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Welding Equipments
TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas)
Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn.
It is a semiautomatic welding process. Here arc is struck between electrode and job.
Electrode is non-consumable. There is ceramic coating over tungsten electrode tip. Ceramic coating is used
because it has a very high melting point of 3500 C. inert environment is provided by argon gas. Hands
supply filler metal manually.

TIG has better penetration as comparison to other welding operations. It has no backfire. It
is specially used for giving a coating of stainless steel over a job when it is over machined or over grinded.
Also some times for balancing purpose metal are added through TIG. The filler metal comes in various
range of thickness from 1.2 mm, 1.6 mm, 2 mm and 2.4 mm (Make is ESAB, kobelco and bohler). Copper
cable is used to connect Electrode holder and D.C. Flow meter are generally attached to the argon cylinder.

MIG (Metal Inert Gas)

Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn.
It is also semi-automatic welding process. Here arc is also struck between electrode and

job. But here electrode is filler metal wire. Electrode is consumable. Here filler metal wire speed is 5 mm
per revolution. Argon and carbon-di-oxide gases provide the inner environment. Color code for argon and
carbon-di-oxide cylinder is green. The Mild steel wire diameter ranges are 1.2 mm, 2 mm, and 4 mm (Make
is ESAB). Sometimes S.S coating is provided over M.S for water resistant coating.

In MIG welding, spatter is prevented by applying spatter gel is applied on the torch so that
spatter doesnt stick to the torch. Spatter core is the area where spatter can reach.
Welding fixture for M.S comes along with wire but for a S.S a separate fixture is used.
SAW (Submerged Arc Welding)
Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn.
It is an automatic welding process. Electrode is consumable. Here arc is struck
between the electrode i.e. filler metal wire and the job. Filler metal wire act as an electrode. Here shielding
is done by flux. Flux is kept inside a cylinder at a pressure of 6kg/cm^2. Flux come and covers the welded
zone. Grain size of flux varies from 0.2 mm to 1.6 mm. Its basicity index is 1.4. Before filling cylinder with
flux, flux has to be heated at a temperature of 300C for 2 hours .The make of flux is either ESAB or Ador.
It is generally used for heavy thickness.

SMAW (Shield Metal Arc Welding)

Machine Make: Frronius and Triodyn.

It is used for welding pipe section like spiral. Butt joint can be weld up to thickness 15 20 mm.
Here arc is struck between electrode and the job. Electrode can be of various types depending upon job
material and the thickness of the job. Always the positive terminal of the dc source is connected to the
electrode i.e. 1/3 to the electrode and 2/3 to the job. The distance between the job and the electrode depends
upon thickness of the electrode at most it could be 3 mm. Electrodes are generally heated in the electronic
furnace at a temperature about 100c to 120c before use so that it has no moisture and it gives you a
continuous weld. Hoses are made us of rubber. Reverse polarity is applied in SMAW.

According to American Standards, E 6013 means E stands for Electrode. 60 stand for tensile
strength. 1 stands for Welding Position. 3 stand for flux coating or covering.
Welding job: Spiral Casing.