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Agbur

Tazwert -----------------------------------------------

I. Aswir n ugemmay--------------------------------- 12
II. Aswir n wawalen---------------------------------

15

2.1. Tussda--------------------------------------------

16

2.2. Kra n yimesla llan deg tmenna, ---------

21

2.3. Tiri n yilem (e)---------------------------------

24

2.4. Addad amaruz ---------------------------------- 25


III. Aswir n tezrarin (tilas gar wawalen) ---------- 29
3.1. Tizdit---------------------------------------------- 30
3.2. Tamsertit deg tezrart (gar wawalen)--------

38

3.4. Tamlellit n yilem--------------------------------

42

3.5. Amkan n yisekkilen imeqqranen------------

43

Kra n yisumar-ien ---------------------------------- 45


Idlisen-------------------------------------------------- 54
Tijena : tira n yiferdisen n tjerrumt------------

55

Irisen-------------------------------------------------

70

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1

Tazwert
I. Amezruy n tira
1. Tira d umezruy
Deg tazwara, tutlayin akk d timawin : imdanen, deg
tafrara n talsa, ttmeslayen tutlayin-nsen, ur tentttarun. Maca, amdan, i d-yetteffen kra kra seg tillas n
ugama, as ur yettaru, ibeddu yettales i ugama,
yessunu-it-id akken i t-yettwali deg tilewt1.
Syin akkin, llant temnain deg umaal ideg asunenni, irewwel kra kra i tilawt, armi d yiwet n tallit i
wimi semman yimassanen tallit n yiqerra ubrinen2.
Tallit-a, tettunesab d tizi ier tessawe tikli n
usmedwen n turi (taklut d usune) n uzermezruy.
S unulfu n wayen i wimi nezmer ad nessiwel tira,
tekcem talsa deg tallit tamaynut : amezruy. Bdan
ttnulfun-d yinagrawen n tira, gar-asen anagraw n tira
n Yiferunen, i wimi ssawalen tiraglift (hiroglyphes),
anagraw n tira n Cinwa (tirakti : idogramme) ; garasen, taggara, inagrawen i wimi qqaren tira tamuniqt
(criture syllabaire), am wayen i wimi nessawal agemmay
n tarabt, agemmay n Yifniqen
Agemmay-a aneggaru, qqaren-d ddmen-t Yifniqen ef
Yisumariyen (deg sin, d ierfan n usamer). D Ifniqen
ay t-yessuzzren ef yiri n yilel agrakal, d nutni i asen-t1
2

(reprsentation fidle de la nature)


(phase des ttes rondes)

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2

yessawen i Yigrigen. Igrigen daen s timmad-nsen,


fkan-t i Yilatinen. Agemmay-a, ihi, wa yettaa-t-id i
wa, maca s kra n win ier ara d-yawe, ad as-yernu
kra, ad as-yekkes kra, armi yual yemgarad aas
uneggaru ef umezwaru : beddlent taliwin, rnant-d
tera (i d-snulfan Yigrigen asmi uen agemmay n
Yifniqen, leqqmen-as-tent).
Llan yigemmayen-nnien, sin seg-sen n yierfan n
usamer : agemmay i sseqdacen Waraben i tira n
tarabt akked ugemmay i sseqdacen Wudayen i tira n
tmeslayt-nsen.
Imazien, lan da nutni agemmay-nsen, i wimi
ssawalen tifina. Tifina, i d-yeqqimen ef yira, tella
zik d tira taelnawt n Yimazien. Am ugemmay n
Waraben d win n Yifniqen, tifina d agemmay ur nli
isekkilen i tira n tera. Assa, agemmay n tfina, anagar
Imuha i t-yesseqdacen, yerna i tira wezzilen gar
yilemiyen i tezza tayri, ne i turart kan, ne ef
yiekwan.
2. Aseqdec n ugemmay i tira n tmazit
Tutlayt tamazit, seg zik ar assa, as deg tegti teqqim
d timawt, sya er da, aas n yimdanen (imedyazen,
imusnawen, imassanen, ismazrayen) i yewten ad ttarun, as s drus. Gar yimdanen-a, llan wid yessqedcen
agemmay n tarabt, wiya ssqedcen agemmay n
tlatint ; ma d agemmay n tfina, yeqqim-d ur
Yimuha, leqqmen-as yimenasen aas n yisekkilen
(ugar n mraw).
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3

Agemmay n Waraben, ssqedcen-t yismazrayen n


tallit tanemmast akken ad arun ismawen, tifyar ne
irisen iwezzlanen, ssqedcen-t yimedyazen deg tira n
yisefra-nsen. Ar assa, llan wid i t-yesseqdacen akken
ad arun tamazit (tamnat n Wawras, Alan).
Agemmay n Yilatinen, imezwura i t-yessqdcen d
iserdasen n umnekcam afransis, efren-ten-id deg
wanect-a yiselmaden iqbayliyen n tazwara n lqern wis
20. Deffir-sen, llan Yimraben irumiyen, qedcen aas
ef tmazit, ama deg tezrewt n tutlayt ama deg
tegmert n wammuden n tsekla taerfant.
Deg tallit tamirant, s ugemmay-a aneggaru ay uran, ay
ttarun medden timusniwin-nsen, tikta-nsen, afrayennsen, tirga-nsen, anagar deg tira s ugemmay alatin ay
d-tella temhezt. ef ugemmay-a ay d-tella tedmi, ef
ugemmay-a ay d-tella tagmi. Imezwura i yuran
tamazit, i tebu tili tantala, acku d ibujaden, uen-d
abrid n tira n tefransist, s kra n useggem sya er da.
Deg ubrid-a, iserdasen imnekcamen, efren-ten-id
yiselmaden iqbayliyen (deg tazwara n lqern wis 20).
Deg wayen uran Yimraben irumiyen, ssqedcen tira
tamsislant seg yiseggasen 1940 ar tazwara n
yiseggasen 1970. Ma d tira tasnislant, d ismazaen
isdawanen, i yecban Andr Basset, i tt-id-yesbedden s
usebded n unagraw asnislan n tmazit (1952). Armi d
tazwara n yiseggasen 1990 ay tebda tira i yefflen i tizi
n tesniselt, tebda teggar-d tilufa n tesnala akked tid n
tegmuar. Deg unnar-a n tira, yewwi-d ad d-nebder
ussisen i iga Mouloud Mammeri, d wid n Ramdane
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4

Achab, akked wid i gan yimura n FDB. D timlilit


tamezwarut, i d-yeran deg Inalco deg useggas 1993, i
yegren llsas i tira tumrist.

II. Askasi ef ugemmay i tmazit


1. Gar tesret d tumast, tilawt
Deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, segmi tekcem tmazit s
aerbaz deg tmurt Lezzayer, bdan kra n wuguren, garasen win n tira, win n ufran n ugemmay. Kra n
yimedyaten : deg yidlisen imezwura n tmazit, i dyessufe ulif n usegmi, llan krad n yigemmayen
(tifina, agemmay n tarabt, agemmay n tlatint). Deg
temnat n Wawras, deg yiseggasen-a ineggura, s
ugemmay n tarabt ay sselmaden tamazit deg
uerbaz. Deg Lmerruk, imenan gar yimenasen n
ugemmay n tarabt d yimenasen n ugemmay n
tlatint, rran tasuddut tageldant n yidles amazi
(IRCAM) er ufran n tfina i tira n tmazit. Imuha,
ma llan ur-sen wid yesselmaden tamazit, ahat s
tfina ay sselmaden.
Llant tamiwin kkatent ef tira n tmazit s ugemmay n
tarabt, llant tamiwin kkatent ef tira n tmazit s
tfina. Yiwet n tama kan i yekkaten ef ugemmay n
tlatint. Imezwura, d wid yeqqnen tira er taluft n
tesret. Id sin, d wid i yeqqnen tira er tumast. Ma d
tama tis kradet, d wid i yefkan azal i tira. Wi, s umata,
d wid yettarun, d wid i yefflen i tizi n umennu ef
ufran n ugemmay, ssawen er tedmi akked tagmi n
usnerni n tutlayt s useggem n ugemmay n tlatint,
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agemmay s i ttarun yimura, seg ugafa s anul, seg


umalu s asamer, s i ttarun ugar n lqern aya !
2. Tifrat
Tutlayt i yeddren, d timawt ; tira, d allal kan. ur
Yimuha, tumast d tamahet, ur telli d tifina. Am
wakken i ulac assa meqqren gar usnamak d
usnamuk3, ay ulac assa meqqren gar tutlayt akked
ugemmay. Seg wayen i izemren ad d-yesken anect-a :
tamezwarut, tutlayt, i tebu tili, tezmer ad tidir deg
timawt, war agemmay. Tis snat, ayen akk i yellan d
tutlayin deg umaal, lemmer i tli yal yiwet seg-sent
agemmay i yiman-is, amek ? Syin akkin, aas n tutlayin
i ttarun s ugemmay n tlatint (aar-is seg usamer), as
seg-sent tid ur nelli n taywa n tutlayin tihendurupin
(am tterkit) ; aas n tutlayin i ttarun s ugemmay n
tarabt, as ur llint n taywa n tutlayin tiamsamin (am
urdu, yiwet n tutlayt n Pakistan, am tfarist, tameslayt
n Iran). Rnu er waya, tidet kan, ma nmuqel akken i
iwata igemmayen, ad naf d agemmay n tlatint i ilan
tala tushilt i ulmad d uselmed n tmazit.
Taggara, deg ugemmay n tlatint ay d-tella tedmi d
tagmi i usebded n yilugan seg temlilit n 1993 ar ass-a.

III. Tarrayin n tira


Llant snat n tariwin n tira, ilmend n yiswi n umaru.
Tella tira tamsislant tagrelant (agemmay amsislan
agrelan), nezmer ad d-nini d tira tussnant, d tira i d3

Signifiant et signifi.

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yeskanen amek i ttwasusruyen yimesla s umqat, i


tebu tili tutlayt. D tira i yefflen akkin i tutlayin. Deg
tama-nnien, tella tira tumrist. Tira tumrist, tezmer ad
tili d tira tasnislant, tezmer ad tili d tira talasnislant
(morphonologique), am wakken daen i tezmer ad tili d
tira tanegmuart (tymologique). Yewwi-d ad d-nini,
ad as-d-nales, tira n tmazit, ur telli d tira tamsislant
tagrelant, ur telli d tira n tefransist. Tira n tmazit
assa, d tira tumrist.
Yewwi-d daen ad d-nesmekti dakken tira, am
tjerrumt d umawal, d allal n usnerni n tutlayt, i ilan
azal meqqren. as akken tutlayt yeddren d tutlayt
timawt, tira tla amur deg usebiber, asnerni d usefrek
n tutlayt.

IV. Amezruy n tira tumrist


Deg tagmi d tedmi ef uslugen n tira n tmazit, llantd aas n temliliyin ideg kkin aas n yimdanen, gar-asen
iselmaden, inelmaden, imura. Deg uslugen-a, deg yal
tallit, tagmi d tedmi, llant-d ef tira s ugemmay n
tlatint ; werin d-yebdir yiwen seg yimekkiyen
agemmay n tarabt ne tifina. Deg kra n tegnatin,
llan-d kra n yisumar, i d-ttaken sya er da kra n
yibujaden ; isumar i yecban wid-nni, qqimen kan d
isumar, werin yuri yiwen yes-sen.
Krad n yiseggasen deffir unekcum n tmazit deg
tesdawit, tlul-d tekti n tedmi ef tira n tmazit deg
Wammas n Tagmi deg Tmazit (Centre de Recherche
Berbre, Inalco). Timliliyin-a, llant-d deg yiseggasen
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1993, 1996, 1998. Amur ameqqran n wid i yekkin deg


temliliyin-a, deg tallit-nni, d imesnasen (praticiens) n
tutlayt, as llan gar-asen yimassanen isdawanen. Usand seg Fransa, seg Lezzayer, seg Lmerruk, llan gar-asen
wid i d-yuznen isumar-nsen. as akken llan kra n
yimekkiyen i d-yewwin, deg tallit-nni, kra n yisumar d
igrawlanen, ur ten-ddiment temliliyin-a. Timlilit
tamezwarut, tuget n yigma-is d iwellihen maca tera
asalu i temliliyin i tt-id-iefren akken ad ssersent llsas
i usebded n tira tumrist. Timlilit tis snat d temlilit tis
kradet, ddant ugar er sdat deg usebded n yilugan.
Seg temliliyin-a i d-ffen, d amedya, yilugan n tira n
temsertit, n tezdit, n tira n yimesla iwerdanen s
yisekkilen s i ten-ttarun deg tutlayin iseg d-kkan (am
[p] d [v]), atg.
Maca deg yal tallit, deg yal timlilit, ttimin kra n
wuguren gglen (problmes qui restent en suspens), akken
qqaren, am taluft n tussda, d amedya.
Deg useggas 2001, tella-d temlilit ef usnerni n tutlayt
(aslugen n tira d tjerrumt, aayer) deg tesdawit n
Bgayet, igma-is d iwellihen kan. Tefer-itt-id deg
useggas 2007 temlilit n Barcelone.
Gar temliliyin-a, deg kra n tlufa n tira, llant tiden ideg
d-llan yisumar i d-irennun uguren ugar n wayen i dwwint d tifrat i wid i yellan yakan. Armi i d-usan
Yilugan n tira n tmazit ief dduklen sis n yiselmaden
n tmazit n tesdawit n Bgayet, deg useggas 2005
(tarigt tamezwarut), d useggas 2009 (tarigt tis snat).
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V. Uguren i tefra temlilit n Bumerdas


Acku, as llant-d temliliyin-a i tt-yefran deg waas n
tlufa, llan wuguren i yeqqimen gglen, yerna llan kra n
yimdanen qqimen deg tira n zik, wiya snulfuyen-d
(am wid i d-yettarun idlisen n ulif n usegmi),
yessuddes-d Useqqamu Unnig n Timmuza timlilit n
Bumerdas. Timlilit-a, i d-yeran seg 20 ar 23 ctember
2010, kkin deg-s yiselmaden n tesdawit n Bgayet, Tizi
Uzzu, Tubiret, am wakken daen i kkin deg-s
yimaswaen n tmazit n yal tamnat, d yiselmaden n
tmazit, akked yimeskaren n yidlisen i yuran s tmazit.
Yekki deg-s daen uselmad ameqqran Mohamed
Tilmatine, seg tesdawit n Cadix (Spanya), am wakken
i d-uznen isumar-nsen Salem Chaker akked Kamal
Nat Zerrad.
Seg gar wuguren ief d-yella wawal deg temlilit n
Bumerdas, niqal tefra-ten, wid yeqqimen gglen, ur
ten-frint temliliyin i tt-yezwaren, nezmer ad d-nebder
wid i yerzan :
tussda,
addad amaruz,
iferdisen n tjerrumt,
tizdit,
timlilit n tera (tana)
Taggara, ad yaf yimeri umu n yiferdisen n tjerrumt
(s tira-nsen tumrist) akked yirisen n usnas.
Adlis-a n tira tumrist, d agmu ier ssawen wussisen
n yimura akked yinagmayen. Da, ma nules-as-d, as :
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atna yiswan n tira tumrist, ier tessawe temlilit-a, i


tleqqem ef Yilugan n tira n tmazit, i d-yeffen deg
useggas 2005 akked useggas 2009 : asefrek n tutlayt,
acku tira d allal n usebiber akked usmedyet, akken ur
tnegger ; asdukel gar tantaliwin n tmazit ne gar
tmeslayin n yal tantala, mai : tira s yilugan d allal i
ibedden n ulmad d uselmed, akken tutlayt ur tettimi
d tigi, wi i ieddan yeks-as !

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Ilugan n tira
Ilugan n tira n tmazit d azrar n yilugan i yemsefaren
; d ilugan i ilaq ad yissin win i yeban ad yaru tutlayt
akken i iwata : war tucciwin.
Tarrayt : deg tutlayt, menwala-tt, llan krad n yiswiren
n teslet, iswiren n tessa. Acku tira tumrist n tmazit
ur telli d tira tamsislant tagrelant, ur telli d tira
tasnislant, terra azal i krad-nni n yiswiren n tessa n
tutlayt, seg yimesli armi d tafyirt, gar-asen awal :
1. Aswir n temsiselt-tasniselt4 : aswir-a, deg tira
tumrist, yettqabal anagraw n tira (ne agemmay).
Tuttra i iwulmen da ihi, d ta : anwi imesla n tutlayt
i wimi i ilaq ad nerr azal deg tira-ya ? S wanwi
isekkilen ara ten-naru ?
2. Aswir n wawal d unamek : s yimesla n tutlayt,
nezmer ad d-neg awalen (d yinumak-nsen).
3. Aswir n tseddast : s wawalen daen i d-skaren
medden tifyar ; s tefyar, ttmeslayen medden
tutlayt.
Ilugan n tira, d tidet, rzan iswiren merra, wa cwi, wa
nezzeh. Maca, ur neafar ara abrid-a ussnan, da. Deg
udlisfus-a5, ad ilin krad n yiswiren : agemmay, aswir n
wawalen, aswir n tezrarin (n tefyar).

4
5

Aswir n temsiselt-tasniselt : Niveau phontico-phonologique.


Adlisfus (i-en) : manuel.

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I. Aswir n ugemmay
Asekkil

Isem-is

a, A

a, ara

a, B

Azal-is deg API

Amedya

[], [a]

aman, azal

ba

[b], [b], [v]

ibrir, akbal

c, C

ca

[], []

aclim, uccen

ye

[t], [t]

ui, abereu

d, D

da

[d], [d], []

ar

[], []

e, E

ilem, tiri n yilem

[]

ers, izem, ales

f, F

fa

[f]

afus, tuffra, ilef

g, G

ga

[g]

aglim, taguni

ye

[d], [dz]

tiin, taewt

h, H

ha

[h]

awelleh, ahicur

im

[], []

aallum, alalas

i, I

i, iri

[i], []

itri, izi, imi

j, J

ja

[], [z]

ajlal, tiji, inijel

k, K

ka

[k], [k]

akal, ikil, asaka

l, L

la

[l]

alim, tallumt

m, M ma

[m]

imir, aman

n, N

[n]

inigi, aslen, ini

na
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adrar, tudert
aar, abla, au

ar

[], [ ]

q, Q

qil

[q]

aqadus, abquq

r, R

ra (rar)

[r]

amrar, iri, urar

s, S

sa (sar)

[s]

usu, tasa, tissit

t, T

ta

[t]

tata, atrar, tatut

ar

[], []

aas, iij, imei

u, U

u, uru

iil, arum,
talet

[u]

ul, ulmu, usu

w, W wa

[w]

awal, acwir

x, X

xa

[x]

axxam, axelxal

y, Y

ya

[j]

aylew, ayyur

z, Z

za

[z]

uzzal, izem,
annuz

ar

[]

ii, aar, la

il

[], []

alaw, arur

G.M. 1 : isekkilen n ugemmay is nettaru tamazit, d


wid n tlatint, anagar sin-a : d , i d-yekkan seg
tegrigt. Isekkilen i yettawin agaz6 ddaw-sen, nettaru
yes-sen imesla ufayen, anagar . Isekkilen i yettawin
akafu nnig-sen, nettaru yes-sen izegnaggaen
Awal agaz ila ismawen-nnien : aqqa, tinqit (er Amawal n tmazit
tatrart, Imedyazen, 1980). D awal iseg nezmer ad d-nessuddem awalennnien, am ssigez, asigez... (d ayen ur nezmir ad d-nessuddem seg aqqa).
6

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imezgiyen n [c] d [j]. Isekkilen-nnien, am , (r


akked s ufayen), o, p, v d timerna i d-rennun ef wid
n ugemmay unnim. Asekkil u, azal-is d win n tuget n
tutlayin n umalu (ou deg tefransist).
G.M. 2
- Ad naru isekkilen akked mi ara izmiren kan ad
ssemgirden gar wawalen7 deg taliwin-nsen tierfiyin :
Amedya 1u () :
fu8 ~ furr ;
faes ~ fares ;
bu ~ rbu
Amdeya w2 () :
if ~ ssif,
err 9 ~ sserr,
aufi ~ asufi
eyyed ~ seyyed
Mi ara yili deg wawal yimesli ufay n tidet, am [], []
akked [], ur d-yewwi ara ad nerr azal i tufayt n
yimesla [] d [] deg tira :
Awalen-a, yewwi-d ad ten-id-nekkes seg usegzawal n Dallet (1982).
Tufayt n [] d [] deg wawalen-a, yewwi-d ad tili ula deg yisuddimen-nsen :
eyyed (aeyyad, yada, )/seyyed (ssyada, )
9 Yewwi-d ad nessemgired, deg tira d usiwel, gar umyag sse [Se], i d-yekkan
seg tala ste, ideg d imesli aneggaru ay d ufay, akked yisem err [e] i dyemmalen aan.
7
8

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Amedya 1
[f], as deg-s [], ad t-naru fer ;
[aa], ad t-naru aar
Amedya 2
[taa], as deg [], ad t-naru tasea ;
[i], ad t-naru ies.
Ad nessemres isekkilen o, p, v deg yismawen
imalayen ijenaen, amedya: Paul, Pavlov, Lpari.

II. Aswir n wawalen


Alugen 1 : yal imesli nettarau-t s yiwen n usekkil, anda
i yebu yili, deg tazwara n wawal, deg tlemmast ne
deg taggara.
Deg tazwara n wawal : sefru, segzi
Deg tlemmast n wawal : aswir, asefru
Deg taggara n wawal : aris, tumas
G.M. 3 : Alugen-a, deg tira n tmazit kan i yella.
Deg tira n tefransist (d tin n tmazit zik, am tira n
Bulifa, Ferun, ), llan yimesla i yettarun s sin (ne
ugar) n yisekkilen i yemgaraden. D amedya, imesli [],
yettaru s sin deg cheval agmar, s krad deg
schma azenzi ; imesli [s], yettaru s yiwen deg savoir
issin, s sin deg tasse afenjal s c deg place asarag, s
deg maon abennay, s t deg ration amur, atg.

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Deg tarabt10, am tmazit, yal imesli yettaru s yiwen n


usekkil, maca kra n yisekkilen deg-s tettbeddil talansen almend n umkan i uen deg wawal : deg
tazwara, deg tlemmast, deg taggara, deg taggara
deffir usekkil imennebi.
2.1. Tussda
Imesli ussid yettaru s usiknew n usekkil : tameut,
tameddurt, tazemmurt, yerre, izegger, ddu, kker, atg.
Llant snat n taggayin n tussda : tin n tnumi d tin n
tjerrumt.
2.1.1. Tussda n tnumi11
Tussda deg wawal, nettaru-tt akken i nu tannumi
nsell-as. Maca tannumi-ya temxallaf seg tama er
taye, seg taddart er taye, tikwal seg umdan er

Leyub n ugemmay n tarabt ugten : tamezwarut, yeur d ineqqien ;


ma ttwakksen yineqqien-a, ad d-qqimen deg-s drus n yisekkilen, ma
nerna-yas ineqqien-nni n tmazit, ad tessiwen tira. Tis snat, akken i dnenna, isekkilen tettbeddil tala-nsen almend n wadeg-nsen deg wawal :
anect-a yessugut tala. Tis kradet, llan seg-sen yisekkilen i ilaq ad
msenaen deg wawal, llan wiya ilaq ad msebun : anect-a d ugur i tukksa
n yilmawen i yellan gar wawalen.
11 Llan wawalen ideg tella tussda deg kra n tmeslayin, anda i yella umgired
deg ususru gar temnain, nezmer ad naru taliwin-nni i snat :
ameddakel/amdakkel/amdakel. Maca, acku tussda deg yismawen tannumi,
tazzla, d tussda n uar (nnam, azzel), yewwi-d ad ten-naru s tala ideg tella
tussda.
Yella wanda tussda tla azal : la (isem) lla (amyag), fad (isem) ffad
(amyag), tusna (n waraen, n tzizwa) tussna (< issin), atg. ewt war tussda,
am yisem tikelt., atg. Deg yimyagen gget, ggri, ad naru g d ussid : yegget, ggten
(taseftit tamagnut), ggru (qqim d aneggaru) gru (= rfu).
10

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16

waye. Tifrat n wugur-a : d asegzawal ara a-d-yemlen


anda tella, d wanda ur telli tussda.
2.1.1.1. Iferdisen n umawal
a) ismawen : tilelli, uzzal, uffal, ddeqs, atg.
G.M. 4 : deg yismawen i d-yekkan seg tarabt, wid i
ibeddun s yisekkilen n yiij, deg tmazit, asekkil
amezwaru yezga d ussid : ssif, bel, zzit, ir, bib, nnif,
rrif, nnefs, atg.
b) imyagen
+ i ilan yiwet n tergalt
war tiri taurant : ekk, err, e, atg.
d teri taurant : zzi, ddu, ssu, atg.
+ i ilan snat (ne ugar) n tergalin12
war tiri taurant : cce, ccef, ddem, dder, ffer, kker, kkes,
degger, qqers, ereq, atg.
d yiwet n teri taurant : ggall, seqqi, azzel, mlelli, atg.
d snat n tera tiuranin : dduri, issin, ggani, atg.
2.1.1.2. Iferdisen n tjerrumt
Ugur n tussda i d-ikecmen deg tsekka-ya yerza :
izwiren n usuddem n umyag (s n usswa, ttwa n
uttwa) akked tt n wurmir ussid :

Tussda n tergalt tamezwarut n yimyagen ilan snat n tergalin, tekka-d seg


uelluy n yiwet n tergalt n zik : [w] (qqen < *wen) ne [n] (kker < nker)
12

__
17

a) s n usswa

s n usswa, ad t-naru d aerfi mi ara yili umyag i terza

taluft d arilaw (deg wumu n wawalen n tutlayt, deg


usegzawal : d awal kan, ur d tafyirt), akken i yebu yili
umyag. Maca, deg umyag yeftin, s n usswa d ussid,
ad t-naru s usekkil uslig.
Imedyaten
siwel maca yessawal, ssawale ; Ke, ssiwel.
seddu ~ yessedduy, ssedduye ; Kunwi, sseddum.
senker ~ yessenkar, ssenkare ; Kemm, ssenker.
sufe ~ yessufu, ssufue ; Kunemti, ssufemt.
Maca llan yimyagen ideg s yettili d aerfi as yefti
umyag.
Imedyaten :
sgall ~ yesgull
smir ~ yesmar
b) ttwa d ttu n uttwa
Attwa, ila snat n taliwin zgant ssdent i snat : ttwa d
ttu (snat-a n taliwin, d tisenfal timnaanin (variantes
rgionales)
Imedyaten s ttwa : ttwakkes (<kkes), ttwaddem
(<ddem), ttwaef (<ef).
Imedyaten s ttu : ttudegger, ttucewwel
__
18

ttunefk (< efk), tala n uttwa-ines d ttu i yernan ef


umyag asuddim nnefk am deg ttunebder (< nnebder ( ?)
= ttwabder)
Akken i tebu tili tala n uttwa, [tt] deg-s, d ussid.
Tamawt : yella uttwa s mm--- d nn---, ad ten-naru s
usekkil uslig.
Imedyaten : mme ; mmels ; nnerni ; nnefsusi.
c) tt n wurmir ussid
[tt] n wurmir ussid, d ussid akken i yebu yettwaneq.
Imedyaten : ttawi (< awi), ttaki (< aki), ttnadi (< nadi),
ttaaf (< ef), ttlal (< lal)
Tamawt : maca llan yimyagen, deg kra n temnain, [t]
n wurmir ussid-nsen war tussda,
Imedyaten:
e : ad naru ttett as yettwanaq [tett] ;
ddu : ad naru tteddu as yettwanaq [teddu].
2.1.2. Tussda n tjerrumt
Tabadut : d tussda i ilan azal deg tjerrumt,
tessemgirid gar snat n taggayin (isem d umyag) ne
gar snat n taliwin n yiwet n taggayt (urmir d wurmir
ussid, isem n tigawt d yisem n umeskar, atg.) :
Alugen 2 :
a) gar umyag d yisem
fad / ffad
__
19

la / lla
fru / ferru
bu / beu
b) gar wurmir d wurmir ussid
er / err,
sel / sell,
gzem / gezzem,
krez / kerrez
zwir / zewwir [zeggwir, zeggir]
bru / berru,
fru / ferru,
fsu / fessu,
bu / beu13, atg.
fsi/fessi [fetti].
c) gar yisem n tigawt d yisem n umeskar
agzar/agezzar,
azdam/azeddam,
axda / axedda
d) gar wawalen (d ismawen ne d imyagen)
Deg tegnit-a tussda tessemgirid gar wawalen.
13

D tussda n [] i d-yefkan [] ussid da, nettaru-t d

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20

talast/tallast (talast = tilist/yeli yiij, teli-d tallast)


sew/seww (ad isew aman isemmaen/ad iseww lexrif s
yiudan )
sisen/sissen (ad isisen arum/ad yessissen gma-s i umdakel)
ad lsen/ad llsen (ad lsen abernus/ad llsen tixsi).
tusna/tussna (tusna = taawsa teskar tzizwit/tussna
< issin)
ilu/illu (ilu = aersiw/ illu = tazmert tuffirt)
2.2. Kra n yimesla llan deg tmenna, ulac-iten deg tira
Alugen 3 : Tigget d tzenzet
Isekkilen b, d, g, k, t, lan, deg tmenna, sin n wazalen,
agga d uzenza ; acku tizenzet ur tli azal asnislan, ur
asen-nettarra azal deg tira (tumrist). Ihi :
Ad naru

Nezmer ad nessiwel

baba

[baba] = [baba]

ibawen

[ibawen] = [ibawen]

idis, adrar

[idis] = [idis], [adrar] = [adrar]

igenni

[igenni] = [igenni]

argaz

[argaz] = [argaz]

akal, akufi

[akal] = [akal], [akufi] = [akufi]

tatut, tata

[tatut] = [tatut], [tata] = [tata]


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21

Alugen 4 : Tanit14
Isekkilen g, k, , x, q, lan, deg tmenna, azal n tanit.
Acku tanit ur tli azal asnislan, ur as-nettarra azal deg
tira. Ihi :
Ad naru

Nezmer ad nessiwel

aglim, gma

[agwlim] = [aglim], [gwma] = [gma]

akbal, akked

[akwbal] = [akbal], [akkwed] = [akked]

alem, arab

[alwem] = [alem], [awrab] = [arab]

axlenj, taxzant

[axwlenj] =
[taxzant]

[axlenj],

[taxwzant] =

G.M. 5 : llant kra n tsuraf, ideg tanit ur-s azal


asnislan :
akbal (< kbel) ~ [akwbal] ;
egg ~ [eggw] ;
[reggwel] (< rewwel < rwel) ~ reggel (< rgel) ; atg.
Tifrat : deg umedya-nni amezwaru, d tafyirt ideg yella
wawal ara d-yesseknen anamek-is, ma deg sin n
Imesla i terza taluft-a n tanit, d aniyen yakan, ama d wid n wammas n
wane (palais dur) ama d wid n wane alewwan (palais mou =
vlum) ; deg tilawt, ay asen-irennun d asenfer (labialisation), aswines d
udegger n yicenfiren er sdat (arrondissement et projection des lvres vers
lavant), as akken yella deg-sen useni (vlarisation) (tettnerni acemma
tanit-nsen).
14

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22

yimedyaten ineggura, ad naru eww [eggw] ; ma d urmir


ussid n rwel, ad t-naru rewwel [reggwel].
D akbal ay i. ~ D akbal i keble tabrat.
Alugen 5 : Tazegnaggat
Isekkilen t d z lan, deg tmenna, azal n teznaggat, i
ttarun zik = [ts], = [dz]. Maca, deg tira, ad yual
tt, ad yual zz (s usiknew n usekkil). Ihi :
ad naru

nezmer ad nessiwel

ttu

[u] = [ttu]

tidet ()

[tide] = [tidett]

irezzef

[ireef] = [irezzef]

Lezzayer

[Leayer] = [Lezzayer]

()

G.M. 6 : deg kra n tmeslayin n teqbaylit, awalen


yeggran s t (ne s tt), t-nni ssawalen-t [ts]. Maca, deg
tira, ulayer ara nesker sin n t. Ihi, ad naru : turet
[ture], tuget [tuge], taxuxet [taxuxe], tamacahut
[tamacahu], atg.
Alugen 6 : Tufayt
Deg tmazit n wassa llant kradet n tufayin n tidet :
//, //,//15.
aar, ii, aar, au, iij, aan, atg.

15

Deg tegti, [] yekka-d seg [] ussid ne seg temsertit n []/[d] d [t].

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23

G.M. 7 : tella tufayt ur nettunesab, ur tt-nettaru, am


tin :
n c deg uccay (= *uscay < [ukay]) ;
n l deg lufan ;
n r ne s, ma ur tessemgirid gar wawalen : rrsas
[a].
2.3. Tiri n yilem (e)
Deg tmazit n ugafa, llant kradet n tera i ilan azal
asnislan : /a/, /u/, /i/. Tiri n yilem, [e], ur tli azal-a :
ttarran-tt deg tira tumrist akken ad tifsus turi. Anda
ara tili, anda ur tettili?
Alugen 7 : ur nettaru e deg taggara n wawal. Ihi :
Ad naru

ur nettaru

arum

(*arume)

tasarut

(*tasarute)

gzem

(*gzeme)

Alugen 8 : nettaru e deg tazwara n kra n yimyagen,


am :
wid i ilan yiwet n tergalt (d taerfit ne tessed) war
tiri : e, eg, el, ekk, e, err, eww, atg. maca bbi, ffi, jji,
kki, zzi, ddu, ssu, ttu, zzu, u, atg.
wid i ilan snat n tergalin war tiri : els, enz, ewt, atg.
maca bri, fri, kri, zri, bru, fru, rzu, zlu, cfu, atg.
G.M. 8 : es, els, ens, enz, er, ewt, exs (= bu), ezg >
[les], [nes], [re], [nez], [wet] = [wwet], maca del, er,
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24

gem, gen, ger, er, sel, se, sew, er > [edl], ... [egm], ...
(azamul, anamek-is : nesmenyif )
Alugen 9 : R1R2R3 R1R2eR3 / R1eR2R3
Mi ara msefarent kradet n tergalin tierfiyin deg
wawal, ad naru e :
- gar tergalt tamezwarut d tis snat : [almsir] alemsir,
- ne gar tis snat d tis kradet : [gzm] gzem, [tabzrt]
tabzert, [azgr] azger, [amgr] amger.
Alugen 10 : mi ara tili tergalt tis snat d tussidt, ad naru
e sdat-s :
[tamut] tameut, [tamddurt] tameddurt,
[azddam] azeddam, [tillli] tilelli.
G.M. 9 : gar tergalt tussidt d tergalt taerfit ilaq ad
naru e, anagar ma tuniqt yebdan s tergalt tis snat d
turgilt16 : RR(R) ne ReR.
tussna (< issin), tuffa (< ffe), tazzla (< azzel), atg.
mmtemt (<mmet), ddmemt (<ddem), kerrzen (<kerrez),
atg.
2.4. Addad amaruz
Isem, deg tmazit, deg tegti, ur-s sin n waddaden17 :
addad ilelli d waddad amaruz. Isem yettili deg waddad
amaruz :

16

Tuniqt turgilt = syllabe ferme.

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25

a) ma d asemmad imsegzi (n umatar udmawan ne n


umqim awsil asemmad usrid) deffir umyag :
Yewt-d ubruri.
(addad ilelli)

(addad amaruz)

Abruri, yewt-d.

Yesseli-tt texxamt-nni. (addad amaruz) Taxxamt-nni,


yesseli-tt. (addad ilelli)
b) ma yefer tanzet (seg tenza i yessefaren addad
amaruz)18 :
Yekkat uzzal. (addad ilelli) Yekkat s wuzzal. (addad
amaruz)
Yerfed ifassen s igenni. (addad ilelli) Yerfed-it s yifassen.
(addad amaruz)
c) ma yefer isem ne aman, tili tenzet n gar-asen
ne ur telli19 :
yiwen n urgaz, yiwet n tmeut, sin n wussan, snat n teqcicin,
tamurt n umalu ; Iil Ujilban, Tizi Wezzu, Iil Wwammas
atg.

Llan yismawen ur nli addad : imalayen i yebdan s tergalt d kra n wuntiyen


iwezzlanen : fad, la, tama, tala, tara, tili, timmi, tizi, ticci, taluft, taddart, atg., d
yismawen untiyen i yebdan s teri u : tudert, tuddar, turet, tuzzar, atg.
18 Llant tenza i yessefaren isem deg waddad ilelli : s (n tnila), ar (arma d),
mebla, war, atg. Yewt-it s afus. (tanila, addad ilelli) Yewt-it s ufus. (allal, addad
amaruz) ; Ar axxam, tesgunfu ! (addad ilelli) Yewwe er uxxam. (addad
amaruz). Tanzet d i d-yemmalen tilawt, tessefar addad ilelli : Tedda d tislit.
(tilawt, addad ilelli) Tedda d teslit. (tanzet, addad amaruz).
19 Yewwi-d ad nessemgired gar taxxamt tubrikt (tubrikt d arbib) taxxamt n
tubrikt (tubrikt d isem).
17

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26

2.4.1. Taliwin n waddad amaruz


2.4.1.1. Ismawen imalayen
2.4.1.1.1. Ismawen imalayen ibeddun s a
Lan snat n taliwin :
Tamezwarut : addad ilelli a /addad amaruz u
Imedyaten :
afud / ufud,
asafu / usafu,
aris / uris,
axxam / uxxam
Tis snat : addad ilelli a / addad amaruz wa
Imedyaten
awal / wawal,
asif / wasif,
akal / wakal
Tamawt 1 : deg tira d turi n wayen i yuran, yessefk ad
nefer ilugan-a, maca deg ususru nezmer ad dnessiwel akken nennum, amedya : uxxam (= [uxxam]
= [wexxam])
Tamawt 2
- Llan yismawen, lan snat n taliwin n waddad
amaruz : afud / ufud / wafud ;
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27

- Llan yismawen, d tasenfelt-nsen war tussda i ilan


addad amaruz tirugza / trugza ; tirrugza / tirrugza ;
- Llan yismawen ideg tala n waddad amaruz
tettbeddil ilmend n tussda : adaynin/udaynin ;
addaynin/waddaynin.
2.4.1.1.2. Ismawen imalayen i ibeddun s i
Deg timawt i ielli, ur t-id-nessusruy, yettual deg
umkan-is y. Mi ara yili yisem ibeddu s i, deg waddad
amaruz ad as-nernu kan y.
Addad ilelli i / addad amaruz yi
Imedyaten : idis / yidis, iffis / yiffis, iallen / yiallen ;
irgazen / yirgazen.
2.4.1.1.3. Ismawen imalayen ibeddun s u
Akken i yebu yili yisem ibeddun s u, d asuf ne d
asget, deg waddad amaruz ad as-nernu w.
Addad ilelli u / addad amaruz wu
Imedyaten : ul / wul ; udem / wudem ; uccen / wuccen ;
ungifen / wungifen ; ungalen / wungalen
2.4.1.2. Ismawen untiyen
2.4.1.2.1. Ismawen untiyen i ibeddun s a
Deg tegnit-a (deg yismawen i ilan addad), addad
amaruz, yettili s sin n wudmawen :
a) Aelluy n teri (deg yismawen ilan taessa taR1,
d taluft n tira kan)
__
28

Imedyaten : tamurt / tmurt ; tameut / tmeut ; talaba /


tlaba
b) Abeddel n teri s yilem (deg yismawen ilan taessa
taR1R2, d taluft n tira kan)
Imedyaten : tarast / terast ; tagmert / tegmert ;
taswalt/teswalt
Tamawt : llan yismawen ur nli addad : ismawen
untiyen i ibeddun s teri u (tudert, tuddar, tuzzar, tuget,
atg.) ; ismawen imalayen i yebdan s tergalt d kra n
wuntiyen iwezzlanen (fad, la, tala, taluft, tamemt, atg.)
2.4.1.2.2. Ismawen untiyen i ibeddun s i
s uelluy n teri-nni (ti t : deg yismawen i ilan
taessa tiR1) :
tilelli tlelli, tirugza trugza, tisekrin tsekrin,
tizemrin tzemrin, tifunasin tfunasin, atg.
s yilem deg wadeg n teri-nni (ti
yismawen i ilan taessa taR1R2) :

te : deg

tamart temart, taqcict teqcict, timarin


temarin, tiqcicin teqcicin, atg.

III. Aswir n tezrarin (tilas gar wawalen)


Deg tezrarin, llan wawalen qqnen er wiya : deg tira,
tuqqna-nni, teskan-itt-id tezdit. Deg tilas n wawalen,
ne deg taggara n yisem, tirgalin, ttemyezrirint, tezmer
yiwet ad te taye, ne deg snat ad d-fkent targaltien : deg timawt, anect-a, teskan-it-id temsertit. Deg
__
29

tilas n wawalen daen ttemlilint tera : deg timawt,


tettili tukksa n tana. Deg tilas daen, yettbeddil yilem
amkan, deg timawt. Maca, deg tira tumrist, yessefk ad
d-nesken awalen n tezrart am wakken i llan i yimannsen, s timmad-nsen.
3.1. Tizdit
Tizdit d yiwen n wallal n tira, ibeu izeddi ef tikelt ;
teskan-d sin n wawalen gar-asen assa. Tetteqqen gar
wawal agejdan d yimezzayen-is. Anda i tettili tezdit ?
Alugen 14 : gar umyag d wawalen i as-d-yezzin :
amqim asemmad usrid, amqim asemmad arusrid,
tazela n tnila.
ama deffir umyag
yewwi-t, yewwi-t-id ; yewwi-yas, yewwi-yas-d ; yewwi-yas-t ;
yewwi-yas-t-id.
Iwsilen usriden (i yettualen deg wadeg n
yisemmaden usriden) i yettabaen amyag i yettfakkan
s teri (amedya : awi)
yewwi-yi
yewwi-kem
yewwi-k
yewwi-t
yewwi-tt
yewwi- ya
yewwi-ken
__
30

yewwi-kent
yewwi-ten
yewwi-tent
Iwsilen usriden i yettabaen amyag i
yettfakkan s tergalt (amedya : aker)
yuker-iyi
yuker-ik
yuker-ikem
yuker-it
yuker-itt
yuker-a
yuker-iken
yuker-ikent
yuker-iten
yuker-itent
Iwsilen arusriden (i yettualen deg wadeg n
yisemmaden arusriden) i yettabaen amyag i
yettfakkan s teri (amedya : awi)
yewwi-yi
yewwi-yak
yewwi-yam
yewwi-yas
yewwi-ya
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31

yewwi-yawen
yewwi-yawent
yewwi-yasen
yewwi-yasent
Iwsilen arusriden i yettabaen amyag i
yettfakkan s tergalt (amedya : aker)
yuker-iyi
yuker-ak
yuker-am
yuker-as
yuker-a
yuker-awen
yuker-awent
yuker-asen
yuker-asent
G.M. 10 : ur nettaru tizdit gar tzela n wurmir, ad, d
umyag, acku yezmer ad d-yekcem wawal-nnien garasen :
Ad ye. Ad taru. Ad yefu. Ad rzun. atg.
Ad yes-s taru tabrat ; Ad fell-as yefu Rebbi ; ad ur-s rzun,
atg.
ama sdat umyag
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32

D netta i t-yewwin ; Akka i as-nni : [akkaysenni] =


[akkisenni] = akkiyasenni] = [akkidasenni] =
akkaydasenni] ;
D netta i as-t-yewwin ; D netta i as-t-id-yewwin, atg.
G.M. 11
Mi ara msefaren wawalen-a tama n umyag,
amsizwer-nsen d wa : arusrid-usrid-tanila.
Deffir wusrid, tazela n tnila, d ne n, irennu sdats i : yewwi-t-id ; yewwi-tent-id, atg.
Alugen 15 : gar yisem d yiwsilen-is
a) Amqim n wayla
n yisem amagnu : afus-is (-ines) ; axxam-nne,
tamurt-nsen, atg.
afus-iw (-inu)
afus-ik (inek)
afus-im (-inem)
afus-is (-ines)
afus-nne
afus-nte
afus-nwen
afus-nwent
afus-nsen
afus-nsent
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33

n yisem n timmarewt : baba-m, yelli-k, mmi-s,


aewwal-is [aeggwal-is], xali-tne ; jeddi-twen, atg.
baba
baba-k
baba-m
baba-s
baba-tne
baba-tente
baba-twen
baba-twent
baba-tsen
baba-tsent
n uman : yiwen-is, sin-nwen, yiwen-nsen (= am
netta am nettat), atg.
yiwen-iw
yiwen-ik
yiwet-im
yiwen-is
yiwet-is
yiwen-nne
yiwet-nte
yiwen-nwen
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34

yiwet-nwent
yiwen-nsen
yiwet-nsent
b) Arbib ameskan20 (n tiin, n tigguga, n ubdar, n
tient)
ass-a21 ; azekka-nni ; taddart-ihin, tameut-nni ; argaznnien, tamurt-nnien, atg.
- n tiin : taddart-a
- n tigguga : taddart-ihin
- n ubdar : taddart-nni
- n tient : taddart-nnien
G.M. 12 : tettekk tezdit
a) gar urbib ameskan d umqim n wayla : argaz-nniines22.
b) gar umqim ameskan d umqim n wayla : win-nsen,
tin-nne, wid-iw, atg.
c) gar yiwsilen-a ma msefaren : widak-nni-nne, tidaknni-nne ( tidak-nni, nne/nne tidak-nni).

Seg gar taliwin n ubrib ameskan, yewwi-d ad naru -nni (imir-nni) as


nessawal tikwal [imir-enn], yewwi-d ad naru -a (imir-a) as nessawal tikwal
[imir-agi, imir-ayi].
21 Yewwi-d ad nessemgired deg tira gar ass-a (ass ideg nella) d assa (tallit
tamirant, zzman n tura, ideg nedder).
22 Ma ur nuri tizdit gar urbib ameskan d umqim n wayla, ad d-teffe tefyirt :
argaz-nni, ines = argaz-nni, d ayla-s.
20

__
35

Alugen 16 : gar tenzet d umqim n wayla

fell
fell-i
fell-ak
fell-am
fell-as
fell-a/fell-ane
fell-a/ fell-ante
fell-awen
fell-awent
fell-asen
fell-asent

deg, seg, nnig, ur


deg-i
deg-k
deg-m
deg-s
deg-ne
deg-nte
deg-wen
deg-went
deg-sen
__
36

deg-sent
ddaw
ddaw-i (-aw)
ddaw-ak
ddaw-am
ddaw-as
ddaw-atne
ddaw-atente
ddaw-atwen
ddaw-atwent
ddaw-atsen (-sen)
ddaw-atsent (-sent)
gar
gar-i
gar-ak
gar-am
gar-as
gar-ane
gar-ante
gar-awen
gar-awent
gar-asen
__
37

gar-asent
G.M. 13 : llant aas n tegnatin ideg ur nettaru tizdit,
gar-asent :
a) gar wis d uman ay t-iefren : wis sin, wis krad, atg.
b) gar yimuren n yismawen uddisen : tislit n unar,
Yusef u Qasi, Si Muend u Mend, atg.
3.2. Tamsertit deg tezrart (gar wawalen)
Ama deg taggara n wawal, ama gar wawalen, llan kra
n yimesla ttemyezririn : tettili temsertit gar yimesli
aneggaru n wawal amezwaru d yimesli amezwaru n
wawal wis sin.
Alugen 17 : deg tira tumrist, tettekkes temsertit i tebu
tili.
Hatna yimesla i terza temsertit (tafelwit) :
Tamsertit

Gar
tenzet n

Ad naru

Nezmer
nessiwel

ad

d tecret n wunti t tasa


deg tazwara n yisem. tmeut

n [tasa-ttmeut]
[tasantmeut]

awal
d tecret n waddad
urgaz ;
amaruz w/u deg
aman
yisem.
wasif

n [awal-wwergaz] =
[gwergaz],
n [bbwergaz] ;
[aman-bbwasif]

d w n umqim i awal n wid [awal


yebdan yes-s
i iceren
igceen]

__
38

bbwid

d tecret n waddad
[tajmattajmat n
amaruz y deg yisem.
yyergazen]
yirgazen
[ggergazen]
d f n yisem yebdan tamurt
yes-s.
Fama

[tamurt-f-Fama]

d m n yisem yebdan ddin


n din
yes-s.
Muemmed Muemmed
d r n yisem yebdan awal
yes-s.
Rebbi

m-

[awal-r-ebbi]

d l n yisem yebdan tagennurt n


[tagennurt-l-lalla]
yes-s.
lalla
Gar m n d
w
n
yisem am win,
[am-min,
amtenzet
(/amqim)
yebdan am win !;
min]; [am-makal]
am
yes-s.
am wakal
Gar
tenzet d

d tecret n wunti t argaz


deg yisem.
tmeut

d [argaz t-tmeut]
= [argaz
meut]

Gar tzela d tecret n wunti t d


n tilawt d deg yisem.
tamelant
teqcict-nni

[t-tamelant ]
=
[-amelant
]

d
yimataren ad tawi,
udmawanen t, n ad tawi, ad
deg umyag.
tawimt; ad
Gar d n
nawi
tzela n
wurmir ad

[at-tawi] = [aawi], [at-tawi] =


[a-awi],
[attawimt] = [aawimt] ; [annawi]

d t n umqim awsil ad t-tawi ; [a t-tawi]; [a tenasemmad usrid.


ad ten-nawi nawi]

__
39

Gar tzela
[add-awi] = [addd umatar udmawan ad d-tawi ;
n tnila d
tawi] ; [add-awi]
t deg umyag.
ad d-tawi
= [add-tawi]
Gar
[teni-t]
=
umatar
d t n umqim awsil teni-t ;
[teni-] ; [teniudmawan asemmad usrid.
teni-tent
ent]

Gar y n
umassa
ay

ay yea, d
arum !; ay
yemmuten,
d umatar y/i deg
d amar! ;
umyag
ne
deg
d nekk ay
umaun.
iruen ; i
nekk ay
iru

[ig-gea
d
arum] = [aggea d arum] ;
[ig-gemmuten, d
amar] = [aggemmuten
d
amar] ; [d nekk
ag-gruen] ; [i
nekk ag-gru]

Gar
umassa i

d ayen i
yenwa ; d
ke
i
d umatar y/i deg
yean ; d
umyag
ne
deg
netta
i
umaun.
iferrnen ;
akka
i
iru d asfel

[d ayen i-genwa] ;
[d ke i-gean] ;
[d
netta
igferrnen] ; [akka
i-gru d asfel]

Gar f n
d w ne u n waddad ef wakal ; [ef-fakal] ; [eftenzet
amaruz n yisem.
ef uxxam fexxam]
ef
Gar g n d w n umqim i
tenza deg yebdan yes-s
d seg
d w ne u n waddad
amaruz n yisem.
__
40

deg wa ; seg [deggwa] ; [seggwa


wa er wa er wa]
seg
[seg- gwexxam] =
uxxam ;
[seg-gexxam]
;
w
deg waman [deg- g aman]

G.M. 16 : llant kra n tegnatin ur llint d tamsertit


talugant : as yella umedya [d] + [n] = [nn], as ma
nettaru ad nawi i nessawal [an-nawi], yella idni [idni],
laden-is [ladn-is], yedneb [yedneb] atg.
3.3. Timlilit n tera
Deg tmazit, ur zmirent ara snat n tera ad
msefarent deg tmenna, ama deg wawal, ama gar sin
n wawalen (deg tezrart). Mi ara msefaren sin n
wawalen, amezwaru yeggra s teri, wis sin yebda s
teri :
Alugen 18 : tamezwarut telli, deg tmenna, maca,
nettaru-tt :
Ad naru
Ur yufi ara

Nezmer ad nessiwel
[ur yufara] = [ur yufiyara]

Ur d-yenni ara

[ur d-yennara] = [ur d-yenniyara]

Akka i as-nni

[akk-i s-nni]

Yesseli izem

[yessel-izem]

Yeswa aman

[yesw-aman]

Yaru urrifen-is !

[yar-urrifn-is]

Ad yebnu axxam

[ad yebn-axxam]

Mi ara d-yual

[m-ara d-yual]

Ma ur yelli

[m-ur yelli]

__
41

Alugen 19 : yettekk y gar-asent, inee er teri n


tzela n usiwel, er umqim arusrid ma yusa-d deffir
umyag kan, nettaru-t :
Ay argaz! ; ini-yas ; yenna-yasen : akka i asen-yenna
[akkayasenyenna]/[akkiyasenyenna]/[akkadasenyenna
]/[akkidasenyenna]/[akkasenyenna]/[akkisenyenna].
Alugen 20 : tis snat tettual d tazegnerit (d azgen n
teri), maca nettaru-tt d tiri :
ma ulac [ma-wlac], yella ulac-it [yella-wlac-it] ;
mi ulac [mi-wlac], lhan i usufe [lhan i-wsufe].
G.M. 17 : [i] + [i] = [ig] : D timarin i iemren tudrin
(er tamsertit, alugen 17).
3.4. Tamlellit n yilem
Tiri n yilem, e, tettbeddil amkan deg wawal almend n
tessa tamsislant n wawal-nni :
[yezger] d [zegre], d sin wawalen n yiwen n ufeggag
(yeba-ten umatar udmawan), maca,
deg [yezger], e yella gar y d z, d gar g d r ;
deg [zegre], e yella gar z d g d gar r d .
[azrem] d [izerman] d sin n wawalen n yiwen n
ufeggag (yiwen d asuf, waye d asget), maca,
deg [azrem], e yella gar r d m ;
deg [izerman], e yella gar z d r.

__
42

Alugen 21 : tiri n yilem, tettbeddil amkan deg wawal,


deg tmenna d tira, almend n tessa n wawal-nni (er
imedyaten-a, n ufella].
Alugen 22 : seg wawal er waye, tiri n yilem, tezmer
ad tbeddel amkan deg tmenna, ur tettbeddil amkan
deg tira.
Mi ara d-yernu wawal-ien deffir wawal-nni, e yellan
deg tuniqt taneggarut, yettbeddil daen amkan deg
tmenna, maca deg tira, yettaaf amkan-is anesli :
yezger : yezger-d [izegr-edd] ; zegren : zegren-as [zgernas] ;
iles : iles-nsen [ils-ensen] ; ilsawen : ilsawen-nsent [ilsawnensent] ;
alem : alem-nni [alem-enni], atg.
3.5. Amkan n yisekkilen imeqqranen
Alugen 23 : asekkil ameqqran, yettili deg sin n
yimeqan kan :
a) Deg tazwara n tefyirt : Tafyirt, tbeddu s usekkil
ameqqran, tettfakka s wagaz (tinqit) (.).
Yea, yeswa. D argaz. Ssuq, ssbe. ur-i yiwen n umdakel.
b) Deg tazwara n yisem n umdan ne n umkan
(tamdint, tamurt, atg.) :
Boulifa, Mammeri, Belid at li, Dallet ; Fransa, Lalman,
Marikan, Lpari, Tizi, Bgayet, atg.

__
43

G.M. 14 : deg waddad amaruz, d asekkil amezwaru ay


d ameqqran : Tamurt n Yigawawen
Alugen 24 : asigez23, ila azal meqqren, yettarra azal i
usgunfu, ibeddi, asesten, abhat, abdar, atg., i yellan deg
timawt. Asigez, d taluft tameradt.
Deg unagraw n usigez i ssemrasen, llan yizamulen-a :
aqqa24 (.), ticcert (,), ticcert aqqa (;), sin n waqqayen wa
nnig wa (:),
aqqa n tuttra (?), aqqa n ubhat (!), krad n waqqayen
(...),
gar tacciwin (( )), gar tuccar ( ), acciwen ([ ]), aseef
(iseaf) ({ }),
yugar, yif (>), ddaw, yir (<), ajerrid amezlagu (/),
tira i ilan ajerrid s wadda (abc), tira tamezlagut (abc), tira
tazurant (abc), atg.
Yal azamul ur-s alugen n usemres. S usemres n
yizamulen-a ay nferrez anamek n tefyirt :
Tameut, n temdint. ( tameut n temdint ...) ;
D ke ! ( D ke. D ke ?) ;
Cqan-iyi medden ma nnan ! (= Ur yi-cqin medden ma
nnan.) ;
Ur uksane ara ! (= Uksane ?), atg.

23
24

Asigez = asenqe (= ponctuation)


aqqa (asget aqqayen) yekka-d seg tcelit (= aeqqa).

__
44

Alugen 25 : ismawen uzzigen (wid n yimukan, wid n


yimdanen), nettaru-ten :
a) Akken ttwanaqen : Iil li (mai Iil n li) : Iil
Bbammas (ne Iil Wwammas, mai Iil n Wammas) ;
Tawrirt Musa (mai Tawrirt n Musa), Tizi Wezzu, atg.
b) Ne, akken i llan ttarun ya (deg waddad aarim,
ltat civil ) :
Ama d ismawen n Yimazien : J.-E. Amrouche,
Marguerite-Taos Amrouche, Mouloud Mammeri, Mouloud
Feraoun, Kateb Yacine,
Ama d iberraniyen : J.-M. Dallet, K. Prasse, Andr
Basset, L. Galand,
c) Ismawen n tmura (ne n temdinin) tiberraniyin, ad
ten-naru akken i ttarun ya : Paris, New york, Londres
(London), Tokyo, anagar wid i yettumezen ya ara
naru akka : Fransa, Budapest, Lalman, Marikan, Sudi,

Kra n yisumar-ien
Tamsertit, mai gar wawalen kan i tella (er alugen
17) ; tella, deg kra n tmeslayin, ula deg wawal. Ihi, win
i yettarun, yessefk ad d-yezg nnig tmeslayt-is (ne,
lemmer nettaf, nnig tantala-s) akken ad as-fehmen
wiya ayen yura.
Deg kra n tmeslayin (n teqbaylit), tettili temsertit deg
wawal : mi ara mlilen sin n yimesla, ttualen, deg
tmenna, d imesla-nnien ur nelli deg uar n wawal.
__
45

Alugen 26 : ugur n temsertit deg wawal, deg tmenna,


tifrat-is, deg tira, d tualin er uar n wawal-nni :
Tamsertit

Ad naru

Nezmer ad
nessiwel

gar [] ne d [t] n umur


[d] n uar wis sin n tayazit, tamnat ; [tayazi], [tamna];
n wawal
tecret
n tabridt, tayeddidt [tabri], [tayeddi]
wunti
gar [l] n d [d] n uar n
ldi
tawwurt, [lli
tabburt],
uar
n wawal
seldazekka
[sellazekka]
wawal
gar [s] n d [d] n uar n
uar
n wawal
sder
wawal
[yy] = [gg]

[zder] = [zzer]

ayyaw (<taywa), [aggaw],


ayyur, mayyu
[maggu]

[aggur],

[taebbwajt],
[iebbwamen]

[ww] = [bbw]

taewwajt,
iewwamen

[ww] = [gg]

rewwel (< rwel), [reggwel] [reggel],


awway (< awi), [aggay] = [aggway],
aewwal(<sewlet) [aeggwal]

d [c] n uar n
sucef
wawal
d [] n uar n
siew,
gar [s] n wawal
usswa
d [] n uar n
se
wawal
d [j] n uar n suji
__
46

[cucef]
[jiew] = [ciew]
[ce]
[cuji] = [juji]

wawal
d [z] n uar n
sizdeg
wawal

[zizdeg]

d
[d]
n
gar [s] n
tenzet ier sdat, sdeffir
tanzet s
tene

[sdat] =
[zdeffir]

[zzat],

Alugen 27 : llan kra n yimesla ttawen, deg kra n


tmeslayin, akkin i tzenzet, ttawen er wulwu
aneggaru, deg tmenna. Llan daen kra n yimesla
ttaren deg kra n tmeslayin. Deg tira, yessefk ad dnessekfel imesla inesliyen, ama d wid i yu wulwu
ama d wid i tu taert :
a) Imesla i yettalwin
Ulwu

Ad naru

as yella wanda qqaren

[k] > [k]> takerza (< krez), [tayerza], [tiyersi], ...


[y]
tikersi (< kres), ...
[g] > [ g] > tuga, gma, igenni, seg, [tuya], [yma], [iyenni] (<
[y]
deg, ...
[igenni], [si] (< [*sey] <
[seg]), [di] (< [*dey] <
de]), ...
[t] > [t] > (yewwi)-ten, nutni, ... [(yewwi)-hen,
[h] >
[nuhni], ...

__
47

(yawwi-n],

b) Imesla i yettaren (er tamsertit, alugen 17 ; isumar,


alugen 26) :
Deg tmenna, imesli [ww] yezmer ad d-yefk, almend n
tmeslayt :
[bbw], [ppw], [kkw], [mmw], [ggw], maca ad t-naru ww
(er tafelwit) :
Ad naru
yewwi

(< awi)

Nezmer ad d-nini
[yebbwi], [yeppwi], [yeggwi], ...

yewwe (< awe)

[yebbwe], [yeppwe], [yeggwe], ...

yewwel (< awel)

[yebbwel], [yeppwel], [yeggwel], ...

yewwen (< awen)

[yebbwen], [yeppwen], [yeggwen], ...

yewwa (< eww)

[yebbwa], [yeppwa], [yeggwa], ...

yesseww (< seww < eww


[yessebbw], [yesseppw], [yesseggw], ...
ssew < sew)25

G.M. 19 : [k] n yekkat, urmir ussid n umyag ewt,


yekka-d seg tussda n w, maca ad t-naru akken i tnessawal : yekkat.
Alugen 28 : imqimen n wayla, lan snat n taliwin :
taezzfant d twezzlant.

Yessefk ad nessemgired gar ssu (> usu), sew (> tissit), ssew (> aseswi), seww
(> asewwi).
25

__
48

Deg teqbaylit, imqimen n wayla ur-sen, deg wasuf,


snat n taliwin : tawezzlant d tezzfant26. Nezmer ad
d-nini : axxam-iw (-ik, -im, -is) ne axxam-inu (-inek, inem, -ines).
Da, d taezzfant i iqerben er tantaliwin-nnien
(tacawit, tacelit, ). Nezmer ad nesseqdec tala
taezzfant acku, deg yiwet, tella, deg taye, teskan-d
iulfan.
baba-inu > baba ; yemma-inu > yemma ; axxam-ines >
axxam-is.
Alugen 29 : amqim ilelli, ameskan (d arbib ne d
amqim), imerna (n tara, n wadeg, ...), lan snat n
taliwin, yiwet d tawezzlant, taye d taezzfant. Maca,
tala tawezzlant tif taezzfant. Ihi, deg tira, yewwi-d
ad naru tala tawezzlant acku d tala taddayt.
Ad naru
nekk,

ke,

Nezmer ad nsiwel
kemm [nekki], [nekkini] [keini], [kei],
[kemmi] [kemmini]

axxam-a

[axxam-ayi], [-agi], [-agikana],

da

[dayi], [dagi], [dagikana],

akka

[akkayi], [akkagi], [akkagikana],

Ula deg teqbaylit llant tmeslayin ideg qqaren axxam-nnek, axxam-nnem,


axxam-nnes.
26

__
49

Alugen 30 : tazela n tnila n tla azal, ad tt-nesseqdec.


Deg teqbaylit n kra n temnain (tid n wassa), tazela
n (n win i wimi i nettmeslay) tru ad tejlu mai.
Teqqim-d deg yiwet n tenfalit kan : aql-i-n (= aqeli(yi)-n). Maca, deg temnain-nnien, ar assa tella,
tettusemras. Ihi, yelha ma nessemras-itt deg tira :
tettferriz-d anamek n tefyirt.
Tuget n temnain

Anida-nnien

Yusa-n.

Yusa-d ur-wen, er din.

Yusa-d.

Yusa-d ur-ne, er da.

Ad n-ase.

Ad d-ase ur-wen, er din.

Ad d-asen

Ad d-asen ur-ne, er da.

G.M. 15 : tazela n tnila, ama d d ama d n, anagar ma


tefer amqim usrid ay as-irennu sdat-s yimesli i :
yewwi-tt-id, yewwi-tt-in, maca yewwi-d, yewwi-n, yewwi-as-d,
yewwi-as-n.
Alugen 31 : imesli azegnagga [] ne [T] n taggara n
yisem unti, nettarut s yiwen n t27 :
tabrat > tabratt, tulmut > tulmutt, tamacahut > tamacahutt,
tamaynut > tamaynutt, tagnit > tagnitt, tayet > tayett, tidet
> tidett, atg.
Alugen 32 : nettaru tanzet n gar yisem d yisemnnien, gar umqim (ameskan, arbadu) d yisem, gar
as yiwet n t deg udfir n [tayett] (asget tuyat), akked t n amaynut, akked t
adfir n [tidett] (sidet = vrifier), atg., n uar.
27

__
50

uman d yisem, maca ur tt-nettaru gar tenzet d


yisem28 :
afus n ugelzim, tasarut n tewwurt, bab n yigenwan, mmi-s n
tmeut ;
tid n tmara, kra n taluft, yiwen n ubaxix ! ;
sin n wussan, snat n tulawin, mraw n yifawen ;
nnig uxxam, ddaw teslent, deffir yiil, sdat wallen.
Alugen 33 : amqim asemmad usrid yettawi tiri i deffir
umyag yekfan s tergalt : turez-it, terza-t, yeddem-iyi, yezlayi (deg sin-a n yimedyaten ineggura, -yi yezmer ad
yili d amqim asemmad usrid ne d arusrid). Sdat
umyag, ur yettawi tiri. Tiri-nni, i, i yellan sdat-s, d
amassa : i t-yean, d nekk ; akka i yi-d-yenna.
Alugen 34 : i amassa29, nettaru-t iman-is, anagar ma
yezwar tanzet yerra-tt d amassa :
Am tebratin i tent-yura ; D ul-is i d-yessawlen ; D iles i ttid-ibedren, atg.
ideg, ief, ier, is, atg. Ma yusa-d deffir-s, yettwaray
iman-is : deg i, ef i, er i, s i, atg.
Yewwi-d ad nessemgired gar nnig uxxam (nnig d tanzet) ~ nnig n uxxam
(nnig d isem : afella), ddaw uxxam (ddaw d tanzet) ~ ddaw n uxxam (ddaw
d isem : adda), deffir uxxam (deffir d tanzet) ~ deffir n uxxam (deffir d isem :
amkan i yellan deffir-s), sdat uxxam (sdat d tanzet) ~ sdat n uxxam (sdat d
isem : amkan i yellan er sdat).
29 Tala i, d tanzet, ma yefer-itt yisem, amqim ilelli ne amqim
arudmawan (ameskan, amattar, arbadu), d amassa ma nezmer ad nerr ay
deg umkan-is, yeafar-it useru (d amyag ne d tanzet i d-yemmalen tilawt
d yisem).
28

__
51

G.M. 16 : deg tira, nesmenyif tala ay n umassa : D


adlis ay uran ; Ttaznen medden leyur, nekk ay uzne d
aerda.
G.M. 17 : i n [iwimi], ur yelli d amassa, d tanzet
acku ur yezmir ay ad yili deg wadeg-is. Llan sin
yiberdan n tira : i wimi (i wanwa, i wanti, i menhu,
qui) ; iwimi (iwacu, ayer, pourquoi) ; i wakken
(almend n waya, pour cela) ; iwakken (akken, bac
pour, pour que, dans le but de) ; i wacu (i wanwa, i
menhu qui) ; iwacu (acuer, ayer pourquoi).
Alugen 35 : amatar udmawan, n wudem wis krad asuf
amalay, nettaru-t s y i yimyagen i yebdan s snat n
tergalin i yemxalafen, s tergalt tusligt ne s teri :
yekrez, yeffud, yergel, yuzen, ad yafeg, ad yimur, atg. Maca
nettaru i deg yimyagen i yebdan s tergalt, ma deffir
umatar taessa RR (ireglen, ikerrez, isu, atg.)
G.M. 18 : yewwi-d ad nessemgired gar i yuran
(amassa + amaun) akked i uran (amassa + udem 3
amalay asget).
Alugen 36 : tala n yisem unti i ibedden ef umalay
ne n yisem unti n tigawt i ibedden ef uar, s t deg
tazwara d taggara : ayeddid / tayeddidt, abrid / tabridt ;
ayazi/tayazit ; agi / tagit ; gmer / tagmert ; cre /
ticret ; sle / taslet, atg.
Alugen 37 : tanzet s, ma tefer-itt tenzet-ien, ad
tene er-s :
seddaw, sennig, sdeffir, sdat, sur, atg.
__
52

Alugen 38 : tanzet s ur tnee er umernu i ilan tala


n yisem (addad amaruz) :
s ufella, s wadda : Sbedden-t-id s ufella, d akessar i as-dseknen, nnan-as : ru-d s wadda, ad ak-d-iban d asawen.
G.M. 19 : tikwal beu gar wawalen ila azal :
D ayen i teswa i d-yennelen. Dayen, teswa i d-yennelen.
Alugen 39 : u d at, nettaru-ten s usekkil ameyan,
iman-nsen, anagar ma isem i iefren u, d amur wis sin
n yisem :
Yusef u Qasi, Si Muend Umend at maduc, Uqasi
Akli, at Yemmel, at Yanni, atg.
Alugen 40 : deg wurmir ussid, nesmenyif taliwin
tiwezzlanin :
ffad : yettfad > yettfada ; lla : yettla > yettlaa ; atg.
ens : yettnus > yettnusu ; enz : yettnuz > yettnuzu ; els :
yettlus > yettlusu ; ers : yesrus > yesrusuy > ... ; er : yettru
> yettruu ; atg.
sens : yesnus > yesnusu ; senz : yesnuz > yesnuzu ; sles :
yeslus > yeslusuy > yeslusay ; atg.
sken : yeskan > yeskanay ; sker : yeskar > yeskaray ;
ser : yesar > yesaray ; atg.

__
53

Kra n yidlisen
1. Achab, R. (1979), Langue berbre (kabyle) :
Initiation lcriture, Paris, Imedyazen.
2. Bouamara, K. d wiya (2009), Ilugan n tira n
tmazit, tarigt n yimeskaren, Bgayet. [2005,
Talantikit].
3. Groupe dEtudes Berbres (1989), Initiation
lcriture, 2e dition, Bgayet, Edition Aar, 1989.
4. Mammeri M. (1990), Tajerrumt n tmazit (tantala
taqbaylit)[Grammaire berbre (kabyle)], Alger,
Bouchne.
5. Actes de la table ronde internationale
Phonologie et notation usuelle dans le domaine
berbre , Inalco, avril 1993, Etudes et Documents
Berbres, 11, 1994 ; 12, 1995.
6. Chaker, S. (1996, labor par), Propositions pour la
notation usuelle base latine du berbre, synthse des
travaux de latelier Problmes en suspens de la
notation usuelle base latine du berbre (24 et
25 juin 1996), Inalco, Paris.
7. Rabehi, A. (2011), Anagraw n yisem, Timsirin i
yexdem i useggas wis sin n turagt n tmazit,
Tasdawit n Bgayet.

***************

__
54

Tijena

Tira n yiferdisen n tjerrumt


Tinza

Tanzet, d awal n tjerrumt (alac) ur nettbeddil deg


tala, tetteg assa gar sin n yismawern deg yiwet n
tefyirt ne gar yiwen n yisem d tefyirt-nni ya s
timmad-is.
Tanzet, deg tmazit, tettas-d daymen sdat yisem,
tettarra-t d asemmad arusrid, ma er useru, d
asemmad n yisem, ma er yisem-nnien ur nelli d
aseru. Daymi as-qqaren d awura : yettak tawuri i
yisem.
Llant tenza i yettbeddilen addad i yisem, ttarrant-t
deg waddad amaruz. Iwakken ad tizmir tenzet ad
tessefer isem deg waddad amaruz, yessefk (i) ad tili
seg tenza i yessefaren isem deg waddad amaruz
(acku, llant tiden ur nettbeddil addad i yisem i dgrent), (ii) ad yili yisem i d-tger tenzt-nni seg
yismawen i ilan addad (ila addad ilelli, ila addad
amaruz). Isem, deg waddad ilelli deffir tenzet ma (i)
tanzet-nni ur seg tiden i yessefaren isem deg
waddad amaruz, (ii) isem i terza taluft ur seg
yismawen i ilan addad.
Yella wayen i wimi nezmer ad nsemmi da uddus
unzi : d uddus i yebnan s tenzt akked yisem ne d
umernu. Tanzet-nni, da, tettarra uddus i terza taluft
__
55

ila azal n tenzet. Amedya : deg tefyirt Yemmug anect n


yilu., anect n, d uddus unzi, ila azal n tenzet.
akked
:
temmal-d
asdukel (tessefar isem deg
waddad amaruz, ma seg
yismawen i ilan addad).
Yedda akked uewwal-is.

deffir : temmal-d adeg


(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yeffer deffir
tewwurt.

am : temmal-d aserwes
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Raget am yilili.

deg : temmal-d tallit ne


adeg. Yewwi-d ad yili yiwet
n tallit ne yiwen n wadeg
kan (tessefar isem deg
waddad amaruz, ma seg
yismawen i ilan addad). Deg
lid i d-yettas er-ne ; Deg
taddart i iemmel ass n timit.

ar : temmal-d tilist
(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Awi-t ar asif tee-t.
d : temmal-d asdukel
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yedda d
uewwal-is. er akked.

fell : temmal-d adeg.


Tessefar amqim awsil, ur
tessefar isem. Fell-awen
kan i nettkel.
gar : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Ili-k d uccen gar
wuccanen, d izem gar
yizmawen.

d : temmal-d tilawt
(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Ur d asesu, ur d
aemzu, ur d amzur ikessu.
ddaw : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Tettuseqdac
da Nnig ubrid, ddaw ubrid,
leqrar-is, d abrid.

i : temmal-d win i ilan


ne i terza taluft deg tefyirt
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Ad nini
tanemmirt i warrac-nne !
__
56

mebla : temmal-d tibawt


(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Nemsefham mebla
tameslayt.

sdaxel : temmal-d adeg


(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Sdaxel wanu i
yeffer.

mebla : temmal-d tibawt


(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Argaz, d win i d-iqeun
mebla idrimen.

sdeffir [seg tenza : s +


deffir] : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yebna axxam
sdeffir uxxam aqdim.

n:
temmal-d
ayla
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Izerfan n umdan
d yizerfan n tmeut.

seddaw [seg tenza : s +


ddaw] : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yedduri seddaw
tzemmurt.

nnig : temmal-d adeg


(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Nnig ubrid,
ddaw ubrid, leqrar-is, d abrid.

seg : temmal-d akud,


tallit ne adeg. Yewwi-d ad
ilin sin n wakuden, snat n
talliyin ne sin yidgan
(tessfar ismawen deg
waddad amaruz, ma seg
yismawen i ilan addad). Seg
tis am armi d tis mraw, netta
yesar arrac. ; Seg unebdu er
unebdu i d-yettual er tmurt. ;
Yewt-itt ef uar seg Bgayet
armi d Lezzayer.

s:
temmal-d
allal
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Mai s yir awal
iferrun medden timsal.
s : temmal-d tanila
(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Yerza-d urib s
axxam-is.
sdat : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Gnen sdat
tewwurt.

sennig [seg tenza : s +


nnig] : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
__
57

ilan addad). Ur yezmir yiwen


ad d-yekk sennig wawal-is.

temmal-d
asdukel.
Tessefar amqim awsil, ur
tessefar isem. Yid-wen kan
i nettemsefham.

sur : temmal-d tama


ne tanila (tessefar isem
deg waddad amruz, ma seg
yismawen i ilan addad).
Sur watmaten i d-tekka tyita.

ef : temmal-d adeg
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yefka tazmert-is
ef warraw-is.

uqbel : tettuseqdac i
wadeg, i wakud ne i tallit
(tessefar isem deg waddad
ilelli). Uqbel taddart, ad tafe
timessit.

er : temmal-d tanila
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Yunag er tmura
n medden.

yes [seg tenzet n wallal


s + amqim awsil] : temmald allal. Tessefar amqim
awsil, ur tessefar isem.
Yes-wen kan ara nimur.

ur : temmal-d ayla
(tessefar isem deg waddad
amaruz, ma seg yismawen i
ilan addad). Tidet, attan ur
medden.

yid [seg tenzet n


usdukel d + amqim awsil] :

__
58

Kra n tesunin / n yisuraz


acku : er axaer.

Arma
yewwe-d
nemsefham.

akken : er iwakken.

ara

amer : temmal-d tawtilt.


Amer yeba d netta ara
yeddun.

asmi [seg ass + mi] :


temmal-d akud Nemyussan
asmi i d-yusa er tmurt.

ammar :
temmal-d
tuggdi. S amebun ur
nettenne ammar ad a-dyessiwel.

axaer :
temmal-d
timentilt. an tamurt axaer
ulac lxedma.
belli : tasunt war azal.
Iban d netta. ; Iban belli d
netta. er dakken.

amzun :
temmal-d
aserwes. Tettecrurd amzun d
tasekkurt.

dacu (dacu kan) : Telha


tmeslayt dacu telha da
tsusmi [# d acu : D acu i
tebi ur-i ?]

ard : temmal-d akud.


Tessefar
amyag
deg
wurmir ne urmir ussid.
Anef-as ard yekfu, temle-as
anida i yecce.

dakken : tasunt war


azal. Medden akk ttwalin
dakken yif yielli assa, ad yif
wassa azkka. [# d akken :
D anect-nni]

aredmani :
temmal-d
amsefer ne amyizwer n
snat n tigawin. Ad ye,
aredmani ad yessired tumas-is.

degmi [seg deg + mi] :


temmal-d timentilt. D nekk
i t-id-inecden, degmi i d-yusa.

armi : tettuseqdac i
wakud. Tettarra iwsilen n
umyag i tt-id-iefren er
sdat. Armi d-yewwe i t-wala.

da : temmal-d amsefer
n snat n tigawin. Mi tekfa
tmera yefra wurar da yeggra-d
iman-is.

arma :
tettuseqdac
wadeg ne i wakud.
Tettarra iwsilen n umyag i
tt-id-iefren er deffir.

ideg [seg umassa i +


deg] : amassa, yemmal-d
__
59

adeg ne tallit. Tamurt ideg


ttidire, tif timura.

n twuri. Ur waje la idrimen


la ccia.

ihi : temmal-d tiseggray


ne taggrayt. Ini-yas ihi ma
ad d-yas.

lemmer :
temmal-d
tawtilt. Kul wa yeqqar :
Lemmer imdanen akk am
nekk tili tgerrez.

imi : temmal-d akud.


Imi i t-wala i d-mmekta.

lukan : er lemmer.

imi : temmal-d tawtilt


Neba ad teqqime, imi
tesbe, ru.

ma : temmal-d tawtilt.
Ma yuki-d, ad inadi fell-ak.
mena :
temmal-d
tanmegla. Teba mena ur
tezmir ara. er maca.

iseg [seg umassa i +


seg] : amassa, yemmal-d
aseg. Tawacult iseg d-tefruri,
tettwassen aas.

maca :
temmal-d
tanmegla. Teba maca ur
tezmir ara.

iwakken : temmal-d iswi.


Yekka-d akk timura iwakken
ad yissin idelsan n ddunit. [# i
wakken : I tmecret i d-ue
izimer-nni, mai i wayennnien = I wakken i t-id-ue,
mai i wayen-nnien.]

mi : temmal-d akud. Mi
i fki afus deg gma, i ri ad dtaz nnuba.
mulac :
temmal-d
tiseggray. Efk-as amur-is
mulac ad terfu. [# ma ulac :
Ma ulac irden, a-d timin.]

ief [seg umassa i +


ef] : amassa, yemmal-d
adeg ne tamentilt. Taluft
ief cewe, ad teglu yes-i.

ne : temmal-d afran.
Ad teddu ne ad teqqime ?
niqal :
temmal-d
tanmegla. Niqal yeqbel, yual
yendem.

ier [seg umassa i +


er] : amassa, yemmal-d
tanila. Tamdint ier tettruu,
tebed aas.
la la : temmal-d
tibawt. Tettas-d daymen
sdat yisemawen i ilan yiwet

as :
temmal-d
tanmegla. as aar yewwe
aekka, asirem, ur yei allaiw.
__
60

segmi [seg seg + mi] :


temmal-d akud. Segmi i
yunag, ur d-yual.

uqbel : temmal-d akud.


Yeffe uqbel ad d-tefrari tafat.
wamma :
temmal-d
tanmegla. Yettu kan, wamma
nni-as.

segmi : temmal-d akud.


Segmi d-kecmen ur ssusmen.
skud [seg s + akud] :
temmal-d akud.
Faes
temi-k skud ur k-tfut.

wannag : er wamma.
zi : er zien.
zien : temmal-d asidet
n wayen ur nil. Nekk
ttamne-t
zien
netta,
yeskiddib.

tili : temmal-d tawtilt.


Ur yeri ara, tili yual-d ad ayalel.
ulamma : er as.

Kra n yimattaren
acal : yemmal-d akta.
Acal i yesa deg tezi ?

ansa : yemmal-d sin n


yidgan, adeg amezwaru d
wadeg aneggaru. Ansa i dyekka waya ?

acimi :
yemmal-d
tamentilt. Acimi i tugi ?

anect : yemmal-d akta.


Anect ara yili deg tezi urgaznni ?

acuef [seg acu + ef] :


yemmal-d timentilt. Acuef i
tettemnamare d wid i k-yifen
deg tmusni ?

ayen1 : er acuer. Ayen


akka i yedda yid-sen ?

acuer [seg acu + er] :


yemmal-d timentilt. Acuer
akka ?

ayen2 : D ayen teba ara sawi


[# dayen : Dayen,
yeqqers bel, yefra wurar.]

amek : yemmal-d tilawt.


Amek i ttilin at tmurt ?

ayer : er acuer. Ayer


i tettagim aberrani ad d-ikcem ?

anda : yemmal-d adeg.


Anda ara teddu ?
__
61

iwumi : er acuer. Iwimi


tugi ad teddu ? [# i wimi :
i menhu, wanwa. I wimi i
tessawle sgelli ?]

ani : yemmal-d adeg. S


ani i tettedum akka ?

melmi : yemmal-d akud.


Melmi ara yali wass ef
Yimazien ?

uur : yemmal-d win i


ilan kra. Uur i llant tsura ?

ukud :
yemmal-d
amdakel. Ukud i teare ?

__
62

Kra n yimqimen

Imqimen udmawanen ilelliyen


Aman
Asuf
Tawsit Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
Nekk
2
Ke
Kemm
3
Netta
Nettat

Asget
Amalay

Unti

Nekni
Kunwi
Nutni

Nkenti
Nunemti
Nutenti

Imqimen iwsilen n yisem


Imqimen iwsilen n wayla

Imqimen n yismawen n timmarewt


Aman
Tawsit
Udem
1
2
3

Asuf
Amalay
Unti

Asget
Amalay

Unti

baba- / baba-inu
baba-k
baba-m
baba-s

baba-tne
baba-twen
baba-tsen

baba-tente
baba-twent
baba-tsent

Imqimen n yismawen imagnuyen


Aman
Asuf
Asget
Tawsit Amalay
Unti
Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
akal-inu / akal-iw
akal-nne
akal-nnte
2
akal-inek / akal-inem / akal-nwen
akal-nwent
akal-ik
akal-im
3
akal-ines / akal-is
akal-nsen
akal-nsent

__
63

Imqimen n yismawen n uman


Aman
Asuf
Tawsit
Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
sin-inu / sin-iw
2
sin-inek / sin sin -inem /
-ik
sin -im
3
sin -ines / sin -is

Asget
Amalay

Unti

sin -nne
sin -nwen

sin nnte
sin -nwent

sin -nsen

sin nsent

Imqimen iwsilen n umyag


Amqim awsil asemmad usrid

Mi ara yili deffir umyag

Aman
Asuf
Tawsit Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
yezla-yi / yeddem-iyi
2
yezla-k
yezla-kem
yeddem-ik yeddem-ikem
3
yezla-t
yezla-tt
yeddem-it
yeddem-itt

Asget
Amalay
yezla-ya
yezla-ken
yeddem-iken
yezla-ten
yeddem-iten

Unti
/ yeddem-a
yezla-kent
yeddem-ikent
yezla-tent
yeddem-itent

Mi ara yili sdat umyag


Aman
Asuf
Tawsit
Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
ad yi-yezlu / ad yi-yeddem
2
ad k-yezlu
ad kem-yezlu
ad k-yeddem ad kem-yeddem
3
ad t-yezlu
ad tt-yezlu
ad t-yeddem
ad tt-yeddem
__
64

Asget
Amalay

Unti

ad a- yezlu / ad a-yeddem
ad ken- yezlu
ad kent-yezlu
ad ken- yeddem
ad kent-yeddem
ad ten-yezlu
ad tent-yezlu
ad ten-yeddem
ad tent-yeddem

Amqim awsil asemmad arusrid

Mi ara yili deffir umyag


Aman
Tawsit
Udem
1
2
3

Asuf
Amalay

Asget
Unti

Amalay

yura-yi / yeddem-iyi

Unti

yura-ya
yeddem-a
yura-yawen
yura-yawent
yeddem-awen
yeddem-awent
yura-yasen
yura-yasent
yeddem-asen
yeddem-asent

yura-yak
yura-yam
yeddem-ak
yeddem-am
yura-yas / yeddem-as

Mi ara yili sdat umyag


Aman
Asuf
Tawsit
Amalay
Unti
Udem
1
ad yi-yaru / ad yi- yeddem
2
ad ak-yaru
ad am-yaru
ad ak-yeddem
ad am-yeddem
3
ad as- yaru / ad as-yeddem

Asget
Amalay

Unti

ad a- yaru / ad a-yeddem
ad awen- yaru
ad awent- yaru
ad awen-yeddem
ad awent-yeddem
ad asen- yaru
ad asent- yaru
ad asen-yeddem
ad asent-yeddem

Imqimen imeskanen30
Ameskan n tiin
Asuf
Asget
Arawsan

Amalay
wa
wi

Unti
ta
ti

Arawsan
aya

Seg RABEHI, A. (2011), Anagraw n yisem, Timsirin i yexdem i


yinelmaden n useggas wis sin n turagt n tmazit, Tasdawit n Bgayet.
30

__
65

Ameskan n waggug
Amalay
wihin
widakihin

Asuf
Asget

Unti
tihin
tidakihin

Ameskan n ubdar
Amalay
win
wid

Asuf
Asget
Arawsan

Unti
tin
tid

Arawsan
ayen

Ameskan n tient
Asuf
Asget

Amalay
waye, winnnien
wiya, widnnien

Unti
taye, tin-nnien

Arawsan

tiya, tid-nnien

ayen-nnien

Arawsan

Amqim amattar31
Asuf
Asget
Arawsan

Amalay
anwa
anwi

Unti
anta
anti

Arawsan
wi

Seg RABEHI, A. (2011), Anagraw n yisem, Timsirin i yexdem i


yinelmaden n useggas wis sin n turagt n tmazit, Tasdawit n Bgayet.
31

__
66

Amqim amassa
i : amassa, yemmal-d
ayen i yerzan asentel. D win
i teqre ara k-yernun.

ay : er i.

Ata wayen i yura Rabehi (2011 : 14) ef umassa deg


temsirin n unagraw n yisem : Amqim amassa,
ssawalen-as daen tasalelt n tmuli (s tefransist
support de dtermination). Yebded ef umeskan
ayen, iseg d-yekka : ayen > ay > a > i. Deg yiwet n
tantala am teqbaylit, nezmer ad naf snat taliwin i ne
ay. Deg tcawit ne d Walas anemmas (Lmerruk),
nezmer ad naf a.

Wi yuen tamurt ? D ilfan i (ay) t-yuen. Ay t-yuen d


ilfan.
Yezmer umqim amassa ad yeddukel akked tenzet,
ad as-yesmeskel tawuri-s i tenzet-nni, ad tual d
amassa.

Tera taddart ideg lule. Ayen ier d-usi, ad t-awi.


D aclim d ukerfa is d-kkren.
Tikwal i yettili snat tikal deg yiwet twuri : i s i
gemmen yirgazen. Ideg i an iswi.
Amqim arbadu32

win n umdan : yiwen ne edd.


win n uersiw ne n tawsa : kra, acemma, ara.

Seg RABEHI, A. (2011), Anagraw n yisem, Timsirin i yexdem i


yinelmaden n useggas wis sin n turagt n tmazit, Tasdawit n Bgayet.
32

__
67

Kra n yimerna
akken1 : yemmal-d akud.
Akken kan i d-yebda ameslay,
ssusmen akk.

azekka : yemmal-d akud.


Azekka ad yali wass, acemma
ur yelli.

abrid : yemmal-d akud.


Ddwa-nni ttessen-tt abrid deg
wass.

seldazekka : yemmal-d
akud. Tafaska-nni n tmedyazt
ad tebdu seldazekka.

akkin : yemmal-d adeg


(aggug). Izger akkin i udrar.

ielli : yemmal-d akud.


Ielli ualen yinelmaden s
aebaz.

akk : yemmal-d akta.


Mlalen-d akk warrac deg
tmecret-nni.

sendielli :
yemmal-d
akud. Tabrat i as-uzne
sendielli, yeef-itt.

akka : yemmal-d amek.


Akka i d win i yefkan rray i
rray-is !

aseggas-a :
yemmal-d
akud. Aseggas-a qessiet
tegrest.

akken2 : yemmal-d akta.


an akken deg yiwet n terbut.

ilindi : yemmal-d akud.


Ilindi yerwa tiimit deg uxxam.

akken3 :
yemmal-d
amek. Mai akken i ak-nni
ad txedme, akka.

sendilindi :
yemmal-d
akud. Yekfa tauri sendilindi.

akter : yemmal-d akta. D


netta i yewwin akter.

imir : yemmal-d akud.


Mazal-it deg tesdawit imir-nni.

ass-a (ass ideg nella) :


yemmal-d akud. Ass-a, d
amenzu n tefsut. [# assa :
tallit tamirant ideg nedder.
Tamazit, aren-tt medden
assa deg yierbazen.]

yal ass (yal yiwen n


wass) : yemmal-d akud.
Yettuseqdac d umyag i
yeftin er wurmir s tzela
ad. Yal ass ad yemce snat n
tenawin n tamemt. [#
yallas : akken i xelqen
wassan
deg
ddunit.
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68

Yettuseqdac d umyag i
yeftin er wurmir ussid, i dyemmalen tannumi. Yallas
yettraju talwit.]

din : yemmal-d adeg.


Nekk ffe-d, netta yeqqim
din.
drus : yemmal-d akta.
Drus i d-yeqqimen iwakken ad
tekcem tefsut.

dima : yemmal-d akud.


Dima yettili umeni deg
taddart-nsen.

kamel : yemmal-d akta.


Ad traju ass kamel iwakken
ad ak-d-ii umkan.

aas : yemmal-d akta.


as ur yettmeslay ara aas,
mai d asusam.

kan : yemmal-d akta. Ur


t-unza ara, bii kan ad
yefriwes.

bezzaf : yemmal-d akta.


Bezzaf ay tura !
ciu : yemmal-d akta.
Ciu i telwit, ciu i terwit.

mai : yemmal-d akta.


Amennu ef tutlayt-nne ttunt mai.

cewya : yemmal-d akta.


Yettmeslay-as cewya, ifehhem
aas.

mli : yemmal-d akta.


Yugar-it mli deg tehri.

cwi : yemmal-d akta.


Cwi cwi ad d-iban ubrid.

nezzeh : yemmal-d akta.


Yettaggad asemmi nezzeh.

da : yemmal-d adeg. Ke
qqim da, nekk ad nadi anidannien.

qabel : yemmal-d akud.


Tafaska tis snat ad tili qabel
deg wayyur n meres.

Dasawen [seg d (tanzet


i d-yemmalen tilawt) +
asawen] : yemmal-d akud.
Sya dasawen yal yiwen yawi
abrid-is. [# d asawen : Yerraiyi lua d asawen.]

sya : yemmal-d tanila.


Abrid er Bgayet, sya.
syin : yemmal-d tanila.
Abrid er tubiret syin.
taggara :
yemmal-d
akud. Ayen akk i yecna ef
tmurt-is, taggara yemmut d
arib.

ddeqs : yemmal-d akta.


Ddeqes i d-yeqqimen iwakken
ad ibeddel useggas.
__
69

tameddit :
yemmal-d
akud. Timlilit, tameddit deg
tesdawit.

wabel : yemmal-d akud.


Ma ur d-yusi ara qabel, ad dyas wabel.

tazwara :
yemmal-d
akud. Tazwra yemmeslay-d s
teqbaylit, yekfa-tt s tefransist.

zik : yemmal-d akud.


Zik, argaz, yettwaqqan deg
yiles.

ticekki : yemmal-d akud.


Ticekki ad d-temlil tasa d wi
ay turew.

sgelli (lweqt-nni i yezrin


cewya) : yemmal-d akud.
Sgelli yekkat udfel, tura yuald yiij. [# seg llina (seg
tiremt-nni
ar
tura) :
yemmal-d akud. Seg llina ur
yessusem.]

tikelt : yemmal-d akta.


Nettemlil tikkelt deg useggas.
tikwal : yemmal-d akud.
Yettas-d tikwal ur-ne.

ahat : yemmal-d turda.


Ahat wwen er tesdawit tura.

tura : yemmal-d akud.


Tura iban ubrid ara na.

Kra n tzeliwin
n : yemmal-d tanila n
tigawt i yettruun seg tama
n win i yettmeslayen er
tama n win i wimi
yettmeslay. Yusa-n (yusa
er din). Ad n-ase (ad ase
er din).

ad : yessefar afeggag n
umyag deg wurmir ne deg
wurmir ussid, qqaren-as
tazela n wurmir. Yettarrad iwsilen n umyag er sdat.
Awal-nni
i
a-iqeren,
yennejma deg wulawen, ass-a
ad asen-t-id-nini. (Matoub
Lounes).

d : yemmal-d tanila n
tigawt i yettruun seg tama
n win i wimi yettmeslay er
tama n win i yettmeslayen.
Yusa-d (yusa er da). Ad dase (ad ase er da).

la : yessfar afeggag n
umyag deg wurmir ussid
kan, qqaren-as tazela n
wurmir ussid. i-t la
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70

yettxemmim ef temsal i ticeben.

umur wis sin ara. Wa,


yettas-d, mi yella, deffir
umayag-nni.
Llant
temnain ideg ssawalen
ur/ulani/ula, maca deg
tira, yewwi-d ad naru
urara. Ur asen-t-id-yeqqar
ara. Ur asen-t-id-yenni ara.

ur : yemmal-d tibawt.
Yessefar aseru, d anisem
ne d anemyag. ef waya,
tazela n tibawt, d tazela n
tefyirt, terza taseddas n
tefyirt, ur terzi tala n
umyag.

Aseru, d anisem : s
umata,
d
amur-nni
amezwaru (ur) kan i
yettilin. Yessefar uddus
amesru ideg d isem ay d
aseru. Ur d asesu, ur d
aemzu, ur d amzur ikessu.

Aseru, d anemyag :
afeggag n umyag, deg yizri
ibaw ne deg wurmir ussid.
Yettarra-d iwsilen n umyag
i yessefer er sdat. S
umata, yezga yetteddu yid-s

Kra n yiferdisen imsera


aql- (aql-i/aql-iyi, aqliyi-n, aql-ak, aql-akem, aqla, aql-aken, aql-akent) :
Aql-i am yijider ameru wele
deg usezzu.

ulanda : Ulanda ara nerr


ma teli-d tallast.

atan (ata, atah, hata,


hatan) : Atan am ir n
sswael, wi d-yusan ad t-yewt.

ulaer : Ulaer tanekra


zik ma ulac axeddim.

ulansi : Ulansi ara d-yekk


wugur ma ur d-yekki seg win ur
k-nemmel.

ulamek : Ulamek ara


yerwu win yewt la s aqerru.

attan (atta, attah, hatta,


hattan) : Attan deg uxxam
tu amkan gar wayetma-s.

ulawumi : Ulawumi
tarewla ef tidet.

ulac : Ulac nnif deg tayri.


__
2

Irisen
Aris 1 : Lecal n diri
Asmi tella teqbaylit d tidet, llan lecal ur
xeddmen ara at tmurt-nne ; ur zellun ara deg ssuq,
ur ttualen ara d iebbalen, d ikeyyalen, d imekkasen,
d ixerrazen ; ur snuzun ara timellalin n tyuza, ur
ceen ara deg tmeriwin.
I izellun deg ssuq, d aklan ne d wid i irefden
tacaqurt am nutni, ar ass-a n wussan, ur ten-yettnasab
edd, as lasel-nsen d ierriyen. Deg Yiren-nne,
ulac aklan, ala sin n yixxamen i d-nessawe : yiwen
deg at Xelli, waye deg at Yequb. Aklan n at Xelli d
iberkanen, tura ffen tamurt, ruen. Wid n at Yequb
mazal-iten, yecbe uksum-nsen am nutni am
Leqbayel-nnien, walakin ssena-nsen d tagezzart,
yiwen ur asen-yettak tawellit ; s lbed i d-zewwen.
Iebbalen rnu-ten er yigezzaren, wid izeden
deg at Yequb d iberraniyen ; d tarewla ay d-rewlen
seg tmurt-nsen, ualen d iebbalen iwakken ur
ttualen ara deg ttar. Llan deg-sen tlata ne reba n
yixxamen, ma d tura yeggra-d ala yiwen n uxxam d at
li u isa, ula d iceaen seg-sen. Leqbayel ur
xeddmen ara ssena-ya ; i iceen ala tilawin ; ula d
tigad-a, yessi-s n tfamilt ur ceent ara ; degmi mi ara
ilaqeb walbe aebbal yeqqar-as-d :
Rnu lehdur, nekni nekkat bel, tilawin-nwen
ceent .
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70

Axerraz, rnu-t er ugezzar, yettxi isebbaen


deg ssuq ; ssena-s ur zeddiget ara, ur tt-emmlen ara
Leqbayel ; akeyyal n ssuq i yettawin i yiri-s anda ur
yettett ur yettess, i yettakren mi ara yettektili, tereq
laxert-is, ad t-ielleq Rebbi seg ccfer n ti-is ; d ssena
tucmit, ala yir bnadem ay tt-ixeddmen. Ula d
amekkas, mmi-s n uxxam yelhan ur yettekkes ara
lemkes deg ssuq ; ur yetta, ur yesnuz timellalin ne
tiyuza. Asmi terbe ddunit, leyur d tmellalin, ay
ten-yesnuzun ala tilawin ; ma d lweqt-a deg i dneggra, llan wid la yettjaren deg-sen, semman-as lbi u
cra. Nedder armi ula d tagezzart llan yierriyen la
gezzren, fen lemcuk, la sennin aksum ; ala timezliwt
ur zellun ara am waklan.
[PICARD A., 1958, Textes berbres dans le parler des Irjen (Kabylie-Algrie),
Alger, La typo-Litho et Jules Carbonel, p. 130 -132.]

Aris 2 : Asefru
Ru a wlidi, ur fell-i ssenduy aman
Ke, meqqre
Nekk, ur ad bdi reman
If-ik, icab
Iarren ief tetteddu ulwan,
Leqel yeffe-ik,
Ur theddre deg wayen yellan,
I ak-d-yeggran d aekka,
Nekk ad ae win i yi-yehwan.
[Hanoteau A. (1858), Essai de grammaire kabyle. Les principes du langage parl
par les populations du versant nord du Jurjura par les Igaouaoouen ou Zouaoua, suivi
de notes et dune notice sur quelques inscriptions en caractres dits tifinagh et en langue
tamachrt, Bastide, Alger, p.298.]

__
71

Aris 3 : Ayen i tei ad k-ye


Uale-d seg jji, wwe-d er taddart tameddit
n wass, uqbel ad yeli yiij. Zegre azniq n taddart,
tabalizt deg ufus-iw. Ttmagare-d laci, ttmuquleniyi-d, mena ulac win i ssne, ulac win i yi-yessnen.
Aas aya segmi i taddart. Tamurt, tbeddel.
Wwe er lara-nne, ldi tawwurt n usqif,
kecme er ufrag ef yif n tfednin, am umakar. D
leyu-nni i i, i mazal bedden, d isemmaen.
Tawwurt n uxxam, temdel. Tawwurt-nni ief tteddi
asmi meiye, ur yi-d-teqil ara. Texla lara. ef
umnar n tewwurt, yees uqjun ; akken kan i d-yesla i
later, yeldi-d allen-is, yesken-iyi-d uglan-is. ebse.
Sserse tabalizt-iw er lqaa, qqure !
er lid n uxxam, isenned dduzan d iqdimen,
yuli-ten ssdid, iban ulac win i ten-yessexdamen. Seg
aq, sennig tewwurt, yetteffe-d dexxan, yettawi-d
yid-s rria n lqahwa. Sli i lehdur. Smuzegte ma yella
kra ara fehme, ulac. Yebed ssut. Nni-as ahat d
lbana i heddren. Cfi asmi meiye, mi ara d-qqle
seg uzniq, selle i yimawlan-iw heddren s tuffra,
ttaggaden ad asen-d-slen liran.
Qerrbe ciu. Aqjun, yesmezher-d fell-i. Iheyyad iman-is. Uale er deffir. Ttxemmime, nni-as ad
tafe ulac wi i yellan sdaxel uxxam-a. D ayen i selle
asmi i meiye i d-yettualen gar wallen-iw. D temi
i d-yerran ssut. Bi ad ssiwle, sseta. Bi ad
sebebe, uggade. Anwi i yellan sdaxel ? Anwi ara
__
72

yi-d-yeldin tawwurt ma sebebe ? D acu ara as-ini


ma yesteqsa-yi-d ?
Ad qerrbe, kukra. Ad qqime ... d axxam-nne.
ewqe. Nni-as : lemmer ad d-yeffe walbe, ad yid-yini : Diri win i yesmesisen er yixxamen!, d acu
ara as-ini ? Ri Sdat tewwurt armi yeli yiij, ulac
win i d-yeffen. Ri almi usse i yiman-iw d
aberrani, refde tabalizt-iw, uale ...
[Ameyan Kezzar, Tasunt TIRA, uun 02, 2000.]

Aris 4 : Iben Xeldun


Iben Xeldun, iger irebbi i tsertit, maca yeggra-d
yisem-is deg umezruy s wayen i yura d tussna i dyea deg yidlisen-is.
as akken yuli-ten ugedrur (uebbar) n tatut
almi d timii tis XIX, anida i bdan ssufuen-d idlisenis, tiktiwin-is qqiment zwarent s waas tallit ideg
yedder. ef waya, yenna fell-as umassan V.Monteil :
Iben Xeldun, iban-a-d am wakken d asmazray

d ayen yellan maca yella daen d amesnulfu n


tussna n tmetti, semmus n tmiwin sdat umassan
afransis Auguste Comte.

Taerma d uwanek akken i ddukulen er Iben


Xeldun. Deg tlalit ad tt-id-yezwir cwi uwanek, acku
war awanek, ur tettili terma, ma d tamettant ad tili
deg yiwen n wakud.
Tudert n terma, icuba-tt er tin n wales, acku
yeba-tt ef krad n yiricen : tallit n unegmu, temer
d ufrak, deg taggara tewser d ugrireb ! Hatan wamek i
yettwali iricen-a deg yidlisen-is:
__
73

Deg tazwara, ad d-yekker uella, ad yessali


awanek s yiserdasen n udrum-is. Syin, ad yebnu
tamdint tamaynut ara yilin d tiremt i udabu-s.
Anaba n tallit-a ad yili gar yieyyalen n yiwen n
udrum. Taluft-a, isemma-yas Iben Xeldun
lasabiyya, yerra-tt d ajgu alemmas deg tezmert n
udabu.
Aric wis sin, yerza abeddel ne tamhezt n
terma i d-yettilin deg teggti deg tallit n ugellid wis sin
ne wis krad.
Deg tsertit, adabu, ad ibedd ef yifadden-is
akken i iwulem, asrad (lehna) d tneflit ad d-ualen er
yal tamnat n tmurt. Assa n lasabiyya, ad
yeqqers, acku ad bdun yijenaen ad kecmen er
udabu. Da, yenna ef waya: deg uric wis sin,
ageldun ad yekkes ayetma-s seg udabu.
Deg tdamsa, afares n yisufar n tudert ad yali,
asnuzu ad yefti, acku tagnit n tsertit tres. Idles d turi
ad uen deg temdinin. Deg tallit-a, awanek d
terma, ad awen er tqacuct-nsen.
Deg uric wis krad, adabu, ad teli tezmert-is.
Agellid, ad yual d asnaraf (d amesbali) ef ugdud, ad
yessenker rad d yiwunak i icerken yid-s tilisa.
D wi i d udmawen n tewser n terma er Iben
Xeldun. Da, tamettant-is, ur tetteil ara ad d-tawe
s tnekra n kra n uella ne s ufus n yiwunak i as-dyezzin.
Ayen i d-yufraren deg tira n Iben Xeldun dakken
taerma ur telli d akemmel ef wayen i yezrin, maca
__
74

yal tagelda, s terma-ines. Tin i d-ilulen ad tawi yid-s


taerma ara yemmten.
[Hassan Belaid, 1996, Tira n Ibn Xeldun, deg Izen Amazi, uun 6, sb. 35,
36.]

Aris 5 : Tazwert
Deg udlis i yura ebderreman Iben Xeldun
ef umezruy n Yimazien mi yewwe ad yemmeslay
ef Yizennaten, yenna belli : ezlen iman-nsen deg

temer n yiman-nsen, ur asen-gin lesab i yierfannnien, sqiien i yimsufar i yetteddin deg tmuransen, yerna tteddun daymen ile deg ufus. Maca
imennuen-nsen nutni d yierfan i asen-d-yezzin ne
d yigeldan i ten-iuwren, ur ten-urin ara.
Yerna Iben Xeldun yenna belli : ssebba n
ustehzi-ya, d tikli i tela tarabt gar-asen wala er
yigeldan-nsen, ur sersen ara deg yimura iwakken ad
arun amezruy-nsen, armi aric ameqqran seg-s, yeli.
Ula mi sbedden tigeldiwin, ala kra n lexber n lexyal i
d-fen seg-sent. Taggara, yenna Iben Xeldun belli
d lexbarat-nni ief ttnadin yismazrayen deg kul
amkan ; a ssed-nsen ma ufan lerra-nsen iwakken ad
ten-id-ssukksen seg lam er tafat ideg ara ten-walin
akk medden.
Tin i yeran d Yizennaten, tera d Yimazien
akk seg wasmi yebda umezruy-nsen, mi d-kecmen
Yifniqen tamurt-nsen deg lqern wis tnac uqbel issa.
Kra, nnan d kra i xedmen Yimazien zik, ur t-yeri
edd, acku edd ur t-yuri. Ayen akk i d-ttawin
__
75

yimezwura-nne, yella kan s tmenna mai s tira, armi


kra yejla-ya i nekni i d-yernan deffir-sen.
Amezwaru i d-iberdren Imazien deg umezruy d
asmazray agrigi Herodote deg lqern wisxemsa uqbel
isa. Seg wass-nni armi d lweqt ideg yura Iben
Xeldun, eddan ecrin n leqrun; deg ecrin-a n leqrun
acal i ieddan n yirgazen, xedmen, nnan, snulfan-d,
wwin-d ayen i d-wwin, maca ur d-yeqqim seg-s
wacemma, acku ur t-yuri edd. Wid i yuran deg
zzman-nni, uran s tmeslayin tiberraniyin i yellan
leunt imir-nni : deg zzman n Rum s tlaint i uran
Tertulyan, Awgstin, Kiperyan, Fruntu, Arnub,
Apulay, yili deg yidlisen-nsen yella ttbut n timmazet
ideg d-kkren ; d amedya Apulay, deg yiwen n udlisines, yeka-d tadyant n Psyh u tadyant-a mazal-itt
ar ass-a ssawalen-tt-id deg yiwet n tmacahut
tettwassen, qqaren-as esfur u Lhawa.
Seg wass-nni ar ass-a ur tbeddel ara liala ef
tmurt. Deg tmura akk ideg ttmeslayen tamazit, i
yecban Lmerruk, Lezzayer, Libya, melba ad ma
yebder-d bnadem timura n Yiberkanen am Mali d
Nijer, ttemsetbaen yinekcamen, wa irennu taluft-is i
tin i d-yea win i t-yezwaren. Tamazit daymen
teqqim berra i unnar. Amezruy-nne, yebda teltalaf n
yiseggasen aya (melba ma yeseb bnadem leqrun n
uzermezruy); deg teltalaf-a n yiseggasen, uran medden
(iberraniyen wala Imazien) s tefniqt, s tlaint, s
tegrigt, s tarabt, s tefransist, yiwen ur yuri s tmazit,
armi teqqim tmeslayt-nne ta, ayen i a-iruen deg
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76

lweqt-nni akk ur yesi ara azal, am wakken i yenna


Iben Xeldun s yiman-is, yella yettaru s tarabt.
D taluft-a taqdimt i ilaq ad nemu tura ; ilaq-a
ad nessemne ayen akk i wimi nezmer deg wayen i ad-yeqqimen seg yidles-nne skud ur iru ula d netta.
Imalayen33 n umezruy n zik, keblen ifassen i
Yimazien-nne, wid n umezruy n wassa, ur dilen
ara.
Amezruy n wassa, ixulef deg snat n temsal, yiwet
tenfe, taye turr. Tin i iurren: tazmert n ddulat n
zik d tin n ddulat n tura mxalafent. Tazmert n ddulat
n zik ur tzad ara; ma tella teqbilt i yellan teqwa cwi,
tezmer ad tt-tqamer, ne xesum ad as-tjaneb, ad tali s
adrar (akken i xedmen Leqbayel d Yicawiyen), ne ad
tereq deg Ssera (akken i xedmen Yimuca, Imaben
d kra n Yizennaten). Seg wasmi d-snulfan Yirumiyen
yal asafar, ualent ddulat n wassa nnernant deg
tezmert ; ulac tamnat ur wwient ara s umubilat, s
yisufag, s rradyu, s yierbazen.
Aerbaz, lada, yeleb-itent akk. Skud meiy
uqcic, aqerru-s fessus, yereb am urekti, akken i
tebi a bnadem ad t-terke. Mi ara yual d argaz,
ad t-id-yaf lal yeqqur kan ef wayen i yefe deg
temi-s, d ayen kan i wimi ara d-yettawad, d
tameslayt i yelmed ass-nni ara d-izewwiren s iles-is.
Maca, tella taye tenfe deg umezruy n wassa.
Deg lqern-a wis ecrin ideg nella, tela tussna armi
tual tezmert-is tekka-d nnig tezemmar-nnien akk u
33

Imalayen : tignatin, (les circonstances).

__
77

anect-a deg kul amiq. Ihi, yezmer bnadem ad


yessexdem allalen-is. Assa, win i yeban, ad dyessufe idlisen s tmeslayt i as-yehwan, ama tura zik
ama ala, acku tussna tessukkes-d leqwanen n tmeslayt
wala wid n tira. Assa nezmer ad d-nessufe idlisen
deg kul ssenf.
Maca, axxam, ibennu ef llsas. Llsas-nne nekni,
d ayen i nnan d wayen i gan yimezwura-nne. D win i
a-ilaqen ad d-nejme assa. Ta d yiwet n ssebba n
udlis-a ef Ccix Muend.
[M. Mammeri, 1990, Inna-yas Ccix Muhend- Cheikh Mohand a dit, dit
compte dauteur, p. 14, 15, 16.]

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Aris 6 : Inzan
Qeran ma yezwar s imi, tamemt ma teggra iwimi.
Awal, ma wezzil, yefra, ma ezzif, ad d-yarew kra.
Iles yettawal-itent, aqerru yetta-itent.
Bu yiles, medden akk ines.
Tilisa n wawal am tlisa n wakal.
Win yesuqquten awal, deg dewessu i yettnawal.
Aris 7 : Tamart n setti
Tugna tamezwarut i d-yettasen er walla, mi ara
tt-id mmekti, d tin n umdan ur tessexle tudert. D tin
n umdan i werin nessin tuggdi i yurzen talsa, s la-is d
tedyanin-is.
Ulac ula d yiwen n uwellih deg wudem-is ara dyemmlen ma terfa ne tennuna. Inezgumen-is akk,
as ggten, ur ten-tei ad d-fflen.
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Udem-is, yeqqim amzun d win n tlemit acku


ieblan ur zmiren ara ad tt-sselin. Ula d allen-is, ief
tezga tault, mmalent-d anagar talwit. Imi-s d awezi
ad d-yeffe seg-s wawal i izelgen ; awal-is d win i
yessujayen win i yunen.
Setti, ur tessin ulac. Yella, d awal i yezgan ef
yiles-is er ugellil, er umattar ne er yinebgi.
Imdanen akk s wazal-nsen, s tunt-nsen deg ddunit.
Degmi ur tezmir ara ad tagi i yiwen mi ara d-yessuter
deg-s tagella.
Ayen i yi-yettaan ttweide deg-s, d tiktiwin-is
ef medden. Mi ara as-inin wihin yuker, wihin yea
arraw-is, wihin d aqemmar, werin ad d-tewet deg-s.
Awal-is, yiwen : Meskin. Ne Irad-itt Rebbi fellas. Ne Ah ! A Rebbi ssuref-asen.
[Zahir MEKSEM, Arrat n yirisen i uselmed n tmazit, Timlilit n yiselmaden n
tmazit, ussan n 15 ar 17 mayyu 1999, Bgayet.]

Aris 8 : Taluft n umsiwel n ufus


Ala aerbaz i a-yessefraen, newer deg turi,
ula d baba yettzuxxu yes-ne. Maca, er medden kan,
yettcuffu aqendur-is, yettarra tajmilt i yiman-is am
wakken da d sse yeser-a. [...] as yerka deg
yidrimen, yessels-a talaba n lif, yura fell-a tigellelt d
lexsas.
Lfer n wass-nni, yexle d yimei d uneggez :
wwi-d lbak!. [...] Uk! Ad ifakk fell-i udrar-a n
twait! Maca, tin i tent-yifen akk, ur ttwali ara bururu
n baba ef wacal !!! Tikelt-a iferre fell-i s tehri !!!
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Wwi-d lbak rnu ad re anda i bi, d acu i bi. D


ayen i icuban targit. Ad re tadamsa rnu deg
Bgayet... D sse, werin tt-yefis uar-iw, maca
efe akk imukan-is... Ayen i jeme deg tkeriwin
ar din! Ttsebbire iman-iw yes-sent ard d-yas wass n
tualin er tesdawit imir ad d-iwde talalit.
eddan yimuras, teqreb-d tualin [...] emde
Rebbi cekre-t imi d-li d tedayin n lali deg
texxamt, d ayen akk i d sse ur-i... edle akk yidsent maca Wiza tzad... akken i neddukul am yiudan
n ufus [...]
Baba, am lewayed-is, ur ttutame ara arma
yewwe-d nnig uqerru-w... Ula er da yettawe-iyi-d
akken ad ier d acu i sserwate, ahat ad yi-yeef d
welbe. Ru kan a baba ru! Tesbede aas! ni
yella kra n yiulfan i a-d-tei? Nekreh irgazen degk.
Argaz, icuba tili-w, yera anda i qqare, yera
anda i ggane, d wanwa... Yessen timdukal-iw n
texxamt... Ula d netta icekker-d Wiza... I tikelt
tamezwarut i as-eben lebab-nne. Wiss amek?
Taggara-ya, uale ur ttwali ara aas Wiza am
zik, kcem ffe, ula er turi ur d-tettas ara.
A Wiza d acu i d-tesnulfa akka? Anda i
tettarra. ni tebi ad nnen yiarren-im deg
tesdawit? Tesa-tt-id seg wul, tenna-k : Mazal ur
tfaqe ara. D acu ara d-tefk turi? Teri ne
teqqime ur iban anda i netteddu, rnu temi d afaes.
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Yak qqaren mi ara d-iru lxir ilaq ad as-nefk afus,


ne ala a Tilelli? [...]
Wiza, tereq deg leber n tayri. Tegguma ad dterr aar er deffir. Telha kan d tlufa timeqqranin
akken i as-neqqar. Maca abla-nni-nne ief ttezzin
yikafaren zik, ttnadin ef tleqqimt n urum ma tella,
tual tsettef d iyuza d tteffa, atg. Newhem anwa-t
ugellid-a i tessen. Nesseqsa-tt : Waqila d albe n
yimaren i yesan leuro i d-teyyde?
Yiwen n wass, wissen anwa i d-yessawlen i Wiza,
yu-itt lal tessirid..., iban anwa, i wacu aseqsi? Teel
da ddme-d ttilifun-is ad as-ini ur yettqelliq ara... Mi
wala anwa, qqure deg umkan-iw... Ttwali uun-nni
qqare-as : Ala ! D awezi ! D lekdeb ! Ttwali-t
rue deg-sent.....
[Dj. MIMECHE, Gar tudert d lmut (tullist), tasunt Tamazit tura, uun w.2,
yebrir 2002, sb. 99-107.]

Aris 9 : Agdud i yeggullen ur yuri, amek ara d-yeggri ?


Ussan, zerrin, ttemcabin, ulac win i yemgaraden
ef wiyi. Medden, amzun akken zedren deg tikli n
wakud, ad tile akken i ddukulen. I iran yeru, nutni
ur as-ttakin ara, amzun gman-d i tsusmi, ayen i dyusan, qebblen-t melba asteqsi, yelha ne diri-t.
Tafrara, yal wa ad yekker, ad yeddu er wanda i
ixeddem akken ad d-yessis arum-is, akken i qqaren.
Amdegger, asemmi d eyyu, ur ten-ttazen ula d
acemma. Ne ahat er daxel ay ul! D timsizzelt : anwa
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ara yizmiren ad yeggugem sdat wugur n yiilifen,


anwa ara yesssusmen i rregmat, ad iqebbel aar ef
tuyat. Tinzert, ala gar-asen i tt-id-ttmektayen medden,
ma sdat wid i yelsan tizzegzewt ne wid i yesburren
tacat n ukabar-nsen, err iman-ik ur tesli i kra :
tirmegt akken i tra termumeg, awi-d kan ur k-idtettaz ara tsemnet-is! [...]
Azalen, tinzert, tamurt ? Amek akken ?
Ulac win i izemren i uilif am nekni, acal aya i
t-nettebbi am lufan i t-nettrebbi. Nettzuxxu imi aqqaren ulac win i izemren ad ibbib ugar-nne. /../
Agdud i yeggullen ur yuri, amek ara d-yeggri?
er taggara, llan wid i yukin, rran i umezruy takmamt,
zzmen-t, nnuen-t. A tin i a-tgi ay akud! D acu-ya
nekni? Ula d yiwen n lkae ur yecfi, ula d yiwen n
umaru ur yuri. Deg unnar n yieugen, d acu ara dyeg yimi? [...]
Ilemiyen, bdan ttakin-d. Mi steqsan, ufan ala
isan d yicerfan i yeggugmen. Ulac win i yeran, ulac
win i yecfan, ulac win yuran.
Ihi, nnan-as : ma nra ad d-tejbu tefsut, yessefk
ad d-neslal izeigen. Ad nessene iceqfan i yellan
rren iwakken ad d-ibedd, ad d-yekfel ujeqdur i
yunen. Ma nra ad d-tejbu tefsut, yessefk ad nemlil
deg yiqwiren, ad nessi tizzegzewt, ad d-neyu iman
i yerkan, ad d-nessali iuran i yeqquren, ad ten-idnessaki.
Inim : Win i iran tafsut, ad d-yeslal izeigen !.
[Y. OUBELLIL, 2004, Arrac n tefsut, Tizi-Wezzu, Tizrigin n Ugraw
Adelsan Amazi, sb. 9, 10, 10-11.]

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