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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No.

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II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Civil Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What do you mean by model testing? What are pre requisites for model
testing?
(b) Properties of a structure can be calculated by analytical method and by model
analysis, which is more suitable. Why? [8+8]

2. (a) Explain how the velocity is distributed in an open channel section. With the
aid of neat sketches
(b) An open channel of trapezoidal section, 2.5 m at the base and having sides
inclined at 600 to the horizontal, has a bed slope of 1 in 500. It is found that
when the flow is 1.5 m3 /s the depth of water in the channel is 0.5 m. Assuming
the validity of the Manning‘s formula., calculate the flow when the depth is
0.7 m. [8+8]

3. (a) Explain the difference between a single stage and multistage centrifugal pump.
(b) Define the specific speed of a centrifugal pump. How does it differ from that
of a turbine.
(c) A five stage centrifugal pump delivers 250 l/s against a head of 100 m while
running at 500 rpm. The blades are radial at outlet. Estimate the manometric
efficiency and the breadth of the impeller at outlet if the impeller diameter is
600 mm and velocity of flow at outlet is 5 m/s. [4+4+8]

4. (a) Write down the application of hydroelectric power plants.


(b) The following data is available for a hydropower plant, Available head=140m,
catchment area=200sq.km, annual average rainfall=1450mm, turbine efficiency
=85%, generator efficiency=90%, percolation and evaporation losses=16%.
Determine the following
i. Power developed
ii. Suggest type of turbine to be used if runner speed is to be kept below
240rpm. [4+12]

5. A Kaplan turbine develops 1471kW under a head of 6m. The turbine is set 2.5m
above the tailrace level. A vacuum gauge inserted at the turbine outlet records
a suction head of 3.1m. If the hydraulic efficiency is 85%, what would be the
efficiency of draft tube having inlet diameter of 3m. What will be the reading of
suction gauge if power developed is reduced to half (735.5kW), the head and speed
remaining constant? [16]

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 2
6. (a) Write down the uses of hydraulic jump
(b) Define rapidly varied flow and gradually varied flow
(c) Derive the equation for specific energy curve. [4+4+8]

7. A jet of water having a velocity of 15m/sec strikes a curved vane which is moving
with a velocity of 5m/sec. The vane is symmetrical and it is so shaped that the
jet is deflected through 1200 . Find the angle of the jet at inlet of the vane so that
there is no shock. What is the absolute velocity of the jet at outlet in magnitude
and direction and the work done per second per kg of water? Assume the vane to
be smooth. [16]

8. (a) What is kinematic similarity? What is its significance?


(b) A turbine develops 1900 KW at 500 rpm under a net head of 22m. Its diameter
is 2.5m. A model of 1:5 is tested under a head of 4m. Estimate the size, speed,
discharge and power developed by the model. Assume an efficiency of 82%.
[8+8]

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 4
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Civil Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) What are the requirements of a good surge tank so that the efficiency of
hydropower installation is maximum?
(b) How is the Kaplan turbine governed? Explain with a neat diagram. [8+8]

2. (a) What is critical flow? Derive the condition for maximum discharge for a given
value of specific energy.
(b) The specific energy for a 6 m wide rectangular channel is to be 5 kg-m/kg.
If the rate of flow of water through the channel is 24 m3 /s. Determine the
alternate depths of flow. [8+8]

3. (a) Define specific speed of a centrifugal pump. What is its significance?


(b) A centrifugal pump discharges 1200 lit/minute against a head of 16.5 m when
the speed is 1500 rpm. The diameter of the impeller is 35 cm and the power
required is 6 h.p. A geometrically similar pump of 45 cm is to run at 1750
rpm. Assuming equal efficiencies, find
i. the head developed
ii. the discharge and
iii. power developed by the 45 cm pump. [8+8]

4. The load on a hydel plant varies from a minimum of 10,000kW to a maximum of


35,000kW. Two turbo-generators of capacities 22,000kW each have been installed.
Calculate

(a) Total installed capacity of the plant


(b) Plant factor
(c) Maximum demand
(d) Load factor. [16]
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5. A 20 scale model was tested in order to determine the resistance of the prototype
ship. The model has a wetted area of 2.75 metre2 . The prototype velocity is 3.50
metres per second in sea water of density 1.04 gm/cc. When the model was moved
at the corresponding speed, the total resistance was found to be 3.20 kg. The skin
resistance of the model in fresh water is 0.00945 v 1.9 kg/metre2 and that of the
ship in sea water is 0.00902 v 1.85 kg/metre2 . Calculate:

(a) The corresponding speed of the model and


(b) The total resistance of the ship. [16]

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 4
6. A jet of water having a velocity of 20m/sec strikes a curved vane, which is moving
with a velcity of 10m/sec. The jet makes an angle of 200 with the direction of
motion of vane at inlet and leaves at an angle of 1300 to the direction of motion of
the vane at outlet. Calculate

(a) Vane angles, so that the water enters and leaves the vane without shock
(b) Work done per second per unit weight of water striking the vane. [16]

7. (a) What do you mean by recovery head in connection with a draft tube.
(b) Determine the absolute pressure head at inlet of a vertical divergent draft tube
from the following data. Total length of draft tube=5.75m, length of draft tube
drowned=1.25m, loss of head due to friction in the draft tube=0.25Xkinetic
head at outlet, velocity of water at inlet=5m per second, inlet diameter of the
tube =0.60m, outlet diameter of the tube=0.9m. Find also the efficiency of
the draft tube. [6+10]

8. (a) A control sluice spanning the entry of a 4.0m wide rectangular channel having
a mild slope admits 16.0m3 /s at a velocity of 3.0m/s. Find whether a hydraulic
jump is expected in the channel downstream from the sluice.
(b) Water flows at the rate of 1.0X106 cm3 /s along a channel of rectangular section
1.75m in width. Calculate the critical depth. If a hydraulic jump formed at
a point where the upstream depth is 25cm, what would be the rise in water
level and power lost in the jump? [8+8]

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 1
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Civil Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) A turbine develops 7460 KW under a head of 25m at 135 rpm. What is the
specific speed. What would be its normal speed and power under a head of
18m.
(b) What are the components in governing mechanism of a turbine?
(c) Distinguish between unit speed and specific speed. [6+4+6]

2. A Pelton wheel is required to develop 12000 kw when working under a head of


300m. It rotates at a speed of 540 rpm. Assuming the jet ratio as 10 and overall
efficiency as 84%, calculate

(a) The diameter of the wheel


(b) The quantities of water required and
(c) The number of jets. [16]

3. (a) Discuss the concept of multistage pumps in detail.


(b) A centrifugal pump has three stages discharging 120 lit/s, working against a
head of 45 m, running at 1400 rpm. Calculate the specific speed of the pump.
[8+8]

4. A jet of water 15 mm diameter impinges on a series of cureed vanes exactly at their


center and is deflected by 1700 . The velocity of the jet is 12 m/sec and the velocity
of the vane is 6m /sec. It the vanes are arranged on the periphery of a wheel such
that there is at least are one cureed vane always taking the jet of all times, estimate
the power developed and the efficiency of the wheel? [16]

5. Prove that the resistance F of a sphere of diameter d moving at a constant speed


ν through a hfluidi of density ρ and dynamic viscosity µ may be expressed as
2
F = µρ φ vdρ µ
. [16]

6. A flow of 20lt/sec is passing through a rectangular channel of 15cm width. If a


hydraulic jump occurs at Y1=4cm, calculate the segment depth and energy loss
assuming α1 = 1.02, β1 = 1.0, α2 = 1.6 and β2 . [16]

7. (a) Derive the condition for depth of flow of a most economical circular channel
section subject to the condition for maximum velocity.

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 1
(b) Water flows in a channel of the shape of isosceles triangle of bed width ‘a’and
sides making an. angle of 450 with the bed. Determine the relation between
depth of flow d., and the bed width ‘a’ for maximum velocity and for maximum
discharge condition. Use Manning’s formula and note that d is less than 0.5
a. [8+8]

8. (a) Explain the classification of hydroelectric power plants based on hydraulic


features
(b) It is contemplated to develop a run-of-river plant on river Krishna. The flow
variation of discharge with head was recorded. Plot the power-duration curve.
[6+10]
Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Discharge (cumec) 100 180 215 260 325 370 460 600 700

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 3
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010
HYDRAULICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINERY
Civil Engineering
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
?????

1. (a) Show that the head loss in a hydraulic jump formed in a rectangular channel
(V1 −V2 )2
may be expressed as ∆E = 2g(V 1 +V2 )

(b) A sluice gate discharges water into a horizontal channel with a velocity of
10m/sec and depth of flow of 1m. Determine the depth of flow after the jump
and consequent loss in total head. [10+6]
2. (a) Derive an expression for the discharge through a channel by Chezy‘s formula.
(b) Determine the dimensions of the most economical trapezoidal earth lined
Channel (Manning’s n = 0.020) to carry 14 m3 /s at a slope of 4 in 10,000.
[8+8]
3. (a) Draw a typical layout and explain the working of centrifugal pump. Also
indicate various components.
(b) Explain the method of selection of centrifugal pumps through the
characteristic curves. [8+8]
4. (a) Show that the force exerted by a jet of water on an inclined fixed plate in the
direction of the jet is given by F =ρaV2 sin2 θ. Where a = area of the jet,
V = velocity of the jet, θ = inclination of the plate with the jet.
(b) A jet of water of diameter 50mm moving with a velocity of 20m/sec strikes a
fixed plate in such a way that the angle between the jet and the plate is 600 .
Find the force exerted by the jet on the plate
i. In the direction normal to the plate
ii. In the direction of the jet. [8+8]
5. A river discharges 2500 cumecs. The rugosity coefficient of the river bed is 0.028. If
a model of the river is made adopting a horizontal scale ratio 1:1000 and a vertical
scale ratio 1:75, calculate the discharge in the model and the regosity coefficient of
its bed. [16]
6. (a) What is Thoma’s cavitation factor? What is its significance?
(b) A Francis turbine working under a head of 5 m at a speed of 210 rpm develops
75 KW when the rate of flow of water is 1.8 m3 / sec. If the head is increased
to 16 m, determine the speed, discharge and power. [8+8]
7. Design a Pelton wheel for the following data.
(a) Gross head available = 170m

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Code No: 34003 R05 Set No. 3
(b) Losses in penstock = 10% of gross head
(c) Power to be developed = 600 kw.
(d) Speed of the wheel = 360rpm
(e) Overall efficiency = 86% Assume any missing data suitably. [16]

8. At a proposed site of hydroelectric power plant the available discharge and head
are 330m3 /s and 28m respectively. The turbine efficiency is 86%. The generator
is directly coupled to the turbine. The frequency of generator is 50Hz and number
poles used are 24. Find the least number of machines required if

(a) A Francise turbine with a specific speed of 260 is used.


(b) A Kaplan turbine with a specific speed of 700 is used. [16]

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