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- Effects of Nonlinearity on DFT-OFDM and DWT-OFDM Systems
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Leonard J. Cimini, Jr., and Nelson R. Sollenberger

AT&T Labs - Research

100 Schulz Drive, Red Bank, New Jersey 07701

Tel/Fax: 732-345-3129/3039

Email: ljc@research.att.com

Abstract- OFDM is an attractive technique for achieving

high-bit-rate wireless data transmission. However, the

potentially large peak-to-average power ratio (PAP) of a

multicarrier signal has limited its application. Previously,

we described a technique, based on partial transmit

sequences, that provides improved PAP statistics with little

loss in efficiency, and which is more easily implemented

than the standard Partial Transmit Sequence approach.

One of the remaining challenges is how to transmit knowledge about the combining sequence to the receiver in a

reliable fashion. Here, we describe a technique, using no

overhead, for embedding this information within the

transmitted data and reliably recovering it at the receiver.

1. INTRODUCTION

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) [ I ]

is a very attractive technique for high-bit-rate transmission in a

radio environment. By dividing the total bandwidth into many

narrow subchannels which are transmitted in parallel, the

effects of multipath delay spread can be minimized. This

approach has been adopted or proposed for Digital Audio

Broadcasting [2], Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting

131, wireless LANs [ 4 ] ,and high-speed cellular data [5]. One

disadvantage to using OFDM for wireless applications is the

potentially large peak-to-average power ratio (PAP)

characteristic of a multicarrier signal with a large number of

subchannels. In particular, a baseband OFDM signal with N

subchannels has a PAP = N 2 / N = N ; for N =256, PAP-24 dB.

When passed through a nonlinear device, such as a transmit

power amplifier, the signal may suffer significant spectral

spreading and in-band distortion. With the increased interest

in OFDM for wireless applications, overcoming this problem

is a very active and important area of research.

The conventional solutions to the PAP problem are to use

a linear amplifier or to backoff the operating point of a

nonlinear amplifier; both approaches resulting in a significant

power efficiency penalty. Several alternative solutions have

been proposed. The simplest is to deliberately clip the OFDM

signal before amplification [6-71, which gives a good PAP at

the expense of some performance degradation. Another uses

nonlinear block coding [8], where the desired data sequence is

embedded in a larger sequence and only a subset of all the

possible sequences are used, specifically, those with low peak

with only a small bandwidth penalty. As originally described,

to implement this coding scheme, large look-up tables are

required at the transmitter and the receiver, limiting its

usefulness to applications with a small number of subchannels.

Progress has been made towards coding schemes that reduce

the PAP, can be implemented in a systematic form, and have

some error correcting capabilities [9]. Nevertheless, these

methods are difficult to extend to systems with more than a

few subchannels and the coding gains are small for reasonable

levels of redundancy.

Two promising techniques for improving the statistics of

the PAP of an OFDM signal have been proposed. These

techniques have been termed the Selective Mapping (SLM)

approach [lo-1 11 and the Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS)

approach [ 12-131. In SLM, M statistically independent

sequences are generated from the same information and that

sequence with the lowest PAP is chosen for transmission. In

PTS, the data block to be transmitted is partitioned into M

disjoint subblocks which are combined to minimize PAP.

Both introduce additional complexity but provide improved

PAP statistics for the OFDM signal with little cost in

efficiency. In [14], we described new algorithms for

combining partial transmit sequences. Based on simulations,

we showed that these suboptimal strategies, which are less

complex and more easily implemented, suffer little

performance degradation from optimum combining.

A requirement for both of the approaches above is that the

receiver must have knowledge about the generation process of

the transmitted OFDM signal in order to recover the

information. This can be sent as side information resulting in

some loss of efficiency. Alternatively, for the PTS approach,

differential encoding can be employed across subchannels

within a subblock; in this case, the overhead is a single

reference carrier per subblock. Here, we describe a technique

for embedding the side information within the transmitted data

with no overhead and a detection scheme for reliably

recovering this information.

In Section 2, we briefly summarize the PTS approach and

the lower complexity, suboptimal, alternative. Then, in

Section 3, we describe a method for transmitting the side

information without any loss in efficiency. Results are

presented in Section 4, followed by a summary in Section 5.

0-7803-6151-1/M)/$10.00

Q 2000 IEEE

746

M

X = C b , , , X m

formed with each symbol modulating one of a set of N

subcarriers, cf,, ,n =0, I ,... ,N - 1 ). The N subcarriers are

chosen to be orthogonal, that is, f , = n A f , where Af = I/NT

and T i s the original symbol period. The resulting signal after

D/A conversion can be expressed as

assumed to be pure rotations. After transforming to the time

domain, (3) becomes

M

xf = C b , x ,

c Xne2rrf,,r,o I t -< NT

(4)

m=l

N-l

x(t)

(3)

m=l

(1)

IFFT of X m . The phase factors are then chosen to minimize

the PAP of x. A PTS transmitter is shown in Fig. 2.

n =o

(2)

.3

.1

$

A

Optimization

.03

I

I

.01

,003

bottleneck is the optimization of the phase factors used for

combining the clusters. In [14], we first introduced a

suboptimal iterative algorithm for combining the P TSs. We

will briefly summarize the algorithm for the simplest case

where only binary (i.e., 1 and -1) weighting factors are

considered. After dividing the input data block into M

clusters, form the M N-point PTSs. As a first step, assume that

b,,=l for all m and compute the PAP of the combined signal

(4). Next, invert the first phase factor (bl =- 1) and

recompute the resulting PAP. If the new PAP is lower, retain

b I as part of the final phase sequence, otherwise, b reverts to

its previous value. The algorithm continues in this fashion

until all M possibilities for flipping the signs of the phase

factors have been explored. In what follows, we will refer to

(b,,,, m = I ,...M ) as the inversion sequence.

,001

PAP. (dB)

In Fig. 1 , the complementary cumulative distribution

function (CCDF=Pr(PAP>PAP,,))ofthe

PAPofan OFDM

signal is shown for the particular case of 256 subcarriers. To

more accurately approximate the true PAP, the results in Fig. I

have been computed by oversampling (1) by a factor of four.

For 256 subcarriers, the absolute PAP should be 24 dB.

However, with a reasonably large number of subcarriers

(usually 16 is sufficient), the signal amplitude is

approximately Rayleigh distributed and the large peaks occur

with very low probability. In particular, the PAP exceeds 11

dB for only 0.1% of the possible transmitted OFDM blocks.

In the PTS approach, the input data block is partitioned

into disjoint subblocks or clusters which are combined to

minimize

the

PAP.

Define

the

data

block,

{ x , , , ~ =,...,

o ,NI - I J , as a vector, x = [ xX ~I ... ~ N - 1 1

Then, partition X into M disjoint sets, represented by the

vectors { X N l , m =1,2,..., M I . The objective of the PTS

~ .

iterative approach to combining PTSs provides significant

improvement with only a small degradation compared to the

optimum. Nevertheless, the iterative approach requires some

feedback for implementation. An alternative approach, which

avoids feedback, is to approximate the optimum by

multiplying the information sequence by a number of random

sequences and choosing the best to transmit. Based on this

747

sequences which are easily generated, such as Walsh

sequences. This was considered in [I41 and the results are

summarized in the next section.

symbols (in the frequency domain) are differentially detected

by computing, for each cluster, the test statistic

In the results which follow, I00000 random OFDM blocks

were generated to obtain the CCDFs. To avoid missing peaks,

the transmitted signal was oversampled by a factor of four.

We assume 256 subcarriers throughout and QPSK data

symbols with the energy normalized to unity. In Fig. 1 , results

are shown for the case of a single OFDM block and 16 clusters

each composed of 16 subcarriers. The unmodified OFDM

signal has a PAP that exceeds 10.4 dB for less than 1 % of the

blocks. For the suboptimal algorithm, using the 16 Walsh

sequences of length 16 as the inversion sequence, a value of

about 8 dB is obtained. By using the PTS approach with the

optimum binary phase sequence for combining, the 1% PAP

reduces to 6.8 dB. While a degradation of 1 dB is encountered

using the suboptimal approach, the optimization process has

been reduced to 16 sets of 16 additions, a considerable savings

over trying to find the optimum set of phase factors.

m = 1,2,...,M

(5)

schemes are possible:

The simplest approach is to quantize Re[Z,,] to +1 and

then make decisions independently for each cluster.

This approach, as we will see in the next section, does

not work well because there is no mechanism for

correcting errors.

Better performance can be achieved by quantizing the

individual Z,s and then decoding the entire sequence

to the nearest Walsh sequence. Specifically, we first

generate the sequence {Re[Z,] ,m = 1,2,...,M } and

quantize each component to +1 or -1. Then, we choose

the Walsh sequence of length M that is closest, in

Hamming distance, to the resulting sequence. This

allows for error correction since the received sequence is

mapped into one of only M possible Walsh sequences.

Clearly, the performance can be further improved by

retaining all of the information in the decision statistics.

Therefore, the best strategy should be to compute the

sequence, {Z,,m=1,2 ,...,M } , and, then choose the

Walsh sequence of length M that is closest, in Euclidean

distance, to the resulting sequence.

modulation must be removed. The approach used here is to

raise the frequency symbols to the fourth power. This is a

standard approach for removing QPSK modulation (e.g., see

[15]). Higher-order PSK modulations can be removed in a

(y,.m~J+I,m)~7

where Y),, represents the jth tone in the mth cluster and *

denotes conjugation. It is easy to show that, in the absence of

noise, if cluster m was not altered by the inversion sequence,

then Z , will be + ( N / M - 1). However, if b , =- 1, then Z,

will be - ( N / M - 1). Therefore, a simple binary detection

scheme can recover the inversion sequence. The summation

over the tones in a cluster averages the noise and provides a

significant performance improvement.

inversion sequence was used to modify the transmitted data.

This can be sent as explicit side information at the expense of

some loss in efficiency. Here, we present an alternative

approach that suffers no spectral efficiency penalty. The basic

strategy is to embed a marker onto the transmitted data that

can be used to uniquely identify the inversion sequence at the

receiver. The detection of the inversion sequence must be

reliable enough so that it does not have a significant effect on

the overall system performance.

/= 1

follows: If the inversion sequence does not rotate the cluster

(i.e., 6 , = I), do nothing. Otherwise, if the inversion sequence

rotates the cluster (i.e., b, =-I), then rotate every other tone in

that cluster by 7c/4. This is equivalent to using two signal

constellations for the data symbols in a cluster: one for the

unrotated clusters and another, rotated by n/4, for the modified

clusters. This algorithm puts an embedded marker on those

clusters that have been rotated. The goal then is to design a

detection scheme for this marker that is reliable enough in the

presence of noise and multipath fading to only minimally

impact the system performance.

c-

N/M

Zm =

3.3 Results

To quantify the performance of the marking and detection

algorithms, we will use the same parameters as in Section 2.4.

We assume 256 subcarriers (i.e., N = 2 5 6 ) which are divided

into 16 clusters (i.e., M=16), each composed of 16

subcarriers. QPSK is used to modulate the tones. The

measure of performance will be the word error rate (WER),

where word corresponds to one OFDM block or, equivalently,

the length of one inversion sequence. Initially, we will present

results on the detection performance of the schemes described

in Section 3.2. Specifically, performance will be presented for

the probability that the inversion sequence is received in error.

Then we will present some results estimating the effect of

inversion sequence errors on the system WER.

In Fig. 3 , results are shown for the probability of error in

detecting the inversion sequence as a function of the signal-

748

(A WGN) environment. As expected, the simple cluster-by-

minimum distance decoding, whether based on Hamming or

Euclidean distances, significant improvements are obtained.

The benefit comes from the error correction that is possible

with minimum distance decoding. The 16 Walsh sequences of

length 16 have a minimum distance of 8 and, as such, can

correct up to 4 errors. Using the Hamming (Euclidean)

distance, a 1 % WER can be achieved with an SNR of about 3.2

dB (2.3 dB). In the remaining figures, we will concentrate on

the minimum Euclidean distance decoding.

spread was discussed above. For very large delay spreads,

some penalty should occur. This is caused by the rapid

variations of the channel characteristic across the OFDM

frequency block. Because a differential-in-frequency

detection scheme is employed, the decorrelation between the

fading on adjacent tones will cause an error floor to appear.

This is analogous to the error caused by time variations in the

channel when a differential-in-time detection scheme is used.

M=16

r=5 psec

!-

Decoding:

-Simple

.---Hamming '%

---Euclidean ,

'I

*,

,:

,001

0

'

10

15

SNR (dB)

%' '

,s'

For wireless transmission, the performance must be

evaluated in a fading environment. In Fig. 4, results are

shown in a flat, Rayleigh fading channel and in a dispersive

environment with a two-ray, equal-amplitude, power delay

profile. For the results shown here and assuming an OFDM

bandwidth of 800 kHz, the two rays are separated by 5 psec.

Results are shown assuming no diversity and for two-branch

maximal ratio combining. Clearly, diversity is an essential

component of the receiver. At the I % WER, diversity reduces

the required SNR by more than 10 dB in a flat fading

environment and by more than 6 dB in a dispersive

environment. Flat fading is the most difficult environment

because, when the channel fades, all of the tones will be in a

fade and error correction will not be effective. With twobranch receive diversity and 5-psec delay spread, a 1% WER

can be achieved with an SNR of only 4.2 dB.

Since the performance should depend on the amount of

frequency selectivity in the channel, the sensitivity of the

detection schemes to different levels of delay spread must be

evaluated. The results, shown in Fig. 5, are plotted assuming

two-branch receive diversity and SNR =3 dB. As can be seen,

the performance is relatively insensitive. The poorer

Two-Branch Diversity

SNR = 3 dB

N=256

M=16

Min. Euclidean Dist.

E?

,003

,001

10

20

30

DELAY SPREAD (psec)

40

As the final check on the efficacy of using an embedded

transmission approach, we have computed the effect of errors

in the detection of the inversion sequence on the system WER.

The results shown by the solid line in Fig. 6, taken from [19],

can be interpreted as the performance with perfect detection of

the inversion sequence. These results have been computed

749

as well as convolutional coding with constraint lengths K = 6

and K =9. The effect of imperfect detection of the inversion

sequence was taken into account by assuming that the errors in

the data detection and the errors in the inversion sequence

detection are independent. Clearly, this is an upper bound,

since the occurrence of errors in detecting the data and the

inversion sequence are correlated. These results are

represented by the dashed line in Fig. 6. In all cases, the upper

bound on the penalty is less than 0.5 dB.

3

Reed-Solomon-

.1

2w

.03

.01

- N=256

,003&=16

,001

0

SNR (dB)

4. SUMMARY

OFDM is a very appealing technique for achieving highbit-rate wireless data transmission. However, the potentially

large PAP of an OFDM signal has limited its application. The

Partial Transmit Sequence approach can provide improved

PAP statistics with little loss in efficiency. The suboptimal

strategy for combining partial transmit sequences, presented in

[ 141 and summarized here, achieves similar performance but

with reduced complexity. In this paper, we described an

algorithm for transmitting knowledge of the combining or

inversion sequence without any overhead and strategies for

reliably detecting this sequence. Simulation results

demonstrated that the marking and detection algorithms cause

only minimal degradation in the system performance.

The performance of this approach can be improved by

increasing the number of tones per cluster and, thereby,

increasing the noise averaging benefit. So, this approach

should be even more effective for a wideband OFDM system

[16]. In addition, this technique can be easily extended to

higher-order PSK modulations. For square constellations,

such 16-QAM, the extension is not as readily apparent. The

differential detection and the modulation removal processes

cannot be easily adapted to square constellations. An

which case, the algorithm described here could be applied.

REFERENCES

[I] R. van Nee and R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia

Communications, Artech, 2000.

[2] M. Alard and R. Lassalle, "Principles of Modulation and

Channel Coding for Digital Broadcasting for Mobile

Receivers," EBU Technical Review, 1987, pp. 168- 190.

[3] U. Reimers, "Digital Video Broadcasting," IEEE Commun.

Mug., Vol. 36, No. 6, June 1998, pp. 104-110.

[4] M. Aldinger, "Multicarrier COFDM Scheme in High BitRate Radio Local Area Networks," Proc. of PIMRC'94, pp.

969-973.

[5] L. J. Cimini, Jr., J. C. Chuang, and N. R. Sollenberger,

"Advanced Cellular Internet Service," IEEE Commun. Mag.,

Vol. 36, No. IO, Oct. 1998, pp. 150-159.

[6] R. O'Neill and L. N. Lopes, "Envelope Variations and

Spectral Splatter in Clipped Multicarrier Signals," Proc. of

PIMRC'95, pp. 7 1-75.

[7] X. Li and L. J. Cimini, Jr., "Effects of Clipping and

Filtering on the Performance of OFDM," IEEE Commun.

Letts., Vol. 2, No. 5, May 1998, pp. 131-133.

[8] A. E. Jones, T. A. Willunson, and S. K. Barton, "Block

Coding Scheme for Reduction of Peak to Mean Envelope

Power Ratio of Multicarrier Transmission Scheme," Elec.

Letts., Vol. 30, No. 25, Dec. 1994, pp. 2098-2099.

[9] R. D. J. van Nee, "OFDM Codes for Peak-to-Average

Power Reduction and Error Correction," Proc. of

Globecom'96, pp. 740-744.

[lo] P. Van Eetvelt, G. Wade, and M. Tomlinson, "Peak to

Average Power Reduction for OFDM Schemes by Selective

Scrambling," Elec. Letts., Vol. 32, No. 21, Oct. 1996, pp.

1963-1964.

[ I 11 R. W. Bauml, R. F. H. Fischer, and J. B. Huber,

"Reducing the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio of Multicarrier

Modulation by Selective Mapping," Elec. Letts., Vol. 32, No.

22, Oct. 1996, pp. 2056-2057.

[I21 S. H. Muller and J. B. Huber, "A Novel Peak Power

Reduction Scheme for OFDM," Proc. of PIMRC'97, pp.

1090-1094.

[13] S. H. Muller and J. B. Huber, "OFDM with Reduced

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio by Optimum Combination of

Partial Transmit Sequences,' Elec. Letts., Vol. 33, No. 5, Feb.

1997, pp. 368-369.

[I41 L. J. Cimini, Jr., and N. R. Sollenberger, "Peak-toAverage Power Ratio Reduction of an OFDM Signal Using

Partial Transmit Sequences," IEEE Commun. Letts., Vol. 4,

No. 3, March 2000, pp. 86-88.

[ 151 J. J. Spilker, Digital Communications by Satellite,

Prentice-Hall, 1977, pp. 390-393.

[I61 J. C. Chuang, et al, "High-speed Wireless Data Access

Based on Combining EDGE with Wideband OFDM," ZEEE

Commun. Mag., Vol. 37, No. 11, Nov. 1999, pp. 92-98.

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