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FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B

SEC 1G

PHYSIOLOGY B: PITUITARY GLAND


DRA. GAMBOA
July 29.2015

ANATOMY

MAJOR TYPE OF CELLS IN THE ANTERIOR LOBE


1. Chromophils
o Granulated secretory cells
2 types of Chromophils
a. Acidophils 80%, majority
Somatotrophs

growth
hormone (50%)
Lactotrophs prolactin (1030%)
b. Basophils
Gonadotrophs FSH and LH
(20%)
Corticotrophs ACTH and
MSH (10%)
Thyrotrophs TSH (5%)
2. Chromophobes
o Degranulated secretory cells

Also known as: hypophysis


Its a small gland with a diameter of 1cm and
weighs about 0.5 to 1 gram
Situated at the sella turcica
Connected to the hypothalamus via the
Pituitary stalk
Pituitary Land has 2 lobes
1. Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis)
Originates embriologically through the
invagination
of
the
pharyngeal
epithelium or Rathkes pouch
2. Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypohysis)
Originates from the neural tissue
outgrowth from the hypothalamus
Contains large glial cells

POSTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES


The posterior pituitary gland does not produce
any hormone. It only stores the hormones that
are secreted by the hypothalamus particularly
in the magnocellular neurons (supraoptic and
paraventricular).
2 hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland:
1. Anti-diuretic hormone produced in the
supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus
2. Oxytocin produced in the paraventricular
nuclei of the hypothalamus
This hormones are transported from the
hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary gland
via axoplasm neuron nerve fibers
The section of posterior pituitary is controlled
by the nerve signals that originate from the
hypothalamus and terminate in the posterior
pituitary

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B

SEC 1G

There are no releasing and inhibiting hormones


ANJTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES
The sections in controlled by:
o Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones
Released
from
the
hypothalamus and goes to the
target endrocrine glands
o Hypothalamic Inhibitory Hormones
Hormones
Thyrotropin
releasing
hormone (TRH)

Target gland
Anterior
Pituitary

Gonadotrophin
releasing
hormone
(GnRH)
Corticotropin
relaeasing
hormone (CRH)

Anterior
Pituitary

Growth
hormone releasing
hormone
(GHRH)
Growth
hormone
inhibitory
hormone
(somatostatin)
Prolactin
Inbibiting
hormone
(PIH)

Anterior
Pituitary

Anterior
Pituiatry

Action
Stimulates
secretion of
trophic
hormones (TSH)
Stimulates
secretion of
gonadotropes
(FSH, LH)
Stimulates
secretion of
coticotropes
(ACTH)
Stimulates
secretion of
somatotropes
(GH)

Anterior
Pituiatry

Inhibits
secretion of
somatotropes
(GH)

Anterior
Pituiatry

Inhibits synthesis
and secretion of
lactotropes
(prolactin)

ENDOCRINE AXIS
Three levels of Endocrine Axis:
1. Hypothalamus
2. Pituitary Gland
3. Peripheral Endocrine Gland

ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH)


Produced by corticotropes
Stimulates the release of some adrenocortical
hormone in the adrenal cortex
Affects 2 zones in the adrenal cortex: Zona
Fasiculata (Cortisol) and Zona Reticularis
(Androgen)
Affects metabolism of glucose, proteins and fats
Has diurinal pattern with a peak in early
morning and a valley in the later afternoon
Secretion of CRH and ACTH is pulsatile
Regulators:
Stress (neurogenic: fear and systemic: infection)
stimulates adrenal cortex to release cortisol
Hypothalamus -> release CRH -> stimulate pituitary
gland -> release ACTH -> stimulates adrenal cortex ->
release cortisol
Effects:
Decrease in the blood glucose
Increasing the inflammatory response

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B

THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)


One of the pituitary glycoprotein hormones
(TSH, LH and FSH)
Thyrotropes regulates thyroid function by
secreting the hormone thyroid stimulating
hormone
Release during diurinal rhythm
o Highest in overnight
o Lowest in dinnertime
It is a hetero dimer composed of alpha subunit,
called the alpha-glycoprotein subunit and beta
subunit
o Alpha subunit is common to TSH, FSH
and LH
o Beta subunit is specific

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis
Hypothalamus -> release TRH -> stimulates the anterior
pituitary -> release TSH -> stimulate the thyroid gland ->
release thyroid hormones T3, T4
Effect
Thyrotropin control the rate of section of T3
and T4 which control the rate of most
intracellular reactions in the body
If there is a release of T4, peripherally it will be
converted into T3. Target tissues: Heart, liver, gonads,
CNS.
If there is an increase T3 and T4 there will be a negative
feedback to the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus
TSH also has a strong tropic effect and
stimulates hyperthrophy, hyperplasia, and
survival of thyroid epithelial cells
GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (GnRH)
Gonadotrope secretes FSH and LH
Secreted in a pulsatile manner

SEC 1G

Secretions:
1 pulse per hour increase in LH secretion (luteal
phase)
1 pulse in 3 hours increase in FSH secretion (follicular
phase)
Continuous infusion down regulation/decrease of
receptors

Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis
Hypothalamus -> release GnRH (LHRH) -> stimulates
anterior pituitary -> release of LH and FSH -> stimulates
gonads (ovaries and testis) -> release of estrogen,
progesterone, testosterone, inhibin
The FSH will stimulates the ovaries/testis to
produce Inhibin
Increase levels of Inhibin will cause a negative
feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary
gland
In women, progesterone and testosterone has a
negative feedback on the gonadotropic function
at the level of hypothalamus and pituitary
Estrogen levels
A low dose of estrogen negative feedback on
FSH and LH secretion
High estrogen levels maintained for 3 days
cause a surge in LH (ovulation will occur) and to
a lesser extent, FSH secretion (positive
feedback)

PROLACTIN
Produced by Lactotrope
Structurally related to GH and HPL (Human
Placental Lactogen)
Acts on non-endocrine cells: mammary gland
It is normally under tonic inhibition by the
hypothalamus: Dopamine
It is one of the many hormones released in
response to stress
Stimulated by TRH and PRH

Actions:
Physiological development of the breast and

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B


milk production
Increase prolactin will increase dopamine thus
inhibiting GnRH. This will decrease FSH and LH
and will inhibit ovulation
Inhibits spermatogenesis via decrease in GnRH
Factors that increase Prolactin Secretion
o Breastfeeding
o Dopamine Antagonist
o Sleep
o Strees
o Estrogen

Factors that decreases the Prolactin Secretion


o Dopamine
o Dopamine Agonist
o Somatostatin
o Increase prolactin will cause a negative
feedback
Abnomalities of Prolactin Secretion:
1. Hypoprolactinemia
- Failure to lactate
2. Hyperprolactinemia
- Galactorrhea
- Inhibition of GnRH will cause
amenorrhea that will cause failure to
ovulate
- A decrease in testosterone will cause a
loss of potency and libido
GROWTH HOROMONE
Produced by somatotropes
Also called as somatotrophic hormone or
somatotropin
Half-life: 6-20mins
Plasma lever is higher in infants and children
than in adults.
Has diurinal rhythm: peak is in morning before
awakening and lowest during the day
Secretion is pulsatile
One of the stress hormone
Also released during stress

SEC 1G

Hypothalamus -> release GHRH -> stimulated the


anterior pituitary -> release of GH -> targets: bones,
tissues, muscles and the liver
Metabolic Effects of Growth
hormone:
1. Anabolic
o Stimulates
transport of amino acids into the
cell thus increasing cell CHON
which will be used information
of proteins and represses
proteolysis
2. Diabetogenic
o Inhibits utilization of free fatty acids
o Increase insulin secretion -> beta cells
exhaustions -> insulin resistance
3. Ketogenic
o Lipolysis -> increase breakdown of
stored fat -> increase free fatty acids
->ketosis
o Increase acetoacetic acid in the liver
Direct Effects of Growth Hormone:
1. Decrease glucose uptake and utilization by the
cells
2. Increase lipolysis
3. Increase protein synthesis in muscle cells thus
increasing the lean body mass
4. Production of IGF-1 in the liver
Insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1)
Stimulate uptake of amino acid in the target
cells that promotes protein synthesis thus
promoting linear growth
Increase protein synthesis in muscle cells will
increase body mass
Increase protein synthesis in most organs will
increase organ size
Effect on Adipose tissue
Stimulates lipolysis breakdown of stored fat

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B


realeasing now the Free Fatty Acids
GH releases Ghrelin
Ghrelin is found in the stomach. It increased
your appetite

SEC 1G

ABNORMALITIES OF THE PITUITARY GLAND


1. Panhypopituitarism
- Affects both anterior and posterior
pituitary gland
- Decrease secretion of all anterior
pituitary hormones
- It can be: congenital, occurs suddenly or
slowly at any time during life, results
from a pituitary tumor
A panhypopituitarism in adult
- Conditions
could
be:
craniopharyngiomas/chromophobe
tumor
- General
Effects:
hypothyroidism,
decrease production of glucocorticoid,
suppressed secretion of gonadotropic
hormones

GH secretion is increased by:


o Decrease blood glucose (hypoglycemia) most
potent stimulator
o Decrease blood free fatty acid
o Starvation or fasting
o Ghrelin
o Protein Deficiency
o Trauma, stress, excitement
o Exercise
o Testosterone
o Estrogen
o Deep Sleep (stage II and IV)
o GHRH

GH secretion is decreased by:


o GHIH Somatostatin
o Increased somatomedin
o Obesity
o Hyperglycemia
o Aging
o Increased blood Free Fatty acid
o Exogenous GH

2. Frolichs Syndrome
- Adipogenitalis syndrome (involves
hypothalamus and pituitary gland)
Adiposogenital Dystrophy
- Usually associated with tumours of the
hypothalamus
causing
increased
appetite and depressed secretion of
gonadotropin
- Rare childhood metabolic disorder
characterized by: obesity, growth
retardation and retarded development
of the genital organs.
3. Simmonds Disease
- Destruction of hypothalamus and
pituitary gland
4. Sheehans Syndrome
- Destruction of adenohypophysis during
pregnancy due to massive bleeding thus
causing necrosis of the pituitary gland
ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH GROWTH
HORMONE
Dwarfism
Pre-pubertal GH deficiency
Generalized deficiency of anterior pituitary

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B

secretion
Well-proportional
Does not pass through puberty
No hypothyroidism
No mental retardation
Could have sexual infantilism
Cute dwarf

Other Dwarfism
1. Laron Dwarfism
- GH insensitivity due to a defect in GH
receptors and a marked decrease in
IGF-1
2. African Pygmies
- Rate of GH secretion is normal or high
but IGF-1fails to increase at the time of
puberty
3. Glucocorticoid excess
4. Cretinism
- Thyroid hormone deficiency
- Ugly dwarf
Excess in Growth Hormone
1. Gigantism
- Excessive
GH
secretion
before
adolescence -> giant
- Full blown diabetes mellitus -> increase
blood glucose level (hyperglycemia)
2. Acromegaly
- Acidophilic
tumors
occur
after
adolescence
- Bone can become thicker, soft tissues
can continue to grow
- Enlargement of hands and feet
- Course facial features
- Visceralomegaly (tongue, liver, kidney)
- Skin thickening

ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)


Short polypeptide, 9 amino acid residue
Uses the following receptors
o V1a vasoconstrictive effects
o V2 antidiuretic effects
Half-life = 15-20mins
Essential for water balance
Affects facultative water reabsorption in the

SEC 1G

kidneys (DCT nad CD)


Excitatory Stimuli for ADH Release
o Increased ECF osmolality
o Hypotension
o Pain
o Emotion, Stress
o Exercise
o Warm/Hot Environment
o Standing
o Angiotensin
o Nicotine, Clofibrate, Carbamazipine
Decrease H20 -> increase ECF osmolality -> increase
secretion of ADH -> increase H20 permeability in DCT
and CD -> decrease urine volume, increase urine
tonicity, decrease ECF osmolality to normal
Inhibitory Factors for ADH Release
o Decrease ECF osmolality
o Overhydration
o Hypertension
o Hypervolemia
o Alcohol intake
o Cold/cool environment
Excess body H20 -> decrease osmolality -> inhibition of
ADH secretion -> decrease H2O reabsorption in DCT and
CD -> increase urine volume, decrease urine tonicity
and ECF osmolality increases to normal

DISORDERS OF ADH SECRETION


1. Central Diabetes Insipidus
- Decrease ADH secretion
2. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Absence of receptors for ADH in the DCT and CD
Clinical Features:

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Hypotension
Dilute Urine

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU

FEU-NRMF INSTITUE OF MEDICINE: PHYSIOLOGY B


Hypernatremia
Increase ECF osmolality
3. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of ADH
- Increase secretion of ADH
- Possibly due to tumors, bronchogenic
cancers

SEC 1G

Positive Feedback Loop


Stimulus: baby sucking the nipples -> suckling sends
impulse to your hypothalamus -> produce oxytocin ->
secrete in the posterior pituitary ->hypothalamus will
signal posterior pituitary to release oxytocin -> oxytocin
will be released into the blood stream -> stimulate milk
ejection from the mammary gland -> milk is released
into the baby

Clinical Features
Water retention and weight gain
Edema
Hypertension
Serum dilution
OXYTOCIN
Increased oxytocin will stimulate estrogen that
will dominates uterus to contract and initiate
labor
Orgasm will stimulate oxytocin release thus
contracting uterus to facilitate transport of
sperm
Suckling the nipple
Actions of Oxytocin
1. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells in the
mammy glands
- Milk is forced from the alveoli into the
ducts and delivered to the infant
- Mechanism: Milk letdown or Milk
Ejection
2. Contraction of the uterus
- During pregnancy the number of
oxytocin receptors increases as
parturition approaches

2nd Sem AY 2015-2016 | Trans By: PINGU