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POLYMERS

COMPUNDING OF PLASTICS

MOULDING
CONSTITUENT
COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS.

THEORY

OR

Plastics are manufactured synthetically using raw materials


mostly from petroleum industry. In addition to raw material
chosen, the plastics are generally compounded with some other
substances so as to impart certain specific properties of product.
1) Binders Binders hold the other constituents together
during manufacture.
e.g. Natural or synthetic resins or cellulose derivatives, etc
Binders influence the properties of plastics. The type of
treatment during moulding operation also depends upon
binders. If a binders used has comparatively low molecular
weight, then plastic article gets moulded easily & vice versa.
2) Fillers or Extenders Fillers impart better tensile
strength, hardness, finish, workability, opacity, etc to the
plastic material.
e.g. Organic fillers Wood flour, cotton pulp, paper pulp,
carbon black, graphite, powdered rubber, etc.
In organic fillers asbestos, powdered mica, silicate clays, talc,
Zn & Pb oxides, Cd & Ba sulphides, Al, Fe, Cu, metal in
powdered form, etc.
They reduce shrinkage & brittleness. They also reduce cost of
the plastic per unit weight.
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) Plasticizers

These help to increase the plasticity of

the plastics.
e.g. Vegetable oil, camphor, esters of stearic, triphenyl
phosphate, diethyl phthalate, etc
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POLYMERS

COMPUNDING OF PLASTICS

THEORY

These help to reduce the forces of intermolecular attraction &


thereby increases tendency of sliding or moving. Thus the
plastics which are plasticized possess high percentage of
flexibility. They are essentially used in thermo softening
plastics.
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) Pigments / Dyes

These imparts desired colours

to the plastic.
e.g. Organic dyestuffs & inorganic pigments
The colouring matter used in plastics should be resistance to
the action of sunlight.
5) Catalysts or accelerators These are used to
increase the rate of polymerization of fusible resin binder to
form cross linked infusible form during moulding operations.
e.g. Hydrogen peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, metallic oxides,
etc
6) Lubricants lubricants help during moulding
operations, especially during low or room temperature
moulding.
e.g. Soaps or esters of fatty acids such as oleic & stearic acids
or waxes.
The use of lubricants imparts flawlessness, & glossy finish to
the plastic products. They form a layer between they article &
mould. This layer prevents the plastic material from sticking to
the surface of the mould, & thereby facilitating the moulding
operations.

POLYMERS

COMPUNDING OF PLASTICS

THEORY

7) Stabilizers - Stabilizers helps to improve thermal


stability of the plastic.
e.g. Salt of lead, white lead, lead chromate, red lead, &
transparent moulding compounds are stearates of lead,
cadmium & barium, etc
These are required especially in the processing stage for
plastic, which have tendency to decompose or change their
colours at moulding temperatures.