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BUSINESS

ORGANIZATION

PROFESSIONAL SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS


ADMINISTRATION
ROOM: 201
TIME: TOMORROW
SUBJECT: ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS

ESTUDENTS :
ALCARRAZ COST CHRISTIAN YOSSER
ELIZABETH LOYAGA RETUERTO

INDICE:
CAPITULATE I
-EVOLUTION OF THE DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL
-AndSPRITU EMPRENDEDOR- PROFITS.- THE EMPRENDEDOR: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS;
THE SOCIOLOGICAL.- OBSTACLES.- HOW REINVENTAR THE ORGANISATIONS?- THE
REINGENIERA OF THE CORPORACIN.
-THE QUALITY: DEFINITION.-HISTORY OF THE QUALITY.-THE 14 POINTS OF DEMING.-MODEL OF
BALDRIGE.-EUROPEAN MODEL QUALITY.-ORGANISATIONS FOR A WORLD GLOBALIZADO, IMPORTANCE, NATURE OF THE
ORGANISATIONS LIKE SYSTEM. DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEORY OF THE ORGANISATIONS.
-CONCEPT And SOURCES OF THE POWER, AUTHORITY, DELEGATION, THE PLACES
-CHANGES And INNOVATION: EXCHANGE RATES PLANNED.-APPROACHES FOR THE
STRUCTURAL CHANGE

CAPITULATE II
-THE CREATIVITY And THE INNOVATIONS- THE INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY.- CREATIVITY And
INNOVATIONS IN THE ORGANISATION.- CLIMATE FOR THE CREATIVITY.
-OPEN SYSTEMS And CLOSED.
-DIMENSIONS OF THE DESIGN OF THE ORGANISATION, KEY PRINCIPLES OF THE
ORGANISATION.
-DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL: BASES FOR ONE STRUCTURES TYPES
-DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL: JERARQUIZACIN COORDINATION; DESIGN OF PLACES OF
WORK. -DEPARTAMENTALIZACIN.
-TYPES OF HIGH And LOW STRUCTURES: LINEAR ORGANISATION, LINEAR ORGANISATION
STAFF, FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION.
-HORIZONTAL DIFFERENCE: DIVISIONAL, MARKET, PRODUCT, CLIENT, GEOGRAPHIC, MATRIX,
PROCESSES, TEAMS And HIGH PERFORMANCE.
-ORGANIGRAMAS: TYPES OF STRUCTURES I FUNCTION, MULTIDIVISIONAL, TERRITORIAL,
PRODUCTS, NORMS OF DESIGN (TECHNICAL And DIAGRAMACIN).

CAPITULATE III
-ORGANIGRAMAS: TYPES OF STRUCTURES II, PRODUCTS, MARKET, CLIENT, PROCESSES.
-MODELS ORGANIZACIONALES: INTELLIGENT, STRATEGIC OF BUSINESS, BASED IN TEAM,
CORPORACIONES HORIZONTAL, WITHOUT BORDERS, VIRTUAL, IN NETWORK, ATOMIC,
PYRAMIDS INVESTED.
-STRUCTURING And RELATIONS ORGANIZACIONALES, AUTHORITY, POWER And CLASSES.
-DESCRIPTION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE MANUALS: CLASSIFIED BY HIS CONTENT, BY HIS
SPECIFIC FUNCTION, GENERAL And SPECIFIC.
-STRUCTURE OF An ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL, CLASSIFICATION And DIAGRAMACIN.

-ELABORACIN OF An ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL.

EVOLUTION OF THE DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL


To. The classical approach
The first managers and authors on administration looked for the best way, a
series of principles to create a structure organizacional that worked well in all
the situations. Max Weber, Frederick Taylor and Henri Fayol were the main
taxpayers to the called classical approach to design organisations. They
thought that the most efficient organisations and effective had a hierarchical
structure in which the members of the organisation, in his actions, were guided
by a feeling of obligation in the organisation and by a series of rule and rational
regulations. As Weber, when these organisations had developed fully,
characterised by the specialisation of tasks, the nominations by merits, the
offer of opportunities so that his members did career, the routine of activities
and an impersonal and rational climate in the organisation, Weber called it
bureaucracy.
Weber Praised the bureaucracy because it established rules to take decisions,
a chain of clear control and to the promotion of the people with base in the
capacity and the experience, in place of the favouritism or the whim. Likewise, it
admired that the bureaucracy specified, with clarity, the authority and the
responsibility which, in his opinion, facilitated the evaluation of the results and
his reward. So much he like other classical authors, as well as his contemporary
in the administration, lived in a period in that this approach to design
organisations based in the precedent of the civil services of the government.
The term bureaucracy no always has had the modern negative connotation; it is
to say, a frame for the slow activity, ineficiente, without imagination of the
organisations.
B. The technological approach
Of the tasks for the design organizacional, that arose in the years sixty, take
part a series of internal variables of the organisation that are very important.
Technology of the Tasks refer to the different types of technology of
production that involves the production of different types of products. The
classical studies realised around the middle of the years sixty by Joan
Woodward and his colleagues launched that the technologies of the tasks of an
organisation affected so much his structure like his success. The team of
Woodward divided around 100 British companies fabriles in three groups, in
accordance with his respective technologies for the tasks: one, unitary

production and of small games, two, production of big games and in mass, and
3, production in processes.
The unitary production refer to the production of individual articles, produced in
accordance with the specifications of the client; for example, the clothes done to
measure. The technology used for the unitary production is the less complex
because the articles are produced, to a large extent, by individual artisans. The
production of small games refer to products done in small quantities and in
independent stages, such as the parts of machines that more forward will
assemble . The production of big games and in mass refer to products
manufactured in great quantity, in occasions in line of assemble (for example,
the chips of computers). The production in processes refer to the production of
materials that sell by weight or volume, as the chemicals or the drugs. These
materials are used to to be produced with teams extremely complex that work in
continuous form. The studies of Woodward drove to three general conclusions.
In first term, what more complex the technology (from the unitary production to
the one of process), so much main the quantity of managers and of
administrative levels. In other words, the complex technologies drive to high
structures for the organisations and require a supervision and coordination.
In second term, the stretch of the administration for the managers of first level
increases satisfied happen of the unitary production to the one of mass, but
diminishes when you happen of the one of production in mass to the one of
processes. Due to the fact that the employees of the low levels, so much in
companies of unitary production and of processes, are used to to realise a very
skilled work, tend to form groups of small work, doing that the narrow stretch
was unavoidable. By the contrary, the big quantity of workers of the line of
assemble that they effect similar tasks can be supervised by an alone manager.
In third term, satisfied increases the technological complexity of the company,
increases his bureaucratic and administrative personnel, because the managers
need help ploughs the paperwork and the no related work with the production,
stop can mass in skilled tasks. Likewise, the complex team requires more
maintenance and programming, besides it two generate more paperwork. The
studies of Woodward were proof of the influence of the technology in the
structure organizacional. Other investigations have suggested that the impact of
the technology in the structure is main in the case of the smallest companies
(that the companies studied by Woodward tended to being). In the case of the
big companies, seem that the impact of the technology seat , mainly, in the
lowest levels of the organisation.
C. The environmental Approach

In the period that Woodward realised his studies, Tom Burns and G.M. Stalker
Were developing an approach to design organisations that incorporate the
environment of the organisation in the considerations regarding the design.
Burns and Stalker signalled the differences between two systems of
organisation: the mecanicista and the organic.
In a system mecanicista, the activities of the organisation decompose in
skilled tasks, separate. The aims for each person and unit are defined, with all
accuracy, by managers of levels higher and following the chain of classical
bureaucratic control.
In an organic system is more likely that the people work in form of group than
alone. It concedes less importance to the fact to accept orders of a manager or
to turn orders for the employees. Instead, the members communicate with all
the levels of the organisation to obtain information and asesora.
After studying a series of companies Burns and Stalker arrived to the
conclusion that the system mecanicista was more convenient for a stable
environment, whereas the organic system was more convenient for one
turbulent. The organisations in environments cambiantes, with all probability,
use some combination of the two systems.
In a stable environment is likely that each member of the organisation follow
realising the same task. Therefore, the specialisation in skills is convenient. In a
turbulent environment, in embargo, the works have to redefine of constant way
for enfrentarse to the world always cambiante. Therefore, the members d the
organisation have to have skill to resolve diverse problems, and no to realise, of
repetitive way, a series of skilled activities. Besides, the solution of problems
and takes it of creative decisions that require in the turbulent environments
effect better in groups where the members can communicate openly.
Therefore, in the turbulent surroundings, is convenient an organic system, that
is that that characterise by or informalidad, work in groups and open
communication.
D. Reduction of Size
In recent years, the managers of a lot of American organisations have practised
a type of process of design organizacional that concedes enormous importance
to the conditions of the surroundings of his organisations. This type of take of
decisions know , in general, with the name of restructuring. In the actuality, to
the restructuring is used to to comport a decrease of the organisation, or to be
more descriptive, a reduction of size. The managers of a lot of companies
adopted bureaucratic structures for his organisations when the times were more
stable, when the companies dominated his respective environments and when
the supposed on the economic growth sustained arose with regularity.

Therefore the big companies developed bureaucracies of a lot of levels, that


over time, resulted excessively onerosas when they needed fast answers, in
time that changed at full speed.
Oleada of fusions, despojos and acquisitions; the desregulacin of some
industries, the privatisation of the public companies and to the increasing
quantity of new companies, emprendedoras, intensified the world-wide
competition. Besides the technological advances of long scope forced to the
managers of companies very burocratizadas to adopt structures less
hierarchical, stop can adapt more to his environments. The most important
concepts of the present are, efficiency, productivity and quality and the
organisations have opted by structures lighter and flexible that can answer with
main ease to the rhythm of the changes of the world-wide markets. The
reduction of size refer to this series of changes in the design organizacional.

AndSPRITU EMPRENDEDOR
The emprendedor perceives opportunities where others do not see or do not
interest them , basically the emprendedor detects a need and afterwards
gathers the hand of work, the materials and the capital that need to satisfy this
need , the spirit to undertake is different to the administration , pues the first
involves to initiate changes of production whereas the second involves a
coordination , in constant form of the process of production , the emprendedor
always looks for the change answers in front of him and explodes it like an
opportunity

THE PROFITS OF THE ESPIRITU OF THE EMPRENDEDOR

THE GROWTH
ECONOMICO

THE PRODUCTIVITY

THE TECNOLOGIAS ,
THE PRODUCTS And
THE SERVICOS NEW
THE CHANGES IN THE
MARKETS

The economists have determined that the small companies are those
that provides main places of work a study realised launch that the
companies that have between 5 years of time of life in the market
hire to a main quantity in 50 main times that hire them that they
realise the companies with more than 20 years of existence in the
market
It is to say the capacity to produce more goods and services with less
hand of work and others insumos this task as Jhon Kendrick based
is two appearances : Investigation and development and the
investment in plants and new machineries
Many of the people that had ideas on inventions of new technologies
of products or services were employed of big corporaciones , which
denied to at least consider the new invention , forcing like this to the
emprendimiento of these people
The employers enturbian the water of the competition in the
markets, zoltan acs says that the small companies created by the
employers are agents of change in the economy of market

THE EMPRENDEDOR : In sight that the emprendedores can contribute


positively to the society and for example creating new places of works , the
researchers have treated to analyse his personalities, skills and attitudes as
well as the conditions that fomentan his development , the investigations have
launched that exist some factors that are characteristic of the emprendedores .

THE FACTORS PSICOLOGICOS:


The origins of the psychological roots of the emprendedor were posed by David
McClelland showed that the people that would follow business careers for
example sales had a big need of attainment and like to follow and assume
affine risks to be able to attain wealth, power , prestige, security , self-esteem
and service in the society , Take Begley and David P. Boyd Identified 5
dimensions :
NEED OF ATTAINMENT: The emprendedores achieve a high qualification
about the concept of the need of attainment of McClelland.
POSICION And CONTROL : it Expresses the idea that the people and no the
luck controls his existence so much emprendedores and managers are
used to to think that they are owners of his own destinations
TOLERANCIA IN FRONT OF THE AMBIGUITY : A lot of decisions take sometimes
with information little reliable or uncertain , nevertheless the
emprendedores enfrentan main ambiguity pues perhaps are doing the
things for the first time and because they are risking his form to win the
life
TOLERANCIA AL RISK : The emprendedores that are had to take risks
moderated to the opinion obtain performances higher on the active that
the emprendedores that do not take risks or run them exageradamente
BEHAVIOUR OF THE TYPE To: refer to the impulse to do more in less time so
much the founders like the managers of small companies are used to to
obtain the highest qualifications when it measures his behaviour of the
type To.

THE FACTORS SOCIOLOGICOS:


With frequency , the minoritary groups feel that the patterns discriminate them
was direct or indirectly ,in addition to that the places of gerencia few times are
occupied by pertaining people to the minority, this frustration has done that the
minority an environment according to his needs and that believe spaces that
allow him create and prosperar this fact more the attractive incentive to be able
to direct a company have made possible that increasingly people convert in
emprendedores in addition to old beliefs like the one of that , the gerencia only
has to be directed by white men , nowadays the people afroamericanas are
convinced that the places of business work from the advertising until
architectural services contain opportunities of will grow they adds the

participation of the women in the business field nowadays has seen that the
women initiate small businesses to a speed of almost the double that of the
men

OBSTACULOS FOR THE ESPIRITU EMPRENDEDOR


Why fracasan the emprendedores? As Karl Vesper the reason is the absence of
a viable idea, also the little knowledge of the market in occasions is also difficult
to attract to people with knowledges and experience because they already find
working with good wages also is the subject of the budget or the main seed
that in average oscillates between 25 000 to 100 000 dollars that need to begin
a business, Vesper mentions that there are 12 obstacles that hamper to the
emprendedor
ENVIRONMENTAL
HELPS

1. Contacts in the market


2. Companies local incubators
3. Hand of able local work
4. Education and technical backrest
5. Help of providers and credits
6. Capitalist for local risks
7. Bankers for capital of risk
8. Able local aides
9. Education of business spirit
10. Model of roles of triunfadores

OBSATACULOS

A. To fault of a viable concept


B. Fault of knowledge of market
C. Fault of skills and technical
D. Fault of initial capital
E. Fault of business knowledges
F. Complacencia , fault of motivation
G. Social stigma
H. Padlocks in the employment
Manacle of gold
I. Pressures of time
J. Juridical limitations
K. Protectionism, Monopoly
L. Inhibitions of patents

HOW REINVENTAR THE ORGANISATIONS?


When an organisation sets up, the administration increasingly does seriously in
addition to the possibility that the organisations aletarguen or go in in some
processes of stagnation, Peter senge warn that this could mean that the
members of the organisation arrive to concern so much for adapting that it do
not give them time., ideas, or new products. Senge Mark the difference between
the adaptative learning: (enfrentar the change) and the learning generativo: it Is

to say the creativity that derive of a conjoint effort of the members of the
organisation and that in summary constitutes the hope of the new organisations
of the 21st century

THE REINGENIERA OF THE CORPORACIN.


The reingeniera was a reaction against the swift and sudden changes of the
half environment and the total inability of the organisations to be able to adapt
to them front to this tried apply a little Orthodox solution, the call reingeniera
means to apply a new engineer to the structure organizacional. It represents a
reconstruction and no a simple total reform or partial of the company , do not
treat to do fast repairs or gradual changes in the current engineer but to
elaborate a design organizacional entirely new and different , this process
bases base in business processes and consider that in them owe to base the
format organizacional , do not pretend neither improve the already existent
processes , but substitute them completely by new procedures , neither
pretend automate the current processes. This would be the same that do more
complex the ineficiente, as some authors the reingeniera is to go back to
project the processes of work and the implementation of new projects,
restructuring radically the business processes with the purpose to obtain an
enormous improvement in the exert of costs, quality, attention, speed
KEY APPEARANCES OF THE REINGENERIA
FIRST APPEARANCE: A new form to think on the administration can contribute a
different perspective to what is doing and why.
SECOND APPEARANCE: Rediseo radical the authors Hamar and James Champy
suggested that radical meant precisely this: no a modification but a reinvencin.
They suggested also that this is the most important appearance of his
approach, but today know that Although the rediseo radical with a reduction in
the size can offer savings of costs in the short term, also can affect of negative
way by force of remaining work. The work in team is each more important day in
the modern organisation, but the efforts of team build with base in the
confidence and this has to develop during a long period, at the same time that it
can destroy with the rediseo radical.
THIRD APPEARANCE: The reingeniera requires important results and for example
attain that the clients that some time had to treat with several departments,
today can do it with an alone person, or contact direct with the department that
provides the service looked for. But the spectacular improvements balance with
the failures, the aim is to reduce the organisation to the essential and
fundamental
FOURTH APPEARANCE: The need of an accurate analysis and to question the
processes of the company is really important; however, the analysis of the
processes has to go further of the operations and include the analysis and the
integration of the technical and human systems, as well as the total
administrative process, without forgetting the tie of the company with the
external environment, treats to understand the that and the because and no
the and of the process.

EXAMPLE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE REINGENIERA:

Rsatel S.To a company minorista that devoted to the rubro of sales of flowers, before
was client of several distributors and worked with sales by catalogue. His process
consisted in buying flowers to a distributor (that it bought them to the plantadores). It
mounted the arrangements in boxes (according to the catalogue of products) and sent
them to the clients in trucks .It was an expensive and slow process, pues required a
venue to mount his packages and vehicles to deliver them to the clients. It arose the
idea to do the reingeniera of the process by means of strategic alliances Why not
substituting to the producer so that it wrap the flowers as the catalog and why no
acudir to Federal Express so that it do the fast deliveries carrying the bouquet from the
producers until the clients. Like this the company delete the participation of the
intermediaries, hill the factory, sold the trucks and sacked personal, likewise did some
proofs, printed a new catalogue and create a company delegated that resume to a
small office where take the requests by telephone and expiden order them so much to
plantadores near, to the consumer and to federal express that transports the flowers
during the night in his practically empty vehicles. The previous process took 9 days,
from the delivery of the producer until the delivery of the consumer. The new alone
process took 2 days.
1
Day

Producer
P

2
Day

Truck
P

3
Day

4
Day

Provider

Truck
P
1
Day

Producer
P

INCREMENTAL CHANGE
(TOTAL QUALITY)

CONTINUOUS
And
PROGRESSIVE
ADVANCE
It AFFECTS A
PART OF THE
ORGANIZACION

5
Day

Distributor

6
Day

7
Day

8
Day

Truck

Vendor

Truck

2
Day
Delivery to the
consumer

RADICAL CHANGE
(REINGENERIA)

SPLIT OF
PARADIGMS
It TRANSFORMS
THE
ORGANISATION
LIKE An
EVERYTHING

9
Day

Delivery
to the
consumer

It OCCURS BY
MEANS OF THE
NORMAL
STRUCTURE And
THE PROCESSES
GERENCIALES

IMPROVEMEN
TS IN THE
TECNOLOGIA

IMPROVEMEN
TS IN THE
PRODUCT

It CREATES A
NEW
STRUCTURE
And A NEW
ADMINISTRAC
ION
TECNOLOGIA
INOVADORA

NEW
PRODUCTS TO
CREATE
NUEOS
MARKETS

THE STRUCTURE And THE PROCESS TO ORGANISE


Organise is a process that requires consider several fundamental elements.
Like this, the structure organizacional has to reflect:
1. The objective and plans, because of them derive the activities.
2. The available authority for the administration of the company, since in any
organisation the authority is a certain right socially that you exert of
discretionary way and, as such, is subject to changes.
3. The environment that surrounds it, as any plan, whose premises can be
economic, technological, political, social or ethical (although also can be it
the ones of the structure of the organisation). Like this, the structure has to
design to work, allow contributions of the members of a group and help to
the people to achieve the aims with efficiency in a future cambiante. In this
sense, a structure organizacional effective never can be static and neither
there is one that work better in all type of situations, but that depends of the
situation.
4. As the organisation is endowed of personnel, the grouping of the activities
and relations of authority of his structure has to consider the limitations and
the habits of the people, this does not want to say that the structure have to
design around the individuals (before well, has to carry out around them put
and the activities that accompany them); of any way, is important to consider
the type of people with which will conform

THE QUALITY:
Define the precise concept of the quality is very complex , speak of quality is
more than alone speak of an upper product to the measure and to good price ,
involves to mass in the production of services and services increasingly
competitive besides means to do the things well in the organisation from the

first time in place to commit errors and have to correct them , to measure that
happens the time the clients increasingly wish products of high quality and the
managers have to take certain decisions in base to such exigencias ,For
example nowadays the postulantes to the universities sue competent
universities that the service that offer was to of quality or also when one wants
to go to attend to the hospital , needed a skilled attention and of quality , so that
it requires fomentar an administration of the total quality , which means that the
culture of the organisation define and base in achieving constantly the
satisfaction of the clients by means of an integral system of instruments
,technical and qualification . This involves the superacin constant of the
processes of organisation which derive in products and services of high quality.

HISTORY OF THE QUALITY:


After the II world-wide war occurred between 1939 to 1945, Japan remain
totally destroyed and it was necessary to reconstruct it from the beginning, a
group of North American experts directed to Japan with the aim to help to
reconstruct so devastated country through the building of implantation of
modern factories. Homer one of the North American teach them to the
Japanese to use the statistics in the processes of manufactura, these referred
to measure the variations of the processes of work and to improve them in
constant form, before the stage of the final inspection, with the purpose of
prevenir the production of products with fail.

THE 14 POINTS OF DEMING:


1) ATTAIN THE PROOF OF PROPOCITO TO IMPROVE THE PRODUCTS: Deming sustains

that the direction owe to have a firm commitment with the quality and
change his approach of short term to the long. The quality and no the
utilities owe to be in the bottom of the purposes of the organisation. As
Deming , the utilities are a consequence , that results of natural form that the
organisation focus to the quality
2) ADOPT THE NEW FILOSOFIA: As Deming the acceptance that we found us in
another era, in which requires a permanent increase of the quality so that
the companies can survive, base in keeping the proof of purpose. The
gerencia owe to refuse
material of inferior quality, bad manual work,
defective products and deficient services does not suffice with reducing to
the minimum the defects these have to be deleted, owe to dismantle
entirely the traditional system and change it by another. All the employees
owe to back the new culture and reflect his commitment with the quality.
3) NOT FOLLOWING DEPENDING OF THE MASSIVE INSPECTIONS: Deming recognise that
when they present errors, have lost efficiency and efficiency, therefore they

owe to abandon the massive inspections to find errors after these have
occurred and owe to create quality from the beginning. The process of
continuous improvement diminishes the costs that derive to commit errors
and afterwards correct them .The production of articles of big quality also
alienta the satisfaction of the employees , because it allows them feel and
enorgullecerse of his work , pues although it is true the work dignifies to the
man , is very important to find errors and correct them from his origin where
realises the work
4) FINISH WITH THE HABIT TO CONCEDE ALONE BUSINESSES WITH BASE IN THE MARKED
PRICE: Deming sustains that it is contraproducente sustain a relation of
opponent with the provider and that instead believe a tie with this, says also
that the price does not matter but until you link with a measurement of the
quality that purchase . The statistical instruments are very important so that
the companies can evaluate the quality of his providers and pieces
purchased
5) IMPROVE CONSTANT And PERMANENT SIISTEMA OF PRODUCCION And SERVICES: The
obligation of the gerencia to look for methods to improve the quality does not
finish never. It is of the opinion that the improvements present after studying
the same process and no the defects, in addition to that improve the process
is responsibility of the direction. In this sense , the approach that direct to
the reingeniera of the companies is congruent with the educations of
Deming
6) CONSTITUTE METODOS MODERN OF CAPACITACION IN THE WORK: As Deming the
qualification covers more than alone teach to the employees to use
instruments to improve the quality, for example the statistical control of the
quality. The qualification also consists in ensuring that the workers receive
the knowledges and necessary skills for the works that exert
7) INSTITUIR LEADERSHIP : As Deming the supervisors limit to indicate him to the
workers what owe to do and to watch that they do it , administer prizes and
sanctions in addition to the disciplinary measures and correctivas however
do not consider the factor of the leadership , the leaders split of the
supposition that the workers pretend to do the things the best possible and
encourage for helping to the workers to develop all his potential .In the case
of the managers of low levels , this involves to teach and capacitar .To his
time , the high direction has to help to design and apply a strategic vision
that base in a culture ACT and ensure that his own behaviour manifests
values that sustentan said culture
8) FINISH WITH THE FEAR: Deming sustains that it is important than fear do not
prevent to the employees do questions, reportar problems or manifest
ideas. The employees owe to feel safe so that can pursue the quality,

properly in the job centre, An open culture where the people do not fear to
say the truth, finish with the fear to speak clear perhaps have something of
ethical. A lot of analyses recommend that, on all in these times of so much
competition , the frank communication of ethical norms and the conclusive
acts that reinforce these norms , is necessary so that the company engage
with an ethical that conclude in frankness
9) REDUCE BARRIERS BETWEEN THE AREAS OF STAFF: Deming consider that the
existent barriers between the functional departments are contraproducentes.
The employees can improve his productivity knowing more to the others and
coordinating his efforts are cual was his professional field. The structures of
the traditional organisations tend to fomentar the competition between
departments, as Deming, the employees recognise that independently of his
speciality all share the same put general. The competition has to be against
other organisations but no between the members of the same
10) DELETE LEMMAS, EXHORTACIONES And OBJECTIVE OF THE STRENGTH OF WORK:
Deming says that it put it general of the continuous improvements have to
remplazar the signs, lemmas, etc. That supposedly they are source of
motivation and inspiration. It criticises to the companies that treat to motivate
to his employees using speakers and treaties of inspiration , pues only
frustrate to the employees that do not feel breath to do the things that the
existent administrative system asks them do
11) DELETE THE QUOTAS NUMERICAS : Deming is adherent to suppress the quotas by
that these finish by fomentar that the people mass in the quantity, a lot of
times at the expense of the quality , in place to pursue numbers ciegamente
12) WITHDRAW OBSTACULOS FOR THE PRIDES IN THE WORK: Deming sustains that you
owe to suppress the annual qualifications or the systems of merits. If the
people inherentemente , wants to work well, as it presupposes Deming then
it does not need these systems of incentives .What needs is help to surpass
the obstacles that present the materials , the team and the inappropriate
qualification , the systems that pretend to withdraw these obstacles owe of
remplazar the systems that pretend presionar the exert, doing that the
workers seat that always are being judged , classified and described
13) INSIISTTIR IN A PROGRAM VIGOROSO OF EDUCACION And CAPACITACION : Deming
concede big importance to the qualification .This includes a preparation
been used to with regard to the instruments and the technicians of control of
quality as well as additional instruction on the work in team and the
philosophy of the culture of the ACT.
14) TAKE MEASURES TO ATTAIN THE TRANSFORMACION: As Deming the whole
organisation has to work joined so that it triumph the culture of the quality

.The managerial cars design apply the strategy and the workers can
cooperate to attain a culture of the ACT.

Model of Quality Deming or Japanese

General Policy
(10%)

management

standardization

(10%)

(10%)

education

Control

(10%)

(10%)

Results
(10%)

Collection of
information
(10%)

Quality Assurance
(10%)

analysis

planning

(10%)

(10%)

MODEL OF BALDRIGE:
The increase of the competitiveness of the Japanese industry reason, to the
equal that occurred years later in Europe with the creation of the model EFQM,
that in United States in 1987 the government created the prize Malcom Baldrige
with a triple objective:
Improve the practices and capacities
Facilitate the communication and the transfer of the best practices that
the American companies

Serve like technician to understand and gestionar the result , the


planning and the training
The implantation of this model offered the possibility to unify the practices of the
Management of Quality along the American territory ( Dellana Hauser 1999)
and to possess a language and a common philosophy ( Garvin 1991) , as they
Swear (1994) defines it like the integral conjoint elder of actions to achieve the
world-wide quality . The first version of the model went out to the light in 1988,
to be reviewed significantly in 1992 and finally in 1997, orienting to the
excellence, the main modifications suffered with the change of orientation
centre regarding the business results and to the approach to the clients and
market. This model has evolved to be a way to recognise and promote
exemplary practices of quality to be a structure comprensiva for the exert to
international level

EUROPEAN MODEL QUALITY:


The EFQM is not only a theory , is the attainment of tangible levels of result ( in
key areas that consider The best ) and the proof that allows us trust that
these results will keep over time , recognising the potential for the obtaining of
a competitive advantage in Europe by means of application of the total quality
excellence , 14 important companies of Europe took the initiative to create the
European Foundation for the Management of the Quality European
Foundation for Quality Management ( And.F.Q.M) , in 1988 EFQM had more
than 1000 pertinent members of the majority of countries of Europe and of all
the business sectors and organisations no yielding .His mission is to improve
the competitiveness of the European organisations by means of the
improvement of his management and this sees translated in positive results ,
the criteria of results treat of what has achieved the organisation and of what is
achieving . All the criteria of the results owe to analyse in terms of:
The achieved really by the organisation
The attained regarding the own aims of the organisation
The results of the competition
The results of the organisations considered like better in his class
The relations causes- effect between the agents and the results

EFFECTS OF THE
ORGANISATION

GLOBALIZACION

IN

THE

BUSINESS

The globalisation like consequence of the before analysed factors, produces


effects in the organisations, any one was his dimension.

POLITICAL
PRESS

TECHNOLOGICAL
DEVELOPMENT

RELOCATION

GLOBAL
FINANCIAL
MARKET

GLOBALIZATION

NEW ORGANIZATIONAL
STRUCTURE

INCREASED
COMPETITIVENESS

ACHIEVEMENT
SCALE
ECONOMIES

NEW
DIVISION OF
WORK

BEST USE OF
RESOURCES

SENIOR
TECHNOLOGY
INCORPORATION

Can observe like the process of globalisation unchains in the company the
orientation of a new organisational structure, of this way, S. Garca (1996, p. 12)
it signals that "...It involves a change of mentality very important to the hour to
design the business activity and his management. This It demands the
development of institutions that of fast way assume the new organisational
designs, and demands, of people and individuals, that are had to realise new
behaviours". The more destacable of the previous is the change of mentality
that have to assume the participants of the economic unit, since they are they
the main resource to face the new challenge.

The new organisational structure has to have like main objective the attainment
of competitive advantages, that allow him remain, and in the possible, grow in
the market, as well as enter in other new.
In the frame of the new economic stage the company has to look for the
opportunities that posibiliten obtain a main competitiveness. For the attainment
of this aim have selected four appearances that have to be considered, those
that are closely related with the degree of globalisation that affects to the entity,
to knowledge:
Aprovechamiento Of economies of scale.
New division of the work.
Better utilisation of the available resources.
Main incorporation of technology.
To. APROVECHAMIENTO OF ECONOMIES OF SCALE.
The globalisation allows to the companies take advantage of big economies of
scale, so much in the productive area and in any another activity developed. For
S. Garca (1996, p. 11-12) the attainment of economies of scale in economic
systems more open, without barriers, is the result of two components:
The economies of scale that attains directly the company,

basing in his
own differential fact, this is, each company develops a strategy based in those
elements in which is different to the other and, consecuentemente, in what is
better that they.
The second component identifies it like a virtual "fact", is to say, exists
one second economy of scale that comes given by "the another". Remember
that in an economy globalizada the operations are realised in networks, thus,
the economies of scale transfer . In this way each participant of the network
contributes the best of himself, is to say, his efficiency. This situation present in
the diverse acquisitions that has to realise the company for his productive
process or another business activity.

B. NEW DIVISION OF THE WORK.


The new economic surroundings makes possible that the companies develop
only the activities in which really are efficient, in other words, where possess his
fortresses. In this way they can deliver to other companies, in any place of the
world, the development of the activities in which do not possess big
competitiveness
C. BETTER UTILISATION OF THE AVAILABLE RESOURCES.

The global company has to orient his activity to develop competitive advantages
that allow him the growth in the market, so much local and world-wide. In this
sense, the entity has to use of the best possible form the available resources.
These consider productive factors like the work; the capital and the prime
matters, besides has to consider the information like an available resource that
has to be used of efficient form, since it represents an essential instrument to
create differentiation between the companies.
D. MAIN INCORPORATION OF TECHNOLOGY.
One of the increasingly demanded requirements by the consumers is the
presence of a technological improvement in the products. It is really impressive
and in some sectors has arrived to a technological evolution of big level,
producing a true war between the companies leaders in investigation and
development (I+D). By this, is necessary that the companies every time
incorporate a main degree of technology to his products. For this they will have
to invest in activities of I+D, already was to own level or subcontracted. This
situation, repercutir in a need to increase the quota of market to be able to
realise the amortizaciones respective, corresponding to the main incorporation
of technology, besides, the cycle of life of the product every time is lower to
consequence of the technological evolutions.

TEORIA OF THE ORGANISATIONS


Theory of the organisations is not a compilation of facts, is a way to think about
the organisations. Theory of the organisations provides us the suitable
mechanisms to analyse more exactly to the organisations, helps us to
understand diagnose and answer to problems and emergent needs. The way
to study and analyse to the organisations, is based in models and
methodologies of the behaviour and design organizacional. The specialists in
organisations investigate and establish these methodologies, measure them
and publish them, he is macro examination of the organisations because it
analyses all the organisation like an alone unit. A new field of studies of the
organisations is call meso-theory that concerns with the integration of the micro
and macro level of analysis.
Individuals and groups affect to the organisation and this to his time affects to
the individuals. For prosperar in the organisations, the administrators and
employees need to understand simultaneously the multiple levels of
analysis. For example, the investigation can show that the diversity of the
employees improves the innovation. To facilitate to the innovation, the
administrators need to understand like the structure and the context of the
organisation (theory of the organisations) are related with the interactions of the
diversity of the employees (behaviour organizacional) for potenciar the

innovation because so much the macro and micro variable take part in the
innovation. The theory of the organisations is directly notable for the gerencia
high and average and partially notable for the gerencia operative. The
administrators ofthe high gerencia are responsible of all the organisation and
have to establish objective and develop strategies, interpret the half external
environment and decide the design of the structure. The gerencia half
concerns with the departments and has to establish like the departments relate
with the rest of the organisation. The gerencia half has to design his
departments for acoplar the work of the unit and treat with subjects of power
and political, conflicts intergrupales and of information and systems of control
which are part of the theory of the organisations. The field of study of the theory
of the organisations, concerns partially with the gerencia operative, because to
this level of supervision has to see with employees that operate machines, write
letters or sell products. The theory of the organisations concerns to the part
macro of the organisation and his main departments.

SOURCES OF THE POWER:


The power does not emanate simply of the level that occupies the person in the
hierarchy of the organisation. John French and Bertram Raven have identified
five sources or bases of power:
THE POWER
FOR
RECOMPENSAR

THE COERCIVE
POWER

POWER
LEGITIMATE

EXPERT POWER

POWER
REFERENT

Base in a person ( The influential) that has the capacity for


recompensar to another person ( The influenced) for fulfilling orders
or achieve the results required, For example a power that has the
Prof. Granda To assign academic tasks to the students of the II cycle
of the UNMSM
Base in the capacity of the influential to sanction to the influenced by
not fulfilling with the requirements , is the contrary side of the power
for recompensar the punishment can go from receiving a reprimenda
until being sacked of the company
(Formal authority) present when an employee or an influenced recognise
that the influential has right to exert influence inside some parameters,
likewise involves that the influenced have the obligation to accept this
power. For example The right that have the professors to establish dates
for the partial examinations and ends
Base in the idea or concept that the influential has some notable
experience or knowledges andspeciales that the influenced does not have.
For example when we followed the instructions of a financial analyst are
recognising the power of an expert
That can recaer in a person or group , base in the wish of the influenced to
identify with the influential or treat to imitate it , for example the
professor gozara of the power of reference if the students have reasons to
emulate his habits to arrive early to classes

THE AUTHORITY:

It is a form of power , specifically the formal authority is legitimate power


.However with frequency the finish use in a wider sense when you speak of
other types of power .When it says that somebody is an authority , in some field
want to say that the person knows a lot on the subject and therefore has power
of expert , the formal authority is the type of power that associate with the
structure and the administration of the organisations and base in that the
recognition that the attempts that realise the managers for exerting influence
are legitimate . The people or groups that treat to exert influence are perceived
like entes that have right to do it inside them limit recognised, treat of a right
that emanates of his formal place in an organisation, the base of the formal
authority has been subject of constant debates in the American society, besides
this owe to analyse like result of what could go out badly like result of the
exercises to exert the authority.
BASE OF THE FORMAL AUTHORITY: 2 DISPOSALS
A) DISPOSICION CLASICA : sustenta In that the authority sustenta in the highest
level and of there low in downward level , an example is the hierarchy by
ranks of authority of the military and in the police strengths, the
managers have the right to turn order licitas to the employees of the
organisation and they have the obligation to obey
THE CONSTITUTION
GUARANTEES THE RIGHT
TO OWN To BUSINESS
GOODS AND CONTROL

TOUR MANAGER ORDERS

ORDERS
PLOUGH
OBEYED

POSITION OF
ACCEPTANCE
TOUR MANAGER
ORDERS

SEE RECEIVER
ACCEPTANCE

ACCEPTANCE

NO
ACCEPTANCE

B) DISPOSICION OF ACEPTACION : Consider that the base for the authority this in
the influenced and no in the influential , in other words no all order them
and laws licitas are obeyed in all the circumstances some are obeyed by
the influenced and others no although this position do not suggest the
insubordination and the disorder, Chester I. Barnard , the defensor of the

concept of acceptance defines 4 necessary appearances so that an


employee accept the upper authority
That can understand the communiqu ( order) and that understand it
Than in the moment to take his decision , think that it is not
incongruous with the purpose of the organisation
In the moment to take decisions consider the compatibility of the
personal interest of the influenced in general
If record the order owe to be in physical and mental capacity stop can
fulfil it

THE DELEGACION:
The form in that it will distribute the formal authority inside the structure of the
organisation is a key decision to organise, delegate is to assign to another
person the formal authority (legitimate power) and the responsibility (legitimate
power) and the responsibility to exert specific activities. The managers have to
delegate in the employees so that the organisation work with efficiency pues
does not exist able manager to be able to supervise and do charge of all what
occurs in the organisation

MAIN ADVANTAGES OF THE DELEGACION:


Those that more tasks the manager can delegate so many more
opportunities will have to inhale and accept a main responsibility between
the managers of levels higher
It makes possible that the employees when accepting responsibilities and
apply his trial
It increases the disposal to take better decisions
It accelerates takes it of decisions
TASKS OF A DELEGACION EFFECTIVE:

DECIDE THAT TASKS


CAN DELEGATE
DECIDE To THE ONE
WHO ASSIGNED HIM
THE TASK
PROVIDE SUFFICIENT
RESOURCES TO REALISE
THE TASK DELEGATED

DELEGATE THE
ASIGNACION

A lot of tasks owe to be delegated , some are lower decisions and


works that repeat , however some very demanding tasks and
difficult can delegate to the employees and with them will do a lot
to develop them
The managers l moment to decide the one who will do such or
cual task first poses a series of interrogantes. Who has available
time? It requires the work some special skill? To who would result
him a positive experience realise said work?
All the authority delegated of the world will not serve him to the
influenced if this does not have the financial resources ,
administrative or of the necessary time to realise the work
Al delegate the allocation the effective managers provide the
pertinent information on the same. In the measure of the
possible, specify the results expected but no the methods that
used . It is more cultivate a climate of free communication

between them and the person to it the one who have delegated
him the task
BE PREPARED TO TAKE
PART IN CASE WAS
NECESSARY
ESTABLISH A SIISTEMA
OF
RETROALIMENTACION

The tasks delegated can see coartadas when the resources are
not sufficient or when the person to the one who has delegated
the task topa with the opposition of others , in occasions this
occurs because other types of power are operand
The managers that delegate establish a system of points of
control and retroalimentacin of such way that they can be to the
so much of the advances and offer better councils to adjust the
things when they are in full course

DESIGN OF THE PLACES


The design of the places of work is a vehicle to put in practice in form sistmica
the measure of decentralisation that want the managers and that considers
necessary to achieve put them of the organisation, like this the design of the
places is a form that allows to communicate to the employees the opportunities
that will have these to exert power and authority
1) THE DESIGN MECANISISTE OF THE WORK : it Was contrived by Frederick W.
Taylor , the one who systematically deal that the workers were simple
and efficient , for example in his factory the employees of a line of
montaje required that the worker do one or two simple things , which
were easy and fast works to learn however this subtracts motivation to
the employee to work with spirit , the authority in this approach is of
some degree of power of expert
2) MOTIVATIONAL DESIGN OF PLACES : Hackman identify 5 central dimensions of
the work : The variety of skills , the identity of the task , the meaning of
the task , the autonomy and the retroalimentacin Hackman affirms that
the works with responsibility that they understand have more motivation
or are satisfied , the people whose work involves an important quantity of
diverse skills , identity with the task and significance of the task ,
experience the work like something full of sense . An important degree of
autonomy does that the workers are more responsible and that answer
by his acts , the retroalimentacin offers them an useful understanding of
his papers and specific functions , when more approach a work to have
the 5 so much main characteristics the probability that the person that
exert it this very motivated and satisfied
3) BIOLOGICAL DESIGN OF PLACES: Also called ergonomics, represents a
systematic attempt for doing that the work offer the main possible
security

THE PROCCESO OF CHANGE:

As kurt Lewin after leaving a brief lapse to treat to do the things of another way
, when you leave to alone to the person , these tend to go back to his patterns
conductuales previous , with the object to surpass these obstacles Lewin design
a model of three steps that can be applied by equal to people, groups or whole
organisations , treat of descongelar the present pattern of behaviour to
change or develop a new pattern of behaviour and afterwards re freeze or
reinforce the new behaviour :
1) DESCONGELAR : It involves to do that the need to change result so evident

that the person , the group or the organisation can see it with ease and
accept it
2) CHANGE: it Involves to discover and adopt attitudes , values and new
behaviours , an agent of change directs to the people, the groups or the
whole organisation along the process during the same the agent of
change propiciara values , attitudes and new behaviours by means of the
processes of identification and interiorizacin , the members identify with
the values , attitudes , and behaviours of the agent interesting them
when they have perceived his efficiency for the results
3) RECONGELAR : It means to ensure the new pattern of behaviour in his place
by means of mechanisms of support or reinforcement of such way that
happen to be the new norm , commission of the design of places of
work, tools and tasks, so that they coincide with the physiological
characteristics, anatomical, psychological and the capacities of the
worker. It looks for the optimization of the three elements of the system
(Human-machine-environment), for which elaborates methods of study of
the person, of the technician and of the organisation.

EXCHANGE RATES PLANNED:


The changes that can do in the organisation attain modifying his structure, his
technology, his personnel or a combination of all they

CHANGE OF
STRUCTURE

REDESIGN,
DECENTRALIZATION
MODIFIED WORKFLOW
OF THE ORGANIZATION

STRUCTURAL
TECHNOLOGICAL
APPROACH

REDESIGN OF
INDUSTRIAL
STRUCTURE AND
OPERATIONS

CHANGE OF
TECHNOLOGY

REDESIGN OF
OPERATIONS BUSINESS

APPROACHES FOR THEU


CHANGE IN
INDIVIDUALS

SKILL CHANGES
ATTITUDES,
EXPECTATIONS AND
PERCEPTIONS

BEST
RESULTS
IN THE
ORGANIZA
TION

Change the structure d the organisation involves reordenar his internal systems
for example the lines of communication , the flow of the work or the
administrative hierarchy , divide in two central axes :
DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL : base in defining with big detail the
responsibilities of the places of work as well as create the divisions of
work and the lines of exert suitable has insisted that one of the most
important trends regarding the structure is that it drives to a thin and flat
organisation in which delete the half levels of the administration to
effects to accelerate the interactions of the upper controls with the
employees no gerenciales same that obtain more responsibility
DECENTRALIZACION : It comports the creation of units smaller car contained
in the organisation with the purpose to increase the motivation of the
members of the unit and improve his results as well as mass his attention
in activities prioritarias likewise also favourable that each unit adapt his
structure and technology to his concrete tasks and his environment
MODIFICACIO OF THE FLOW OF WORK : they Can propiciar that it improve the
productivity and the morals in the work a demonstration of this trend find
in the quantity of money that can spend the employees , without requiring
permission

CREATIVITY And INNOVACION:


In the current world every time is more important to be creative and innovative
what means to think of another form and be opened to ways of the all new to
contemplate the world, a lot of authors define to the creativity like generating
new ideas and innovation like translating new ideas in new companies, Joseph
Shumpeter considered that the innovations were source of success in the
economy of markets, focus that in account sustento in the environment
cambiante and competitive of the present. The organisation that was not
creative in innovative perhaps do not survive, Therefore the managers of more
and more organisations are looking for the form of propiciar and fomentar the
creativity and the innovations, so much by part of people and of organisations.

INDIVIDUAL CREATIVITY:
The people have different capacity to create , the creative people are used to to
be more flexible that the little creative , can change of an approach to another
and are had to do it to solve a certain problem , prefer the complex the simple
and are used to to be more independent that the little creative , defending his
points of view tercamente when they question his ideas , in addition to this
question the authority with a lot of ease and tend to desobedecer order if they
do not seem them that they are the correct .

CREATIVITY And INOVACION IN THE ORGANISATIONS:

The organisations have different capacity to translate the talent of his members
in products, processes or new services. The administrators so that his
organisations can take advantage of better the creativity, have to be conscious
of the process of innovation in the organisations and take measures for
fomentar said process. The creative process of the organisations features of 3
steps:
THE GENERACION OF IDEAS: In the organisation of ideas depends more than
nothing, of the flow of people and of information between the company
and his environment. For example a big majority of technological
innovations has given like answer to the conditions of market. If the
managers of the organisation are not conscious that it exists a demand in
power for a product or that exists dissatisfaction with products already
existent , is little likely that look for innovations
DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS: Unlike the generation of ideas, that stimulate by
external contacts, the development of ideas depends of the culture and
the processes of the organisation can support or inhibit the development
and the use of creative ideas. The acceptance of the approaches to
resolve problems in rational form increase the probability that they
recognise the creative ideas , of big quality and that it develop with
plenitud
THE IMPLANTACION: The stage of the implantation of the creative process
of the organisations features of the steps that carry the solution or the
invention to the market. In the case of goods manufacturados these
steps include the engineering, the instruments, the manufactura, the
proofs of market and the promotions, so that the innovations succeed to
the moment to implant them require of a lot of integration between the
diverse units of the organisation. The technical specialists, responsible d
of the engineering of a new product, have to collaborate with the financial
specialists and responsible officials that the cost of the innovations
remain inside them limit practical.

AS PROPICIAR THE CLIMATE OF THE CREATIVITY IN THE


ORGANISATIONS
SUGGESTION
ATTAIN THE
ACEPTACION OF THE
CHANGE

CONCEPT
The members of the organisation have to think that the
change benefited them to them and to the organisation , is
more likely that this idea present if the members take part
with his administrators in it takes of decisions

FOMENTAR NEW
IDEAS
ALLOW MAYOR
INTERACCION
TOLERATE THE
FAILURE
PRESENT CLEAR AIMS
And FREEDOM TO
ACHIEVE THEM
OFFER RECOGNITION

The managers of the organisation from the highest until the


supervisors of the low level owe to affirm with clarity of word
and in fact , that accept the new positions , the managers
owe to be had to listen suggestions of the subalternos
Can propiciar a creative climate and tolerante giving to the
people the opportunity of interactuar with the members of
his group of work and other groups, this interaction fomenta
the exchange of useful information , the free flow of ideas
and the cool perspectives in front of the problems
A lot of new ideas result little practical or useless. The good
managers accept and admit the fact that they will invest time
and resources in new ideas that no always work
The members of the organisation owe to have a purpose and
a course for his creativity when offering contours and
reasonable limitations the managers also will have some
control of the quantity of time and money that invest in the
creative behaviour
The creative people are motivated to work in areas that
interest them, is so it has to propiciar the recognition by the
tasks well throw with bonos or increases salariales for
example.

OPEN SYSTEMS and SYSTEM CLOSED :

The description of open system

apply to the business organisation and can be defined like a group of parts in
constant interaction ( interdependencia of the parts) in an all sinrgico ( the all is
main that the sum of the parts) oriented to certain purposes and in permanent
relation of interdependencia with the external environment , between the
implicancias of the distinction of the open system and the system closed for the
modern conception of the administration , project :
ENVIRONMENT
RESOURCES
ENERGY
INFORMATION
INPUTS
KNOWLEDGE

ORGANIZATION
ACE AN OPEN
SYSTEM
Entrance

EXIT

ENVIRONMENT
PRODUCTS
SERVICES
INFORMATION
KNOWLEDGE
ENTERTAINMENT

FEEDBACK
a) The dynamic nature of the environment is in conflict with the static trend
of the organisation .In general this found constituted to perpetuate his

structure , criteria and methods , instead of changing these elements in


accordance with the transformations of the environment
b) A system organizacional rigid will not be able to survive but achieves to
answer with efficiency the continuous and fast changes of the
environment
c) An open system like a club, a hospital or the government needs to
guarantee that the environment assimilate his products, therefore to
guarantee his feasibility, the organisation owe to offer to the acclimatise
products or services that this need or but create him the need of such
products pues only like this guaranteeed the continuity of the supply of
insumos and the assimilation of products.
d) The system needs retroalimentarse constantly , of debugged and fast
form due to the fact that the continuous offer of products no wished or
unnecessary will reduce the insumos or resources to average or long
term , diminishing in consequence the capacity of the organisation for
car sustain and achieve purposes
The approach of the system closed has carried to the organisation to the
following distortions:
a) The study and the practice of the administration drive to a concentration
of rules of internal operation , to the apologia of the efficiency like primary
criterion of feasibility organizacional and in consequence to the emphasis
in procedures and no in programs
b) The perspective of the organisation like system closed is responsible of
the insensibilidad of the traditional administration to the differences
between environments organizacionales of the fault of attention and the
dependency between the organisation and his environment
c) The perspective of the organisation like system closed ends in the
insensibilidad to the need of changes and continuous and urgent
adaptation of the answers of the organisation to the environment

DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL:
The design organizacional is the process to build and adapt continuously the
structure of the organisation so that it achieve his aims and strategies. The
structure represents the interrelationship between the organs and the areas
inside an organisation, and is doubly dependent: to out, it depends of the
strategy that has defined to achieve the global aims, and inside the
organisation depends of the technology that uses. The design organizacional is
complex because of the existence of a lot of places and units whose integration

and coordination demands much more that the simple accumulation or union of
places or units. The relations between the places of an organisation have to
take in account that each one is linked with others. Each place works like an
own system that interacta with the other. Although with frequency the
organisations are described like groups of people that agrupan to pursue a
common aim, actually are much more that this. Also they are conjoint
complexes of functions, relations and responsibilities that no always are clearly
defined neither delimited.
The design of the structure is not immutable, but a group of complex variables
in which can apply innumerable options. The design organizacional involucra
central appearances, for example, how divide the work and assign it to distinct
places, groups, units and departments, and how attain the necessary
coordination to achieve in form synchronised the aims of the organisation.
These decisions generally give to know by means of organigramas and
descriptions of places.

MODEL MECANICISTA And ORGANICO


Al analyse the basic dimensions of the design organizacional can determine if
an organisation follows a model mecanicista or organic. Both models are the
extremes of a wide variety of combinations. When the basic dimensions of the
design organizacional are very marked, observes a model mecanicista or
traditional, whose characteristic are the formalizacin, the centralisation, the
hierarchical authority, the specialisation and the standardisation of the
procedures. The departamentalizacin gives place to true feudos in the
organisation. The traditional model presents a pyramidal configuration, based in
departments and places and is, basically, rigid and inflexible. It presents all the
characteristics of the bureaucratic model, typical of the industrial era and that
predominated during almost all the century xx. Instead, when the basic
dimensions are little stressed, observes an organic model, that is increasingly
common between the organisations that look for an exert flexible and agile. In
this model exists little formalizacin, centralisation, hierarchy, specialisation,
Complexity and standardisation. It presents a circular form, based in provisional
teams and multifuncionales, and is extremely flexible and cambiante. It is
suitable for the change and the competitiveness that characterise the era of the
knowledge. The model mecanicista is suitable for stable surroundings or with
few changes. The organisation mecanicista takes advantage of the stability with
a design that looks for a main efficiency by means of several basic dimensions.

As at all it changes, the formalizacin guarantees the documentation of all what


occurs; the centralisation of the decisions allows an absolute control; the
hierarchy guarantees the realisation of the works; the specialisation facilitates
that each person do a specific work and the standardisation equalises the
activities, what complicates the design. Like this, the organisation go back
heavy, slow and intrincada, and prevents the change and the innovation in his
pictures.
MECHANISTIC ORGANIZATION

ORGANIC ORGANIZATION

-SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONAL
DEPARTMENTS
-ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
HIERARCHICAL, PYRAMID, VERTICAL AND
COMPLEX
-DEFINITIVE AND PERMANENT ORGANS
RIGID CHAIN COMMAND
-VERTICAL AND FORMAL
COMMUNICATION
-CONSERVATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL
CULTURE BASED ON TRADITIONS, RULES
AND PROCEDURES
-CONTINUOUS APPLICATION OF ROUTINE
AND STANDARDIZED SOLUTIONS
-FOCUS ON PRESETS ORGANIZATION
SCHEMES AND METHODS

- ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
HORIZONTAL PLAIN AND SIMPLE
- EQUIPMENT SELF AND SELF-SUFFICIENT
- TRANSIENT AND EQUIPMENT EFIMEROS
- FLEXIBLE CHAIN RELATIONSHIPS
- INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
NETWORKS
- ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE BASED NEW
INNOVATIVE IDEAS, CREATIVITY AND
CREATIVE SOLUTIONS AND DIFFERENTIAL
INOVACION

On the other hand, the organic design includes very few basic dimensions and
adapt to the conditions cambiantes and dynamic of the surroundings, which
favours the efficiency of the design and allow that the people have an enormous
degree of freedom, descentraliza the decisions, reduces drastically the
hierarchies and favourable the delegation of authority and responsibility in the
people.
Like this, the organisation purchases an enormous flexibility and adaptability,
that translate in creativity and innovation, elements of big value today day.
In this panorama there are two approaches for the design organizacional: the
traditional and the sistmico. As the traditional approach, the base of the design
organizacional is the hierarchical control and the vertical flow of the work. The
nature of the organisation does upsetting in an administration centralised in the
cpula, the personal and direct supervision, and the vertical relations
Between boss and subordinated. This approach mass in the boss and does not
consider to the client, to the providers neither the horizontal flows in the
processes of the organisation. The approach sistmico mass in the processes
and,

Therefore, in the adaptation to the change and in the flow of the tasks in
horizontal processes. The nature of organisation awards importance to the
client, the processes descentralizados of take of decisions and the relations
Horizontal. While the traditional approach base in the division
Of the work and in the specialisation, the approach sistmico base in the vision
holstica of the organisation and in the main processes that carry the products
and services until the consumer. It is as if it left to a side the organigrama to
allow that the flow of work trascienda the borders.

DIMENSIONS OF THE DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL:


The aim of this separated is to determine the dimensions that describe the
specific characteristics of the design organizacional. These dimensions
describe to the organisations of the same way in that the personality and
physical characteristics describe to a person. The dimensions organizacionales
divide in two types: the Structural and the Contextual. The contextual
dimensions would be formed by the distinct factors of contingency that have
detailed in the previous point, the size, the technology, the surroundings The
structural dimensions describe the internal characteristics of an organisation.
They establish the bases to measure and compare to the organisations. They
Will be these last those that will explain with detail in the present point. Said
dimension would be formed by the following concepts
COMPLEXITY: refer to the number of activities or subsystems, as well as to

the degree of differentiation that exists in the organisation. The


complexity can be measured along three dimensions: vertical, horizontal
and space. The vertical complexity is the number of hierarchical levels of
authority that there is in the company. The horizontal complexity is the
number of functions or departments that exist horizontally along the
organisation. The space complexity is the number of geographic units
(offices, points of sale, manufacture
FORMALIZACION: Refer to the degree in which the works of an
organisation are standardised, where norms and procedures guide the
behaviour of the employees. If an organisation is very formalised, then
the workers have little power of decision regarding what will realise,
when will do it and how will do it. In organisations with a high degree of
formalizacin exist descriptions of work explicitas. The universities of big
size tend to have high formalizacin since it exists reglamentacin for
students, workers and professors. In contrast, a small familiar business
can not having any rule written and can be considered informal.
CENTRALIZACION: Refer to the hierarchical level that has an authority to
take a decision. When it takes it of decisions is kept in the upper level,
the organisation is centralised. When the decisions are delegates to
levels lower is descentralizada Decisions organizacionales that could be
centralised or descentralizadas include purchase of teams,

establishment of aims, selection of supplies, establishment of prices,


contratacin of personnel and the establishment of the territories of
markets.

KEY PRINCIPLES OF THE DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL:


1) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: the mission of the organisation, his vision, strategy,
surroundings (macro and micro), technology used and groups of interest
involucrados.
2) Anatomical dimensions of the organisation: size, configuration, geographic
dispersion of the units and of combinations between them.
3) Tospectos of the operations: authority, processes, tasks and daily activities, and
controls.
4) Consequences conductuales: I exert, satisfaction, rotation, conflict, anxiety and
informal guidelines of the relations in the work
As the combination of these factors is different in each organisation, does not
exist an only form to design it. The design of the organisation constitutes an of
the priorities of the administration. This platform has to attend three
appearances:
1. The basic structure, that serves to plan the allocation of personnel and
resources to each task, adopts the form of descriptions of places,
organigramas, constitution of teams and of councils, etctera.
2. The mechanisms of operation indicate to the associated interns of the
organisation what expect of them, by means of procedures of work,
norms of exert, systems of evaluation, political on remuneracin and
rewards, and programs of communication.
3. The mechanisms of decision allow to take forecasts that contribute to the
process of take of decisions and to the process of knowledge. These
mechanisms include agreements to obtain information of the external
surroundings, procedures to cross information, evaluate it and put it to
disposal of those who

DESIGN ORGANIZACIONAL: TYPES OF STRUCTURE


Refer to the form in that they divide , coordinate and agrupan the different
activities in the organisation in when to the relations between the managers and
employees, between managers and managers, between employees and

employees. The departments of an organisation can structure , formally go in


basic forms: By function, by product/ market, by matrix.
FUNCTIONAL ORGANISATION: This type of structure organizacional gathers, in a

department to all those that devote to an activity or varied related, for example
an organisation by functions can have departments for production, marketing
and sales. The manager of sales of said organisation would be responsible of
the sale of all the products manufacturados of the company, in general the
organisations that opt by this type of organisation are those that have few lines
of products and by the same reason is that it facilitates the supervision
nevertheless each department works aisladamente and focus only in fulfilling
his obligations of his area, for example the department of production perhaps
centre

ORGANISATION PRODUCT/ MARKET : This type of organisation also called

organisation by division , gathers in a unit

of work to all those that take part in

the production and commercialisation of a product or a group related of


products , to all those that are in some geographic zone or all those that treat
with some type of client , when the departamentalizacin of a company torna
too complex to coordinate the functional structure , the high direction generally
created divisions semiautnomas . In each division the managers the
employees and the managers design, produce and commercialise his own
products, unlike a department by functions the division seems an independent
business in a crucial sense the director of the division depends of the central
office
MATRIX ORGANISATION: it Is called also system of multiple control, is a product

hibrido that treats to combine the profits of the two types of structure to the
same time. The employees work under two chains of control , a chain of control
is the one of functions or divisions , the type that diagram in vertical form , the
second type is a horizontal disposal that combine to the personnel of diverse
functional areas or departments to form a business or a project , headed by the
manager of project or group that is expert in the field of specialisation assigned
to the team , satisfied the organisations have gone doing world-wide many use
a type of matrix for his international operations , although the matrix structures
are complex for the organisation , have some advantages , pues with frequency
is an efficient means to gather the different skilled skills that require to resolve
a complex problem , the problems of coordination reduce notably because the
most important personnel for a project of work is gathered in form of group
another advantage of the matrix structure is that it concedes to the organisation
a big flexibility to save costs however also exists a disadvantage , pues no all
the members of the organisation can adapt well to this matrix system , the
members of a team owe to have good interpersonal skills , be flexible and
cooperative besides the morals can see affected of negative way when the
personnel reordena , once finished the project initiate other new another
disadvantage is that if the hierarchies are not established with solidez and
communicated with efficiency , exists the danger in opinion of other analysts
that the contradictory guidelines and the badly defined responsibilities tie the
hands to the manager .

Design Organizacional:
The design organizacional is To process, in
which the managers take decisions and in
turn these decisions plough fulfilled by the
members of the organization, it takes ace an
intention to put into practice strategies that
originate in the head of the organization.
The decisions on the design organizacional
often include the Diagnosis of multiple
factors, between them the culture of the
organization the power and the political behaviors and the design of work. The
design organizacional they represent the results of To process of decision
making that include environmental forces, technological factors and strategic
elections.
Objectives:

Divide work tasks and areas


Assign and Use resources of the Organization
establish relations between individuals, groups, departments and levels of
authority.
Assign duties and responsibilities associated with Individual posts

Jerarquizacin:
Afterwards to having divided the work, have created departments and chosen
the stretch of control (the stretch of control does reference to the quantity of
people and departments that depend of to manager specify), the managers can
select to chain of control; it is to say to plan that specifies the one who depends
of who.
The result of these decisions is to pattern of diverse strata that know like
hierarchy. In the summit of this hierarchy finds the
Director or directors of main rank, which commission
and takes responsibility of the operations of all the
organisation, these directors plough known like
general director (DG), president or executive director.
The Jerarquizacin inside the organisation is
important because it influences in what occur with the
labour relations in To specific department and that
affects the speed of the decisions that involve diverse
levels of hierarchy.

Coordination:
It is To process which consists in integrating the diverse activities of
independent departments with the purpose to pursue put them of the
organization with efficiency. Of not existing the coordination, the members of
the company desconoceran his paper inside the organization and would see
tempted to follow the interests of the department to the cual belongs leaving
sideways the aims of the organization.
Differentiation and Integration:
What more needs an organization of efficient coordination, is but difficult obtain
it. This occurs with main frequency when the tasks Plough very skilled. Paul R.
Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsh Have signalled that the division of work involves
something more than the obligations of Individual work. Besides it influences in
the form that the employees perceive to the organisation and his paper inside
the same, ace well ace the form in that the people relate between himself.
These differences that Lawrence and Lorsch call differentiation, can complicate
the task to coordinate with efficiency the tasks of the work. They have identified
4 types of differentiation:

The people of different areas Plough used to to develop own perspectives


regarding them put of the organization and the way to achieve them. Example:
The counters could see the Control of costs like the most important element for
the success of the organization whereas the comercializadores want more
variety of products and better quality.
People of the same unit of the work generally have To perception of the very
different time to the one of other units. Example: The personnel of production is
accustomed to resolve Crisis immediately, whereas the personnel of
investigation and development focus more in put on to long-term basis.
The Interpersonal styles, for example in production where the processes plough
faster the people could communicate of clear and brief way; by the contrary in
the area of investigation and development would carry out to calmer
communication that fomente to rain of ideas and contribute by part of his
members.
The formalidad, this can be different regarding the departments; whereas to
unit of production perhaps need norms very specify for the results, in the
department of personnel can exist norms more general.

Three approaches for the methods of effective coordination for the managers:

2. Incrementar The
potential of the
coordination:
a) Vertical
systems of
information
b) Side relations

1. Basic technicians
of the administration:
c) Hierarchy
gerencial
d) Rules and
procedures
e) Plans and put

2. Reduce the need


to Coordinate:
f)

Scarce
resources
g) Independent
units

Design of places of Work:


It is the process that consists in describing and register the end of To place of
work, the conditions under which carried out, and the knowledges skills and
attitudes that needed . This is necessary due to the fact that each place sues
different knowledges, qualities and levels of skill, is necessary to planeacin
effective of human resources that consider these requests for the places.
The design of places consists in determining the specific activities that have to
develop , the methods used to develop them, and how relate the place with the other
works in the organisation.
Mondy (1997)

Al design the places of work results difficult to find to point of balance between
the elements conductuales and the efficiency. To attain it have to take into
account the following elements:

I.

II.

III.

IV.

The productivity and the specialisation: To measure that To place does


more skilled, goes up also the productivity, until elements conductuales
like the tedio do that they suspend the advances of productivity.
Therefore could increase the productivity if it Reduce the specialisation.
The satisfaction and the specialisation: When it achieves To high level of
specialisation, the satisfaction tends to diminish because of the fault of
autonomy, variety and identification with the task, even the productivity
can climb only if the advantages of the specialisation exceed the
disadvantages of the fault of satisfaction.
Learning and specialisation: When To work is highly skilled diminishes
the need to learn, is to say that it requires less time to learn to exert to
skilled work.
Rotation and specialisation: Although To work superespecializado learn
in lower time, the levels of satisfaction plough low, this can drive to to
high tax of rotation. When this occurs, to new design of the place, with
more attention in these appearances conductuales, can reduces them.

Departamentalizacin:
Commission to Divide the work in places and tasks and assigns them toof
finished skilled areas. Also it comprises the design of norms for the exert of the
places and the tasks. The departamentalizacin addresses two of the four basic
elements of the function of organisation: specialisation and standardisation.

Departamentalizacin Functional: agrupa to the employees in units in


accordance with his fields of competition and the resources to that resort to
realise To common group of tasks. The functional grouping is the modalidad of
departamentalizacin more employee and accepted. Agrupar Tasks and
employees by function results effective and economic. It is more effective in
Marry of small organisations that elaborate an alone product, pues generates to
clear hierarchy of authority and take of decisions. The big companies that offer
an alone product and have clients with Similar characteristics also can employ
the departamentalizacin functional like primary structural form.

ADVANTAGES
Strict Control in the high part of the
organisation.

DISADVANTAGES
The directors Plough specialists
and therefore it can not have an
integral vision of the company.

High specialisation that achieves


big efficiency in the development of
the work.

Difficulty when having to coordinate


distinct departments but related.

It simplifies the qualification of the

It hampers of adaptation to the

workers.

changes of the surroundings

Departamentalizacin By place: agrupa the main part or all the


functions related with the clients in some geographic zone under the Control
ofa manager, in place to divide the functions between distinct managers or
agrupar all the tasks in to head office location. They Plough used to to employ it
organisations that have to lot of clients or key resources
regarding prevail matters in different places.
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
They duplicate the personnel and
It improves the coordination
resources in some
and communications in To zone.
areas: Salts, accounting,
commercial.
Saving of costs of transport and
terms of delivery.

Departamentalizacin By process: lto departamentalizacin by


process (company automotriz) agrupa the activities in lathe of To process or to
type of team. Nuclea To the individuals and necessary resources for each task,
since each one requires to type of skills and special needs.
ADVANTAGES
Use of skilled technology..

Use of personnel with certain skills.

Under much the planning like the


control tornan more complex.

DISADVANTAGES
The coordination can have to
happen to upper levels for his
resolution.
It hampers the development of
General directors because of the
specialisation.

Departmentalization By product: agrupa the main part or all the


functions in units relatively independent, each one of which can have even the
complete capacity to design, produce and commercialise his goods or services.
In his form but developed, these divisions know like strategic units
of businesses UEN. This form of organisation is used to to adopt afterwards that
the quantity and the modalidades of clients grow and the range of goods and
services offered goes back too big to handle with efficiency and efficiency
the demand by means of the departamentalizacin functional, by place or both.
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
Allocation of responsibility by
They require managerial with
the rentabilidad by zone in Inferior
capacities and training or

levels.

experience.

It stimulates the participation in it


takes of decisions.

The fault of directors with skills


limits the growth of the company.

Departamentalizacin By Client: it consists in organising in lathe of


the diverse types of clients to that you attend . Employ when
the gerencia wishes to mass but in the exigencias of the clients that in the skills
ofthe company (functional) or the marks that Produce and sell (goods and
services). Also it can Use in combination with one or more than the others forms
of departamentalizacin. Also it signals that the gerencia is sensitive to the
needs of each group of clients and that Have identified groups with to potential
of substantive purchase.
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
It attends the specific needs of the
Duplication of personnel and
clients.
resources.
The client feels that there is
They require managerial with
somebody that contemplates it, that
special capacities in the area of the
satisfies his needs.
clients.
They purchase destreza in the area
Difficulty to coordinate departments
of the consumer.
based in clients.

TipYou of high and low structures:


The size or field of Control and the length of the chain of control plough two
fundamental parameters to the hour to determine the form or structure of an
organisation. If the size is reduced and the number of high hierarchical levels
arise the designated organizations jerarquizadas or high (given the drawing of
the organigrama) and low or flat in contrary Marry.

Linear organization:
Andste model support to the maximum in the principle of hierarchy based in the
unit of Control, in which each individual answers to his immediate upper of the
subordinated that have under him, and to his time this depends exclusively of
his immediate upper, only of the cual will be able to receive orders. The powers
mass in the supreme Control, that go delegating under that satisfied goes
decreciendo in the hierarchical level, go limiting. The duties and responsibilities

of the different members and the relations of supervision and subordination


appear clearly defined. Typical example of this organisation is the military. This
organisation is typical of the Pymes.
Characteristic:

It exists an upper and absolute authority on the subordinated.


The communication is Vertical downwards, formal and limited.
The decisions and Control take it the ones of main authority.
Pyramidal structure in the peak finds the maximum authority.

VENTAJAS

DESVENTAJAS

Simple and of easy understanding,


this owe that when having few
charges the cpula represents to
charge centralizador and the
subordinated relate only with his
upper.

Rigid and inflexible, this hampers


the innovation and the adaptation of
the organisation front to external
situations.

Clear delimitation of the


responsibilities, this provides to
notably precise jurisdiction.

Excessive emphasis in the jefatura.

Considerable stability; this owe to


the centralisation of the control and
the rigid discipline by the unit of
control.

It prevents the specialisation put


that occupies to all the bosses in all
the possible subjects in the
organisation.

Functional organization:
It arises with the end to surpass the limits of the pure hierarchical structure and
his inability to the increasing exigencias of specialisation. His Fundamental
characteristic is that the subordinated, of the inferior levels, instead of being
connected to the direction through an only point (the upper immediate) receives
the orders, instructions and the assistance that needs directly of several
different bosses, each one of which develops to particular function, in which is
specialist. Of here precisely the denomination of functional structure. They enter
specialists in the different levels of the hierarchical structure, which mass his
activity in to very concretise type of work, the different business functions

(shopping, production, salts, etc.) Them encomienda to those people that have
the most appropriate knowledges for acometerlas.
Characteristic:

Functional authority or divided that sustenta in the knowledge.


The upper Have partial or relative authority on his subordinated.
The communication is direct, without intermediaterios, this offers main rapidity.
Decentralisation of the decisions and emphasis in the specialisation.

VENTAJAS

DISADVANTAGES

It provides the maximum of


specialisation to the diverse
charges of the organisation

Dispersion, in consequence lost of


the unit of control.

It allows the best technical


supervision possible:

Simple subordination, due to the


fact that if they have problems in
the delegation of authority also will
have them in the delimitation of
responsibilities.

It separates the functions


of planeacin and of Control of the
functions of execution

Trend to the competition between


the specialists

Linear organization Staff:


It is To type of organization that pretends to take advantage of the most positive
appearances of the linear and functional organization.
Base in the distinction between bosses with authority (hierarchical type) and
technical specialists that have to be heard before taking to decision (functional
type). In this Marry, the boss with authority receives the reports of the technical
(called staff) and under his responsibility take the decision happening to the
attendant the order to execute it.
The function of the staff consist in informing, advise, asesorar and support
technically to the units of control. It is not authorised neither to give orders
neither to take decisions. In the organigrama represent by means of
discontinuous strokes.
The problem of this type of organizations Plough the potential conflicts between
the technical authority and the formal to the hour to take decisions in the

different levels of the chain of control. However, it is very used in the business
world.
VENTAJAS

It ensures asesora skilled and


innovative and keeps the principle of
authority.

Conjoint activity and coordinated of


the organs of line and the organs of
staff.

DISADVANTAGES
Conflicts between the asesora and
the other organs and vice versa

Difficulty in the obtaining


and maintenance of
the dynamic Balance between line
and staff.

Structure Divisional:
The structure divisional is separated by departments practically independent
through the lines of product, market or geographic location. To measure that the
organisation grows or is bigger, is more likely that have to structure divisional,
that is simpler to administer and gives lines of clear control. To company can
have separate divisions for each product, each area of the market in which
handle or each geographic location in where residen the operations.

Organisation by product/Market:
LTo Organisation product/market gathers in to unit of work to all those that take
part in the production and commercialisation of to product or to group related of
products to all those that plough in some geographic zone or all those that treat
with some type of client.
The main part of the big companies, with multiple products, and General
Motors, have to structure of organisation by product or market. In some point of
the existence of an organisation the pure size and the diversity of products do
that the departments by functions Plough not viable. When the
departamentalizacin of To company torna too complex to coordinate the
functional structure, the high direction, by general rule, will create divisions
semiautnomas. In each division, the managers and the employees design,
produce and commercialise his own products.

Organisation by Types of Clients:


There Plough companies that serve different types of clients, for example
institutional clients, wholesale clients, big surfaces, perfectionist clients, etc. In
this Marry, the aims ace well ace the strategies to attain them, adapt to the

circumstances and own characteristics of the segment, and is in these marry


where use the organisation by type of client. For example: Clients Public
Sector, Clients Private Sector, etc.

Geographic organisation:
This is To type of commercial organisation very applied in companies
multinationals or that operate in countries very wide geographically. When you
operate in countries with languages, cultures and different markets, many of
the business performances have to adjust for the attainment of the aims, by
what this type of organisation is very efficient. For example: Peaceful Division
North, Central Peaceful Division, Head office Region, Atlantic Division, etc.

Matrix organisation
It is To type of design organizacional that treats of maximizar the advantages
and minimizar the disadvantages of two types of departamentalizacin:
functional and by product. The organisation Have 2 classes of structures to the
same time. In Vertical sense, establish the products or projects and in
horizontal sense, the functions that these will share.
The most important characteristic is that the employees have 2 bosses to which
have to answer: the director of products and the one of functions. Of this way
the system of authority is double and loses force the principle of the unit of
Control (Fayol). Eleven finalizado the project each Individual goes back to the
place that occupied.

ADVANTAGES
Allocation of responsibility by the
utilities to an Inferior level.

DISADVANTAGES
Loss of time for the coordination
between both directors.

Use of the economies of scale, with


which avoids the duplication of
specialists or of departments of
staff.

Conflicts when the resources


Plough scarce and both directors
have to contest them.

Fast answer to the changes of the


surroundings and technological.
It is good when the company Have
diversity of products.
They take advantage of the staff
and the specialists.

Excessive formalism: it looks for


leave all by writing to avoid bad
understood.
Double authority.
If the authority desequilibra,
produce ineficiencias and
ambiguity of power.

Organisation by procthose:
It is To prototype or model of administrative structure, cost for any class of
company or entities, developed modernamente to materialise the approach
sistmico of the organisations.
Characteristic:

Do only processes in which Plough the best.


Have only the necessary
Fortress in the technology of the information
Focus to the client and to the results
Systems of management of the human talent that support the
consolidacin of the organisation that learns

Structure in Committee:
It is that in where the authority and the responsibility Plough shared jointly by
to group of people instead of one. In them gathers the committee, generally to
take to decision and is used to to complement to the one of line or staff. It is
used to to apply for the creation of To new product, where gather the distinct
departments to decide. It is used to to have detractores by his slowness and be
conservative.

Organigrama:
The organigrama is an instrument used by the administrative sciences
for theoretical analyses and the action practises, are systems of organisation
that represent in intuitive form and with objectivity representing, by the union of
the pictures by means of lines, the channels of authority and responsibility. Also
they Plough called letters or graphic of organisation.

The organigramas signal the vinculacin that exists between himself of the
departments along the lines of main authority.
ADVANTAGES
It forces to his authors clear his
Ideas
It can appreciate to Simple sight
the general structure and the
relations of work in the company,
better of what could do by means
of to long description
They Plough appropriate to attain
that the principles of the
organisation operate
It indicates to the administrators
and to the new personnel the form
Ace they integrate to the
organisation

DISADVANTAGES
They show only the Formal relations
of authority leaving by out to lot of
significant informal relations and the
relations of information.
With frequency indicate the
organisation such Ace it would have to
be or ace it was, in place of ace it is
actually
It can ocasionar that the personnel
confuse the relations of authority with
the Status
They do not signal the degree of
available authority to distinct levels

Functions of the Organigramas:


For the science of the administration:
It serves of assistance and orientation of all the administrative units of the
company when reflecting the Structure Organizacional and his graphic
characteristics and updates.
For the area of organisation and system:
It serves to reflect the structure Ace well ace velar by his permanent review and
update (in the small and average companies, generally the unit of personnel
assumes this function), which give to know to all the company through the
manuals of organisation.
For the area of administration of Personal:
The analyst of personnel requires of this instrument for the studies of
description and analysis of charges, the plans of administration of wages and
wages and in general like element of support for the implementation, follow-up
and update of all the systems of personal.
And in General it serves stop:
Discover and delete defects or fail of organisation.
Communicate the organisational structure.
Reflect the organisational changes.

Types of structures:
Organigramas functional:
They include the
main functions that
have assigned, in
addition to the units
and his
interrelationships.
This type of
organigrama is of
big utility for
capacitar to the
personnel and
present to the
organisation in
General form.

Organigrama Of Structure Multidivisional:


The big companies need subdividir his activities to attend To big diversity of
products. In these Marry the usual is to Structure Multidivisional in which the
employees will be specialists in his area for to product and specific market. In
this sense to each product corresponds him To specific division with his
respective areas of production, marketing and finances.

Norms of design:
Technicians of Diagramacin:

Simbologa.- Usually the organigramas represent through geometrical figures,


joined between himself by lines to reflect the organs and the relations of
existent dependency between the administrative units of the institution. The
figure used is the rectangle, also can use the square and the circulate; however
it is recommended to use the rectangle for graficar the administrative units that
integrate them.
1. Rectangles
a) Distribution
Of agreement to the distribution of rectangles represented the levels of
authority and responsibility of all the organisation, is to say if to rectangle
goes on another wants to say that it is of main hierarchy.
b) Content
The rectangles contain the relative information to the structure of the
organisation, ace well ace the nomenclature and denomination of the
administrative unit. They exist besides other modalidades or types that can
comprise the charges, functions and/or people, numbers of the budgetary
account, number of people assigned to each unit, etc.
c) Dimension
Recommend that the rectangles Plough of equal size although they
represent different hierarchical levels in the organisation, besides the names
and/or nomenclatures of the units have to be readable, correct and complete
under that they facilitate his understanding.

d) Distance
It is the Vertical representation and horizontal or of another class is
convenient to keep uniformity of the distance between the rectangles, with
the object to attain the symmetry of the grafica.

Lines of Connection

Other types of Organigramas:


Organigramas Analytical.- They supply information detailed. destinan To the
Use of the directors, expert and personal of the main state.
Organigramas General.- This type of organigramas of limit to the units of main
importance, his denomination of general owe to that they plough the most
common.
Organigramas Supplementary.- They Use to show to unit of the structure in
analytical form or more detailed. They Plough complement of the analytical.
Organigramas Vertical.- Representa With all ease To hierarchical pyramid,
since the units displace , ace his hierarchy, of up down in to downward
hierarchical graduation.
Organigramas Horizontal.- They Plough to modalidad of
the organigrama vertical, because they represent the estructurace
withto distribution of left to right. In this type of organigrama the names of the

figures place inthe drawing without recuadros, although they can also place
the geometrical figures.
Organigrama Escalar.- This type of organigramas does not Use recuadros for
the names of the units of the structure, but lines on of which place the names.
When To line goes out in vertical sense of to horizontal
line, shows the authority of this last.
Organigrama Circular or concentric.- The hierarchical levels show by means
of concentric circles in To distribution of inside to to outside. This type of
organigrama is recommended by the practice of them Relate human, to
dissipate the image of subordination that translate the organigramas vertical.
Organigrama Functional.- They characterise by the departments that to his
time characterise by areas.

Organigrama By product.-

Organigrama By Client.- Organisational models that takes like main axis for
the allocation of functions and responsibilities the type of clients to the that
direct .

Organigrama By territory.- It is To model in which the basic criterion of


grouping of functions and responsibilities is geographic, under the main
hypothesis that the characteristics of the product or service that ofpray to the
market have to strong component of venue relation or of individualisation by
reason of the zone in which produce or serves or by cost of production and
transport.

Models Organizacionales:
Intelligent organisation.- An intelligent organisation is an integrated structure,
works like an all, that is able to knit permanently the skill to change the essence

ofhis character; it have values, habits, political, programs, systems and


structures that support and accelerate the learning organizacional
Characteristic of the intelligent organisation is the handle effective of his
knowledge, timely detection of needs of market and by his capacity of
innovation. The systems of handle of knowledge will allow to attain this put,
facilitating thework colaborativo and creative of all the members of the
company
Advantages of the intelligent organisation:

Reuse of the knowledge and the expertise of other members of the company
The creation from the existent information, in place of the creation from zero
It takes of decisions more informed, and therefore with main possibility of success
Constant exchange of information between the members of the company

Strategies of business.- Because of the globalisation and economic advance


is necessary that the companies believe new strategies to face successfully
these problems. For this have to take into account the following:
1. It exists the approach to the market and his position. The good companies have
the skill to identify where there is good opportunities of growth. The big
companies developers build his portafolio creating new markets and pursuing
handy acquisitions on mega-negotiations, without losing the approach in the
organic growth.
2. They exist distinctive capacities. The good companies put emphasis in the
building of only skills that both maximicen the experience of the client to do To
more effective use of the actuate.
3.

Tercero. It exists an anatomy of high development. This is that the good


companies have cultures that contemplate some Crucial points of view that
plough evident everywhere, from the employee how individual until the level
organizacional.

Based in teams: The organisations that Use this model focus to that all the
members plough participatory and engage to achieve the aims of the company,
use to culture of cooperation.
Corporaciones horizontal: In the
organisations that apply it the
hierarchies
go
doing
flatter
and also delete
the limits between
departments, what comports to that by
part of the subordinated there is more
communication with his upper.

Without borders: they Plough very similar to


the corporaciones horizontal, andste type of
organisation deletes the chain of control
likewise have an expansion of control in
boundless form what would cause to change
the departments by functions.

Virtual: they Plough the organisations that do use of


the technology, due to the fact that the members of the
organisation find geographically distant ace well ace
they do not have to physical structure.

In network: it Is the model that realises the abastecimiento


external of the organisation in his functions of businesses,
like this also allows to improve the communication with his
members.

Pyramids invested: it Is the model of


organisation that includes few levels of officials, by
what the operarios that were in the lowest levels
happen to be in the cpula, these employees
plough necessary under that they can develop of
efficient way.

Structuring and relations organizacionales


AUTHORITY In an organisation is the own right of To place to exert
discrecionalidad in it takes of decisions that affect to other people.
TYPES OF AUTHORITY
Toutoridad Formal: When it is conferred by the organisation, is to say, the
one who emanates of an upper to be exerted on other people and can be:
a) Linear: When it is exerted by to boss on to
person or group. Authority of line.-It
designates authority of line the one who

detects To control to direct the work of to subordinated. It is the direct relation of


upper-subordinated that you extend of the peak of the organisation until the
lowest stair, and designates him "chain of control".
b) Functional: When it is exerted by one or several bosses on distinct functions.
Functional authority.-It is the authority that
would have in administrator of the
supermarket on all the employees of the
same. This authority complements the one
of line and the one of Personal. It is To
form of authority very limited, because his
use breaks the designated "chain of control".

Authority Technical or staff: it Is born of the


skilled knowledges of the one who possesses
them.

Toutoridad personal. Originate


personality of the Individual.

in

the

Characteristics of To boss and of to leader:

Power
It is the capacity that possesses To person or group to attain what wish,
although perhaps the another part or person resist .
Vertical power.- Sources of power of the high direction, the formal pyramid of
authority awards power and authority in the high direction. This is responsible of
big quantity of people and of To lot of resources, and his authority is equal to
such responsibilities
Horizontal power.- The Horizontal power belongs to the relations between
departments. Do not Define
by the formal hierarchy neither by the
organigrama.
Personnel power.- Charisma, personality, personnel magnetism. It arises of
Individual form in each leader.
It is the capacity that have those to achieve supporters from his personality.
They have faith in the aims that attracts and retains to said supporters. They
achieve that there Plough people that wish to follow him.

.
Legitimate power.- Power Of position, official power. It is the one who him
adjudica by an upper authority.
Culturalmente, the authorities delegate the power legitimate to others under that
they control them the resources, compensate or punish to the other in his name.
This power is wished by almost all the people, whose purpose have to be the
order of the society.
Expert power.- Authority Of the knowledge. Proviene Of the skilled learning, of
the academic or formative studies. Us it inculcan, the knowledges and the
information that have this leader on to complex situation. Also, they influence
the education, the qualification, the experience. It is To very important power in
this period of new technologies
Political power.- Topoyo of To group.
It is very important the skill that have this leader to work in team, with other
people and inside social systems whose purpose was the one to achieve his
supports. This power arises inside the technical means and uncertain
organisations. Give frequently in those situations of reciprocal supports.
Example: the politician that asks Vote to change of labour improvements.
Ace French and Raven exist 5 types of power:
Power of reward.- Ands the capacity to offer incentives when they realise the
behaviours that wish : promotion, increase of wage, etc. Generally, relate with
the inherent formal power to somebody that occupies an upper charge.
Coercive power.- Ands the possibility to punish those behaviours that Plough
not appropriate: dismissal, sanctions, etc. It is used to to be also related with the
existent Formal power in an organisation.
Power referent or charismatic.- It is the capacity of each leader to influence in
his supporters from his Personal magnetism. By certain characteristic or form to
be believe To climate of confidence and cause the one who the other
incorporate to his project, since they sustain that they have to do it.
Power legitimate
Expert power

Administrative Manual:
It is To descriptive guide that establishes the roles, functions, attributions and
responsibilities that have assigned the organisation, the areas and the charges.
It establishes the relations of internal units, and personal and professional
conditions that have to gather the people that occupy the charges, all this
helps to attain to suitable systematisation of the administrative procedures of
the company. They indicate the activities to be fulfilled by the members of the
company and the form in how have to be realised, already was in group or
separately.
Aims:
Facilitate study of the organisation.
Establish channels of communication and of functional relations.

Instruct to the personnel about appearances such Ace: aims, functions,


relations, procedures, etc.
Precisar The functions and relations of each administrative unit for
deslindar responsibilities, avoid duplicidad and detect omissions.
Serve like means of integration and orientation to the personnel again
entry, facilitating his incorporation to the distinct operational functions.
Provide basic information for the planeacin and implantation of
administrative reforms.
Ensure suitable understanding of functions, purposes and expectations of
organisation and of activities that realises.
Attain and keep solid organic vision of all the entity.
Conocimiento Of the structure and assessment of charges that integrate it.
Provide To global vision of the organisation, knowledge of roles and half that
facilitate technical training - professional when orienting him in the activities to
develop.

The administrative Manual needs some requirements under that this good
elaborated, these plough the following:
Comprise to the whole of the structure, dependencies, charges,
functions, processes attributions and responsibilities.
Variable time have to be present in all moment.
All addressees have to be able to understand it, that's why it have to be
drafted in clear language, simple and concretise.
It Have to be known by all, arrive to each worker or collaborator under
that they can examine it and can apply it.

ADMINISTRATIVE MANUALS

ADVANTA
GES

It delimits field of
action, functions,
attributions and
responsibilities of the
charges and places.
General knowledge
of the structure
organizacional.
Clear and Complete
inventory of
obligations and
responsibilities of the
personnel.

DISADVANTA
GES

Excessive formalism,
this generates big
rigidity and very little
or invalid flexibility.
It results difficult to
keep it updated, due
to the fact that the
operation of the
organisation is
dynamic.
They Plough not the
solution to all the
problems of all in the
organisation.

Classification of the administrative manuals:


We can classify to the manuals in Basic to some criteria, which will mention to
continuation:
BY HIS CONTENT:
a) Of history.- It provides information about the beginnings, growth, attainments
and current position of the organisation. When it is very elaborated and applied
motivates to the employee to comprise better to the organisation and to feel
part of her.
b) Of organisation.- It exposes of form detailed the structure of the Formal
organisation through giving to know the aims, functions, authorities and
responsible of distinct places.

c) Of politics.- It Describe the points established to follow in it takes of decisions


for the attainment of the aims. If this Manual is the suitable will allow agilizar the
process of take of decisions and will facilitate the decentralisation.
d) Of procedures.- It expresses the administrative procedures through which
focuses the operative activity of the organism. Also it explains him to the
personnel how do his work and to Use the administrative procedures
prescribed.
e) Of multiple content.- It is when the quantity of personnel or activities Plough
not the sufficient and to do manual detailed and believe manual where combine
two or more categories like politics and procedure.

BY HIS FIELD OF APPLICATION


GENERAL: Also internal regulations, refer to global structure of the
organisation, his politics, the procedures of work, of the personnel. They Plough
of multiple purpose.
a) Of organisation and functions.- It establishes organic structure of the entity
and functions that fulfil different internal organs, the necessary formal relations
in the fulfillment of his tasks.
b) Of procedure.- His aim is to establish the procedures of all the units that
conform an organism with the end to unify them.
c) Of politics.- Fixed direction orientations and guidelines that have to be adopted
by the members of the organisation. It facilitates fulfillment of aims approved
treating to give harmony, consistency and solidez to entity and his members in
the relations with the clients, with the providers and with other organisations.

SPECIFIC: These manuals contain information of an organic unit.


a) Of recruitment and selection.- Refer to the area of the personnel and his aim
is to establish guidelines of how draft and select.

b) DAnd audit internto.- Agrupa Contours and instructions that apply to activities
of the internal audit.

c) Of politics of Personal.- His aim is to Defines political, ace well ace signal
guides with regard to subjects of contratacin, permissions, etc.

d) Of procedure of tesorera.- His aim is to establish processes to follow in the


area of tesorera, to end to capitalise the opportunities that generate when
following to sequence in the work.

BY SPECIFIC FUNCTION

a) Of Production.- It dictates the necessary instructions to coordinate the


processes of manufacture, is to say the inspection and control of production.
b) Of Shopping.- It Define the activities that relate with the shopping, is an useful
source of reference for the buyers.
c) Of Salts.- His aim is to signal the essential appearances of the work of Go out
ace they plough the politics of salts, procedures, controls, etc.
d) Of Finances.- It Determine financial responsibilities in all the levels of
administration and contains specific instructions directed to the personnel that
have to see with the handle of money and protection of goods.
e) Of Accounting.- It signals the principles and technical of the accounting that
Have to follow all the personnel related with this activity. It contains organic
structure of the department, description of the countable system, handle of
registers, etc.
f) DAnd Credit and Cobranzas.- They Plough the procedures and norms by
writing that determine to this activity. It can contain operations of credit and
cobranza, control and collection of the operations of credit, etc.
g) Of Personal.- His aim is to communicate the activities and political of the upper
direction regarding Personal. It contains recruitment and selection,
administration of personnel, political of personnel, qualification.
h) Technician.- It contains the principles and technical of To certain operational
function. An example of this can be the Manual of systems and procedures.
i) Of Adiestramiento.- His aim is to explain of form detailed the works, the
processes and the routines of to place in particular. Also it includes technical
programadas of learning or questionnaires of autoevaluacin for the user.

Parts of the administrative structure

Introduction

Instructions
for the Use of
the manual

Table of
content

Body

Parts of the administrative


structure

Annexes

Flujogramas

Recommendations
Glossary
Conclusions

Diagramacin
To diagram of flow elaborated with to graphic language inconsistente or no
conventional trasmitir to message deformado or will be ineffective for the
understanding of the process pretends to study.

Of here the need to conceive and admit certain symbols to which confer them
conventionally To precise meaning and suit also in certain rules regarding his
application.
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Have developed the
conventional signs of the graficas, in spite of the wide acceptance that have had
this simbologa, in the work of diagramacin administrative is limited, because it
have not arisen some conventional symbol that satisfy better all the needs.
The American National Standard Institute (ANSI) have developed to simbologa
under that it was employed in the diagrams oriented to the electronic processing
of date (EDP) with the purpose to represent the flows of information, of which
have adopted widely some symbols for the elaboracin of the diagrams of
flows inside the work of diagramacin administrative

Stages for the Elaboracin of Manual:


1. Planeacin Of the Work.- To establish To plan of work have to designate to the
group of people commissioned to elaborate the manual, of these people have to
appoint to coordinator that will be the manager to drive the actions for
homogeneizar the content and the presentation of the information. It Have to do to
preliminary study that allow to know the functions and activities that realise in the
areas to work.
2. Application of Technicians of Investigation.- Simultaneously to the elaboracin
of the program of work, will establish and designed the technicians of investigation
that will be used, these can be documentary or of field.

3. Analysis of the information.- In the analysis of the information obtained, have to


realise to thorough examination that allow to know each one of the elements that
integrate it, for which is necessary to establish the following sequence:
Know the fact or situation.

Describe this fact or situation.


Decompose it in all his details and elements.
Examine them crticamente.
Order each element of agreement to criteria previously established.
Precisar The relations between each element.

4. Structuring.- In this stage Have to establish the design and the presentation that
will use for the elaboracin of the administrative manuals.
5. Validation of the Information.- It is necessary that the validation carry it out the
managers of the areas to which correspond the manuals, with the purpose that the
information that present in them, was in accordance with the attributions and
activities that realise each one of the areas.
6. Permission of the Manual.- Eleven carry# out the validation, have to give him the
formalidad to the document requesting the permission of the headline of the
dependency or of the area to which correspond the document.
7. Distribution.- Obtained the permission proceed to the distribution in the
corresponding areas, with the purpose that the personnel know and do use of this
administrative tool.