9 vues

Transféré par SK

underground cable fault locator

underground cable fault locator

© All Rights Reserved

- SFRA
- Fault Analysis
- Fault Calculation - Per Unit System
- 09-Overcurrent Protection
- Considerations for Generator Ground-Fault Protection in Midsize Cogeneration Plants
- symmetrical fault
- Switch Gear and Protection Unit 1 by Ramu. Srikakulapu
- PTL Items PSB and Tripping ANS 11007 ENU
- E8
- eb6efc1928a2c55_ek
- 32_techop Cross Connections
- P127.pdf
- SC Calc Data
- Handout for Mathcad
- 2009 PSCAD Tracing Ground Path Resonances CN58
- P43x DIST Application Guide en e2
- Performance Evaluation of Fault Location Algorithm for Protection of Series Compensated Transmission Line (2011)
- Transmission Protection _ Fault Location
- Chapter 6
- 2011_1.pdf

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 8

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijepes

impedance-based formulation with capacitive current compensation

Andr D. Filomena a,*, Mariana Resener b, Rodrigo H. Salim c, Arturo S. Bretas b

a

Companhia Estadual de Gerao e Transmisso de Energia Eltrica (CEEE-GT), Av. Joaquim Porto Villanova 201, Prdio F, Sala 214, Porto Alegre, Brazil

Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Osvaldo Aranha 103, Porto Alegre, Brazil

c

Electrical Engineering Department, University of So Paulo (USP), So Carlos, Brazil

b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 30 September 2008

Received in revised form 26 March 2009

Accepted 29 March 2009

Keywords:

Fault location

Power distribution protection

Underground distribution systems

a b s t r a c t

Underground distribution systems are normally exposed to permanent faults, due to specic construction

characteristics. In these systems, visual inspection cannot be performed. In order to enhance service restoration, accurate fault location techniques must be applied. This paper describes an extended impedance-based fault location algorithm for underground distribution systems. The formulation is

developed on phase frame and calculates the apparent impedance using only local voltage and current

data. The technique also provides an iterative algorithm to compensate the typical capacitive component

current of underground cables. Test results are obtained from numerical simulations using a real underground distribution feeder data from the Electrical Energy Distribution State Company of Rio Grande do

Sul (CEEE-D), southern Brazil. Comparative results show the techniques accuracy and robustness in

respect to fault type, distance and resistance.

2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Electrical power systems (EPS) can be composed by overhead

and underground lines. Overhead lines are commonly exposed to

transient faults. Lightning, insulation breakdown, wind, and trees

across lines are the most common fault causes on these feeders.

In these systems, fault identication and location can be easily assisted by visual inspection. Considering the occurrence of permanent faults, the existence of fault distance estimates may restrict

the search areas, allowing a faster system restoration. These estimates may be provided by embedded fault location techniques

from fault locator equipments and also by digital protection relays

and fault recorders. In order to supply these needs, several impedance-based fault location formulations have been proposed, considering overhead transmission [1,2] and distribution lines [35].

Underground distribution systems (UDS) are characterized by

high reliability and are usually applied in big urban areas. However, underground power cables are typically exposed to permanent faults. Cable isolation deterioration and water-treeing

phenomena are the most common fault causes on these systems

[6]. Hence, maintenance crew intervention is required to locate

and substitute, or repair, the faulty feeder. Therefore, system restoration becomes maintenance crew dependant. Due to the topolog-

E-mail addresses: alomena@ece.ufrgs.br (A.D. Filomena), mariana@ece.ufrgs.br

(M. Resener), salim@sel.eesc.usp.br (R.H. Salim), abretas@ece.ufrgs.br (A.S. Bretas).

0142-0615/$ - see front matter 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2009.03.026

as overhead power systems. In order to enhance system restoration, online fault location equipment should be used. These devices

provide a fault distance estimate after the fault clearance. If the

fault location estimate is unavailable, system restoration becomes

very time consuming, delaying service restoration.

Traditional UDS fault location procedure is based on two or

more methods and is developed through two stages: pre-locate

and pinpoint. The pre-locate step is based on terminal methods,

which measure electrical quantities at one or both line-ends. Tracer methods are used to pinpoint the fault location, and usually request walking the cable route. Both are considered ofine and on

site techniques, being executed with the system out-of-service

and also characterized by low performance efciency [7,8]. Recently, fault location techniques for underground systems based

on transient voltages and currents traveling waves have also been

proposed [9]. However, this approach requires expensive data

acquisition systems, with high bandwidth frequency capacity

[10]. The application of articial intelligence approach on fault

location schemes, as Wavelets and neuro-fuzzy systems, has also

been recently considered [11]. The usage of neural networks, however, needs a specic learning process to each analyzed feeder.

Consequently, this approach does not allow its application on generic feeders. Distribution parameter approach considering underground power cables has been also proposed [12]. Although this

approach allows an accurately analysis of the underground power

cables, the usage of symmetrical components restricts its application to ideally balanced and transposed feeders.

490

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

unbalanced radial feeders with intermediate loads taps and laterals

branches. These systems have important characteristics which may

interfere, if not considered, in the accuracy level of fault location

techniques [8,10]. Some of these characteristics are given in the

following:

The proposed fault location formulation is based on the apparent impedance calculation. The method uses the sending-end voltages and currents as input data, as well as system parameters, such

as loads, cables series impedances, and shunt admittance matrices.

VFc

(L-x)(zcc)

ISfb

VFb

(L-x)(zbb) ILb

ISfa

VFa

(L-x)(zaa) ILa

VSfc

VSfb

VSfa

length.

(b) Unbalances due to the untransposed feeders and by the

presence of single, double and three-phase loads.

(c) Presence of laterals branches along the main feeder.

(d) Presence of load taps along the main feeder and laterals.

Also, PDS are more commonly exposed to higher fault resistance

values, which can affect fault location and also protection systems

[8].

Underground systems are also characterized by a signicant

distributed shunt capacitive component, much higher than overhead lines, due to the cable characteristics [13]. In this case, the

capacitive effect can be considered as an infeed source. These specics system characteristics still represent challenges for standard

fault location techniques [8].

In order to overcome the performance limitations of standard

fault location methods for UDS, an extended impedance-based formulation is described in this paper. The technique is based on the

apparent impedance approach, using one-terminal data and is

developed on phase frame. The formulation can be applied on generic balanced and unbalanced grounded distribution feeders. An

iterative algorithm is developed to estimate the fault current and

also to compensate the typical cables distributed capacitive component. The proposed scheme was implemented in Matlab [14]

and tested with numerical simulation data of a real underground

distribution feeder from Companhia Estadual de Distribuio de

Energia Eltrica (CEEE-D), a Brazilian power distribution utility,

simulated with ATP/EMTP [15].

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the proposed fault location formulation considering three-phase (3PH)

and single line-to-ground (SLG) faults. The case study is presented

in Section 3. Test results and conclusions are discussed in Sections

4 and 5, respectively.

S

ISfc

[YS]abc

ZFa

[ICap]abc

ILc

[YR]abc

IFa

ZL abc

x

Fig. 2. Single line-to-ground fault.

In order to consider the mutual line components, the mathematical development is done using the phase frame representation.

The formulation is developed for three-phase and single line-toground faults considering the underground distribution feeder represented as an ideal p-line model, as illustrated by Figs. 1 and 2.

Still, the formulation considers a negligible shunt conductance value. Also, supposing a grounded neutral, the electric eld created

by the phase conductor is conned to the cables insulation. Thus,

only self capacitances are considered by the formulation, without

any mutual shunt component and the shunt admittance matrix,

therefore, is composed only by non-zero elements in its main diagonal [16].

2.1. Three-phase faults

Referring to the three-phase fault illustrated in Fig. 1, the sending-end voltages during the disturbance are given by (1), which describes the steady-state fault conditions:

V Sfa

zaa

6

7

6

4 V Sfb 5 x 4 zba

V Sfc

zca

zab

zac

3 2

IXa

V Fa

zbb

7 6 7 6

7

zbc 5 4 IX b 5 4 V Fb 5

zcb

zcc

IXc

V Fc

[m]; zmm, the phase m self impedance [X/m] and zmn is the mutual

impedance between phases m and n [X/m]. Also,

IX m ISfm ICapm

capacitive current; VFm, the phase m fault point voltage and m, n

are the phases a, b, or c

V F m Z F m IF m

Considering the fault impedances strictly resistive, constant and

unknown, the voltage equations given by (1) can be expanded into

its real and imaginary parts:

[YR]abc

V Sfar x M1a RF a IF ar

V Sfai x M 2a RF a IF ai

V Sfbr x M 1b RF b IF br

V Sfbi x M2b RF b IF bi

V Sfcr x M 1c RF c IF cr

V Sfci x M 2c RF c IF ci

imaginary parts and RFm are the fault resistances. Also, M1m and

M2m are dened by:

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

M 1m

10

kfa;b;cg

M 2m

11

kfa;b;cg

four unknown variables. Nevertheless, only four independent

expressions are necessary to calculate the fault distance and resistances. Isolating the unknown variables from (4)(6) and (9) yields

the fault distance and resistance expressions, which can be described in matrix form according to (12)

31 2

M 1a

IF ar

6 R 7 6 M2

6 Fa 7 6 a

6

76

4 RF b 5 4 M 1b

M 1c

RF c

IF ai

IF br

0 7

7

7

0 5

V Sfar

491

feeder length [13]. However, the fault location formulation developed previously is based on an ideal p-line model, supposing line

capacitance lumped at sending and receiving ends. In order to consider the capacitive effect by the fault location process, the capacitance ideal distributed nature is approximated. In the proposed

formulation, the line capacitance is not equally distributed between both ends, but dependant to the fault distance estimate.

Therefore, the sending-end shunt capacitance is supposed proportional to the fault distance, as described by (17)

x

ySm yLm

L

17

in Fig. 2, the sending-end voltage during the disturbance is given

by (13):

line section phase m shunt admittance and L is the line section

length.

However, from the supposed p-line model, in this formulation

the maximum value of the equivalent lumped capacitance at each

line-end is restricted to 50% of the line section capacitance. Therefore, even for faults located close to the remote bus, the sendingend lumped shunt capacitance will not be close to the total section

line capacitance. In this fault condition, the capacitance will be

considered equally distributed through the sending and remote

ends.

Based on the estimated shunt admittance values to each phase,

the sending-end capacitive currents are calculated using the sending-end voltages, as given by (18)

ICap Y S V Sf

6 V Sf 7

6 ai 7

6

7

4 V Sfbr 5

12

V Sfcr

IF cr

The mathematical solution of (12) is dependant of two unknown variables: the fault current and the sending-end capacitive

current. In order to calculate such estimates, an iterative algorithm

is proposed, which will be described in Section 2.3.

2.2. Single line-to-ground faults

13

Supposing again the fault impedance strictly resistive and constant, (13) may be expanded into its real and imaginary parts:

where

"

ySa

6

Y S 4 0

0

V Sfar

V Sfai

"

M 1a

IF ar

M 2a

IF ai

#

x

RF a

14

the sending-end voltages and currents, as well as the line

parameters:

x

RF

M 1a IF ai

IF ai

1

M2a IF ar M 2a

IF ar

M 1a

#

"

V Sfar

V Sfai

15

From (15), the fault distance independent mathematical expression can be obtained (16):

V Sfar IF ai V Sfai IF ar

M 1a IF ai M 2a IF ar

16

current and sending-end capacitive current, both unknown. These

estimates are provided through an iterative algorithm described in

Section 2.3.

2.3. Capacitive and fault currents estimates

Fault distance estimates for three-phase and single line-toground faults provided by expressions (12) and (16) are dependant

of two unknown variables: fault current and sending-end capacitive current. In order to estimate such values, an iterative algorithm is proposed. The algorithm considers systems topological

characteristics and the voltages and currents measured at the substation terminal. Initially, this section aims to provide the theoretical fundamentals to calculate these unknown currents estimates,

which are applied during the fault distance iterative algorithm latter described in this section.

2.3.1. Sending-end capacitive current

Line shunt capacitance is a typical and non-negligible parameter of underground cables, which is ideally distributed along the

0

ySb

0

18

3

0

0 7

5

ySc

19

Since the fault currents (IFm) are also unknown in (12) and (16),

these estimates may be calculated through electric circuit analysis.

Referring to the faulty systems illustrated by Figs. 1 and 2, the fault

current can be calculated as function of: load current, sending-end

capacitive current and the sending-end current

IF ISf ICap IL

20

Due to system dynamics, the load current during the disturbance may be different from the pre-fault period [3]. Therefore,

the usage of the pre-fault load current as estimate during the fault

may provide inaccurate load currents estimates.

In order to overcome this limitation, the proposed formulation

develops an iterative algorithm, as described in the following.

2.3.3. Iterative algorithm

In order to consider the dependency of the fault distance

expressions (12) and (16) to the sending-end capacitive current

and the load current during the fault, an iterative algorithm is

developed. The iterative procedure, which is summarized on

Fig. 3, is fault type independent and is executed until the estimated

fault distance value converges. The algorithm is composed by the

following steps:

(I) Line section shunt admittances are initially considered

equally distributed between sending and receiving line-ends

(21)

ySm yRm

yLm

2

21

492

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

equal to the pre-fault period values

IL abc IS abc

(III)

(IV)

(V)

(VI)

(VII)

3 2

3

2

V Sfa

V Fa

zaa

6

7 6

7

6

4 V F b 5 4 V Sfb 5 x 4 zba

V Sfc

V Fc

zca

22

vector.

Sending-end capacitive current vector is calculated using

(18).

Fault currents are calculated by (20).

Fault distance is estimated using (12) or (16), according to

the analyzed fault type.

A new sending-end shunt admittance is calculated by

(17).

The algorithm veries if the estimated sending-end shunt

admittance violates the capacitive restriction, due to the pline model, dened by (23)

ySm

y

P Lm

2

23

the set value, 50% threshold is applied to the total line

section admittance. Thus, shunt admittance is equally

distributed by the two section terminals (ySm = yRm), as

described by (21), due to the considered p-line model

topology.

(b) Otherwise, consider the estimated value from (17).

(VIII) A new sending-end capacitive current is calculated by

(18).

zab

zbb

3 2 3

zac

IXa

7 6 7

zbc 5 4 IX b 5

zcb

zcc

X C L x Y L 1

25

(XI) An equivalent line-end admittance matrix between load,

receiving-end capacitive reactance, and also series impedance between the fault location and the sending-end is

established by (26)

26

load impedance matrix.

(XII) The load current during the fault is calculated using the

equivalent admittance matrix dened by (26) and the fault

voltages calculated by (24), according to (27):

27

jxn xn 1j < d

28

which is previously dened according to the accuracy and

START

Intial shunt

admitance estimate

ySm

y Rm

y Lm

estimate

IL

IS

in terminal S

Fault current

calculation

Convergence Analysis

Fault distance

estimate

Converged?

No

Fault location

voltage calculation

Terminal S shunt

admitance estimate

Receiving-end capacitive

reactance matrix

calculation

No

0 .5 L

?

Yes

Terminal R admitance

equivalent estimate

ySm

Load current

estimate

24

IXc

y Rm

y Lm

2

ySm

x

yL

L m

Yes

Fault

Distance

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

0.1% of each analyzed section line length has been used.

(XIV) If the fault distance has converged, stop the iterative algorithm. Otherwise, return to Step V with the updated sending-end capacitive and load currents until the estimated

fault distance value converges.

The previous described algorithm is developed for radial feeders

with a single load. In order to consider radial distribution systems

with intermediate loads, the fault location process is extended

through an iterative search process. The procedure starts using

voltages and currents measured at the substation terminal. With

the presented fault location formulation, fault distance is initially

estimated. If the fault distance estimate obtained is beyond the

analyzed section length (L), the fault is considered external. In this

case, the algorithm is applied again using the voltages and currents

updated to the downstream bus. Since the measured voltages and

currents are available only from one terminal (substation), the

voltages and currents at the downstream bus are estimated

through electric circuit analysis, described by (29)

V t1 V t Z t It

29

where

[Vt] bus t three-phase voltages vector.

[Zt] impedance matrix of the line section between buses t and

t + 1.

[It] bus t three-phase currents vector.

Considering a constant impedance load model, the downstream

load current is given by (30)

ILt1 Y Lt1 V t1

30

its admittance matrix. Thus, the downstream line current can be

calculated by (31):

It1 It ILt1

31

Based on the voltages and currents estimates at the downstream bus, the fault location algorithm is once again executed to

the respective line section. The process is repeated until the fault

location estimate converges to a distance internal to the analyzed

section.

493

is not well suited for large distribution systems, especially on systems with a high degree of coupling between phases. Instead, a

power ow algorithm could be used. The advantage of such approach is that these algorithms are well known, have great precision and are easy to be applied in general distribution systems.

The proposed fault location scheme applies a ladder techniquebased three-phase power ow [16], which is an iterative process

developed for radial distribution systems applications. The

implemented power ow considers the distribution systems

non-linearities and asymmetrical phase coupling. Thus, the proposed fault location formulation can be applied to each equivalent

system. The following procedure is proposed to develop a fault

location diagnosis to general feeders with laterals.

(I) Run a three-phase power ow algorithm [16], considering

the pre-fault conditions.

(II) Calculate the equivalent impedances in each node, Zeqkp,

using (32)

Z eqkpm V km I1

kpm

32

pre-fault phase m current owing from bus k to bus p [A]; k, the lateral upstream bus to be modeled as equivalent constant impedance

and p is the lateral downstream bus to be modeled as equivalent

constant impedance.

(III) Determine the possible number of PPFP.

(IV) Select one PPFP and determine the nodes with laterals.

(V) For each node with lateral, determine an equivalent load,

considering only the previously calculated equivalent

impedances, Zeq, outside the path being analyzed.

(VI) For each node with lateral and also loads, calculate the parallel between loads and the equivalent load determined on

Step V. This is the nal equivalent load for the nodes in

the path being analyzed.

(VII) Go back to Step IV until all the n equivalent systems are

determined.

(VIII) Execute the fault location algorithm for each equivalent system. A total of n fault locations will be determined.

(IX) Determine the correct fault location and path, using a fault

section determination algorithm, as proposed by the authors

in [18]. In this paper, the fault section determination is considered previously known.

3. Case study

2.5. System laterals

Power distribution systems are typically composed by a main

feeder and laterals branches. Laterals are main feeder branches

not always composed by three-phase connections. The proposed

formulation was developed considering radial feeders without laterals. In order to extend the described formulation for PDS with

laterals, it is proposed the application of equivalent radial systems.

In this case, the proposed formulation calculates equivalent systems to each possible power ow path (PPFP), resulting on n equivalent radial systems, where n is the number of laterals.

The equivalent systems are dened through the transformation

of the lines and loads outside the path being analyzed, into equivalent constant impedances along the system. Since the fault location scheme analyzes the system in the rst fault cycle, this

assumption can be considered as a reasonable approximation [17].

The consideration of equivalent impedances has already been

proposed in previously published papers [4]. This consideration

was based in a systematic computation of parallel and series

In order to analyze the proposed fault location technique performance, the model of a real 13.8 kV underground distribution

feeder from Companhia Estadual de Distribuio de Energia Eltrica (CEEE-D), Brazil, was simulated with ATP/EMTP [15]. The voltages source was described as Type 14 AC source, simulated at

60 Hz with a sample rate of 192 samples per cycle. A modied Fourier lter [19] was implemented to remove the DC component and

estimate the voltages and currents fundamental components.

The analyzed underground feeder, denominated PL1 (East Private 1) and illustrated by Fig. 4, is composed by 9 load buses and

four independent three-phase branches. The main feeder is composed by 750 MCM and the laterals branches by 4/0 AWG, both

Aluminum tape shielded cables. PL1 system is also composed by

three-phase loads, which were modeled as Y-connected constant

impedances with neutral grounding and given by Table 1.

In order to represent the distributed nature of lines shunt

capacitance, each line section was modeled in ATP/EMTP cascading

several p-circuits, calculated from Carsons equations [16,20]. This

494

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

4

360 m

95 m

13.8 kV 1

2

1694 m

763 m

245 m

295 m

114 m

11

10

9

100 m

152 m

Substation

PAL 4

200 m

8

750 MCM

4/0 AWG

Table 1

Three-phase loads in 1PL feeder.

Bus

Load [kVA]

Bus

Load [kVA]

Bus

Load [kVA]

2

3

4

500

2500

500

5

6

8

600

600

500

9

10

11

500

600

500

hyperbolic correction factors [21].

Single line-to-ground (A-g) and three-phase faults were simulated considering the following scenarios:

Seventy-seven different fault locations (covering all system laterals and sections).

Five different fault resistances: 0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 X.

Total: 770 faults.

Fault distance estimate error was calculated according to (33)

e%

jx distj

100

LT

performed. The results presented in this paper represent exclusively the proposed formulation performance, without any additional errors, as the ones introduced by measurement devices.

33

where x is the fault distance estimate, dist is the real fault distance,

and LT is the total line length, equal to 3363 meters for the PL1

feeder.

4. Results

The obtained test results are analyzed in this section considering the following aspects: fault resistance, fault distance and the

shunt admittance component effect. Also, a comparison between

the proposed technique and a recently published impedance-based

on the fault location formulation performance, simulations considering ve different fault resistances have been used. The test results obtained for single line-to-ground and three-phase faults

are presented on Table 2.

Analyzing the results, it can be observed an error increase for

higher fault resistances. However, the fault distance estimate is

not signicantly affected by the fault resistance value. Considering

the average errors over the 77 simulated fault locations, the difference between the results associated to 0.001 X and 100 X is smaller than 0.8% for SLG and 3PH faults.

Thus, the highest errors were obtained with the highest fault

resistance test set, equal to 100 X. However, the obtained errors

show the efciency and robustness of the methodology. In these

fault conditions, the fault location scheme yielded maximum errors smaller than 2% and 3% for single line-to-ground and threephase faults, respectively. Considering the simulated cases without

any fault resistance, the proposed formulation obtained negligible

errors on both analyzed fault types.

The fault resistance effect may be explained by the erroneous

estimation of the fault current during high resistance faults [22],

and is also associated to the so-called reactance error [8]. This effect is easily observed considering the test conditions with nonnegligible fault resistances values. During solid faults, the current

divider circuit of the faulted system is composed by the load

Table 2

Proposed fault location formulation performance.

RF [X]

0.001

10

20

50

100

Three-phase faults

0.019

0.038

0.079

0.282

0.799

0.060

0.173

0.303

0.586

1.845

0.001

0.005

0.003

0.053

0.010

0.096

0.052

0.111

0.379

0.74

0.245

0.144

0.32

1.252

2.763

0.002

0.003

0.002

0.001

0

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

the faulted equivalents circuit is also composed by the fault resistance. Consequently, inaccuracies associated to the load current

estimates process become a source of error to the fault distance

estimate, introduced by the fault current value.

0.08

Error [%]

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

169

1525

2228

2528

2723

2872

2992

3072

3137

3241

0.50

Error [%]

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

169

1525

2228

2528

2723

2872

2992

3072

3137

3241

2.00

1.50

Error [%]

495

fault location formulation, the obtained test results over the 77

simulated fault points are illustrated by Fig. 5ac considering single line-to-ground faults.

Based on the obtained results, it can be observed that the formulation efciency is independent of the fault location. From the

simulated test cases with 100-X fault resistance, illustrated by

Fig. 5c, the fault location scheme performance shows that there

is no signicant variation of the fault distance estimate as the simulated fault distance is modied.

However, Fig. 5c also clearly illustrates the existence of two

areas of the PL1 feeder where the proposed method provides higher errors. These areas are located close to 2500 and 3000 m from

the substation terminal and represent the internal faults in lateral

branches between buses 3-4 and 5-6, respectively. The above cited

higher errors are associated to faults located inside these branches

and may be explained by the inaccuracies associated to system

equivalents determination process. The equivalent constant

impedances, which are calculated with the pre-fault data, introduce inaccuracies regarding to the load current estimate iterative

process. Consequently, although the method performance is not directly affected by the fault distance, the system topology affects

the fault location schemes performance. According to tests, this effect may be explained by the presence of lateral equivalents along

the feeder length.

1.00

0.50

0.00

169

1525

2228

2528

2723

2872

2992

3072

3137

3241

Fig. 5. Single line-to-ground (A-g) fault location results in different fault points

from proposed formulation. (a) RF = 0 X, (b) RF = 20 X, (c) RF = 100 X.

source current entirely feeds the fault and the fault current will

be close to the rst. Consequently, the associated error to the fault

distance is negligible. However, with non-negligible fault resis-

Table 3

Lee et al. fault location formulation performance.

Fault type

RF [X]

Average error [%]

SLG

0.001

10

20

50

100

0.023

2.293

7.804

30.512

70.948

0.064

2.525

8.820

36.645

79.426

3PH

0.001

10

20

50

100

0.024

2.294

7.811

30.534

71.017

0.046

2.234

8.801

36.492

79.565

The proposed fault location scheme is based on the development of a capacitive current compensation procedure. The benets

of this compensation are analyzed through the comparison between the proposed techniques results with a recently published

impedance-based fault location formulation for power distribution

systems [4]. This technique does not consider the shunt capacitive

component in its formulation.

Table 3 presents the obtained results from [4] considering PL1

simulations. One of the rst aspects related to the comparison between [4] and the proposed formulation is the effect of the fault

resistance value. The 0-X test set demonstrated that the effect of

the capacitive current compensation is minimized during solid

faults. In this test scenario, both techniques presented similar performances for SLG and 3PH faults. This is explained by the small

amplitude of the capacitive current when compared to the fault

current.

However, for higher fault resistance values, the capacitive current effect increases. According to Table 3, during these test conditions, fault distance estimates obtained by [4] are strongly affected

by the capacitive current. Nevertheless, the proposed formulation

is not affected by the capacitive current effect.

The analysis of the 20-X three-phase faults case-test shows a

maximum error obtained by [4] close to 9% of the line length,

which represents approximately 300 m. In the same fault condition, the proposed extended formulation presented a better performance, obtaining a maximum error equal to 0.206%, which

represents less than 7 meters of inaccuracy.

Considering the 100-X scenario, the average and maximum errors obtained from [4] on both analyzed fault types are higher than

70% and 79%, respectively. In this case, the capacitive current intro-

496

A.D. Filomena et al. / Electrical Power and Energy Systems 31 (2009) 489496

fault location process.

Considering the same fault conditions, the proposed extended

formulation obtained errors close to 1% and 2% for average and

maximum errors for SLG and 3PH faults. In these extreme fault

conditions, the average inaccuracy introduced by the proposed

technique represents approximately 33 m.

5. Conclusions

This paper proposes and discusses an extended impedancebased fault location formulation for underground distribution systems. The formulation uses as input data, local voltages and currents, measured at one terminal (substation) and is developed for

single line-to-ground and three-phase faults. A capacitive current

compensation procedure is proposed to consider underground

cables typical characteristic. Furthermore, the fault location

scheme is suitable for grounded generic balanced or unbalanced

distribution systems with laterals branches and intermediate

loads.

Test results demonstrate an accurate and robust fault location

technique. The method performance is independent of the fault

resistance and distance values. System topology, regarding the

existence of lateral branches, may affect the fault distance estimate

accuracy level. However, even in the worst simulated test conditions, the formulation obtained encouraging results.

The comparison with a recently published [4] impedance-based

fault location technique demonstrates the accuracy improvements

obtained by the proposed extension. Since recently proposed

impedance-based [35] fault location formulations for PDS do

not consider lines capacitance, its application on underground

feeders produces very inaccurate results. According to obtained

test results, this inaccuracy is dependant and proportional to the

fault resistance value.

The proposed formulation based on underground feeders

capacitive current compensation overcomes this limitation. The

formulation provides accurate fault distance estimates, and is suitable even in higher fault resistance values conditions. Finally, the

application of the proposed fault location formulation in real

underground distribution feeders can be easily implemented and

may reduce the maintenance crew intervention time, enhancing

systems restoration.

References

[1] Takagi T, Yamakoshi Y, Yamaura M, Kondow R, Matsushima T. Development of

a new type fault locator using the one-terminal voltage and current data. IEEE

Trans Power Apparatus Syst 1982;PAS-101(8):28928.

[2] Lina X, Wengb H, Wanga Bin. A generalized method to improve the location

accuracy of the single-ended sampled data and lumped parameter model

based fault locators. Int J Electric Power Energy Syst, in press, 2009.

doi:10.1016/j.ijepes.2009.01.003.

[3] Girgis AA, Fallon CM, Lubkeman DL. A fault location technique for rural

distribution feeders. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 1993;29(6):11705.

[4] Lee S-J, Choi M-S, Kang S-H, Jin B-G, Lee D-S, Ahn B-S, et al. An intelligent and

efcient fault location and diagnosis scheme for radial distribution system.

IEEE Trans Power Deliv 2004;19(2):52432.

[5] Salim RH, Resener M, Filomena AD, Oliveira KRC, Bretas AS. Extended fault

location formulation for power distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv

2009;24(2):50816.

[6] Brown RE. Electric power distribution reliability. New York, USA: Marcel

Dekker; 2002.

[7] Bascom III EC, Von Dollen DW, Ng HW. Computerized underground cable fault

location expertise. In: Proceedings of the IEEE power engineering society

transmission and distribution conference, Chicago IL, USA; April 1994. p. 105.

[8] IEEE guide for determining fault location on AC transmission and distribution

lines. IEEE Standard C37.114, June 2005.

[9] Wiggins CM, Thomas DE, Salas TM, Nickel FS, Hg HW. A novel concept for URD

cable fault location. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 1994;9(1):5917.

[10] Mora-Flrez J, Melndez J, Carrillo-Caicedo G. Comparison of impedance based

fault location methods for power distribution systems. Electric Power Syst Res

2008:65766.

[11] Junga CK, Kima KH, Leea JB, Klcklb Bernd. Wavelet and neuro-fuzzy based

fault location for combined transmission systems. Int J Electric Power Energy

Syst 2007;29(6):44554.

[12] Yang X, Choi M-S, Lee S-J, Ten C-W, Lim S-I. Fault location for underground

power cable using distributed parameter approach. IEEE Trans Power Syst

2008;23(4):180916.

[13] Short TA. Electric power distribution handbook. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press;

2004.

[14] The Mathworks Inc., Mathworks Matlab. [Online]. Available: http://

www.mathworks.com.

[15] Meyer S, Liu T-H. Alternative transients program electromagnetic transients

program; 2003.

[16] Kertsing WH. Distribution system modeling and analysis. Boca Raton,

USA: CRC Press; 2002.

[17] Kundur P. Power system stability and control. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill;

1994.

[18] Salim RH, Oliveira KRC, Filomena AD, Resener M, Bretas AS. Hybrid fault

diagnosis scheme implementation for power distribution systems automation.

IEEE Trans Power Deliv 2008;23(4):184656.

[19] Lin Y-H, Liu C-W. A new DFT-based phasor computation algorithm for

transmission line digital protection. In: Proceedings of the IEEE/PES

transmission and distribution conference and exhibition, Asia Pacic, v. 3,

Yokohama 2002. p. 1733 7.

[20] Carson JR. Wave propagation in overhead wires with ground return. Bell Syst

Tech J 1926;5.

[21] Marti JR, Marti L, Dommel HW. Transmission line models for steady-state and

transients analysis. In: Proceedings of the Athens power tech, vol. 2, Athens,

Greece; 58 September 1993. p. 74450.

[22] Filomena AD, Salim RH, Resener M, Bretas AS. Fault resistance inuence on

faulted power systems with distributed generation. In: Proceedings of the

seventh international conference on power systems transients, Lyon, France;

2007.

- SFRATransféré parstalin63
- Fault AnalysisTransféré parDeepak Ronanki
- Fault Calculation - Per Unit SystemTransféré parNadeem Khalid
- 09-Overcurrent ProtectionTransféré parSristick
- Considerations for Generator Ground-Fault Protection in Midsize Cogeneration PlantsTransféré parluhusapa
- symmetrical faultTransféré parranjish_007
- Switch Gear and Protection Unit 1 by Ramu. SrikakulapuTransféré parAnkit Rohatgi
- PTL Items PSB and Tripping ANS 11007 ENUTransféré parAhmed Hamzeh
- E8Transféré parjaved shaikh chaand
- eb6efc1928a2c55_ekTransféré partandin tshewang
- 32_techop Cross ConnectionsTransféré parXa Mau
- P127.pdfTransféré parFUUUU
- SC Calc DataTransféré pargfsdf
- Handout for MathcadTransféré parjaved shaikh chaand
- 2009 PSCAD Tracing Ground Path Resonances CN58Transféré parSoumya Das
- P43x DIST Application Guide en e2Transféré parAntonio Solís Murillo
- Performance Evaluation of Fault Location Algorithm for Protection of Series Compensated Transmission Line (2011)Transféré parDanielAlejandroRamosQuero
- Transmission Protection _ Fault LocationTransféré parZoki
- Chapter 6Transféré parcherazizi
- 2011_1.pdfTransféré parWals Aquarius Man
- DPSP2014_0191Transféré parRonald
- Fault CalculationTransféré parHerminio Asuncion
- Section 5Transféré parAmmar Mohamed Hamid
- SgpTransféré parSaisree
- 6324 VeryHighImpedanceFault FM 20080919Transféré parDaniel Schmidt
- Digital Technique of fault study of power systemTransféré parIRJET Journal
- SyllabusTransféré parjaragner
- Brahma 2004Transféré parSanaullah Kaka
- opto rangkumTransféré parMuhammad Taufik
- SIMULATION OF DSTATCOM UNDER DIFFERENT FAULT CONDITIONSTransféré parAnonymous vQrJlEN

- Workers Vanguard No 409 - 1 August 1986Transféré parWorkers Vanguard
- Cann_Joe & Floyd_P. a. - Oceanic Basalts (1991)Transféré parGalaxad García
- Global Teams - Trends, Challenges and Solutions 2010Transféré parMotyshina Elena
- Jennifer Say Self-Help Class Dallas Sep 2015Transféré paramazingdivinegrace
- Civil_Law_Case_Digests.docTransféré parGil Ray Vergara Ontal
- Butterflies W JavaTransféré parMauLidia Achmad Rukun Marmy
- views on Imperialism and colonialismTransféré parGhulam Mustafa
- Dec13Transféré parTushar Agrawal
- Guidelines Stress Testing CEBSTransféré parG117
- 7. Teaching Language to Young Learners Lynne CameronTransféré parAndreia
- EN_WHS2018_Part1.pdfTransféré parIwan Suryadi Mahmud
- COMPARATIVE-ANATOMY-OF-FROG-AND-HUMANnn (1).pptxTransféré parVic Francisco
- QIMP14 Doctors DirectoryTransféré parShahriar Mostafa
- MCS of ITCTransféré parAbhay Singh Chandel
- A Preliminary Analysis of the Relationship Between Self-employment and Unemployment in PakistanTransféré parHamid Rehman
- Sinclair, Alison Trafficking Knowledge in Early 20th Century SpainTransféré parbizarreworld
- PsycholinguisticTransféré parNizar Ridaus S
- Audit Checklist (ISO) Internal Audit.xlsTransféré parnithyachatsu
- Road Relay 4Transféré parugruposandres
- Tunay na MahirapTransféré parEunice Joy Narido
- kishoresatsangpravesh-engTransféré parapi-287811173
- 10 ESTERSTransféré parAlexandra Catalina
- UAV release simulationTransféré parraza_aero2490
- Fraud_auditing_in_a_SAP_environmentTransféré parapi-3805445
- Ruby Shelter v. FormaranTransféré parRix Migriño
- 6000 Platform ENGTransféré parNguyễn Thế Đạt
- TensesTransféré pardzayu
- Appellate Court ruling on Park Ridge copTransféré parphilrockrohr
- 105224417 Benihana Case Study DiscussionTransféré parAnkit Sutariya
- 1 page Introduction to Prayer Beads handoutTransféré parB'rer Beader