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# UNIT 2 : SECOND LAW, ENTROPY AND AVAILABILITY

## 1. State the Kelvin Plank statement of second law of thermodynamics.

Kelvin Plank states that it is impossible to construct a heat engine working on cyclic process,
whose only purpose is to convert all the heat energy given to it into an equal amount of work.
2. State Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics.
It states that heat can flow from hot body to cold without any external aid but heat cannot flow
from cold body to hot body without any external aid.
3. State Carnots theorem.
No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two fixed temperature, can be more
efficient than a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.
4. What are the Corollaries of Carnot theorem.
a. In all the reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with
fixed temperature, have the same efficiency.
b. The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is
independent of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of
the reservoirs.
c.
5. Define PMM of second kind.
Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and
converts it into equivalent amount of work. Thus it gives 100% efficiency.
6. What is the difference between a heat pump and a refrigerator?
Heat pump is a device which operating in cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a hot
body at a temperature higher than the temperature of surroundings.
A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a
cold body at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings.
7. What is meant by heat engine?
A heat engine is a device which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy.
8. Define the term COP?
Co-efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat extracted or rejected to work input.
a. COP

## Heat extracted rejected

Work input

b.
9. Write the expression for COP of a heat pump and a refrigerator?

## COP of Heat pump

Source Temperatur e
Source Temperatur e - Sink Temperatur e

COP of Refrigerat or

Source Temperatur e
Source Temperatur e - Sink Temperatur e

## 10. What is the relation between COPHP and COP ref?

COPHP = COPref +1
11. Why Carnot cycle cannot be realized in practical?
a. In a Carnot cycle all the four process are reversible but in actual practice there is no
process is reversible.
b. There are two processes to be carried out during compression and expansion.

For

isothermal process the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston
moves as fast as possible. This speed variation during the same stroke of the piston is
not possible.
c. It is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely.
12. Name two alternative methods by which the efficiency of a Carnot cycle can be
increased.
a. Efficiency can be increased as the source temperature increases.
b. Efficiency can be increased as the sink temperature decreases.
13. Why a heat engine cannot have 100% efficiency?
For all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. Therefore we
cant convert all the heat input into useful work.
14. When will be the Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum?
Carnot cycle efficiency is maximum when the initial temperature is 0K.
15. What are the processes involved in Carnot cycle.
Carnot cycle consist of
Reversible isothermal compression
isentropic compression
reversible isothermal expansion
isentropic expansion
16. State carnot theorem?
No heat engine operating in a cyclic process between two-fixed temperatures can be more
efficient that a reversible engine operating between the same temperature limits.
17. Define PMM of second kind?
Perpetual motion machine of second kind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and
converts it into equivalent amount of work, Thus it gives 100 percentage efficiency.

## 18. What is meant by heat engine?

A heat engine is a device, which is used to convert the thermal energy into mechanical energy.
19. Define the term absolute entropy?
The change in entropy of the system with respect to ambient conditions or any other standard
reference condition is known as absolute entropy.
20. Define Entropy .
Entropy may also be defined as the thermal property of a substance which remains constant
when substance is expanded or compressed adiabatically in a cylinder.
21. Define the terms source, sink, and heat reservoir.
Source:

The part where the heat to be rejected to work absorbing or work developing device is

called source.
Sink: The part which receives heat from work absorbing or work developing device is called sink.
Reservoir:

The part which supplies or receives heat continuously without change in its

## 22. Define entropy?

Entropy is an index of unavailability or degradation of energy.
23. Is the second law is independent of first law? Explain.
Yes. The second law is independent of first law. The second law speaks about the quality of
energy.
24. Define change of entropy. How is entropy compared with heat transfer and absolute
temperature?
The measure of irreversibility when the energy transfer takes place within the system or
between the system and surrounding is called as change of entropy. It is simply known as
unaccounted heat loss.
25. What is the corollaries of carnot theorem?
(1). All the reversible engines operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fixed
temperature have the same efficiency.
(2). The efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent
of the nature of the working fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoir.
26. Can entropy of universe ever decrease ? why?
Entropy of universe cannot ever decrease. It will be remain constant or will decrease due to
irreversibility.
27. What is the essence of the second law of thermodynamics?

## (1). To know the feasibility of process.

(2). To know about the quality of energy.
28. Why the performances of refrigerator and heat pump are given in terms of C.O.P and
not in terms of efficiency?
The performance of any device is expressed in terms of efficiency for work developing machines.
But heat pump and refrigerator are work absorbing machines. So, the performance of those
devices based on C.O.P only.
29. Comment on the statement The entropy of universe tends to be maximum?
If the entropy of universe tends to be maximum, the irreversibility will be more due to friction
between moving parts.
30. For compression process between same states, which will consume more work
reversible or irreversible.
Irreversible work will be more in the compression process. Generally for compression, the actual
work given will be higher than the calculated work.
31. What are the assumptions made in working of Carnot Engine ?

The assumptions made for describing the working of the Carnot engine are as follows :
The piston moving in a cylinder does not develop any friction during motion.
The walls of piston and cylinder are considered as perfect insulators of heat.
The cylinder head is so arranged that it can be a perfect heat conductor or perfect heat
insulator.
The transfer of heat does not affect the temperature of source or sink.
Working medium is a perfect gas and has constant specific heat.
Compression and expansion are reversible.

## A reversible process should fulfill the following conditions :

The process should not involve friction of any kind.
Heat transfer should not take place with finite temperature difference.
The energy transfer as heat and work during the forward process should be identically equal to
energy transfer as heat and work during the reversal of the process.
There should be no free or unrestricted expansion.
There should be no mixing of the fluids.
The process must proceed in a series of equilibrium states.

## 33. State Third law of thermodynamics.

The third law of thermodynamics states When a system is at zero absolute temperature,
the entropy of system is zero.
34. Why reversible processes are preferred ?
Reversible processes are preferred because the devices which produce work such as engines and
turbines, reversible process of the working fluid delivers more work than the corresponding

rreversible processes. Also in case of fans, compressors, refrigerators and pumps less power input is
required when reversible processes are used in place of corresponding irreversible ones
35. Write the equation for Clausius inequality
Clausius inequality is given by,

## 1. Define latent heat of ice?

Total amount of heat added during conversion of ice of zero degree Celsius into water of zero
degree Celsius.
2. Define Sensible heat of water .

## It is defined as the quantity of heat absorbed by 1 kg of water when it is heated from 0 C

(freezing point) to boiling point. It is also called total heat (or enthalpy) of water or liquid heat
invariably.
3. Define Latent heat or hidden heat .
It is the amount of heat required to convert water at a given temperature and pressure into
steam at the same temperature and pressure. It is expressed by the symbol hfg and its value is
available from steam tables. The value of latent heat is not constant and varies according to
pressure variation.
4. Define Dryness fraction (x).
The term dryness fraction is related with wet steam. It is defined as the ratio of the mass of
actual dry steam to the mass of steam containing it.
5. What is pure substance?
Pure substance is a substance which has a fixed chemical composition throughout its mass.
Examples: Water, nitrogen, carbon-di-oxide, and helium. A pure substance does not have to be
of a single chemical element or compound. A mixture of various chemical elements or
compounds is also called as pure substance as long as the mixture is homogeneous.
6. What is saturation temperature and saturation pressure?
At a given pressure, the temperature at which a liquid boils is called saturation temperature.
At the given temperature, the pressure at which the liquid boils is called saturation pressure.
It is also called as vapour pressure.
7. Define latent heat of vaporization?
The amount of heat added during heating of water from boiling point to dry saturated stage is
called as latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy of vaporization or latent heat of steam.
8. Define the terms boiling point and melting point
Boiling point: It is the temperature at which the liquid starts to change its state from liquid to
vapour.
Melting point: It is the temperature at which the solid starts to change its state from solid to
liquid.
9. Define sensible heat of water?
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of unit mass of water from 0C to the
saturation temperature under a constant pressure. It is denoted by hf.
10. Define the term superheat enthalpy.
The heat supplied to the dry steam at saturation temperature, to convert it into superheated
steam at the temperature Tsup is called superheat enthalpy.
11. Define wet steam and dry steam?
The steam which partially evaporated and having water particles in suspension is called wet
steam.

The steam which fully in evaporated state and is not having any water particles is called dry
steam.
12. What is meant by superheated steam? And indicate its use.
If the dry steam is further heated, then the process is called superheating and steam obtained
is known as superheated steam.
Uses:Superheated steam has more heat energy and more work can be obtained using it.
Thermal efficiency increases as the temperature of superheated steam is high.
13. Define triple point and critical point for pure substance?
Triple point:

Triple point is the state at where all the three phases that is, solid, liquid and

vapour to exist in equilibrium. The triple point is merely the point of intersection of
sublimation and vapourisation curves. It must be understood that only on p-T diagram is the
triple point represented by a point.
Critical point:

It represents the highest pressure and temperature at which the liquid and

vapour phases coexist in equilibrium. At the critical point the liquid and vapour phases are
indistinguishable that is liquid directly converted into vapour.
14. Explain the terms: Degree of superheat, Degree of subcooling.
Degree of superheat: It is the difference between superheated temperature and saturated
temperature at the same pressure.
Degree of subcooling:It is the amount by which the water is cooled beyond the saturated
temperature at the same pressure.
15. Define Saturation temperature and saturation pressre
The phase change temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure. Sometimes called the
boiling temperature.
The pressure at which phase change occurs is called saturation pressure.
16. What is Compressed liquid ?
Liquid whose temperature is lower than the saturation temperature. Sometimes called a subcooled liquid.
17. What is Saturated liquid ?
It is the liquid at the saturation temperature corresponding to the saturation pressure. That is
18. What is Dry (saturated) vapour , wet vapour and superheated vapour ?
Dry Vapour is the vapour which has just completed evaporation. The pressure and temperature
of the vapour are the saturation values.
Wet vapour is the mixture of saturated liquid and dry vapour during the phase change.
Superheated vapour is the vapour whose temperature is greater than the saturation
temperature corresponding to the pressure of the vapour.

## 19. State phase rule of pure substances?

The number of independent variables associated with a multicomponent, multiphase system is
given by the phase rule. It is also called as Gibbs phase rule.It is expressed by the equation as
n=C- +2
Where,
n = the number of independent variable,
c = the number of components,
= the number of phases present in equilibrium.
20. When saturation pressure increases, what happens to saturation temperature and
freezing point?
When saturation pressure increases, then the saturation temperature is increasing and the
freezing point decreasing.
21. What is meant by steam power cycles?
Thermodynamic cycles which use steam as the working fluid is called steam power cycles.
22. What is meant by work ratio? What is the importance of work ratio in vapour cycles?

Work ratio is defined as the ratio of network transfer to the positive work transfer.
Work ratio affects the actual efficiency comparing two cycles with the same ideal
efficiency, the cycle having smaller work ratio would have smaller actual efficiency.
Higher the work ratio, the SSC is lower, resulting in smaller size plant for the given
output.

23. What are the effects of condenser pressure on the Rankine cycle?
By
lowering the condenser pressure, we can increase the cycle efficiency.The main
disadvantage is lowering the back pressure increases the wetness of steam. Isentropic
compression of a very wet vapour is very difficult.
24. A vapour cycle inherently has two advantages over gas power cycle. What are they?

## Isothermal heat transfer (evaporation and condensation) is possible in practice.

The work ratio is high compared to the gas power cycles.

25. Mention the improvements made to increase the ideal efficiency of ranking cycle.

## Lowering the condenser pressure

Super heated steam is supplied to the turbine.
Increase the boiler pressure to certain limit.
Implementing reheat and regeneration in the cycle.

26. Name the different components in steam power plant working on a rankine cycle.
Boiler, Turbine, Cooling Tower or Condenser, and Pump.
27. What are disadvantages of reheating?
The cost of plant increases due to the reheater and its long connections. It also increases the
condenser capacity due to increased dryness fraction.
28. List the advantages of reheat cycle.

## Marginal increase in thermal efficiency.

Increase in work done per kg of steam which results in reduced size of boiler and
auxiliaries for the same output.
We can prevent the turbine from erosion.
29. What are the disadvantages of bleeding?
Cost of the plant increases and the work done per kg of steam is reduced which results in
higher boiler capacity for given output.
30. What is available energy ?
Available energy is the maximum portion of energy which could be converted into useful work by
ideal processes which reduce the system to a dead state (a state in equilibrium with the earth and
its atmosphere).
Or
The available energy (A.E.) or the available part of the energy supplied is the maximum work
output obtainable from a certain heat input in a cyclic heat engine .
31. What is unavailable energy ?
The theoretical maximum amount of work which can be obtained from a system at any state p 1 and
T1 when operating with a reservoir at the constant pressure and temperature p 0 and T0 is called
availability
Or
The minimum energy that has to be rejected to the sink by the second law is called the
unavailable energy (U.E.), or the unavailable part of the energy supplied.

## 32. Define irreversibility.

The actual work which a system does is always less than the idealized reversible work, and the
difference between the two is called the irreversibility of the process.
33. Define effectiveness.
Effectiveness is defined as the ratio of actual useful work to the maximum useful work. The
useful output of a system is given by the increase of availability of the surroundings. The
effectiveness of an actual process is always less than unity. Thus effectiveness of a process is the
measure of the extent to which advantage has been taken of an opportunity to obtain useful work.