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VOL. 5, NO.

1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145


ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

PROXIMATE, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRIENT COMPOSITIONS


OF SOME FRUITS, SEEDS AND LEAVES OF SOME PLANT
SPECIES AT UMUDIKE, NIGERIA
Dike M. C.
Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria
E-Mail: michael.dike@ymail.com

ABSTRACT
Proximate, phytochemical and nutrient compositions of fruits, seeds and leaves of some plant species were studied
at the University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. A total of 15 fruits/seeds and 16 leaves of some plant species were
collected at the rainforest at Umudike, and the nearby forests to assess their suitability as food. The edible parts of each
fruits/seeds of each plant species were collected in separately labeled and marked polythene bags. The proximate,
phytochemical and nutrient compositions of each sample were analyzed. There were significant differences between the
species in the percent carbohydrate, ash, protein, fat and fibre. All the fruits contained between 8.82 and 12.66 percent
moisture, between 30.18 and 85.64 percentage carbohydrate and between 0.40 and 38.40 percent fat. Fat was highly
represented in the family of Annonaceae. Calcium, manganese, potassium, sodium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and lead were
at low concentration of less than 2.0 percent. The leaves had higher percent protein, carbohydrate, moisture content and
higher concentration of saponin than those of the fruits. Generally improved varieties should be provided to farmers by
Universities and Forestry Departments. It is recommended that farmers and industries should roast or boil these fruits/seeds
and leaves to reduce the toxic elements in them. Such improved varieties of these plant species should be produced by
Universities and sold to farmers at reduced prices.

Keyword: fruits, seeds, leaves, proximate composition, nutrients, chromium, cadmium, hydrogen cyanide.

INTRODUCTION crops for fruits, seeds and vegetables. Also, knowledge of


The tropical rainforest of Nigeria is located at the their composition would enable one to know the better
southern part of the country between latitudes 50301 and type of fruits, seeds and leaves to eat or feed to animals at
60401N and longitudes 30451 and 90851E (Onochie, 1979). any given time. Some species due to their aroma and
Within the rainforest are some plant species producing delicacy are eaten irrespective of their composition. There
edible fruits, seeds or leaves (Keay, 1989). Presently, most is the possibility that some fruits, seeds or leave could
of the original rainforest areas has been logged, cleared contain very small quantity of either anti-nutritional or
and cultivated with arable crops. During the weeding poisonous chemicals. For example, Anacardium
operations, coppice shorts and sprouts from roots were occidentale nut-shells contain vesicant poisons, 90 percent
detached from existing stumps and roots. Also, seedlings aracardic acid and 10 percent cardol (Ihekoronye and
resulting from germinated plant seeds were uprooted Ngoddy, 1985). Also Lupinus albus seeds contain erucic
(Dike, 2003).The poor dispersal appendages of many acid which is hazardous to health at high amount (Haq,
rainforest trees species (Dike, 2000) have contributed to 1993). There is the need to identify the poisonous
the observation made by Dike (2000) at Umudike, Nigeria chemicals and assess their cumulative adverse effects on
that most fruits and seeds of the rainforest emergent, upper the consumers. Presumably, if the chemicals are not
and lower canopy tree species could not fly into removed during processing, the ill effects resulting from
abandoned farmlands over 200 m away from the the poisonous chemicals consumed would manifest latter
dispersing tree species. and pose a serious threat to life in future. This paper
Okafor, (1993) reported that some plant species reports the proximate, phytochemical and nutrient
were in the process of being lost. Recently, a total of 30 compositions of 15 fruits/seeds and 16 leaves. The result
plant species producing edible fruits, seeds and leaves in of this study will provide additional information to
south-eastern Nigerian rainforest have been reported as nutritionists, health officers, industrialists, homestead and
endangered (Meregini, 2005). Moreover, within the distant farmers for both raw material production and for
rainforest, 115 plant species whose uses were not local consumptions.
classified have been reported as endangered (Oguntala, et
al., 2000). Many of these edible fruits/seeds and leaves are MATERIALS AND METHODS
collected mainly from the wild and their habitats are
currently threatened. There is paucity of literature on the Study area
proximate, phytochemical and nutrient compositions of The study areas are the 5-ha rainforest at the
these fruits/seeds and leave. There is need to understand University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria and the near
their suitability for either food or fodder. A proper by forests. Umudike lies between latitudes 50271 and
understanding of their proximate, phytochemical and 50321N and longitudes 70321 and 70351E. The climate is of
nutrient compositions will lower the over dependence of the equatorial type. The minimum and maximum top soil
many communities and industries on few known arable temperatures are 16.0 and 450C, respectively. There are

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

two seasons: a wet and dry season. The wet season starts plant species were collected using a separately numbered
from mid-March and end in mid-November. The dry polythene bag. These leaves were transported to the
season continues till the mid-march of the following year. Ecological Center of the University where they were
In the month of August, there is a dry spell of between 5 cleaned and their names confirmed at the Departmental
and 10 days. In the months of December and January, the Herbarium using the keys in the Flora of West Tropical
dry and dusty harmattan wind blows intermittently. The Africa (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954-1972). The part of
total annual rainfall ranges between 1500 and 3000 mm. each plant species for analysis was labeled, numbered and
Each year, there are two peaks in rainfall in the months of put into a numbered envelope. Each envelope was carried
June/July and September. The humidity is high and often to the laboratory for analysis of the proximate,
above 60 percent during the dry season (Dike, 2000; phytochemical and nutrient compositions according to
2003). However, the humidity fluctuated between 1100 AOAC (2000) procedures.
and 1500 GMT during the day and could be as low as 45 The sample materials were dried at 60oC for 6
percent at the peak of the dry season. hours. Each dried sample was milled with a Thomas Wiley
The vegetation is tropical rainfall (White, 1983). Milling machine and sieved with 1.00 mm sieve. Each
Most of the rainforest areas outside forest reserves have sample was stored in a labeled bottle. To obtain the
been logged and farmed. Presently, the resultant secondary moisture content of each plant sample, 5.0 g sample was
forest re-growths are in various stages of degradation. The dried for one hour in a Fisher Isotemp Oven (Model 175)
abundant trees are Alchornea cordifolia, Anthonotha at 110o C. For a comparison, the moisture content of each
macrophylla, Elaeis guineensis, Dialium fresh sample was also determined. The ash content of
guineense,Pentaclethra macrophylla and Piptadeniastrum processed sample was done by the Murfle Furnace
africanum. Some plant species such as Chromolaena Ignition Method at 550oC as is described by Pearson
odorata and Raphia hookeri are abundant at some (1976). Fat was determined by the continuous solvent
localized areas such as abandoned farm lands and swampy extraction method using a Sohxlet apparatus (James,
areas, respectively. The topography is gentle. According to 1995). Crude fiber was determined by the Weende method
the Federal Department of Agriculture and Land while semi-micro Kjedhalh method was adopted in protein
Resources (FDALR, 1990), the soil in most places at determination. Calcium and magnesium were determined
Umudike is sandy clay loam. The soil is deep and without by the Versenate Complexometric titration method using
stones in many places. The soil parent material is the pre- Ethylene Diamine Tetracetic (EDTA) as indicator.
Cambrian basement complex. Potassium and sodium were separately determined by the
Flame photometer. Phosphorus was determined by the
METHODOLOGY Vanado Molybdate-Yellow method (AOAC, 2000). The
The plant species whose fruits/seeds were studied essential nutritive minerals and trace elements were
were Afzelia africana, Canarium schweinfurthii, determined on a dry matter bases (Pearson, 1976; James,
Carpolobia lutea, Dacryodes edulis, Dennettia tripetala, 1995; AOAC, 2000).
Detarium macrocarpum, Dialium guineense, Gambeya
albida, Garcinia kola, Landolphia hirsuta, Monodora RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
myristica, Persea americana, Spondias mombin, Of the 15 fruits/seeds studied, 80 percent of the
Tetrapleura tetraptera, and Xylopia aethiopica. The plant plant species have edible fruit mesocarp and endocarp.
species whose leaves were studied include Adansonia The seeds having edible seed tegmen and endocarp formed
digitata, Afzelia africana, Elaeis guineensis, Gambeya 40 percent. The entire fruit and seed of two plant species
albida, Gnetum africanum, Gongronema latifolium, Dennettia tripetala and Xylopia aethiopica in the family
Landolphia hirsuta, Lecaniodiscus cupanioides, Morinda Annonaceae are edible. (Table-1). The percent moisture
lucida, Ocimum gratissimum, Piper guineense, content, crude protein, fat, fiber, ash and carbohydrate
Pterocarpus mildbraedii, Pterocarpus soyauxii, Talinum vary between plant families and species both in the
triangulare, Telfairia occidentalis and Vernonia fruits/seeds and leaves studied (Tables 2 and 3). The
amygdalina. The distribution of most of these plant percent moisture content for the fruits/seeds and leaves
species have been described by Hutchinson and Dalziel ranged between 8.82 and 12.66 and 5.28 and 9.29 percent,
(1954-1972) and Keay, (1989). respectively. However, the moisture content obtained with
A reconnaissance survey was done to locate the the fresh samples prior to drying had wilder moisture
fruit bearing plant species at both the 5-ha rainforest and content range of between 20.26 and 68.49 (Table-1.)
the nearby forest at the University of Agriculture, In the studied fruits/seeds, the family Annonaceae
Umudike, Nigeria. The positions of a total of 69 fruits with 9.86 percent had the highest value of crude protein
bearing plant species were recorded using the while the family of Guttiferae with 1.28 percent had the
Geographical Positioning Instrument. Out of these, a total least value. The range is lower than between 16.0 and 35.1
of 15 plant species producing edible fruits/seeds and 16 percent recorded in legumes such as Arachis hypogaea
plant species producing leaves were selected at random. and Soya beans, respectively (Aykroyd and Doughty,
Each plant species was marked with a numbered 1982). Within the species, the percent crude protein varied
aluminum tags. For each plant species producing edible between 1.28 and 11.90 in Garcinia kola and Xylopia
fruits/seeds, a total of 50 ripened fruits were collected aethiopica, respectively (Table-2). The percent fat was
from marked and numbered plant species. Leaves of each least in the family of Anacardiaceae with 1.98 while the

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

family of Lauraceae had the highest value of 37.03. Within cupanioides, respectively. Adansonia digitata, a savanna
the species Dialium guineense had the least percent fat of tree species planted at the nearby forest had the highest
0.40, while Dacryodes edulis had the highest value of concentration of Hydrogen cyanide of 13.27. Many of
38.40. The recorded 37.03 percent fat for Persea these plant species such as Gnetum africanum have less
americana is higher than between 17 and 20 percent value than 0.01 mg/kg hydrogen cyanide. However, some plant
reported for Persea americana (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, species such as Gongronema latifolium, Morinda lucida,
1985) presumably because of the adequate plant care Piper guineense, Pterocarpus mildbraedii and Vernonia
given to this plant by the university. The percent fibre was amygdalina had over 4.0 mg/kg Hydrogen cyanide. These
least in the family of Anacardiaceae with 0.54, while the plant species leaves needed processing to reduce the
sub-family of Mimosoideae with 36.88 had the highest percentage concentration of hydrogen cyanide before they
percent fibre. Aykroyd and Doughty (1982) recorded are consumed. Saponin, although in low concentration was
lower crude fibre values of between 2.1 and 7.6 in 23 available in all the leaves studied. However, washing of
legumes in human nutrition. Within the species, Xylopia the leaves reduces its toxic effect in Vernonia amygdalina.
aethiopica had the highest value of 38.60 percent while The percentage of calcium, manganese, potassium,
Spondias mombin had the least value of 0.54 percent. The sodium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and lead were in low
percent ash was generally less than 11 percent. The least concentration of below ten percent. Few scientists such as
value was 2.82 percent in Dialium guineense, while the Badra (1993). Dike (2009) also recorded low
highest value was 10.36 percent in Tetrapleura tetraptera. concentration of these minerals in Amaranthus caudatus,
The percent carbohydrate was the highest in the sub- Celosia laxa, Corchorus olitorius, Talinum triangulare,
family of Caesalpinidea with 90.02 but the least value of Uvaria chamae, Carpolobia lutea, Gmelina arborea and
35.03 was recorded in sub-family of Mimosoideae. The Allophyllus africanus plant species.
moisture content ranged between 8.82 and 12.66 and had In the sample studied, there were more protein,
the least value in Persea americana. The percent dry carbohydrate and moisture content in leaves than in the
matter ranged between 87.34 and 91.18 and was highest in fruits/seed. However, the high moisture content of
Xylopia aethiopica and least in Detarium macrocarpum. between 38 and 85 percent in fruits and leaves
The percent alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, (Ojimelukwu et al., 2005) was observed in all fruits and
anithocyanoid, steroids, tannins, and stands were low and leaves analyzed in the fresh samples only (Table-1). Many
in most cases less than 2.0 percent (Table-2). Hydrogen elements were contained in both the leaves and fruits
cyanide had values of between 0.00 and 15.60. Mineral (Table-3). Some of these elements such as lead, chromium
elements such as calcium, manganese, potassium, sodium, and cadium are likely to have cumulative side effects
phosphorus were represented, although in quantities of especially when large quantity of the fruits and leaves has
less than 2.0 percent (Table-2). These elements should be been consumed. In this study, it was observed that the
reduced to two or three elements so that those allepic to colour or aroma of luscious fruits such as Gambeya
the element removed could eat the fruits/seeds. albida, Dialium guineense caused some people especially
In the leaves, the percent crude protein had the pregnant women to consume many fruits within 24 hours.
highest value of 21.70 in the family of Asteraceae. The Lead, chromium, cadium and other heavy metals (Tables 2
result agrees with Badra, (1993) who recorded crude and 3) contained by these leaves and fruits/seeds could
protein values of between 21.03 and 29.70 for Celosia affect the young nervous system of the child thereby
laxa, Corchorus olitorius, Amaranthus caudatus and adversely affecting the intellectual development and
Talinum triangulare. The family of Gnetaceae had the subsequent behavior of the child. However, these metals at
highest values in both the percent crude fat and fibre with their concentration would have little or no serious effect
7.52 and 33.14 percent, respectively. The family of on the mother. Ojimelukwe et al., (2005) recorded that
Piperaceae had the highest percent ash of 11.04. The many food substitutes were toxic at reverse level but could
percent carbohydrate had the highest and least values in be reverted at lower level nutritionally essential. Those
the families of Euphorbiaceae and Gnetaceae, allergic to some of these elements contained by the
respectively. Also the high concentration of crude fat and fruits/seeds such as lead could suffer because of poor
fibre in the leaves of Gnetum africanum could have knowledge of the composition of the fruits they eat.
contributed to the wide range of acceptability of leaves of Moreover, it takes some time after eating the
Gnetum africanum in the diet of most families in southern fruits and leaves for the effects of the chemicals, to be felt.
Nigeria. Okafor (1981) reported that leaves of Gnetum For example, the leaves of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides
africanum were sold in bundles in most market places. contain high percentage of zinc (15.78) and lead (5.40)
Presently, sprouts from roots of Gnetum africanum are (Table-3). These could have contributed to the death of
planted in compound farms to supplement the quantity of some animals that fed on the leaves. The observation in
uncultivated Gnetum africanum leaves obtained from the similar to that of Williams (1993) who reported anti-
rainforest. The moisture content ranged between 5.28 and nutritional substance such as Oxalic acid in some fruits
9.29 percent in the leaves of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides and leaves. Williams (1993); Badra, (1993) were of the
and Elaeis guineensis, respectively. High moisture content opinion that oxalic acid could be detrimental when it
was also recorded in Talinum triangulare (Badra, 1993). combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate and
The percent alkaloid in the leaves studied ranged between consequently stones in the blood tract. Simultaneously
0.21 and 4.14 in Morinda lucida and Lecaniodiscus consumption of seeds of Plukernetia conophora ( Syn.

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

Tetracarpidum conophorum) with high calcium content Dike M. C. 2000. Aerodynamics of some fruits and seeds
(Okafor, 1981) and a mixture of leaves of Telfairia of some tree families in Nigerian rainforest. Journal of
occidentale, Pterocarpus mildbraedii and Piper guineense Sustainable Agriculture and Environment. 2(2): 300-309.
each with over 17 percent calcium (Table-3) and other
substances having high oxalic acid, could trigger off the Dike M. C. 2003. Early succession on mechanically
formation of stones in the blood tracts. The excess calcium cleared moist forestland in south-eastern Nigerian
binds with oxalic acid to form calcium oxalate which is rainforest. Journal of Tropical Forest Resources. 19(2):
insoluble. Stones in the body could cause Oxalaemia, 104 -116.
Oxaluria or rot of the affected parts and consequently
death to the person if the stones are not removed. A person Dike M.C. 2009. Proximate and phytochemical
could doubt how stones entered the body system not compositions of some browse plant species of southeastern
knowing that it was from the food one consumed. Nigeria. Global Journal of Agricultural science.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Haq N. 1993. Lupins (Lupinus species). In: Williams, J.T.
The high protein content in leaves could have (ed.) Pulses and Vegetables. Chapman and Hall, 2-6
supplementary effect for the daily protein requirement of boundary rows, London SEI8 HN. p. 245.
the body. According to Oke (1966) vegetables, about 5.0g
dry materials per meal are taken per family twice a day in Hutchinson J. and Dalziel J.M. 1954. Flora of West
southeastern Nigeria. With the rapid rate of over 1.4 Tropical Africa. Keay R.W.J. Crown Agent London, U.K.
percent population growth rate in Nigeria (Madu, 2001);
most families presently take vegetables three times per Ihekoronye A.I and Ngoddy P.O. 1985. Integrated Food
day. Meregini (2005) also observed that many indigenous Science and Technology for Tropics. Macmillan
fruits and seeds are used for staple foods, hospitality and Education Ltd. London and Oxford. p. 386.
chewing at leisure times by people in southeastern Nigeria.
The symptoms of protein energy malnutrition such as James C.S. 1995. The Analytical Chemistry of Foods.
Kwashiorkor and Marasmus were rarely observed among New York: Chapman and Hall.
dwellers of this region presumable because of the protein
obtained from these fruits/seeds and leaves. However, Keay R.W.J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Clarendo Press,
these edible plant parts have many mineral elements in Oxford. U. K. p. 476.
them that injurious to health. A similar observation has
been reported in Musa sapientum fruits which contain at Madu I.A. 2001. Population and Environmental Problems.
least 200 individual volatile compounds such as isoamyl In: Ofomata, G.E.K. and Phil-Eze, P.O. (eds.)
acetate (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). There is, Geographical Perspectives on Environmental Problems
therefore the need for genetic improvement of the edible and Management in Nigeria. pp. 80-95. Jamoe Enterprises
parts of these fruits/seeds and leaves to reduce some of the (Nigeria). p. 327.
toxic chemical contained by the edible parts of some of the
plant species. When the species are genetically improved, Meregini A.O.A. 2005. Some endangered plants
it would result in the availability of the fruits/seeds and producing edible fruits and seeds in southeastern Nigeria.
leaves at most time of the year and minimize the long time Fruits. 60(3): 211-220.
vegetables are stored in refrigerators and the adverse
consequences. The use of improved species could make Ojimelukwe P.C., Asumugha V.U. and Omerie G.C. 2005.
industries and people using these fruits/seeds and leaves to Fundamental of Food Science and Nutrition. BEL’S
achieve maximum gain and have a steady business. It is Books, 38 University roads Nsuka, Nigeria. p. 149.
recommended that modern propagation techniques should
be taught to all communities that produce these plants by Okafor J.C. 1981. Edible indigenous woody plants in the
the Government and Universities. It also recommended rural economy of the Nigerian forest zone. Forest Ecology
that industries should make sure that toxic materials are and Management. 3: 48-55.
not contained in their products either by roasting or boiling
the materials to remove the toxic materials in them. Okafor J.C. 1993. Lost Crop of Nigeria- An Overview. In:
Okojie J.A. and Okali D.U.U. (Eds.) Lost crop of Nigeria:
REFERENCES Implication for Food Security. University of Agriculture,
Abeokuta Conference proceedings. Series No.3 Gbemi
AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis International. Sadipo Press. Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. pp. 2-32.
17th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists,
Washington DC. USA. Oke O.L 1966. Chemical studies on some Nigerian
Vegetables. Tropical Science. 8: 128-31.
Badra T. 1993. Lagos spinach (Celosia sp). In: Williams,
J. T (Ed). Pulses and vegetables. Chapman and Hall Inc. Omololu A. 1994. Human Nutrition of Tropical Africa. In:
New York, U.S.A. pp.131-163. Loosli J.K., Onyenuga V.A. and Babatunde G.M. (Eds.).

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

Animal Production in the Tropics. pp.13-17, Heinemann


Educational Books (Nigeria) PLC.

Onochie C.F.A. 1979. The Rainforest Ecosystem- An


Overview. In: D.U.U. Okali (ed.) the Nigerian Rainforest
Ecosystem. pp 1-13. Federal Ministry of Science and
Technology MAB, Ibadan.

Pearson D. 1976. The chemical analysis of foods.


Churchill Livinstone, Edinburgh.

White F. 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. UNESCO, Paris.

Williams J.T. 1993. Introduction: Underutilized Pulse and


Vegetable. In: Williams J.T. (ed.) Pulses and Vegetables.
pp. 1-9. Chapman and Hall Inc. New York, USA.

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

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Table-1. Moisture content of some edible parts of fruits/seeds of some plant species collected at Umudike, Nigeria.
Percent moisture
Edible parts of fruits Edible parts of seeds
content of
# Family Species Sample
Fresh
Pericarp Mesocarp Endocarp Testa Tegmen Edosperm after
sample
sieving
1 Anacardiaceae Spondias mombin 9 9 9 67.7 8.94
Dennettia tripetala 9 9 9 9 9 9 32.14 9.08
Monodora
2 Annonaceae 9 9 9 30.58 9.19
myristica
Xylopia aethiopica 9 9 9 9 9 9 38.60 8.57
Canarium
9 9 9 54.94 8.95
3 Burseraceae schweinfurthii
Dacryodes edulis 9 9 9 50.96 9.21
Afzelia africana 9 9 20.26 9.54
Detarium
4 Caesalpinioideae 9 9 22.40 12.66
macrocarpum,
Dialium guineense 9 20.60 10.60
5 Guttiferae Garcinia kola 9 9 33.76 8.88
6 Lauraceae Persea americana 9 9
Tetrapleura
7 Mimosoidea
tetraptera
8 Moraceae Landolphia hirsuta 9 9 34.24 8.90
9 Polygalaceae Carpolobia lutea 9 9 9 66.79 10.22
10 Sapotaceae Gambeya albida 9 9 67.70 9.62
Range: Range:
Percentage
20.26 8.82
frequency 40 80 80 20 40 40
to to
of occurrence
68.49 12.66

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science
©2006-2010 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

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Table-2. Proximate, phytochemical and nutrient compositions of edible parts of fruits/seeds of 15 plant species collected at Umudike, Nigeria.

Anacardiaceae

Polygalaceae
Mimosoidea
Guttiferaee

Lauraceae
Sapotacea

Moraceae

Range
Annonaceae Burseracrae Caesalpinioideae

Gamb- Canarium Dacryod- Persea Tetraple- Carpolo-


Spondias Dennettia Monodora Xylopia Afzelia Detarium Dialium Garcinia Landolphia
eya schweinfur- es ameri- ura bia
mombin tripetala myristica aethiopica africana macrocarpium guineense kola hirsuta
albida thii edulis cana tetraptera lutea
Moisture 8.82-
8.94 9.08 9.19 8.57 9.72 8.95 9.21 9.54 12.66 10.60 8.88 8.82 8.90 10.22 9.62
content (%) 12.66
Dry matter 87.34-
91.06 90.90 90.81 91.43 90.28 91.05 90.79 90.46 87.34 89.40 91.12 91.18 91.10 89.78 90.38
(%) 91.45
Crude protein 1.28-
9.19 6.14 11.55 11.90 3.26 1.84 1.66 2.10 3.82 3.12 1.28 1.68 8.75 5.95 9.19
(%) 11.90
0.04-
Fat (%) 1.98 9.66 14.46 10.64 3.94 29.62 38.40 4.96 14.64 0.40 6.04 37.03 8.98 9.11 1.99
38.40
Crude fibre 1.88-
0.54 10.42 29.88 38.60 13.40 1.88 2.46 3.12 7.20 3.64 5.32 1.72 36.88 5.80 1.04
(%) 36.88
2.82-
Ash (%) 4.88 5.66 9.58 8.68 4.18 6.12 5.84 4.18 5.12 2.82 6.52 4.71 10.36 7.01 3.74
10.36
Carbohydrate 30.18-
83.41 68.12 34.53 30.18 75.22 60.54 51.64 85.64 69.22 90.02 80.78 54.86 35.03 72.13 84.04
(%) 90.02
0.21-
Alkaloid (%) 0.96 1.21 1.32 1.44 0.64 0.28 0.18 1.38 1.22 1.38 0.42 0.14 1.46 0.21 1.31
1.46
0.16-
Saponnin (%) 0.26 0.29 0.16 0.18 0.52 0.54 0.38 0.26 0.24 0.18 0.34 0.23 0.18 0.23 0.14
0.52
Flavonoid 0.19 0.04-
0.04 0.13 0.18 0.22 0.56 0.18 0.16 0.18 0.18 0.16 0.38 0.25 0.24 0.65
(%) 0.65
Anthocyanic 0.04-
0.24 0.17 0.21 0.18 0.07 0.12 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.06 0.20 0.08 0.07
(%) 0.21
HCN 0.00-
0.97 0.02 2.04 0.00 8.59 4.40 0.02 12.60 15.60 6.80 12.40 14.8 0.00 1.04 2.14
(mg/kg) 0.56
0.11-
Sterols (%) 1.01 1.09 1.08 1.62 1.01 1.22 1.32 0.82 1.26 0.46 0.44 1.88 1.14 0.45 0.41
1.88
0.12-
Tannin (%) 0.14 0.21 0.18 0.24 0.16 0.36 0.16 0.18 0.24 0.26 0.24 0.12 0.22 0.22 0.28
0.36
0.00-
Stand (%) 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.01 8.42 18.20 0.00 15.44 1.22 6.40 0.09 0.00
18.20
Ca
802 261 194 186 120.4 140 210 196 173 199 241 218 136 227 180
(mg/100mg)
Mg 243 92 64 76 21.60 40

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VOL. 5, NO. 1, JANUARY 2010 ISSN 1990-6145
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K 128 239 508 412 230 241


Na 103 47 42 56 38.2 49
P 708 250 233 248 234 241
Fe 96 90 112 99 94.8 93
Zn 132 126 119 108 114.3 111
Pb 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.01-
0.02 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.02
0.04
Cd 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01-
0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
0.02
0.004 0.002 0.002 0.001-
Cr 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.002 0.004 0.003 0.002
0.004

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Table-3. Proximate, phytochemical and mineral compositions of some plant leaves collected at the rain forest of Umudike, Nigeria.
Asclepiadaceae

Caesalpinioide

Cucurbitaceae
Bombacaceae

Sapindaceae
Portulaceae

Sapotaceae

Asteraceae
Gnetaceae
Rublaceae

Moraceae

Piperacea
Labiatae

Palmae
ae
Papilionoideae

Range
Landol- Pterocar- Piper
Gongronema Adansonia- Afzelia Morinda Ocimum Talinum Telfairia Genetum Elaeis Pterocarpus Lecaniodiscus. Gambeya Vernonia
phia pus guineen-
latifolium digitata africana lucida gratissimum triangulare occidentalis africanum guineensis soyauxii cupanioides albida amygdalina
hirsuta mildbraedii se
Moisture 5..28-
8.94 6.51 8.65 8.25 9.20 9.24 8.64 9.18 8.82 9.29 8.66 8.96 9.02 5.28 8.73 8.82
content (%) 9.29
Dry matter 92..50-
91.06 93.49 91.35 91.73 90.80 90.76 91.36 90.82 91.18 90.71 91.34 91.04 90.98 94.72 91.27 91.18
(%) 94.72
Crude 2.40-
9.80 11.35 11.43 13.53 13.40 2.40 4.20 15.05 16.45 8.40 18.55 15.40 12.80 14.69 14.58 21.70
protein (%) 21.70
0.40-
Fat (%) 6.18 1.15 5.29 4.29 3.04 0.40 0.68 7.52 5.42 4.08 4.26 6.18 2.86 3.94 4.71 2.74
7.52
Crude fibre 1.00-
8.74 4.97 31.11 22.51 8.66 1.00 2.32 33.14 16.08 21.46 21.32 18.98 3.24 4.84 18.15 10.96
(%) 33.14
2.00-
Ash (%) 5.78 4.21 7.33 4.96 5.12 2.00 6.44 6.04 6.30 6.36 5.78 7.14 11.04 8.26 6.21 9.88
11.04
Carbohydrate 38.25-
69.50 78.32 44.84 54.71 69.78 94.20 86.36 38.25 55.75 59.70 50.09 52.3 70.06 68.27 56.35 54.72
(%) 94.20
0.21-
Alkaloid (%) 1.38 1.53 0.37 0.21 1.28 0.96 1.54 2.12 1.26 0..46 1.22 1.36 1.62 4.14 0.43 1.52
4.14
Saponnin 0.10-
0.54 0.31 0.29 0.40 0.22 0.10 0.16 0.28 0.84 0.68 0.74 1.02 0.32 0.70 0.36 0.20
(%) 1.02
Flavonoid 0.02-
1.28 1.26 0.41 0.35 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.22 0.38 0.32 0.44 0.32 0.18 1.98 0.51 0.04
(%) 1.98
Anthocyanic 0.02-
0.08 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.12 0.02 0.04 0.02
(%) 0.12
HCN 0.00-
10.9 21.63 36.95 52.68 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 36 13.76 28.59 46.63 4.24 0.00 22.16 6.22
(mg/kg) 46.63
0.02-
Sterols (%) 0.26 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.64 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.12 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04
0.64
0.08-
Tannin (%) 0.32 0.58 0.28 0.19 0.18 0.08 0.13 0.13 0.22 0.44 0.31 0.28 0.18 0.95 0.16 0.28
0.95
0.00-
Stand (%) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00
Ca 0.21-
16.03 8.45 28.72 42.75 21.00 24 17.1 13 40.08 60.12 56.11 0.21 20.80 19.0 25.38 10.80
mg/100mg 60.12
Mg 5.50-
16.80 95.86 10.0 13.60 22.4 12.2 26.5 31 14.40 12.00 14.49 10.92 22.00 5.50 11.20 40.50
(mg/100g) 95.86
K
244.8 280 410 392 344 610 24.5 80 330 428.30 265 496 390 112.5 250 375 80-610
(mg/100g)

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Na
11.32 12.46 11.92 9.57 42 10 17.1 8.0 14.8 13.34 11.8 13 7.0 5.3 9.07 30 5.3-42
(mg/100g)
P (mg/100g) 326.95 96.28 521.33 458.24 208 340 610 110 446 248 322 362 210 133 399.12 410 110-610
4.10-
Fe (mg/kg) 7.83 22.6 66.32 8.24 8.4 4.10 10 16 42.4 22.8 68.2 11.20 22 10.20 11.38 34
68.20
2.08-
Zn (mg/kg) 13.44 2.08 9.36 1.82 5.0 10 18 28.8 16.8 18.20 31.4 18.14 3.14 15.78 16.40 5.20
31.40
0.06-
Pb (mg/kg) 0.20 0.53 20.08 0.02 0.26 0.18 0.20 0.66 0.06 0.11 0.21 0.10 0.52 0.55 0.14 0.82
0.82
1.15-
Cu (mg/kg) 2.26 13.20 13.20 1.15 14.20 4.10 6.40 14.20 10.0 2.20 8.40 16.0 14.80 15.0 18.66 12.46
18.66
0.01-
Cd (mg/kg) 0.07 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.05
0.07
Cr (mg/kg) 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.010.03

16

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