached to charges (or circulating around currents). If the charges (or
currents) move then so do the field-lines, leading inevitably to unphysical action at a distance
type behaviour. In the time-dependent theory, charges act rather like water sprinklers: i.e., they
spray out the Coulomb field in all directions at the speed of light. Similarly, current carrying
wires throw out magnetic field loops at the speed of light. If we move a charge (or current) then
field-lines emitted beforehand are not affected, so the field at a distant charge (or current) only
responds to the change in position after a time delay sufficient for the field to propagate between
the two charges (or currents) at the speed of light.

.c

ity

st

In Coulomb's law and the Biot-Savart law, it is not entirely obvious that the electric and
magnetic fields have a real existence. After all, the only measurable quantities are the forces
acting between charges and currents. We can describe the force acting on a given charge or
current, due to the other charges and currents in the Universe, in terms of the local electric and
magnetic fields, but we have no way of knowing whether these fields persist when the charge or
current is not present (i.e., we could argue that electric and magnetic fields are just a convenient
way of calculating forces, but, in reality, the forces are transmitted directly between charges and
currents by some form of magic). However, it is patently obvious that electric and magnetic
fields have a real existence in the time-dependent theory. Consider the following thought
comes into existence for a period of time, emits a

experiment. Suppose that a charge

Coulomb field, and then disappears. Suppose that a distant charge


interacts with this field,
but is sufficiently far from the first charge that by the time the field arrives the first charge has
already disappeared. The force exerted on the second charge is only ascribable to the electric
field: it cannot be ascribed to the first charge, because this charge no longer exists by the time the
force is exerted. The electric field clearly transmits energy and momentum between the two
charges. Anything which possesses energy and momentum is ``real'' in a physical sense. Later on
in this course, we shall demonstrate that electric and magnetic fields conserve energy and
momentum.

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10EE44

om

Field Theory

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

Figure 38:
Let us now consider a moving charge. Such a charge is continually emitting spherical waves in
the scalar potential, and the resulting wavefront pattern is sketched in Fig. 38. Clearly, the
wavefronts are more closely spaced in front of the charge than they are behind it, suggesting that
the electric field in front is larger than the field behind. In a medium, such as water or air, where
waves travel at a finite speed, (say), it is possible to get a very interesting effect if the wave
source travels at some velocity which exceeds the wave speed. This is illustrated in Fig. 39.

.c

Figure 39:
The locus of the outermost wave front is now a cone instead of a sphere. The wave intensity on
the cone is extremely large: this is a shock wave! The half-angle of the shock wave cone is

simply
. In water, shock waves are produced by fast moving boats. We call
these bow waves. In air, shock waves are produced by speeding bullets and supersonic jets. In the
latter case, we call these sonic booms. Is there any such thing as an electromagnetic shock wave?
At first sight, the answer to this question would appear to be, no. After all, electromagnetic
waves travel at the speed of light, and no wave source (i.e., an electrically charged particle) can
travel faster than this velocity. This is a rather disappointing conclusion. However, when an
electromagnetic wave travels through matter a remarkable thing happens. The oscillating electric
field of the wave induces a slight separation of the positive and negative charges in the atoms
which make up the material. We call separated positive and negative charges an electric dipole.
Of course, the atomic dipoles oscillate in sympathy with the field which induces them. However,
an oscillating electric dipole radiates electromagnetic waves. Amazingly, when we add the
original wave to these induced waves, it is exactly as if the original wave propagates through the
material in question at a velocity which is slower than the velocity of light in vacuum. Suppose,
now, that we shoot a charged particle through the material faster than the slowed down velocity
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Field Theory

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om

of electromagnetic waves. This is possible since the waves are traveling slower than the velocity
of light in vacuum. In practice, the particle has to be traveling pretty close to the velocity of light
in vacuum (i.e., it has to be relativistic), but modern particle accelerators produce copious
amounts of such particles. Now, we can get an electromagnetic shock wave. We expect an
intense cone of emission, just like the bow wave produced by a fast ship. In fact, this type of
radiation has been observed. It is calledCherenkov radiation, and it is very useful in high energy
physics. Cherenkov radiation is typically produced by surrounding a particle accelerator with
perspex blocks. Relativistic charged particles emanating from the accelerator pass through the
perspex traveling faster than the local velocity of light, and therefore emit Cherenkov radiation.
We know the velocity of light ( , say) in perspex (this can be worked out from the refractive
index), so if we can measure the half angle of the radiation cone emitted by each particle then
.

gr
ou
p.
c

via the geometric relation

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

we can evaluate the speed of the particle

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Field Theory

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Unit- -7

wave propagation in free space and dielectric

Poynting theorem

wave power

propagation in good conductors

skin effect.

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Uniform plane wave:

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Field Theory

10EE44

UNIFORM PLANE WAVES

In free space ( source-less regions where

J 0 ), the gauss law is

D 0 E E 0 or
The wave equation for electric field, in free-space is,

2 E
E 2 ________ (2)
t

gr
ou
p.
c

om

E 0 ________ (1)

The wave equation (2) is a composition of these equations, one each component wise,
ie,

ud
en
ts

2 Ex
2 Ey

_______(2) a
x 2
t 2
2 Ey
2 Ey

_______(2) b
y 2
t 2
2 Ez
2 Ez

_______(2) c
z 2
t 2
Further, eqn. (1) may be written as

st

Ex Ey Ez

0 ________ (1) a
x
y
z

For the UPW, E is independent of two coordinate axes; x and y axes, as we have assumed.

ity

0
x
y

.c

Therefore eqn. (1) reduces to

Ez
0 ______ (3)
z

ie., there is no variation of Ez in the z direction.

Also we find from 2 (a) that

2 Ez
t 2

= 0 ____(4)

These two conditions (3) and (4) require that Ez can be


(i)

Zero

(ii)

Constant in time or

(iii)

Increasing uniformly with time.

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Field Theory

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A field satisfying the last two of the above three conditions cannot be a part of wave motion.
Therefore Ez can be put equal to zero, (the first condition).
Ez = 0
The uniform plane wave (traveling in z direction) does not have any field components of E & H
in its direction of travel.

om

Therefore the UPWs are transverse., having field components (of E & H ) only in directions
perpendicular to the direction of propagation does not have any field component only the

gr
ou
p.
c

direction of travel.

RELATION BETWEEN E & H in a uniform plane wave.

We have, from our previous discussions that, for a UPW traveling in z direction, both E & H
are independent of x and y; and E & H have no z component. For such a UPW, we have,

ud
en
ts

j
i
k
E y Ex

E
( 0)
( 0)
i
j
_____ (5)
x
y
z

z
z
Ex
Ey Ez ( 0)

ity

st

j
i
k
H y H x

H
( 0)
( 0)
i
j
_____ (6)
x
y
z

z
z
Hx
Hy Hz ( 0)

.c

Then Maxwells curl equations (1) and (2), using (5) and (6), (2) becomes,

Ex
Ey Hy
i
j i

t
t

j Hx ______ (7)
z

and

Hx
Hy Ey
i
j i

t
t

j Ex ______ (8)
z

Thus, rewriting (7) and (8) we get


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Field Theory

10EE44

Hy Hx
i
j
z
z

Ey Ex
i
j
z
z

Ex

Hx

i
t

Ey
j ______ (7)
t

Hy
j ______ (8)
t

om

Equating i th and j th terms, we get

Hy
Ex

z
t
Hx
Ey

z
t
Ey
Hx

i
z
t
and
Ex
Hy

z
t
Let

gr
ou
p.
c

______ 9 ( a )

______ 9 (b)

ud
en
ts

______ 9(c )

______ 9 ( d )

Ey f1 z 0 t ;

Then,

ity

st

Ey
f1 z 0 t 0 . 0 f1 .
t
From eqn. 9(c ), we get ,

.c

Hx
0 f
t

Hx

'

'
1

f1' dz c.

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Field Theory

10EE44

Now

om

z 0t
f1'
f1'
f1'
z
z
f1

Hz
C
z

Now

Ey c

f1 c

ud
en
ts

Hx

gr
ou
p.
c

z 0t
f1'
f1'
f1'
z
z
f1


dz c
z

The constant C indicates that a field independent of Z could be present. Evidently this is not a
part of the wave motion and hence is rejected.

Thus the relation between HX and EY becomes,

Hx

Ey

__________ (10)

ity

Ey

.c

st

Hx

Similarly it can be shown that

_____________ (11)

Ex

Hy

In our UPW, E Exi E y j

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Field Theory
2 E

10EE44

E
E

t
t
2 E

But E

E
2 E
2 _______ ( xi )
t
t

om

gr
ou
p.
c

DERIVATION OF WAVE EQUATION FOR A CONDUCTING MEDIUM:

In a conducting medium, = 0, = 0. Surface charges and hence surface currents exist, static
fields or charges do not exist.

For the case of conduction media, the point form of maxwells equations are:
D
E
E
________ (i )
t
t
B
H
E

_________ (ii )
t
t
D E E 0 _________ (iii )

ud
en
ts

H J

B H H 0 _________ (iv)

Taking curl on both sides of equation (i ), we get

ity

st

E
H E

E
E ________ (v )
t
substituting eqn. (ii ) in eqn. (v ), we get

H H 2 H _________ (vii )

But

.c

H
2 H
H

_________ (vi )
t
t 2

eqn. (vi ) becomes


H
2 H

_________ (viii )
t
t 2
B
1
1
But H

B
00

H 2 H

eqn. (viii ) becomes ,


2 H

H
2 H

0 ________ (ix)
t
t 2

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Field Theory

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This is the wave equation for the magnetic field H in a conducting medium.
Next we consider the second Maxwells curl equation (ii)

H
________ (ii )
t

H
H

t
t

________ ( x)

gr
ou
p.
c

But E E 2 E ;

om

Taking curl on both sides of equation (ii) we get

Vector identity and substituting eqn. (1) in eqn (2), we get

E
2 E

_______ ( xi )
t
t 2

But E

ud
en
ts

E 2 E

(Point form of Gauss law) However, in a conductor, = 0, since there is no net charge within a
conductor,
Therefore we get

E 0

st

Therefore eqn. (xi) becomes,

E
2 E
E

t
t 2

ity

____________ (xii)

.c

This is the wave equation for electric field E in a conducting medium.

Wave equations for a conducting medium:

Regions where conductivity is non-zero.


Conduction currents may exist.

For such regions, for time varying fields


The Maxwells eqn. Are:

E
_________ (1)
t
H
E
__________ (2)
t
J E
: Conductivity ( / m)
H J

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Field Theory

10EE44

= conduction current density.

Therefore eqn. (1) becomes,

H E

E
_________ (3)
t

H
t
2E
E


________ (4)
2
t
t

But

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Taking curl of both sides of eqn. (2), we get

E E 2 E (vector identity )

u sin g this eqn. (4) becomes vector identity ,

E
2E
E E

_______ (5)
t
t 2
But D
1
is cons tan t , E
D

ud
en
ts

Since there is no net charge within a conductor the charge density is zero ( there can be charge
on the surface ), we get.

1
D0

st

.c

we get

ity

Therefore using this result in eqn. (5)

E
2 E
E
2 0 ________(6)
t
t

This is the wave eqn. For the electric field E in a conducting medium.
This is the wave eqn. for E . The wave eqn. for H is obtained in a similar manner.
Taking curl of both sides of (1), we get

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Field Theory

10EE44

E
E ________ (7)
t
H
But E
________ (2)
t
(1) becomes,
2 H
H
H

________ (8)
2
t
t

H H

in eqn. (8) and get

H 2 H

H
2 H
2 ________ (9)
t
t

But
B

eqn.(9)becomes
2 H

00

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

As before, we make use of the vector identity.

om

H
2 H
2 ________ (10)
t
t

st

This is the wave eqn. for H in a conducting medium.

Sinusoidal Time Variations:

ity

In practice, most generators produce voltage and currents and hence electric and magnetic fields
which vary sinusoidally with time. Further, any periodic variation can be represented as a weight

.c

sum of fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

Therefore we consider fields having sinusoidal time variations, for example,


E = Em cos t
E = Em sin t

Here, w = 2f, f = frequency of the variation.


Therefore every field or field component varies sinusoidally, mathematically by an additional
term. Representing sinusoidal variation. For example, the electric field E can be represented as

E x, y, z , t as
ie., E r , t ; r x, y, z
Where E is the time varying field.
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Field Theory

10EE44

The time varying electric field can be equivalently represented, in terms of corresponding phasor
quantity E (r) as

E r , t Re E r e jt ________ (11)
The symbol tilda placed above the E vector represents that E is time varying quantity.

om

The phasor notation:


We consider only one component at a time, say Ex.
The phasor Ex is defined by

| Ex |

gr
ou
p.
c

Ex r , t Re Ex r e jt ________ (12)

| Ex |

ud
en
ts

Ex

Ex r denotes Ex as a function of space (x,y,z). In general Ex r is complex and hence can be


represented as a point in a complex and hence can be represented as a point in a complex plane.

st

(see fig) Multiplication by e jwt results in a rotation through an angle wt measured from the angle
. At t increases, the point Ex e jwt traces out a circle with center at the origin. Its projection on

ity

the real axis varies sinusoidally with time & we get the time-harmonically varying electric field

.c

Ex (varying sinusoidally with time). We note that the phase of the sinusoid is determined by ,
the argument of the complex number Ex.

Therefore the time varying quantity may be expressed as

Ex Re Ex e j e jt ________ (13)

Ex cos( t ) ________ (14)

Maxwells eqn. in phasor notation:


In time harmonic form, the Maxwells first curl eqn. is:

H J

D
_______ (15)
t

using phasor notation, this eqn. becomes,

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Field Theory

10EE44

Re He jt

Re De jt Re Je jt ________ (16)
t

The diff. Operator & Re part operator may be interchanged to get,

Re He j t Re
De j t Re
Je j t

j t
j t

Re
j D e Re Je

om

This relation is valid for all t. Thus we get


H J j D ________ (17)

gr
ou
p.
c

Re H j D J e j t
0

This phasor form can be obtained from time-varying form by replacing each time derivative by

jw ie.,

is to be replaced by
t

For the sinusoidal time variations, the Maxwells equation may be expressed in phasor form as:

(19)

E j B
D

(20)

B0

H dL

ud
en
ts

(18)

H J j D

j D ds

E dl j B ds
S

D ds

dV

B ds 0

st

(17)

The continuity eqn., contained within these is,

ity

J j

J ds j dv _______ (21)
vol

.c

The constitutive eqn. retain their forms:

D E
B H

____ (22)

J E

For sinusoidal time variations, the wave equations become

E 2 E

( for electric field )

H 2 H

( for electric field )

_________ (23)

Vector Helmholtz eqn.


In a conducting medium, these become

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Field Theory

10EE44

2 E 2 j E 0
2 H 2 j H 0

________ (24)

Wave propagation in a loss less medium:

2 E
2
2 E E y
2
2 E y _______ (25)
x
;
2
x

2 E

e j x C2 e j x _______ (26)

C1 & C2 are arbitrary constants.


The corresponding time varying field is

gr
ou
p.
c

E y C1

om

In phasor form, the wave eqn. for VPW is

When C1 and C2 are real.

ud
en
ts

E y x, t Re E y x e j t
t z
t z
______ (27)
Re C1 e j
C2 e j

C1 cos t z C2 cos t z ______ (28)

Therefore we note that, in a homogeneous, lossless medium, the assumption of sinusoidal time
variations results in a space variation which is also sinusoidal.
Eqn. (27) and (28) represent sum of two waves traveling in opposite directions.
If C1 = C2 , the two traveling waves combine to form a simple standing wave which does not
progress.

ity

we get =

st

If we rewrite eqn. (28) with Ey as a fn of (x-t),

.c

Let us identify some point in the waveform and observe its velocity; this point is

t x a constant

Then

dx

dt

' a ' t

This velocity is called phase velocity, the velocity of a phase point in the wave.
is called the phase shift constant of the wave.

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10EE44

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Field Theory

Wavelength: These distance over which the sinusoidal waveform passes through a full cycle of
2 radians
ie.,

.c

or
f ;

st

But

or

ity

2
2

f in H Z
1

Wave propagation in a conducting medium


We have,

2 E 2 E 0
Where

2 j
j j

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Field Theory

10EE44

is called the propagation constant is, in general, complex.


Therefore, = + j
= Attenuation constant
= phase shift constant.
The eqn. for UPW of electric field strength is

om

2 E
2E
2
x
One possible solution is

Therefore in time varying form, we get

E x, t Re E e x e jt
e x Re E0e jwt

gr
ou
p.
c

E x E0e x

This eqn. shown that a up wave traveling in the +x direction and attenuated by a factor e x .

ud
en
ts

The phase shift factor

and velocity f

= Real part of = RP

2
1 2 2 1

ity

j j t

st

2
1 2 2 1

.c

THE UNIFORM PLANE WAVE:

Topics dealt:

Principles of EM wave propagation

Physical process determining the speed of em waves; extent to which attenuation may
occur.

Energy flow in EM waves; power carried by em waves. Pointing theorem.

Wave polarization.

1. Wave propagation in free space


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Field Theory

10EE44

We have the generalized Maxwells equations.

Point form

Integral form

Differential form

Macroscopic form

om

Microscopic form

H dL J s

E dL

D dS

enc

B
ds
t

d
v

vol

B dS 0

ud
en
ts

B0

D
ds
t

gr
ou
p.
c

D
H J
t
B
E
t
D v

.c

ity

st

In free space 0 ( source less v 0 J ) these equations become

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Field Theory

10EE44

H dL

E dL

H
ds ( II )
t

dS

dS 0( III )

dS

dS 0( IV )

dS 0 continuityequ. (V )

B 0 H
J 0

E
ds ( I )
t

ud
en
ts

The Constituent equations, in free space, are,

gr
ou
p.
c

om

E
t
H
E 0
t
D 0 E
H 0

D 0 E ___________________(VI )

B 0 H ___________________(VII )
J E

st

Concept of wave motion:

ity

Eqn (1) states that if the electric field E changes with time, at some point, this change produces

.c

a rotating curling magnetic field at that point; H varying spatially in a direction normal to its
orientation. Further, if E changes with time, in general, so does H although not necessarily in

the same way.

Next, from eqn. (2), we note that a time varying H generates a rotating E , ( curl E ), and this

E varies spatially in a direction normal to its orientation. Because H varies with time, so does

E but need not be in the same way therefore we once again have a time changing electric field

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Field Theory

10EE44

( our original hypothesis from (1) ), but this field is present a small distance away from the point
of original disturbance. The velocity with which the effect moves away from the original point is
the velocity of light as we are going to see later.

om

Let us rewrite the point form of Maxwells equations in ( source free ) free space

D
________(1)
t
B
E B
______(2)
t
D 0 _______(3)

ud
en
ts

H D

gr
ou
p.
c

J 0 :

B 0 _______(4)

Taking curl on both sides of equation ( 1 ), we get

E
t

D E ;
B

H;

ity

st

E
t
t

.c

and and are independent of time.

But from ( 2 ),

E B

B
______(2)
t

Next we take curl on both sides of eqn (2) and get

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Field Theory

10EE44


H
t
t

But
D
E

______(1)
t
t
2E
E
t 2
But
2 E
E E
t 2
But
2

E 0
we
get

gr
ou
p.
c

E E 2 E

om

2E
_________(6)
t 2

ud
en
ts

2 E

Equations (5) and (6) are known as Wave Equations.

The first condition on either E or H is that it must satisfy the wave equation ( Although E & H

ity

st

obey the same law E H ).

.c

Wave Propagation:

Consider the special case where E and H are independent of two dimensions, say x and y.

Then we get

2 E 2 E 2 E
2 E
E

2
2
2
x
y
z
x 2
2

Therefore eqn. (6) becomes


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Field Theory

10EE44

2 E
E
z 2
2

( E independent of x & y ) ______ (7)

This is a set of 3 scalar equations, one for each of the scalar components of E .

2 Ey
z 2

2 Ey

__________ 7(a)

t 2

gr
ou
p.
c

This is a 2nd order PDE having a standard solution of the form

om

Let us consider one of them, the Ey component for which the wave equation (6) is :

Ey f1 Z 0t f 2 Z 0t ________(8)
Here

0 0

ud
en
ts

f1,f2 : any functions of x 0t and x 0t respectively.


Examples of such functions are

A cos x 0t
c eh x 0t
etc.,

st

x 0 t

.c

ity

All these equations represent a wave.

The Wave motion :

If a physical phenomenon that occurs at one place at a given time is reproduced at later time, the
time delay being proportional to the space separation from the fixed location, then the group of
phenomena constitutes a wave. ( A wave not necessarily be a repetitive phenomenon in time)
The functions f1 x 0t and f2 x 0t describe such a wave mathematically. Here the wave
varies in space as a function of only one dimension.
f1 x 0t1

t = t1

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Field Theory

10EE44

f1 x 0 t 2

om

gr
ou
p.
c

t = t2

v0 (t2 t1 )

x 0t at two different instances of time t1

and t2 .

ud
en
ts

Figure shows the function f

f
1

becomes a function of z only

since t gets fixed here. f1 x 0t at t = t1 is shown in figure above as

f1 z 0t1 . At another time t ( t > t ) we get another function of z namely f1 z 0t2 . This is
2
2
2
f1 z 0t1 , shifted along + z axis by a distance z = 0 t2 t1 .

ity

st

nothing but time shifted version of

This means that the function f1 x 0t has traveled along + z axis with a velocity 0 . This is

.c

called a traveling wave.

On the other hand f 2 z 0t represents a wave traveling along z axis with a velocity 0 and

is called a reflected wave, as we shall further seen in the next semester, in the topic transmission
line.
This shows that the wave equation has two solutions ( as expected, since the wave eqn. is a
second order PDE ) a traveling wave ( or forward wave ) along + z direction represented by
f1 z 0t and the other a reverse traveling wave ( reflected wave ) along z axis. If there is no
reflecting surface, the second term of eqn. (8) is zero, resulting is
E = f1 z 0t _________(9)
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Field Theory

10EE44

Remember that eqn. (9) is a solution of the wave equation and is only for the particular case
where the electric field E is independent of x and y directions; and is a function of z and t only.
Such a wave is called also the equation does not indicate the specific shape of the wave

In free space ( source-less regions where

J 0 ), the gauss law is

D 0 E E 0 or

gr
ou
p.
c

D 0 ________ (1)

om

(amplitude variation) and hence is applicable to any arbitrary waveform.

The wave equation for electric field, in free-space is,

2 E
E 2 ________ (2)
t
2

The wave equation (2) is a composition of these equations, one each component wise,

ud
en
ts

ie,

2 Ex
2 Ey

_______(2) a
x 2
t 2
2 Ey
2 Ey

_______(2) b
y 2
t 2

st

2 Ez
2 Ez

_______(2) c
z 2
t 2

ity

Further, eqn. (1) may be written as

.c

Ex Ey Ez

0 ________ (1) a
x
y
z

For the UPW, E is independent of two coordinate axes; x and y axes, as we have assumed.

0
x
y

Therefore eqn. (1) reduces to

Ez
0 ______ (3)
z
ie., there is no variation of Ez in the z direction.

Also we find from 2 (a) that

2 Ez
t 2

= 0 ____(4)

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Field Theory

10EE44

These two conditions (3) and (4) require that Ez can be


(iv)

Zero

(v)

Constant in time or

(vi)

Increasing uniformly with time.

Therefore Ez can be put equal to zero, (the first condition).


Ez = 0

om

A field satisfying the last two of the above three conditions cannot be a part of wave motion.

The uniform plane wave (traveling in z direction) does not have any field components of E & H

gr
ou
p.
c

in its direction of travel.

Therefore the UPWs are transverse., having field components (of E & H ) only in directions
perpendicular to the direction of propagation does not have any field component only the
direction of travel.

RELATION BETWEEN E & H in a uniform plane wave.

ud
en
ts

We have, from our previous discussions that, for a UPW traveling in z direction, both E & H
are independent of x and y; and E & H have no z component. For such a UPW, we have,

st

j
i
k
E y Ex

E
( 0)
( 0)
i
j
_____ (5)
x
y
z

z
z
Ex
Ey Ez ( 0)

.c

ity

j
i
k
H y H x

H
( 0)
( 0)
i
j
_____ (6)
x
y
z
z

z
Hx
Hy Hz ( 0)

Then Maxwells curl equations (1) and (2), using (5) and (6), (2) becomes,

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Field Theory

10EE44

Ex
Ey Hy
i
j i

t
t
z

j Hx ______ (7)
z

and

Hx
Hy Ey
i
j i

t
t
z

Thus, rewriting (7) and (8) we get

Hy Hx
i
j
z
z

Ey Ex
i
j
z
z

Ex

i
t
Hx

i

Ey
j ______ (7)
t

Hy
j ______ (8)
t

ud
en
ts

j Ex ______ (8)
z

om

gr
ou
p.
c

.c

ity

st

Equating i th and j th terms, we get

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Field Theory

10EE44

Hy
Ex

z
t
Hx
Ey

z
t
Ey
Hx

i
z
t
and
Ex
Hy

z
t
Let

______ 9 ( a )
______ 9 (b)

om

______ 9(c )

Ey f1 z 0 t ;

gr
ou
p.
c

______ 9 ( d )

Then,

ud
en
ts

Ey
f1 z 0 t 0 . 0 f1 .
t
From eqn. 9(c ), we get ,

Hx
0 f
t

'
1

f1' dz c.

ity

st

Hx

'

Now

.c

z 0t
f1'
f1'
f1'
z
z
f1

Hz

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Field Theory

10EE44

Now
z 0t
f1'
f1'
f1'
z
z
f1


dz c
z

f1 c

om

Ey c

gr
ou
p.
c

Hx

The constant C indicates that a field independent of Z could be present. Evidently this is not a
part of the wave motion and hence is reflected.
Thus the relation between HX and EY becomes,

Ey
Hx

Ey

__________ (10)

ud
en
ts

Hx

Similarly it can be shown that

_____________ (11)

st

.c

ity

Ex

Hy

In our UPW, E Exi E y j

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Field Theory

2 E

10EE44

t
t
E
2 E
E
2 _______ ( xi )
t
t
2

om

But E
E

gr
ou
p.
c

DERIVATION OF WAVE EQUATION FOR A CONDUCTING MEDIUM:

In a conducting medium, = 0, = 0. Surface charges and hence surface currents exist, static
fields or charges do not exist.

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

For the case of conduction media, the point form of maxwells equations are:

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Field Theory

10EE44

D
E
E
________ (i )
t
t
B
H
E

_________ (ii )
t
t
D E E 0 _________ (iii )
H J

Taking curl on both sides of equation (i ), we get

gr
ou
p.
c

E
H E

E
E ________ (v )
t

om

B H H 0 _________ (iv)

substituting eqn. (ii ) in eqn. (v ), we get

ud
en
ts

H
2 H
H
_________ (vi )

2

H H 2 H _________ (vii )

But

eqn. (vi ) becomes

.c

ity

st

H
2 H
H H

_________ (viii )
t
t 2
B
1
1
But H

B
00
2

eqn. (viii ) becomes ,

H
2 H
H

0 ________ (ix)
t
t 2

This is the wave equation for the magnetic field H in a conducting medium.
Next we consider the second Maxwells curl equation (ii)

H
________ (ii )
t

Taking curl on both sides of equation (ii) we get


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Field Theory

10EE44

H
H

t
t

________ ( x)

But E E 2 E ;
Vector identity and substituting eqn. (1) in eqn (2), we get


E
E

t
t
E
2 E

_______ ( xi )
t
t 2

gr
ou
p.
c

But E

om

E 2 E

(Point form of Gauss law) However, in a conductor, = 0, since there is no net charge within a
conductor,
Therefore we get

E 0

ud
en
ts

Therefore eqn. (xi) becomes,

E
2 E
E

t
t 2
2

____________ (xii)

This is the wave equation for electric field E in a conducting medium.

Wave equations for a conducting medium:

Regions where conductivity is non-zero.

Conduction currents may exist.

ity

st

For such regions, for time varying fields

.c

The Maxwells eqn. Are:

E
_________ (1)
t
H
E
__________ (2)
t
J E
: Conductivity ( / m)

H J

= conduction current density.

Therefore eqn. (1) becomes,

H E

E
_________ (3)
t

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Field Theory

10EE44

Taking curl of both sides of eqn. (2), we get

H
t
2E
E


________ (4)
2
t
t

But

u sin g this eqn. (4) becomes vector identity ,


E
2E
E E

_______ (5)
t
t 2
But D
1
is cons tan t , E
D

gr
ou
p.
c

om

E E 2 E (vector identity )

Since there is no net charge within a conductor the charge density is zero ( there can be charge
on the surface ), we get.

1
D0

ud
en
ts

Therefore using this result in eqn. (5)

we get

E
2 E
E
2 0 ________(6)
t
t

ity

st

This is the wave eqn. For the electric field E in a conducting medium.

.c

This is the wave eqn. for E . The wave eqn. for H is obtained in a similar manner.
Taking curl of both sides of (1), we get

E
E ________ (7)
t
H
But E
________ (2)
t
(1) becomes,

2 H
H
H

________ (8)
2
t
t
As before, we make use of the vector identity.

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Field Theory

10EE44

H H

in eqn. (8) and get

H
2 H
H H
2 ________ (9)
t
t
But

00

om

2 H

H
2 H
2 ________ (10)
t
t

gr
ou
p.
c

eqn.(9)becomes

This is the wave eqn. for H in a conducting medium.

Sinusoidal Time Variations:

In practice, most generators produce voltage and currents and hence electric and magnetic fields

ud
en
ts

which vary sinusoidally with time. Further, any periodic variation can be represented as a weight
sum of fundamental and harmonic frequencies.

Therefore we consider fields having sinusoidal time variations, for example,


E = Em cos t
E = Em sin t

Here, w = 2f, f = frequency of the variation.

st

Therefore every field or field component varies sinusoidally, mathematically by an additional


term. Representing sinusoidal variation. For example, the electric field E can be represented as

ity

E x, y, z , t as

.c

ie., E r , t ; r x, y, z

Where E is the time varying field.

The time varying electric field can be equivalently represented, in terms of corresponding phasor

quantity E (r) as

E r , t Re E r e jt ________ (11)

The symbol tilda placed above the E vector represents that E is time varying quantity.

The phasor notation:


We consider only one component at a time, say Ex.
The phasor Ex is defined by
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Field Theory

10EE44

Ex r , t Re Ex r e jt ________ (12)

Ex r denotes Ex as a function of space (x,y,z). In general Ex r is complex and hence can be

om

represented as a point in a complex and hence can be represented as a point in a complex plane.
(see fig) Multiplication by e jwt results in a rotation through an angle wt measured from the angle
. At t increases, the point Ex e jwt traces out a circle with center at the origin. Its projection on

gr
ou
p.
c

the real axis varies sinusoidally with time & we get the time-harmonically varying electric field

Ex (varying sinusoidally with time). We note that the phase of the sinusoid is determined by ,
the argument of the complex number Ex.

Therefore the time varying quantity may be expressed as

Ex Re Ex e j e jt ________ (13)

ud
en
ts

Ex cos( t ) ________ (14)

Maxwells eqn. in phasor notation:

In time harmonic form, the Maxwells first curl eqn. is:

H J

D
_______ (15)
t

Re De jt Re Je jt ________ (16)
t

ity

Re He jt

st

using phasor notation, this eqn. becomes,

.c

The diff. Operator & Re part operator may be interchanged to get,

j t
Re He j t Re
De j t Re
Je

j t

j t
Re
j D e Re Je

Re H j D J e j t
0

This relation is valid for all t. Thus we get


H J j D ________ (17)

This phasor form can be obtained from time-varying form by replacing each time derivative by

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Field Theory

jw ie.,

10EE44

is to be replaced by
t

For the sinusoidal time variations, the Maxwells equation may be expressed in phasor form as:

(19)

E j B

(20)

H dL

E dl j B ds
D ds

dV

B ds 0

J ds j dv _______ (21)
vol

D E
____ (22)

ud
en
ts

J E

The constitutive eqn. retain their forms:

B H

j D ds

The continuity eqn., contained within these is,

J j

B0

om

(18)

H J j D

gr
ou
p.
c

(17)

For sinusoidal time variations, the wave equations become

E 2 E

H 2 H

( for electric field )

_________ (23)

st

Vector Helmholtz eqn.

( for electric field )

In a conducting medium, these become

ity

2 E 2 j E 0
________ (24)

.c

2 H 2 j H 0

Wave propagation in a loss less medium:


In phasor form, the wave eqn. for VPW is

2 E
2
2

E
Ey
2
2 E y _______ (25)
x
;
2
x

2 E

E y C1

e j x C2 e j x _______ (26)

C1 & C2 are arbitrary constants.


The corresponding time varying field is

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Field Theory

10EE44

E y x, t Re E y x e j t
t z
t z
______ (27)
Re C1 e j
C2 e j

C1 cos t z C2 cos t z ______ (28)


When C1 and C2 are real.
variations results in a space variation which is also sinusoidal.
Eqn. (27) and (28) represent sum of two waves traveling in opposite directions.

om

Therefore we note that, in a homogeneous, lossless medium, the assumption of sinusoidal time

If C1 = C2 , the two traveling waves combine to form a simple standing wave which does not

gr
ou
p.
c

progress.
If we rewrite eqn. (28) with Ey as a fn of (x-t),
we get =

Let us identify some point in the waveform and observe its velocity; this point is

t x a constant

dx

dt

ud
en
ts

Then

' a ' t

This velocity is called phase velocity, the velocity of a phase point in the wave.
is called the phase shift constant of the wave.

st

Wavelength: These distance over which the sinusoidal waveform passes through a full cycle of

ity

2 radians
ie.,

.c

2
2

or

But

or
f ;

f in H Z
1

Wave propagation in a conducting medium


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Field Theory

10EE44

We have,

Where

2 j
j j

Therefore, = + j
= Attenuation constant
= phase shift constant.
The eqn. for UPW of electric field strength is

One possible solution is

ud
en
ts

2 E
2E
2
x

gr
ou
p.
c

is called the propagation constant is, in general, complex.

om

2 E 2 E 0

E x E0e x

Therefore in time varying form, we get

E x, t Re E e x e jt

st

e x Re E0e jwt

This eqn. shown that a up wave traveling in the +x direction and attenuated by a factor e x .

ity

The phase shift factor

.c

and velocity f

= Real part of = RP

j j t

2
1 2 2 1

2
1 2 2 1

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Field Theory

10EE44

Conductors and dielectrics:


We have the phasor form of the 1st Maxwells curl eqn.

where J c E conduction current density ( A/m2 )

J disp j E displacement current density ( A/m2 )


J cond

J disp

gr
ou
p.
c

om

H E j E J c J disp

We can choose a demarcation between dielectrics and conductors;

1 is conductor.

1 is dielectric.

* For good conductors,


* For most dialectics,

Cu: 3.5*108 @ 30 GHz

ud
en
ts

Mica: 0.0002 @ audio and RF

& are independent of freq.


& are function of freq.

is relatively constant over frequency range of interest

dissipation factor D

ity

st

Therefore dielectric constant

.c

if D is small, dissipation factor is practically as the power factor of the dielectric.


PF = sin

= tan-1D

PF & D difference by <1% when their values are less than 0.15.

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Field Theory

10EE44

b) Express

E y 100 cos 2 108 t 0.5 z 300 v / m as a phasor


6

t 0.5 z 300

om

E y Re 100 e j 2 10

Drop Re and suppress ejwt term to get phasor


0

Whereas Ey is real, Eys is in general complex.


Note: 0.5z is in radians; 300 in degrees.
c) Given

gr
ou
p.
c

Therefore phasor form of Eys = 100e0.5 z 30

20 500 ay
40 2100 az
,V / m
Es 100 300 ax

find its time varying form representation

ud
en
ts

Let us rewrite Es as

20e j 50 ay
40e j 210 az
.V / m
Es 100e j 30 ax
0

E Re Es e j t
j t 300
j t 500
j t 2100
Re 100e
20e
40e
V /m

st

E 100 cos t 300 20 cos t 500 40 cos t 210 0 V / m

ity

None of the amplitudes or phase angles in this are expressed as a function of x,y or z.
Even if so, the procedure is still effective.

.c

d) Consider

0.1 j 20 z

A/ m
ax

H s 20e

0.1 j 20 z

H t Re 20e
ax
e j t

A/ m
20e 0.1z cos t 20 z ax

E x E x x, y , z
Note :

consider

Ex

Re E x x, y , z
t
t
Re j E x e j t

e j t

Therefore taking the partial derivative of any field quantity wrt time is equivalent to multiplying
the corresponding phasor by j .
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Field Theory

10EE44

Next, the wave equation in free space is:

2E
t 2

2 k0 2
k0

2 Es 2

Es 2 Es

gr
ou
p.
c

2 Es
2 Es
2 Es

k 0 2 Es
2
2
2
x
y
z
for E x component ,

om

2 E

2 Esx
2 Esx
2 Esx

k0 2 E xs
2
2
2
x
y
z
For a UPW traveling along z axis,

ud
en
ts

We get

2 Esx
k0 2 Exs
2
x
One solution:

Exs Ex 0 e jk0 z

z , t Ex 0 cos t k0 z
Ex z , t Ex 0 cos t k0 z

st

E x

ity

These two are called the real instantaneous forms of the electric field.

1
3 108

.c

0 0

k0 0

0 0

3 108 c

e
Ex z , t Ex 0 cos
t z / c

We can visualize wave propagation by putting t-0

z
Ex z, 0 Ex 0 cos
Ex 0 cos z Ex 0 cos k0 z
e
This is a simple periodic fn that repeats every incremental distance , known as wavelength. The
requirement is that k0 = 2

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Field Theory

10EE44

2
c
3 108

in f ree space
ie., x
k0
f
f
Given

200 j 600 az
e j 0.4 x V / m
E0 s 500 400 ay
Find a

c) From given data,

0.4 0 0
0.4 3 108

120 106

10
36 9

ud
en
ts

4 107

gr
ou
p.
c

om

b E at 2, 3,1 at t 0
c E at 2, 3,1 at t 10 ns.
d E at 3, 4, 2 at t 20 ns.

f 19.1 106 Hz
d) Given,

200 j 600 az
e j 0.4 x
Es 500 400 ay
632.456e j 71.565 e j 0.4 x az

500e j 40 e j 0.4 x ay
0

st

500e

j 0.4 x 400

ay 632.456e

ity

E t 500 Re e j t e

j 0.4 x 400

j 0.4 x 71.5650

az

j 0.4 x 71.565


ay 632.456 e j t e
az

.c

632.456 cos t 0.4 x 71.565 az

500 cos t 0.4 x 400 ay


291.076 az
V /m
36.297 ay

632.456 0.4 x 71.565 az

E at 2,3,1 t 0 500 cos 0.4 x 400 ay

c)

E at t 10 ns at 2, 3,1

500 cos 120 106 10 109 0.4 2 400 ay

632.456 cos 120 106 10 10 9 0.4 2 71.5650 az


417.473 az
V /m
477.823 ay

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Field Theory

10EE44

d)
at t = 20 ns,

E at 2,3,1

om

631.644 az
V /m
438.736 ay
D 11.2:
320 ay
e j 0.07 z
Given H s 2 400 ax

(b) Hx at p(1,2,3) at t = 31 ns.

(e j z term)

(a) we have p = 0.07

0.07

(c) H at t=0 at the origin.

0.07
0.07 3 108 21.0 106 rad / sec

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

(a)

A / m for a UPW traveling in free space. Find

21.0 106 rad / sec


(b)

3 e j 20 e j 0.07 z ay
e j t
H t Re 2 e j 40 e j 0.07 z ax

st

3 cos t 0.07 z 20 0 ay

2 cos t 0.07 z 400 ax

ity

H x (t ) 2 cos t 0.07 z 400


H x (t ) at p 1, 2, 3

.c

2 cos 2.1106 t 0.21 400

At t 31n sec; 2 cos 2.1106 3110 9 0.21 400


2 cos 65110 3 0.21 400
1.9333

A/ m

(c)

3cos 0.7 z 0.35 ay

H t at t 0 2 cos 0.07 z 0.7 ax


3cos 0.3 ay

H t 2 cos 0.7 ax
2.82ay

1.53ax
3.20666 A / m
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Field Theory

10EE44

In free space,

E z , t 120 sin t z ay
H

z, t
Ey

we have

120

Hx
Ey

Hx

120

sin t z ay
120

120
1

sin t z

z, t

gr
ou
p.
c

om

find

V /m

sin t z ax

Problem 3. J&B

Non uniform plans waves also can exist under special conditions. Show that the function

x t

1 2 F
c 2 t 2

ud
en
ts

F e z sin

satisfies the wave equation 2 F

provided the wave velocity is given by

2c 2
e 1
2

st

Ans:

ity

From the given eqn. for F, we note that F is a function of x and z,

2 F
2 F
F

x 2
y 2
F

e z
cos x t
x

2 F

2 e z
z
e
F
x t
sin
x 2

2

F

e z sin
x t
z

2 F

2 e z sin
x t 2 F
2
z

.c

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Field Theory

10EE44

2 F 2 2 F

dF


e z cos x t
dt


d 2F

e z sin x t
2
dt

om

2 F
1 2F
F 2
c t 2
2
2
1
2 F 2

c

F
2

2
2
2 2

c
2
2

2 2 2
c

2
2
2 2
c

2c 2

2c 2 2
c

or

c2

2c 2
1
2

2c2
2

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

The given wave equation is

ity

.c

The electric field intensity of a uniform plane wave in air has a magnitude of 754 V/m and is

in the z direction. If the wave has a wave length = 2m and propagating in the y direction.

Find
(iii)

Frequency and when the field has the form A cos t z .

(iv)

Find an expression for H .

In air or free space,

c 3 108 m / sec

(i)
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Field Theory

10EE44

3 108
f

m / sec 1.5 108 Hz 150 MHz

2m
2
2

3.14 rad / m

2m
Ez 754 cos 2 150 106 t y
e

om

(ii)

E
Ez
x
Hz
Hz
For the given wave,

Ez 754 V / m;

Ex 0

gr
ou
p.
c

For a wave propagating in the +y direction,

754
754

A/ m
120 377

H 2 cos 2 150 106 t y ax

A/ m

ud
en
ts

H x 754

find for copper having = 5.8*107 (/m) at 50Hz, 3MHz, 30GHz.

1
1
1

7
7
4 10
5.8 10
f

1
1

2
4 5.8 f

ity

1
f

1
66 10 3

23.2 2 f
f

st

.c

66 10 3
(i )
9.3459 10 3 m
50
66 10 3
(ii )
3.8105 10 5 m
6
3 10
66 10 3
(iii )
3.8105 10 7 m
6
3 10

Wave Propagation in a loss less medium:


Definition of uniform plane wave in Phasor form:
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Field Theory

10EE44

In phasor form, the uniform plane wave is defined as one for which the equiphase surface is
also an equiamplitude surface, it is a uniform plane wave.
For a uniform plane wave having no variations in x and y directions, the wave equation in
phasor form may be expressed as

2 E
2 E ________ (i)
2
Z

0r

where . Let us consider eqn.(i) for, the Ey component, we get

2 Ey

gr
ou
p.
c

2 Ey

om

2 E
2 E
2
Z

E y has a solution of the form,

Ey C1e j z C2e j z ________ (2)

Where C1 and C2 are arbitrary complex constants. The corresponding time varying form of

E y is

E y z, t Re E y z e jt

e j z e jt _______ (3)

ud
en
ts

Re C1

e j z C2

If C1 and C2 are real, the result of real part extraction operation is,

Ey z, t C1 cos t z C2 cos t z _______ (4)


From (3) we note that, in a homogeneous lossless medium, sinusoidal time variation results

st

in space variations which is also sinusoidal.

Equations (3) and (4) represent sum of two waves traveling in opposite directions.

ity

If C1 = C2, the two wave combine to form a standing wave which does not progress.

.c

Phase velocity and wavelength:

The wave velocity can easily obtained when we rewrite E y as a function and z t , as in

eqn. (4). This shows that

________(5)

In phasor form, identifying a some reference point on the waveform and observing its
velocity may obtain the same result. For a wave traveling in the +Z direction, this point is
given by t z a constant.

dz

, as in eqn. (5)
dt

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Field Theory

10EE44

This velocity of some point on the sinusoidal waveform is called the phase velocity. is
called the phase-shift constant and is a measure of phase shift in radians per unit length.

Wavelength: Wavelength is defined as that distance over which the sinusoidal waveform
passes through a full cycle of 2 radius.

________(7)

gr
ou
p.
c

2
2
2
2

;
2 f f
f ,
f in Hz
________(8)

om

ie.,

For the value of given in eqn. (1), the phase velocity is,

0 _______(9)

C 3 108 m / sec

ud
en
ts

0 C

Wave propagation in conducting medium:

The wave eqn. written in the form of Helmholtz eqn. is

2 E 2 E 0 _______(10)

where 2 2 j j j _______(11)

st

, the propagation constant is complex = + j _________(12)

satisfy

ity

We have, for the uniform plane wave traveling in the z direction, the electric field E must

.c

2 E
2 E _______(13)
Z 2

This equation has a possible solution

E Z E0e Z _______(14)

In time varying form this is becomes

E z, t Re E0
= e

Re E0

e Z

j t z

e jt _______(15)

________(16)

This is the equation of a wave traveling in the +Z direction and attenuated by a factor e Z .
The phase shift factor and the wavelength phase, velocity, as in the lossless case, are given
by
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Field Theory

10EE44

The propagation constant

j j ________(11)

We have,

2 j 2 2 j 2 j 2 ________(17)

2 2 2 ________(18)

________(19)
2

Therefore (19) in (18) gives:


2


2


4
4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 0

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

2 2 2 ;

om

2 2 2
4

2 4 2 2 2 2 2
2

2 2
1

2
2
2 2

1 1 2 2
2

2

.c

ity

st

2
1

1 _________(20)

2
2

and

2
1 2 2 1 ___________(21)

We choose some reference point on the wave, the cosine function,(say a rest). The value of
the wave ie., the cosine is an integer multiple of 2 at erest.

k0 z 2m

at mth erest.

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Field Theory

10EE44

Now let us fix our position on the wave as this mth erest and observe time variation at this
position, nothing that the entire cosine argument is the same multiple of 2 for all time in
order to keep track of the point.

t k0 0 z 2m t z / c

ie.,

Thus at t increases, position z must also increase to satisfy eqn. ( ). Thus the wave erest (and
the entire wave moves in a +ve direction) with a speed given by the above eqn.

om

Similarly, eqn. ( ) having a cosine argument t 0 z describes a wave that moves in the
negative direction (as + increases z must decrease to keep the argument constant). These two

gr
ou
p.
c

waves are called the traveling waves.


Let us further consider only +ve z traveling wave:
We have

z
0

0
y
Ey

ud
en
ts

0
x
Ex

Es j H s

ity

st

E y
E x
i
k0 j iH 0 x j by
j
z
z

E xs

j H 0 y
z
0
1
H oy
E z 0 e jk0 z E x 0
e j 0 z
j
0

Ex

Hy

cos t 0 z

0 377 120

.c

H y z , t Ex 0

Ey and Hx are in phase in time and space. The UPW is called so because is uniform thought
any plane Z = constant.
Energy flow is in +Z direction.

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Field Theory

10EE44

E and H are perpendicular to the direction of propagation; both lie in a plane that is
transverse to the direction of propagation. Therefore also called a TEM wave.

and
direction is 250 V/m. If E = Ex ax
11.1. The electric field amplitude of a UPW in the az
(ii)

(iii) period

(iv) amplitude of H .

2 f
106

159.155 KHz
2
2
2

C
1.88495 km
f
1
period
6.283 s
f
E
amplitude of H y x 120
Hy

Ex
250

0.6631 A / m
120
120

ud
en
ts

Hy

gr
ou
p.
c

om

= 1m rad/sec, find (i) f

3200 ay
e j 0.07 z A / m for a certain UPW traveling in free
11.2. Given H s 2 400 ax

space.

Find (i), (ii)Hx at p(1,2,3) at t = 31ns and (iii) H at t = 0 at the orign.

st

Wave propagation in dielectrics:

ity

For an isotopic and homogeneous medium, the wave equation becomes

2 Es k 2 s

k0

.c

r r 0

r r

For Ex component
We have

d 2 Exs
k 2 Exs
2
dz

for Ex comp. Of electric field wave traveling in Z direction.

k can be complex one of the solutions of this eqn. is,

jk j
Exs Ex 0 e z e j z
Therefore its time varying part becomes,

Exs Ex 0e z cos t z
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Field Theory

10EE44

This is UPW that propagates in the +Z direction with phase constant but losing its amplitude
with increasing Z e z . Thus the general effect of a complex valued k is to yield a traveling
wave that changes its amplitude with distance.
If is +ve

= attenuation coefficient if is +ve wave decays

If is -ve

= gain coefficient

is measured in repers per meter

om

In passive media, is +ve

wave grows

In amplifiers (lasers) is ve.

(Fields with sinusoidal time variations)

gr
ou
p.
c

Wave propagation in a conducting medium for medium for time-harmonic fields:

For sinusoidal time variations, the electric field for lossless medium ( = 0) becomes

2 E 2 E

In a conducting medium, the wave eqn. becomes for sinusoidal time variations:

Problem:

ud
en
ts

2 E 2 j E 0
Using Maxwells eqn. (1) show that

.D 0

in a conductor

if ohms law and sinusoidal time variations are assumed. When ohms law and sinusoidal time
variations are assumed, the first Maxwells curl equation is

st

H E j E

Taking divergence on both sides, we get,

ity

H E j E 0

.c

E j 0

or D j 0

, & are

constants and of finite values and 0

D0
Wave propagation in free space:
The Maxwells equation in free space, ie., source free medium are,

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Field Theory

10EE44

E
H _________(1)
t
H
E
_________(2)
t
D 0 _________(3)
H 0

B 0 _________(4)

om

Note that wave motion can be inferred from the above equation.
How? Let us see,

Eqn. (1) states that if electric field E is changing with time at some, point then magnetic field

gr
ou
p.
c

H has a curl at that point; thus H varies spatially in a direction normal to its orientation
direction. Further, if E varies with time, then H will, in general, also change with time;
although not necessarily in the same way.
Next

From (2) we note that a time varying H generates E ; this electric field, having a curl,
therefore varies spatially in a direction normal to its orientation direction.

ud
en
ts

We thus have once more a time changing electric field, our original hypothesis, but this field is
present a small distance away from the point of the original disturbance.
The velocity with which the effect has moved away from the original disturbance is the
velocity of light as we are going to prove later.

Uniform plane wave is defined as a wave in which (1) both fields E and H lie in the

st

transverse plane. Ie., the plane whose normal is the direction of propagation; and (2) both E

ity

and H are of constant magnitude in the transverse plane.


Therefore we call such a wave as transverse electro magnetic wave or TEM wave.

.c

The spatial variation of both E and H fields in the direction normal to their orientation (travel)

ie., in the direction normal to the transverse plane.

Differentiating eqn. (7) with respect to Z1 we get

2 Ex
Hy
2 H

________(9)
0
0

Z 2
Z t
t Z
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Field Theory

10EE44

Differentiating (8) with respect to t1 we get

2 Ex
2 H
0
_________(10)
t Z
t 2
Therefore substituting (10) into (9) gives,

om

2 Ex
2 Ex
0 0
_________(11)
t 2
t 2

The constant

0 0

gr
ou
p.
c

This eqn.(11) is the wave equation for the x-polarized TEM electric field in free space.

is the velocity of the wave in free space, denoted c and has a value

3 108 m / sec , on substituting the values, 0 4 107 H / m and 0 10

36

Differentiating (10) with respect to Z and differentiating (9) with respect to t and following the

2 H y
Z 2

0 0

2 H y
t 2

ud
en
ts

similar procedure as above, we get

_________(13)

eqn. (11 and (13) are the second order partial differential eqn. and have solution of the form, for
instance,

Ex Z , t f1 t Z / f 2 t Z / ________(14)

st

(ie., the electric field is polarized (!) in the x- direction !) traveling along Z
Let E Ex ax

ity

direction. Therefore variations of E occurs only in Z direction.


Form (2) in this case, we get

.c

a x

0
0
x
y
Ex
0

a y

a z

z
0

Ex
H
H
j 0
0
j _________(5)
z
t
t

Note that the direction of the electric field E determines the direction of H , we is now along the
y direction.
Therefore in a UPW, E and H are mutually orthogonal. (ie., perpendicular to each other). This
in a UPW .
(i) E and H are perpendicular to each other (mutually orthogonal and
(ii) E and H are also perpendicular to the direction of travel.
Form eqn. (1), for the UPW, we get
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Field Theory
H

10EE44

H y
Z

0
ax

Ex
E

t0
ax
t
t

(using the mutually orthogonal property) _______________(6)

H y
Ex
0
________(7)
Z
t
H y
Ex
0
________(8)
Z
t

gr
ou
p.
c

f1 and f2 can be any functions who se argument is of the form t Z / .

om

Therefore we have obtained so far,

The first term on RHS represents a forward propagating wave ie., a wave traveling along positive
Z direction.

The second term on RHS represents a reverse propagating wave ie., a wave traveling along
negative Z direction.
(Real instantaneous form and phaser forms).

ud
en
ts

The expression for Ex (z,t) can be of the form

Ex z , t Ex z , t E 1x z , t

Ex 0 cos t Z / p 1 E1x 0 cos t Z / p 2


Ex 0 cos t k0 z 1 E1x 0 cos t k0 z 2 _______ 15

st

p is called the phase velocity = c in free space k0 is called the wave number in free space =
rad/m _________(16)

ity

eqn. (15) is the real instantaneous forms of the electric (field) wave. ( experimentally
measurable)

.c

0t and k0z have the units of angle usually in radians.

: radian time frequency, phase shift per unit time in rad/sec.

k0 : spatial frequency, phase shift per unit distance in rad/m.

k0 is the phase constant for lossless propagation.

Wavelength in free space is the distance over which the spatial phase shifts by 2 radians, (time
fixed)
ie.,

k0 z k0 2
or

2
k0

(in free space) _________(17)

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Field Theory

10EE44

Let us consider some point, for instance, the crest or trough or zero crossing (either ve to +ve or
+ve to ve). Having chosen such a reference, say the crest, on the forward-propagating cosine
function, ie., the function cos t k0 z 1 . For a erest to occur, the argument of the cosine
must be an integer multiple of 2. Consider the mth erest of the wave from our reference point,
the condition becomes,
K0z = 2m, m an integer.

om

This point on the cosine wave we have chosen, let us see what happens as time increases.

The entire cosine argument must have the same multiple of 2 for all times, in order to keep

gr
ou
p.
c

track of the chosen point.

t k0 z t Z / 2m _______(18)

Therefore we get,

As time increases, the position Z must also increase to satisfy (18). The wave erest, and the entire
wave, moves in the positive Z-direction with a phase velocity C (in free space).

Using the same reasoning, the second term on the RHS of eqn. (15) having the cosine argument

t k0 z

represents a wave propagating in the Z direction, with a phase velocity C, since as

st

ud
en
ts

time t increases, Z must decrease to keep the argument constant.

ity

POLARISATION:

.c

It shows the time varying behavior of the electric field strength vector at some point in space.
Consider of a UPW traveling along Z direction with E and H vectors lying in the x-y plane.
If Ey 0 and only Ex is present, the wave is said to be polarized in the x-direction.

If Ex = 0 and only Ey is present, the wave is said to be polarized in the y-direction.

Therefore the direction of E is the direction of polarization

If both Ex and Ey are present and are in phase, then the resultant electric field E has a
direction that depends on the relative magnitudes of Ex and Ey .

The angle which this resultant direction makes with the x axis is tan-1

Ey
; and this angle will be
Ex

constant with time.


(a) Linear polarization:
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Field Theory

10EE44

In all the above three cases, the direction of the resultant vector is constant with time and the
wave is said to be linearly polarized.
If Ex and Ey are not in phase ie., they reach their maxima at different instances of time, then
the direction of the resultant electric vector will vary with time. In this case it can be shown that
the locus of the end point of the resultant E will be an ellipse and the wave is said to be
elliptically polarized.

gr
ou
p.
c

locus of the resultant E is a circle and the wave is circularly polarized.

om

In the particular case where Ex and Ey have equal magnitudes and a 900 phase difference, the

Linear Polarisation:

Consider the phasor form of the electric field of a UPW traveling in the Z-direction:
E

E0 e j z

Its time varying or instanious time form is

E Z , t Re E0 e j z e jt

ud
en
ts

The wave is traveling in Z-direction.

Therefore E z lies in the x-y plane. In general, E0 is a complex vector ie., a vector whose
components are complex numbers.
Therefore we can write E0 as,

st

E0 Er jE0i

Where E0 and E0i are real vectors having, in general, different directions.

ity

At some point in space, (say z = 0) the resultant time varying electric field is

0r

j E0i e j t

.c

E 0, t Re

E0 r cos t E0i sin t

Therefore E not only changes its magnitude but also changes its direction as time varies.

Circular Polarisation:
Here the x and y components of the electric field vector are equal in magnitude.
If Ey leads Ex by 900 and Ex and Ey have the same amplitudes,

j ay
E0
Ie., Ex E y , we have, E ax
The corresponding time varying version is,

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Field Theory

10EE44

cos t ay
sin t E0
E 0, t ax
Ex E0 cos t
and E y E0 sin t
Ex2 E y2 E02
Which shows that the end point of E0 0, t traces a circle of radius E0 as time progresses.

om

Therefore the wave is said to the circularly polarized. Further we see that the sense or direction
of rotation is that of a left handed screw advancing in the Z-direction ( ie., in the direction of
propagation). Then this wave is said to be left circularly polarized.

gr
ou
p.
c

Similar remarks hold for a right-circularly polarized wave represented by the complex vector,

j ay
E0
E ax

It is apparent that a reversal of the sense of rotation may be obtained by a 1800 phase shift
applied either to the x component of the electric field.

Elliptical Polarisation:

ud
en
ts

Here x and y components of the electric field differ in amplitudes Ex E y .


Assume that Ey leads Ex by 900.
Then,

A j ay
B
E0 ax

Where A and B are +ve real constants.

st

Its time varying form is

ity

cos t ayB
sin t
E 0, t axA
Ex A cos t

Ex2
A2

.c

E y B sin t
E y2
B2

Thus the end point of the E 0, t vector traces out an ellipse and the wave is elliptically
polarized; the sense of polarization is left-handed.
Elliptical polarization is a more general form of polarization. The polarization is completely
specified by the orientation and axial ratio of the polarization ellipse and by the sense in which
the end point of the electric field moves around the ellipse.

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Field Theory

10EE44

reflection of uniform plane wave at normal incidence


SWR
Plane wave propagation in general direction

.c

ity

st

ud
en
ts

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Unit-8
Plane waves at boundaries and in dispersive media:

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Field Theory

10EE44

When an em wave traveling in one medium impinges upon a second medium having a different
, or , then the wave will be partially transmitted, and partially reflected.

When a plane wave in air is incident normally on the surface of a perfect conductor the wave is
for fields that vary with time, neither E nor H can exist within a conductor., therefore no
energy of the incident wave is transmitted.
As there can be no loss within a perfect conductor; therefore none of the energy is obsorbed.

wave; the only difference is in the direction of power flow.

gr
ou
p.
c

Let Ei e j x ________(1) be the incident wave.

om

Therefore, the amplitudes of E and H in the reflected wave are the same as in the incident

Let the boundary, the surface of the perfect conductor be at x = 0.


The reflected wave is Er e j x __________(2)

Er must be determined from the boundary conditions.


With respect to,
Etan is continuous across the boundary

(ii)

E is zero within the conductor.

ud
en
ts

(i)

Therefore at the boundary, ie., at x = 0, the electric field is zero. This requires that, the sum of the
electric field strengths in the initial and reflected waves add to give zero resultant field strength
in the plane x = 0.

Er Ei _______(3)

st

The amplitude of the reflected electric field strength is equal to that of the incident electric field
strength but its phase has been reversed on reflection.

ity

The resultant electric field strength at any point at any point a distance x from the x = 0 plane is

ET x Ei e j x Er e j x

2 jEi e j x e j x

.c

the sum of the field strengths of the incident and reflected wave at that point, given by

2 jEi sin x _______ 4

Its time varying version is

ET x , t Re 2 jEi sin x e j t

2 Ei sin x sin t , if Ei real _______ 5

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Field Theory

10EE44

1. Eqn. (3) shows that (1) the incident and reflected waves combine to produce a standing
wave, which does not progress.
2. The magnitude of the electric field varies sinusoidally with distance from the reflecting
plane.
3. It is zero at the surface and at multiples of half wave lengths from the surface.

om

4. It has a maximum value of twice the electric field strength of the incident wave at
distances from the surface that are odd multiples of a quarter wavelength.

zero resultant field at the boundary surface.

gr
ou
p.
c

In as much as the BCs require that the electric field is reversed in phase on reflection to produce

Therefore if follows that H must be reflected without phase reversal. (otherwise if both are
reversed, on reversal of direction of energy propagation), which is required in this case).
Therefore the phase of the mag field strength is the same as that of the incident mag field
strength Hi at the surface of reflection.

HT x H i e j x H r e j x

ud
en
ts

2 H i e j x e j x

2 H i cos x _______ 6
Hi is real since it is in phase with Ei

HT x, t Re H T x e jt

Further,

st

2 H i cos x cos t ______ 7

The resultant magnetic field strength H also has a standing was distribution. This SWD has

ity

maximum value at the surface of the conductor and at multiples of a half from the surface,

.c

where as the zero points occur at odd multiples of a quarter wavelength from the surface. From
the boundary conditions for H its follows that there must be a surface current of Js amperes per

such that JS = HT (at x = 0).

Since Ei and Hi were in phase in the incident plane wave, eqns. (6) and (7) show that E T and HT

are 90 0out of time phase because of the factor j in eqn. (4).


This is as it should be, for it indicates no average flow of power. This is the case when the energy
transmitted in the forward direction is equaled by that reflected back.
Let us rewrite eqns. (4) and (6)

ET x, t Re 2 Ei sin x e j / 2 e jt 2 Ei sin x cos t / 2 _______ 8


HT x, t 2 H i cos x cos t _______ 9

Eqns. (8) and (9) show that ET and HT differ in time phase by 900.
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Field Theory

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REFLECTION BY A PERFECT CONDUCTOR OBLIQUE INCIDENCE:


TWO SPACIAL CASES:
1. Horizontal Polarisation: (also called perpendicular polarization) Here the electric field
vector is parallel to the boundary surface, or perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

om

( Transverse electric TE)

2. Vertical Polarisation: (also called parallel polarization) Here the magnetic field vector is
parallel to the boundary surface, and the electric field vector is parallel to the plane of

gr
ou
p.
c

incidence. (Transverse magnetic TM)

TE or TM are used to indicate that the electric or magnetic vector respectively is parallel to the
boundary surface/plane.

When a wave is incident on a perfect conductor, the wave is totally reflected with the angle of
incidence equal to the angle of reflection.

Case 1: E perpendicular to the plane of incidence: (perpendicular Polarisation)

ud
en
ts

The incident and reflected waves have equal wavelengths and opposite directions along the Z
axis, the incident and reflected waves form a standing wave distribution pattern along this axis.
In the y direction, both the incident and reflected waves progress to the right (+y direction) with
the same velocity and wavelength and so there will be a traveling wave along the +y direction.
The expression for reflected wave, using the above fig, is

Erefelected Er e j y sin z cos ______ 8

st

and Eincident Ei e j y sin z cos ______ 9

ity

E Ei e j y sin z cos e j y sin z cos

.c

2 jEi sin z cos e j y sin


j y y

_______ 10

2 jEi sin z z e
Er = - Ei

From the BCs we have,

Therefore total electric field strength E is given by

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Field Theory

10EE44

Erefelected Er e j y sin z cos ______ 8

and Eincident Ei e j y sin z cos ______ 9


E Ei e j y sin z cos e j y sin z cos
2 jEi sin z cos e j y sin
j y y

_______ 10

om

2 jEi sin z z e

gr
ou
p.
c

Where,

Phase shift constant of the incident wave,


z cos = Phase shift constant in the Z direction.


y sin = Phase shift constant in the y direction.

: wavelength: distance twice between modal points of the


cos cos

ud
en
ts

standing wave distribution.

The planes of zero electric field strength occur at multiples of

z
from the reflecting surface.
2
z
from the surface.
4

st

The planes of max electric field strength occurs at odd multiples of

The whole standing wave distribution of electric field strength is seen from eqn. (10) above to be

ity

traveling in the y direction with a velocity,

.c

y sin sin

This is the velocity with which a erest of the incident wave moves along the y axis. The

wavelength in this direction is,

sin

Case 2: E parallel to the plane of incidence: (parallel polarization)


Here, Ei and Er will have the instantaneous directions shown above, because the components
parallel to the perfectly conducting boundary must be equal and opposite.
The magnetic field strength vector H will be reflected without phase reversal.
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Field Theory

10EE44

The magnitudes of E and H are related by

Ei
E
r
Hi H r
For the incident wave, the wave expression for the magnetic field strength would be
j y sin z cos

om

H incident H i e
and for the reflected wave,

Therefore Hi = Hr
The total magnetic field H is,

H 2 H i cos z z e
where
z cos

j y y

and

ud
en
ts

y sin

gr
ou
p.
c

H reflected H r e j y sin z cos

The magnetic field strength has a standing wave distribution in the Z-direction with the planes of

z
from the surface. The
2

maximum H located at the conducting surface and at multiples of


planes of zero magnetic field strength occur at odd multiples of
For the incident wave,

z
from the surface.
4

ity

st

Ei Hi , Ez sin Hi ; Ey cos Hi

For the reflected wave,

.c

H r Hi , Ez sin H r ; Ey cos H r

The total z component of the electric field strength is,

Ex 2 sin

H i cos z z e

j y y

The total y component of the electric field strength is,

E y 2 j cos

H i sin z z e

j y y

Both Ey and Ez have a standing wave distribution above the reflecting surface. However, for the
normal or z components of E , the maxima occur at the plane and multiples of

from the

plane, whereas for the component E parallel to the reflecting surface the minima occur at the
plane and at multiples of

from the plane.

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Field Theory

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REFLECTION BY PERFECT DIELECTRICS


Normal incidence:
In this case part of the energy is transmitted and part of the energy is reflected.
Perfect dielectric: = 0. no absorption or loss of power in propagation through the dielectric.
Boundary is parallel to the x = 0 plane.

om

Plane wave traveling in +x direction is incident on it.

Ei 1 H r
Er 1 H r

We have,

gr
ou
p.
c

Et 2 H t

BC: Tang comp. Of E or H is continuous across the boundary.


ie.,

Hi H r H z
Hi H r

ud
en
ts

Ei Er Et
1

Ei Er H z

1
2 Ei Er 1 Ei Er

Ei Er

Ei 2 1 Er 2 1
Er 2 1

Ei 2 1

Et
E Er
E
21
i
1 r
c
Ei
Ei 1 2

ity

Also,

st

Hr
E
2
r 1
Ht
E 1 2

H t 1 Et
21

H i 2 Ei 1 2

.c

Further ,

The permeabilities of all known insulators do not differ appreciably from that of free space, so
that,

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Field Theory

10EE44

1 2
0 / 2
0 / 2

Er

Ei

0 / 1

0 / 1

1 2
1 2

2 1

Et

Ei

1 2
2 1

Hr

Hi

om

2 1
2 2

Ht

Hi

1 2

REFLECTION BY PERFECT DIELECTRIC:


OBLIQUE INCIDENCE:

gr
ou
p.
c

1. There is a transmitted wave, reflected wave and the incident wave.

2. The transmitted wave is refracted 9direction of propagation is altered)

1 ______ vel. Of wave in medium (1)

Then from figure, we get

st

CB 1

AD 2

ud
en
ts

2 ______ vel. Of wave in medium (2)

Now CB = AB sin1 and AD = AB sin2.

2 2
2

1
1 1

ity

sin 1 1

sin 2 2

.c

In addition,
AE = CB
sin1 = sin3
or 1= 3
The power transmitted =

E2

Incident power striking AB

E and H are perpendicular to each other.

E12 cos 1

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Field Theory

10EE44

Reflected power leaving AB

The power transmitted =

E22 cos 1

Et2 cos 2 .

Therefore by conservation of energy we get

Et2 cos 1

Et2 cos 1

Et2 cos 2

om

Er2
1 Et2 cos 2

Et2
2 Ei2 cos 1
1

gr
ou
p.
c

Et2 cos 2
Ei2 cos 1

Case 1:

ud
en
ts

Perpendicular polarization (HP):

( E is perpendicular to the plane of incidence parallel to the reflecting surface)


Let Ei propagate along +x direction, so as the direction of Er and Et.
According to BCs. Etan and Htan are continuous. Across the boundary.

Ei E r Et

Et
E
1 r
Ei
Ei

st

But we have,

2 E t2 cos 2
2
1 E i cos 1

E r2
1
E i2

2
1

.c

ity

E r2
1
E i2

cos 2
cos 1
2

cos 2
cos 1

2
1

E
1 r
Ei

Er

Ei

2
1

E cos 2
1 r
E i cos 1

Er

Ei

1 cos 1 2 cos 2

E r2
1 2
Ei

w
w

E
1 r
Ei

1 cos 1 2 cos 2

But we have,
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Field Theory
sin 1
2

sin 2
1

10EE44

2 cos 2 2 1 sin 2 2 2 1 sin 2 1

2
sin 2 1
1

cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

gr
ou
p.
c

cos 1

om

1 cos 1 2 1 sin 2 1
Er

Ei
1 cos 1 2 1 sin 2 1

This equation gives the ratio of the reflected to incident electric field strength for the case of a
perpendicular polarized wave.
.
Case II:

ud
en
ts

Parallel Polarisation:

Here E is parallel to the plane of incidence.

H is parallel to the reflecting surface.


The BCs on tangential components give

Htan = Etan is continuous across the boundary.


Therefore this BC when applied, we get

ity

Et
E cos 1
1 r
Ei
Ei cos 2

.c

st

Ei E r cos 1 Et cos 2

But we already have


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Field Theory

10EE44

2 E t2 cos 2
E r2
1
2
E i2
1 E i cos 1

2
E 2 cos 1
1 r2
E i cos 2
1

Er

Ei

2
E cos 1
1 r
E i cos 2
1

Er
Ei

2 cos 1
1

1 cos 2

Er

Ei

2 cos 1
1
1 cos 2

2 cos 1 1 cos 2
2 cos 1 1 cos 2

But from Snells law we get

1 sin

2 cos 1 1 1 sin 2 2
2 cos 1 1

sin 2 2 1 / 2 sin 2 1

Therefore we get

/ 1 cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

/ 1 cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

ud
en
ts

Er

Ei

gr
ou
p.
c

E r2
1 2
Ei

om

2
E r2
E r2 cos 2 2 cos 2
1 2
2 1

Ei
E i cos 2 1 cos 1
1

ity

st

This equation gives the reflection coefficient for parallel or vertical polarization, ie., the ratio of

reflected to incident electric field strength when E is parallel to the plane of incidence.

BRESNSTER ANGLE:

.c

We have

/ 1 cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

/ 1 cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

Er

Ei

When Nr = 0, Er = 0.
Therefore no reflection at all.
Therefore for zero reflection condition, we have,

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Field Theory
2
cos 1
1

10EE44

2
sin 2 1
1

22

cos 2 1 2 sin 2 1
2
1
1
22 22

2 sin 2 1 2 sin 2 1
2
1
1 1
22 22 sin 2 1 12 12 sin 2 1

om

2
1

22 sin 2 1 2 1 2

2 1 2 sin 2 1 2 1 2

sin 2 1

2
1 2

cos 2 1

1
1 2

tan 1

2
1

gr
ou
p.
c

ud
en
ts

At this angle, which is called the Bresoster angle, there is no reflected wave when the incident
wave is parallel (or vertically) polarized. If the incident wave is not entirely parallel polarized,
there will he some reflection, but the reflected wave is entirely of perpendicular (or horizontal)

st

polarization.

ity

Note:1

For perpendicular paolarisation, we have

cos 1 2 / 1 sin 2 1

Ei

cos 1 2 / 1 sin 2 1

.c

N r 0, we get

putting

cos 1 2 / 1 sin 2 1
cos 2 1 2 / 1 sin 2 1
or 2 1

ie., there is no corresponding Bresvster angle for this polarization.

Note 2:
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Field Theory

10EE44

For parallel polarization,


We can show that

Er
tan 1 2

Ei
tan 1 2
and for perpendicular polarization, we can show that,

om

Er
sin 2 1

Ei
sin 2 1

gr
ou
p.
c

TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION:

If 1 2 , then, both the reflection coefficients given by equations,

Er

Ei

cos 1

2
sin 2 1
1

( perpendicular polarization )

2
cos 1
sin 2 1
1

Er

Ei

2 / 1 cos 1

ud
en
ts

and

2
sin 2 1
1

( parallel polarization )

2
2 / 1 cos 1
sin 2 1
1

st

become complex numbers when, sin 1

2
1

ity

a jb
and thus have a unit magnitude. In other words, the
Both coefficients take the form
a jb

.c

reflection is total provided that 1 is great enough and also provided that medium (1) is denser

than medium. (2) but total reflection does not imply that there is no field in medium (2). In

medium (2), the fields have the form,

Snells law gives the y variation as, e

e j 2 y sin 2 Z cos 2
j 2 y 1 /2

And the Z variation as,

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Field Theory
e

j 2 Z cos2

10EE44
1sin

j 2 Z

e
e

j 2 Z j 1

2Z

sin 2 1 1

sin 2 1 1

In the above expression, the lower sign must be chosen such that the fields decrease

cos 2 j 1
2

sin 2 1 1

j 1
2

sin 2 1

2
2

gr
ou
p.
c

ie.,

om

exponentially as Z becomes increasingly negative.

Therefore under the condition of TIR, a field does exist in the rarer medium. However, this field
has a phase progression along the boundary and decreases exponentially away from it. If is thus
the example of a non-uniform plane wave.
The phase velocity along the interface is given by ,

1
sin 1
2

ud
en
ts

Which, under the conditions of TIR is less than the phase velocity

of a UPW in medium (2).


2

Consequently, the non-uniform plane wave in medium (2) is a slow wave. Also, since some kind

ity

st

of a surface between two media is necessary to support this wave, it is called a surface wave.

.c

Maxwells Equations
In static electric and magnetic fields, the Maxwells equations obtained so far are:
Differential form

E 0

D

H J

Controlling principle

Integral form

Potential around a closed path is zero


Gausss Law
Amperes Circuital Law
Non-existence of isolated magnetic poles

E d L 0
D dS dv

H dL J dS
B dS 0

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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
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Field Theory

10EE44

Contained in the above equations is the equation of continuity for steady currents,

J 0

J dS 0

(5)
Modification of Maxwells equations for the case of time varying fields


First Modification of the first Maxwells equation
E 0 ; E dL 0 ;

----(1)

om

To discuss magnetic induction and energy, it is necessary to include time-varying fields, but
only to the extent of introducing the Faradays law.
Faradays law states that the voltage around a closed path can be generated by
a time changing magnetic flux through a fixed path ( transformer action)

by a time-varying path in a steady magnetic field (electric generator action)

or

gr
ou
p.
c

Faradays law: The electromotive force around a closed path is equal to the negative of the
time rate of change of magnetic flux enclosed by the path.


B dS
t
t S
In our study of electromagnetics, interest centers on the relation between the time changing
electric and magnetic fields and a fixed path of integration.

E
dL

ud
en
ts

For this case the Faradays law reduces to,



E
dL


B dS
t
S
The partial derivative w.r.t time indicates that only variations of magnetic flux through a fixed

st

closed path or a fixed region in space are being considered.

.c

ity

Thus, for time varying fields, equation (1) gets modified to

B
B
(6)
E
E dL S t dS
t
Second Modification: Modification of the Continuity equation for time varying fields:

Current is charges in motion. The total current flowing out of some volume must be equal to
the rate of decrease of charge within the volume [charge cannot be created or destroyed- law of
conservation of charges]. This concept is needed in order for understanding why current flows
between the capacitor plates. The explanation is that the current flow is accompanied by charge
build up on the plates. In the form of equation, the law of conservation of charge is


d
J
dS - dt dv
If the region of integration is stationary, this relation becomes,

J
dS - t dv
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----

(7)
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Field Theory

10EE44

Applying divergence theorem to this equation, we get,

( J )dv t dv
If this relation is to hold for any arbitrary volume, then, it must be true that,

J
t

----

(8

om

)
This is the time-varying form of the equation of continuity that replaces equation (5).
Third Modification: Modification of the Maxwells equation for the Amperes Law:

gr
ou
p.
c

Taking the divergence of equation (3) we get the equation of continuity as,

(Divergence of curl is zero- vector identity).


H J 0

ity

st

ud
en
ts

Thus Amperes law is inconsistent with the time varying fields for which the equation of

continuity is J . To resolve this inconsistency, James Clerk Maxwell in the mid


t
1860s suggested modification of the Amperes law to include the validity for time varying
fields also; He suggested substitution of Gausss law (2) into the equation of continuity (8)
giving,

J .
t

But we know that D .

( D)
D
Therefore we get ,
, on interchanging the
J


t
t
time and space differentiation.

D
D
Therefore
----- (9)
J
0
or
(J
)0
t
t
This equation may be put into integral form by integrating over a volume and then applying
the divergence theorem:

D
------ (10)
(J t ) dS 0

.c

D
Equations 9 and 10 suggest that ( J
) may be regarded as a total current density for time
t

D
varying fields. Since D is the displacement density,
is known as the displacement current
t
density.
Consider now a capacitor connected to an ac source as shown in figure.
I

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Field Theory

10EE44

When applied as shown in figure to a surface enclosing one plate of a two-plate capacitor,
equation ( 10 ) shows that during charge or discharge, the conduction current in the wire
attached to the plates is equal to the displacement current passing between the plates.
Maxwell reasoned that the total current density should replace J in Amperes law with the

om

result that

D
H J
t

----- (11)

gr
ou
p.
c

Taking the divergence of this equation gives equation (9) and thus the inconsistency has been
removed. Note that the Equation (11) has not been derived from the preceding equations but
rather suggested by them. Therefore when Maxwell proposed it, it was a postulate whose
validity had to be established by experiment.
Integrating equation (11) over a surface and application of Stokes theorem gives the integral
form of the equation:

Maxwells equations:

ud
en
ts


D
---- (12)
H

d
L

(
J

d
S

t
This equation states that the mmf around a closed path is equal to the total current enclosed by
the path. Thus equations 11 and 12 replace the static form of Amperes law (3).

Controlling principle

Integral form

ity

Differential form

st

In summary, the Maxwells equations are as follows:

.c


H D J

E B

d
L

J dS (I)


Potential around a closed path is zero E dL B dS
(II)

Gausss Law
(III)
D dS dv
Non-existence of isolated magnetic poles B dS 0
(IV)
Amperes Circuital Law

Contained in the above equations is the equation of continuity,

J
J
dS - dv

t
t
In all the cases the region of integration is assumed to be stationary.
WORD STATEMENT FORM OF FIELD EQUATIONS:

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Field Theory

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The word statements of the field equations may readily be obtained from the integral form of
the Maxwells equations:

The mmf around a closed path is equal to the conduction current plus the time
derivative of the electric displacement through any surface bounded by the path.
II.
The emf around a closed path is equal to the time derivative of the magnetic
displacement through any surface bounded by the path.
III.
The total electric displacement through the surface enclosing a volume is equal to the
total charge within the volume.
IV.
The net magnetic flux emerging through any closed surface is zero.

Alternate way of stating the first two equations:

gr
ou
p.
c

om

I.

1.

The magnetic voltage around a closed path is equal to the electric current through the
path.

2.

The electric voltage around a closed path is equal to the magnetic current through the
path

ud
en
ts

Boundary Conditions using Maxwells equations:

The integral form of Maxwells equations can be used to determine what happens at the
boundary surface between two different media.( Find out why not the differential form?)
The boundary conditions for the electric and magnetic fields at any surface of discontinuity
are:
The tangential component of E is continuous at the surface. i.e., it is the same just outside
the
surface as it is at the inside the surface.

2.

The tangential component of H is discontinuous across the surface except at the surface
of a perfect conductor. At the surface of a perfect conductor, the tangential component of
H is discontinuous by an amount equal to the surface current per unit width.

ity

.c

The normal component of B is continuous at the surface of discontinuity.

3.

st

1.

4.

The normal component of D is continuous if there is no surface charge density.


Otherwise D is discontinuous by an amount equal to the surface charge density.
y
X

Proof:

Ex1

1, 1 , 1
( medium 1)

x/2

Ex2

2, 2, 2
( medium 2)

x/2

EY1

EY2

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Field Theory

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Ex3

Ex4

Fig 2 A boundary between two media

gr
ou
p.
c

Let the surface of discontinuity be the plane x=0 as shown in fig 2.

om

Conditions on the tangential components of E and H

1. Condition for Etan at the surface of the boundary:

Consider a small rectangle of width x and length y enclosing a small portion of each media
(1) and (2).
The integral form of the second Maxwell equation ( II ) is,

B dS

ud
en
ts


E
dL

For the elemental rectangle of fig 2, we apply this equation and get

E y2y E x2

x
x
x
x
x y ----(13)
E x1
E y1y E x3
E x4
B
z
2
2
2
2

ity

st

where Bz is the average magnetic flux density through the rectangle x y . Now, as this area of
the rectangle is made to approach to zero, always keeping the surface of discontinuity between
the sides of the triangle. If Bz is finite, then as x o, the RHS of equation 13 will approach
zero. If E is also assumed to be finite everywhere, then, x/2 terms of the LHS of equation 13
will reduce to zero, leaving

.c

Ey2 y - Ey1 y = 0
for x = 0. Therefore

Ey1

Ey2
=
That is, the tangential component of E is continuous.

2. Condition for Htan at the surface of the boundary:


Now the integral form of the first Maxwells equation ( I ) is

H dL

(D J) dS
S

For the elemental rectangle this equation becomes,

H y2y H x2

x
x
x
x
H x1
H y1y H x3
H x4
(D z J z ) x y
2
2
2
2

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----(14)

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Field Theory

10EE44

If the rate of change of electric displacement D and the current density J are both considered to
be finite, then, as before, equation (14) reduces to
Hy2 y - Hy1 y = 0
for x = 0. Therefore
Hy2

Hy1

om

That is, the tangential component of H is continuous (for finite current densities i.e., for any
actual case).

gr
ou
p.
c

In case of a perfect conductor: A perfect


conductor has infinite conductivity. In such a
conductor, the electric field strength E is zero for any finite current density. However, the actual
conductivity may be very large and for many practical applications, it is useful to assume it to be
infinite. Such an approximation will lead to difficulties because of indeterminacy in formulating
the boundary conditions unless care is taken in setting them up. The depth of penetration of an ac
field into a conductor decreases as the conductivity increases. Thus in a good conductor a hf
current will flow in a thin sheet near the surface, the depth of the sheet approaching zero as the
conductivity approaches infinity. This gives to the useful concept of a current sheet. In a current
sheet a finite current per unit width, Jz amperes per meter flows in a sheet of vanishingly small
depth x, but with the required infinitely large current density J, such that
limx 0, Jx = Jz

ud
en
ts

Now consider again the above example the mmf around the small rectangle. If the current
density Jz becomes infinite as x0, the RHS of equation 14 will not become zero. Let J z
amperes per metre be the actual current per unit width flowing along the surface. Then as x0,
equation 14 for H becomes,
Hy2 y - Hy1 y = Jsz y.

Hence

---- (15)

st

Hy1 = Hy2 - Jsz

ity

Now if the electric field is zero inside a perfect conductor, the magnetic field must also be zero,
for alternating fields, as the second Maxwells equation shows. Then, in equation 15, H y2 must
be zero.

.c

So,

Hy1 =

- Jsz

----(16)

This equation states that the current per unit width along the surface of a perfect conductor is
equal to the magnetic field strength H just outside the conductor. The magnetic field and the
surface current will be parallel to the surface, but perpendicular to each other. In vector notation,
this is written as,

J n H
where n is the unit vector along the outward normal to the surface.

Conditions on the normal component of B and D


3.Condition on the normal component of D (Dnor):
The integral form of the third Maxwells equation is
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D
dS

dV

----( III )

vol

DN1
dS
1 1 1
2 2 2
DN2

gr
ou
p.
c

om

Consider the pill-box structure shown in fig 3. Applying the third Maxwells equation to this pillbox structure, we get
----(17)
Dn1dS Dn2 dS edge x dS

Fig 3 A pill-box volume enclosing a portion of a boundary surface

ud
en
ts

In this expression, dS is the area of each of the flat surfaces of the pillbox, x is their separation,
and is the average charge density within the volume x dS. edge is the outward electric flux
through the curved edge surface of the pillbox. As x 0, that is, as the flat surfaces of the
pillbox are squeezed together, always keeping the boundary surface between them, edge 0,
for finite values of displacement density. Also, for finite values of average density , the RHS of
equation (17) reduces to

Dn1 = Dn2

---- (18)

ity

st

Dn1dS Dn2 dS

0
for x = 0.Then for the case of no surface charge condition on the normal components of D

.c

That is, if there is no surface charge, the normal component of D is continuous across the
surface.

In the case of a metallic surface: In the case of a metallic surface, the charge is considered to
reside on the surface. If this layer of surface charge has a surface charge density S Coulombs
per square meter, the charge density of the surface layer is given by
S
C/m 3
x
where x is the thickness of the surface layer. As x approaches zero, the charge density
approaches infinity in such a manner that

limx0 x S
Then in fig 3, if the surface charge is always kept between the two flat surfaces as the seperation
between them is decreased, the RHS of equation (17) approaches S dS as x approaches zero.
Equation 17 then reduces to
Dn1 Dn2 S
----( 19 )
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Field Theory

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When there is a surface charge density S, the normal component of displacement density is
discontinuous across the surface by the amount of the surface charge density.
For any metallic conductor the displacement density, D = E within the conductor will be a
small quantity( it will be zero in the electrostatic case, or in the case of a perfect conductor).
Then if the medium (2) is a metallic conductor, Dn2 = 0 ; and the equation (19) becomes

om

Dn1 = S
----(20)
The normal component of the displacement density in the dielectric is equal to the surface
charge density on the conductor.
4 Condition on the normal component of B (Bnor):


B
dS

gr
ou
p.
c

The integral form of the fourth Maxwells equation is

----( IV )

The pill-box structure is again shown in fig 4 for magnetic flux density. Applying the fourth
Maxwells equation to this pill-box structure, we get
B n1dS B n2 dS edge 0

ud
en
ts

BN1
1 1 1

----(21)

dS
X

2 2 2

st

BN2

ity

Fig 4 A pill-box volume enclosing a portion of a boundary surface

.c

In this expression, dS is the area of each of the flat surfaces of the pillbox, x is their separation,
and is the average charge density within the volume x dS. edge is the outward electric flux
through the curved edge surface of the pillbox. As x 0, that is, as the flat surfaces of the
pillbox are squeezed together, always keeping the boundary surface between them, edge 0,
for finite values of magnetic flux density. The RHS of equation (21) reduces to

B n1dS B n2 dS

0
for x = 0.Then the condition on the normal components of B since there are no isolated
magnetic charges,
Bn1 = Bn2
---- (22)
i.e., The normal component of magnetic flux density is always continuous across the
boundary.

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