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P1.

The closed loop tf is

T ( s)

5000 p
1020 s 20000 s 5000 p

The charpo providing the poles is

P( s ) 1 s 3 1020 s 2

20000 s 5000 p

Routh Pre-Test proposes p

0 . Routh Array Test:

s3
s2
s1
s0

1
20000
1020
5000 p
b1
"0"
5000 p
"0"

b1

(20000) 1020 5000 p


1020

Necessary for BIBO stability after Pre-Test:

b1

0 , p 0 , b1

(20000)
1020 4 1020 4080
5000

(20000) 1020 5000 p 0

Necessary and sufficient for BIBO-stability (here for negative Re parts of the poles):

p 4080

4080 ... the unit step response :

Marginal (critical) stability occurs for the upper bound p


2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

0.02

0.04

Routh Array for p

s3
s2
s1
s0

0.06

0.08

0.12

0.14

0.16

0.18

0.2

4080 :

1
1020

20000
5000 4080

"0"
"0"

5000 4080

0.1

Auxiliary equation from the row preceeding the zero row:


E13-1/10

1020 s 2 0 s 5000 4080

Solve this to find some roots located symmetrically with respect to the origin:

1020 s 2

5000 4080

s2

5000

4080
1020

5000 4

20000

j 100

20000

j 141.4
w

Here the symmetry is a vertical yielding two imaginary poles complex conjugates to each other. In fact, the
two poles lie on Im axis and have so zero Re part. The response functions are here of the form

f (t )

sin( w t )

cos(w t )

2
Tcr

Critical Period Tcr :

Tcr

2
w

2
100

Tcr

0.0444

/ 50
2

44 ms

P2. Here the closed loop tf is

Gclo ( s )

KI
K
T s 1 s
KI
K
1
1
T s 1 s

K KI
(T s 1) s K K I

K KI
T s s K KI
2

Characteristic equation:

T s2 1 s K KI

0
0 & K KI

Here the closed loop system is nominally stable if and only if T


a) Re s

Re s

Re s

Introduce the Laplace variable change

0 ,

With this horizontal shift one can move to study the condition Re s

T (s
T (s 2

)2 (s
2

) K KI

2 s ) (1 s

T s 2 (1 2T ) s ( K K I
For Re s

0 , hopefully with Routh:

from chareq with a shift sign (!) ...

) K KI
T

0.

0
0

try to work out a standard polynomial equation


polynomial equation

0 use the standard Routh conditions: for T


E13-2/10

Routh !

0 even the other coefficients must be positive,

1 2T
K KI

0
2

1
2T

1st power

K KI

0th power

(1 T

Assuming nominal stability the pole margin is the horizontal distance of the right-most pole(s) from the Im
axis. The 1st power condition shows that it can not exceed 0.5 / T obtained with

1
1
)
(1 T
2T
2T

K KI

1 1
2T 2

vs. K K I

b) The solutions of the characteristic equation T s

12

s1

4 T K KI
2 T

1
4 T

1 s K KI

K KI

s2

0 are
4 T K KI
2 T

4 T K K I is positive. This occurs iff

K KI

0.25 / T . With this double pole at

0.25 / T . Overdamping

The roots are real equal numbers for d

s1

12

0.25
K T

12

They are real distinct numbers if the discriminant d

s2

vs. K I

0 vs. k

1
2 T

we have critical damping and departure of root locus from Re axis. Show that also with dk / ds for

K K I . For d

s1

1
2 T

0 vs. K K I

4 T K KI
2 T

0.25 / T the poles are non-real complex conjugate numbers,

s2

1
2 T

4 T K KI
2 T

They have a common Re coordinate and opposite Im coordinates which cause locus paths symmetric to
each other with respect to the Re axis. The Re coordinate is here independent of the gain product and is
equal to the double pole value of critical damping.

0.5
T

Im
Re

The maximum pole margin is here the absolute value of the departure vs. break-away point.

E13-3/10

P3. The process tf is

G( s)

1
s

Here we consider ideal PD control with a pre-fixed derivative time TD


gain K P

F ( s)

0.5 and adjustable proportional

2k . In fact, the controller tf given by M can be presented in the form


k ( s 2)

2k (0.5 s 1)

K P (TD s 1) , TD

0.5 , K P

2k

open loop system


Initial open loop system

e r

+
_

r e
1

Q (s)

( s 2)

s 2
s2 1

Closed loop tf: T (s )

k Q( s )
1 k Q (s)

Chareq: 1 k Q( s )

0 , k Q (s )

s 2
(s 1) ( s 1)
k ( s 2)
k s (2 k 1)

1
Q( s )

1 , k

1 s2
s 2

s 2 1 k ( s 2) 0

s2

k ( s ) , Q( s )
k s (2 k 1)

1
k

s 2
s2 1

0.5 (a lower bound!). We have a lower gain margin 0.5 / k .

Routh stability test proposes the condition k

Root Locus
2

1.5
System: Q
Gain: 7.47
Pole: -3.79
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 3.79

Imaginary Axis

0.5

System: Q
Gain: 0.5
Pole: 0.00193
Damping: -1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 0.00193

0
System: Q
Gain: 0.536
Pole: -0.268
Damping: 1
Overshoot (%): 0
Frequency (rad/sec): 0.268

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

Real Axis

0 which makes Q
1 / k unbounded. This can here happen if and only if a root
approaches one of the poles 1 ja 1 of the initial open loop system Q (and the open loop system).
Start points for k

E13-4/10

End points for k

which makes Q

1 / k to approach zero. This occurs e.g. when a root approaches


the point 2 , the only zero of the initial open loop system Q . Hence the point
2 is one of the end
points. But this also occurs when Q approaches zero due to s
, since the numerator degree of Q is
smaller than the denominator degree of Q , i.e. Q is strictly proper:
s 2
s2 1

Q (s)

s
s2

1
s

0 for s

A more detailed demonstration uses polar coordinates, the absolute value and the radian phase angle:

s , p
jp

Q (m e )

arg rad s , s

m e jp 2
(m e jp ) 2 1
m

m e jp

m cos( p) 2
m cos(2 p) 1
2

j m sin( p )
j m 2 sin( 2 p)

cos( p) 2 m 2 j m 1 sin( p )
cos(2 p ) m 2 j sin( 2 p)

0 cos( p) 2 0 j 0 sin( p)
cos(2 p) 0 j sin( 2 p )

Im axis crossings can be hunted by RZN test or substituting a purely imaginary trial solution
characteristic polynomial equation:

( jw) 2

jw into the

k ( jw) (2 k 1) 0

(2 k 1) w 2
k

(2 k 1) w2

j (kw) 0 0 j

w 0 & (2 k 1) 0 2

w 0 & k

(Re)

1
2

(Im)

0 & k w
k

1
& s
2

0
0

Hence a locus crosses Im axis through the origin which is hit for k 1 / 2 . For this tuning the closed loop
system is marginally stable ... with a DC component and a ramp component included in the step response
instead of the more typical true sinusoidal oscillation. The critical cross-over frequency is here 0.

Re axis segments:
The poles and the zeros of a function form the set of special points. Here the open loop special points are 1
(pole), 1 (pole) and
2 (zero). Because 1) the model parameters are real, 2) the polynomial factors behind
them have a positive leading coefficient (in fact, unity) and 3) the gain adjusted is positive, a Re axis point not
equal to a real special point belongs to the loci if and only if the number of real special points right to the
point is odd. This reveals here that the open Re axis ranges ( , -2) and (-1,1) belong to the root loci. This is
confirmed on next page by a sign analysis. Naturally, any real special point also belongs to the loci.
From the knowledge gathered so far it is quite obvious that there is a departure point on the range (-1,1) and
an arrival point on the open range (- -2) . On both of them we have

dk
ds

d 1 s
ds s 2

( s 2)

d
d
(1 s 2 ) (1 s 2 )
( s 2)
ds
ds
( s 2) 2

Note that such a derivative is not well-defined in real special points since the left limit and the right limit of the
perturbation ratio k / s are not equal to each other. Hence the derivative condition like that above will not
find possible multiple real roots equal to real special points.
E13-5/10

-2

-1

+1

s 2

s 1

s 1

Q(s)

yes

no

yes

no

1
Q

k
?

So both departure and arrival points can be found from

( s 2) ( 2 s ) (1 s 2 ) (1)
( s 2) 2
s2
s1

s2

4 s 1 0
2

s2 4 s 1
( s 2) 2

4 s 1 0

0
42
2

3.73

4 3

4 2
2

2
s2

arrival

0.27

departure

(1 s ) (1 s )
s 2

The gain values needed:

7.46

41

0.536

P4. This shows how a control engineer procedure may be used outside control engineering.

P( s)

s2

a s
( s 2 1)

( s 2 1) a s

a s 1 0

0
(s

1 a

1)

1 a Q( s ) 0 , Q ( s )

a ,

Q( s )

s
1

s
2

s
2

s
2

(s

j) (s j)

(factors for open loop zeros and poles )

E13-6/10

P( s)

Also:

a s 1 0

s2 1
s

1
Q( s )

Q( s )

1
s

s
1

s
For a finite range ( k1 , k 2 )
horizontal and vertical axes:

k1

with

0 & k2

0 we obtain by/after forcing equal scales for the

Im
1.5

0.5

Re

-0.5

-1

-1.5
-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Note that here the sign changes of Q on the Re axis are due to only the numerator factor s since the
denominator polynomial remains positive. However, the typical Re axis rule is not working here since we have
a change of sign (k ) at k 0 within the finite range ( k1 , k 2 ) .

P5. We have learned that the closed loop system in question has infinitely many poles for p

ln( p )
d

j N

; N

1,

3,

5 , ...

a) Infinitely many horizontal lines which cross Im axis for p


distance of

0.5 and a range of the delay d :

For p = 0.5 and 1 < d < 10


10
N=
N=
N=
N=

8
6

1
3
-1
-3

Im

2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-0.7

-0.6

1 . Two adjacent lines have the mutual vertical

/d .

b) Show just four paths for p

-0.5

-0.4

-0.3

-0.2

-0.1

0,

Re

E13-7/10

P6. Compare Problem c with E12P4. Notice that this is needed in taking a warm shower. See Problem 9.7
on Page 292 of M book as well as other congestion control stories in M. Make CTRL+F searches
on the topic in the pdf version of the M book!

1
k exp( d s )
s

(characteristic equation)

s
exp( d s)

k ( s)

(solve the gain)

s exp( d s)

(define a function on the real axis)

The number of closed loop poles is here infinite due to the positive delay within the loop.
a) Start for unbounded

exp( d s )
. Since exp( d s )
s

exp( d Re s ) is finite at finite points

the only finite start point is the origin. The other (infinitely many!) paths must start from infinity.
End for

exp( d s )
s

0 . This requires either exp( d s)

0 or

or both.

This means that all loci will finally head towards infinity, to finally lie infinitely far from the origin.

b) On the real axis the exp is positive which means that a positive gain k is obtained if and only of ( s )
is positive which occurs if and only if s is negative. So the whole negative Re axis belongs to the loci
because there is an infinite number of the poles (due to the delay)!

c) Departure and arrival points outside special points:

0 k (s )
0 k ( s)
1 d s

1 exp( d s) s exp( d s) (d )
( 1 d s) exp( d s)
0

1
d

k(

1
)
d

1
exp( 1)
d

k (s )

(search of maximums and minimums of k )

exp( d s)

0 s

(de javu?)
(the only possible double solution ...

1
1
exp( d
)
d
d

d
k ( s)
ds

will be available with the gain

good for taking a shower?)

( 1 d s ) exp( d s )

Departure/Break-Away or Arrival?

k (s ) ( 1 d s) exp( d s) ( 1 d s) exp( d s)

E13-8/10

chain rule

k (s ) ( d ) exp(d s) ( 1 d s) exp( d s) (d s)
k (s ) ( d ) exp( d s) ( 1 d s) exp( d s) (d )
k ( s ) ( 2d

d d s) exp( d s )

1
d

d exp( 1) 0

has a maximum value on the real axis segment

at the double pole which will change into


non-real conjugate roots: break-away!
Im axis crossing occur at

j w

where w

Phase Cross-Over Frequency of the Open Loop System

2 d

and Q ( s )

ds

for the gain

Upper Gain Margin factor for Q ( s )

2 d

P7. Below only arrival and departure points are studied. The controller gain is renamed to k :

Q (s)

k ( s)

1
Q( s )

5000
1020 s 2 20000 s

s 3 1020 s 2 20000 s
5000

In the arrival and departure points outside the special points we have

k ( s)

3 s 2 1020 2 s 20000
5000

3 s2

2040 s 20000 0

This familiar (!) condition gives the candidate points

2040

2040 2 4 3 20000
2 3

Rough values of the roots are

s1

670

s2

E13-9/10

9.95

ds

Compute the controller gains implying these values using Horners algorithm

k (s)

k ( s1 )

s ( s ( s 1020) 20000 )
5000

28743

k ( s2 ) 19.8

Other root locus rules and the stability condition may be used to verify that there is only a practical solution,

k (s 2 ) 19.8

This implies a departure point at

s2

9.95

One may derive k for critical damping given symbolic re-usable parameterizations like

k
, k Q( s )
s (T1 s 1) (T2 s 1)

k Q( s )

s (s 2

k
2

2
n
n

2
n

k Q( s )

s (

s 1)

Additional knowledge
In a root locus plot where Re and Im units are devoted the same metric scales one can apply a liner to measure
certain distances which then can be used to conclude a gain associated with a root locus point s . This is based
on the fact that the shortest distance dist ( s, f ) between s and f is simply

dist ( s, f )

When Re and Im directions are scaled in the compatible way dist ( s, f ) is the length of a straight line
which combines s to f . Lets look the formulae involved, please enhance the graphical presentation below:

Q( s )

s c
, k
( s a ) (s b)

1
Q( s )

( s a) ( s b)
(s c )

( s a) ( s b)

( s a ) ( s b)
(s c)

( s c)

s a

s b

s c

dist ( s, a ) dist ( s, b)
dist ( s, c)

Literature also provides some angle rules, too. See e.g. Chapter 7 of DB for additional information.

E13-10/10