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Cronologa del Buda, de los Concilios Budistas y de la Conmemoracin de

los 2500 aos del Buda y del Fin del Dharma

La lnea roja es una


representacin
hipottica de la
declinacin del
poder del Samadhi
Se parte de la premisa de que en la poca del
Buda haba grandes contemplativos, para los
cuales la meditacin era una costumbre, una
prctica cotidiana.
Hoy da en cambio, estamos viviendo quiz la
poca de mayor distraccin en la humanidad, ya
que nunca como antes hay cine, radio, televisin,
revistas, peridicos, internet, videojuegos y todo
tipo de gadgets (smarthpone) con miles de APPs,
lo cual provoca dispersin de la mente.
Se dice que estamos entrando al periodo final del
Dharma. Otras versiones que eso ocurrir hasta
dentro de 500 aos.

Ms informacin en:
http://www.slideshare.net/DharmavsKarma/buda-15905303

What is Parinirvana?
The Great Enlightenment
What the Buddha taught. Walpola Rahula

parinibbna: full Nibbna, is a synonym for Nibbna;


this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the
extinction of the 5 groups of existence at the death of
the Holy One, though often applied to it.
Buddhist Dictionary. Manual of Buddhist Terms & Doctrines. By Ven. Nyanatiloka. Buddha
Dharma Education Association Inc. www.buddhanet.net

Qu es el Paranirvana?
La Gran Iluminacin
Lo que el Buda ense. Walpola Rahula

Parinibbna: 'Nibbna completo ", es sinnimo de Nibbana, en este


trmino, por lo tanto, no se refiere exclusivamente a la extincin de los 5
grupos de la existencia de la muerte del Buddha, aunque a menudo se le
aplica.
Diccionario Budista. Manual de Trminos y doctrinas budistas. Por el Ven.
Nyanatiloka. Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. www.buddhanet.net

Imgenes del
Paranirvana del Buda

http://www.bosquetheravada.org/index.php?limitstart=171

Parinibbana: el paso del Buda al Nibbana Final es uno de los motivos


ms frecuentes de la imaginera budista tradicional.

http://www.bosquetheravada.org/508-los-ultimos-dias

Buddha attaining Parinirvana. Statue excavated at the Mahaparinirvana Temple in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

The ancient excavated Buddha-image inside the Parinirvana Temple, Kushinagar

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mahaparinirvana.jpg

Kusinara
Passing away
The Buddha's last days are described in the Pali text called the Great Parinirvana Sutra (Parinirvana meaning "completed nirvana"). The Buddha's living nirvana, achieved
during enlightenment, at death transforms to nirvana without human residue. Self possessed, without psychological pain, untroubled by the thoughts of death, the Buddha
identifies four places of future pilgrimage: the sites of his birth, enlightenment, first sermon, and death. "But don't hinder yourself by honouring my remains," he added.
On reaching the village of Kusinara of the Mallas on the further side of the Hiranyavati river, the Buddha realised that his end was fast approaching. He told Ananda to prepare a
bed for him with its head turned towards the north between two sal trees. Ananda who served him for 20 years was deeply upset. "Don't grieve, Ananda!" the Buddha consoles
him. "The nature of things dictates that we must leave those dear to us. Everything born contains its own cessation. I too, Ananda, am grown old, and full of years, my journey is
drawing to its close, I am turning 80 years of age, and just as a worn-out cart can only with much additional care be made to move along, so too the body of the Buddha can
only be kept going with much additional care".
As desired by the Buddha, the Mallas of Kusinara were informed of his impending death, and they came to pay respects to him. Among them was a mendicant named
Subhadra, a 120 year old Brahmin. He had earlier been turned away by Ananda but when the Buddha overheard this he called the Brahmin to his side. He was admitted to the
Sangha (Buddhist order) and immediately after his conversion he passed away.

When the third quarter of the night approached, the Buddha asked his disciples three times if there were any doubts about the teachings or the disciplines. The Bhikkhus stood
silent. "Not one, Ananda, has misgivings. All will eventually reach enlightenment.
The Buddha then said his final words, "Listen, Bhikkhus, I say this: all conditioned things are subject to decay, strive with diligence for your liberation".
He then passed into meditational absorptions and entered Mahaparinirvana (the great passing away). It was the full moon of the month of Vaisakha (April-May) and the year was
probably between 487 and 483 B.C. However, according to the Sri Lankan tradition and other southeastern countries, it is believed that the Buddha entered Parinirvana in
544-543 B.C.
For the next six days the body of the Great Master was laid in state. Preparations were made for his funeral under the direction of Anirudha a cousin and follower of the Buddha.
On the seventh day, after honouring the body with perfumes and garlands, it was taken to the Mukutbandhana Chaitya, the sacred shrine of the Mallas. The last ceremony was
performed by Maha Kasapa and the body of the Great Master was cremated with due honour. When the cremation was completed the ashes were collected by the Mallas as
relics, which consisted of a skull bone, teeth and inner and outer shrouds. The relics were then distributed into eight shares amongst the representatives of the other eight
Kingdoms which constituted ancient northern India. These relics were again subdivided after King Ashoka decided to build 84,000 stupas. Today these relics are enshrined in
stupas across Asia.

The present temple was built by the Indian Government in 1956 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th year of the Mahaparinivana or 2500 BE (Buddhist Era). Inside this
temple, one can see the famous Reclinging Buddha image lying on its right side with the head to the north. The statue is 6.1 m long and rests on a stone couch. [ see link ]
On the front of the couch are three sculptures, believed to represent Ven. Ananda near the feet, Ven. Subhadda at the middle and Ven. Dabba Malla at the corner. At the centre
is an inscriptionof the 5th century AD, which states the statue was "a gift of the monk Haribala of the Mahavihara and was fashioned by Dinna". This 1500-year old reclining
Buddha image was executed out of one block of red sandstone brough in from Mathura during the Gupta period. It was discovered in 1876 in a dilapidated condition and the
scattered fragments were successfully pieced together.
Excavation showed that the original temple on the site consisted of an oblong hall and antechamber with its entrance facing the west. Large number of bricks with carved
surfaces found among the rubbish indicated that the temple had a barrel-vaulted roof not unlike that on the modern temple.

Gautama's cremation site, Ramabhar Stupa in Uttar Pradesh, India

Ramabhar Stupa (or Rambhar Stupa, Adhana Stupa), in Kushinara (Kushinagar), Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built over a portion of the Buddha's ashes, by the ancient Malla people (the Malla
tribe). It is erected on the spot where the Buddha was cremated.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

Kushinagar : Where Buddha entered mahaparinirvana

http://www.buddhisttours.net/kushinagar.html

http://4grandesverdades.wordpress.com/2009/10/15/los-53-sutras-de-sidharta-gautama-buda/

The Parinirvana Temple with the Parinirvana Stupa, Kushinagar

Elaborado con la colaboracin de Guadalupe Valdez


Traducciones al Ingls y al Francs de Azul Becerra