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A Review Material for the NCBTSBased 2009 Licensure Examination for


Prepared by

Maria Ruth M.

1. Determine ways and means to ensure the high standards of personal and
professional development.
2. Apply ethical principles in situations involving teachers relationship with
various groups of people.
3. Reflect on professional teachers accountability to learners performance and
achievement and to the teachers total involvement in the teaching profession.

Content Coverage
1. Philosophies of Education & the Teacher
2. The Teacher as a Person in Society
3. The Global Teacher
4. The Professionalization of Teaching


Philosophy of Education and the Teacher

Definition of Philosophy
A set of ideas that answers questions about the nature of reality and about the meaning of life.
Answers these questions
- What is basic human nature?
- What is real and true about life and the world?
- What is knowledge?
- What is worth striving for?
- What is just, good, right, or beautiful?
Elements of a Philosophy of Education
Concept of the human person - the learner and the educated person
What is true and good and therefore must be taught
How a learner must be taught in order to come close to the truth
Current Philosophical Orientations:
Social Reconstructionism
A teachers teaching philosophy is:
o reflected in dealings with students, colleagues, parents and administrators
o an attitude towards problems and life as a whole
o a statement on how learners are perceived and must be dealt with
o the result and reason of ones behavior
Types of Reflection that result to a personal teaching philosophy:
1. Reflection-in-action
A process that helps teacher reshape what they do as they do it.
2. Reflection-on-action
A look back at what happened previously

II. The Teacher as a Person in Society

Definition of Morality
The quality of human acts by which we call them right or wrong, good or evil (Panizo, 1964)
Definition of Foundational Moral Principle

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

The universal norm upon which all other principles on the rightness or wrongness of an action are
An act is moral if is in accordance with our human nature.
The Fundamental or Foundational Moral Principle: Do good and avoid evil.
Ways to Describe Good Moral Character

Being fully human

Being a loving person
Being a virtuous person
Being a morally mature person

Principles of Values Formation


Values are taught and caught.

Values have cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions.
Value formation includes formation in the three dimensions.
Value formation is a training of the intellect and will.

Max Schelers Hierarchy of Values

1. Pleasure Values pleasant vs. unpleasant

sensual feelings
experiences of pleasure or pain

2. Vital Values well-being of self or community; vital feeling

- health
- vitality
- capability
- excellence
3. Spiritual Values values independent of the body and environment; grasped in spiritual acts of preferring,
loving and hating
- aesthetic values (beauty vs. ugliness)
- values of right and wrong
- values of pure knowledge
4. Values of the Holy pertains to absolute objects
- belief
- adoration

Teaching as a Vocation
Being called to teach
Teaching as a Mission
Being task assigned or sent to teach
Teaching as a Profession
Professional the result of long and arduous years of preparation; a striving for excellence; a dedication the
public interest; commitment to moral and ethical values

Reasons why teaching is a profession:


Teachers possess and can use specialized knowledge.

Teachers must fulfill licensure requirements in order to practice.
Teachers are decision makers.
Teachers get paid for their services.
Teachers do not simply do a job; they leave a legacy.
Teachers add intellectual value to an organization
Teachers operate according to a professional set of standards and ethics.
Teachers are compelled or driven by a sense of responsibility to perform their work.

Characteristics of a Professional Teacher


Reflects independently to perform ways that support student learning

Recognizes teaching opportunities
Shares and models knowledge to the students
Demonstrates professional leadership
Considers the views of others who have a legitimate stake in a situation
Possesses relevant knowledge and ably applies it to improve a situation
Calls up professional knowledge when necessary

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

8. Assesses the consequences of actions

9. Thrives on challenges of professional practice, getting stronger and better over time

The Teacher, the School and Community Relations

Essential Teacher Competencies (for this role):
1. Organizing a well-managed classroom in terms of time management, record-keeping, orderliness and
2. fostering linkages for mutual concerns
3. undertaking networking activities with organizations for educational, social and civic purposes

Challenges of this role


Students fail to accomplish assignments

Students irregular attendance
Poor study habits in school
Negative attitudes toward schooling
Students self-discipline

Solutions to the challenges


Calm and friendly dialogues

Modeling positive attitudes of kindheartedness and patience
Strong motivation and encouragement
Letters and praises to parents for outstanding performances
Interesting lessons
Appropriate recording and reporting

Desirable values to develop


Respect for elders and for the rights of others

Willingness to share
Deep sense of responsibility

School and Community

Actions that may be spearheaded by the school thru the teacher to strengthen school-community
Collaborative Relationships

Organized Associations

Parent-Teacher Organizations
School-Community Associations

Public Safety, Beautification and Cleanliness


Active participation of school officials in community projects

City officials provide help in improving the physical facilities of the school

School observes public ordinances

School participates in community projects

Utilizing the Community as an Instructional Center

Honoring Exemplary Values

Linkages and Networking with Organizations

Joining forces with public and private institutions and organizations, both local and foreign to enrich the
capacities of the teachers and the schools through supportive mechanisms

Benefits of Establishing Linkages/Networks


For keeping abreast with current issues, advances and trends

For training programs to upgrade competencies, update knowledge and skills
For benchmarking on best practices to improve ones current system
For scholarship opportunities
For sharing resources
For strengthening values and advocacies
For maintaining high standards of the profession
For seeking assistance and other needed support

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

III. The Global Teacher

A result of the global education in a global village which poses multiple challenges to the teachers
Characteristics of a Global Teacher
1. Possesses a wider range of knowledge of the various educational systems outside the country
2. Has a good mastery of skills and competencies which can address global demands
3. Possesses attitudes and values that are acceptable to multicultural communities

Educational Systems in Some Countries


Basic Education

College /
6 years


6 years

6 years

Entry age

(4 yrs)
Senior high school
(2 yrs)

6 years


6 years
Junior middle (3yrs)
Senior middle (3yrs)

6 years


6 years
Lower secondary (3yrs)
Upper Secondary (3yrs)

South Africa

6 years

3 years

3-4 years

Other Features
o Compulsory education-- entry age at 6; exit age at 15
o Primary and secondary education is provided by the government
and non-government primary schools.
o Junior Secondary Certificate of Education (Year 10 Certificate)
o Students may get a job after Junior High or go to a Technical and
Further Education (TAFE) College to learn technical skills.
o Academic year begins in March, ends in November
o Language of Instruction English
o Education system is highly centralized.
o Class size ranged from 40-60
o To attend university, students must pass one of the 2 versions of
the National University Entrance Examination.
o There are varieties of technical and vocational schools.
o Highly centralized education administered by Mombusho or
Ministry of Education.
o Preschools with mainly female teachers; not official part of the
educational system.
o 2/3 of student population go to the public school system
o 2/3 male teachers in schools
o Higher education is provided by 80% private institutions
o Japanese education relies heavily on examination.
o Students take a public examination for a Senior Certificate

6 years


3 yrs

States of

5 years

5 yrs

2 yrs

3 yrs

o Compulsory for ages 5-16

o Made up of the Foundation stage and 4 Key Stages, plus Post 16
o Compulsory education is from entry of 6 yrs old to exit of 18 yrs
o Classes begin in September and end in June

Multicultural Education
Anchored on the diversity of learners
Major goal: To transform the school so that the male and the female students, exceptional learners, as
well as students coming from diverse cultural, social-class, racial and ethnic groups will
experiences an equal opportunity to learn in school (James Banks, 1975)
Concepts that Define Diversity


All of the learned characteristics of a people language, religion,

social mores, artistic expressions, beliefs and values; may develop
around a shared interest, circumstance, or condition

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila


Physical characteristics, especially skin color and national origin;

genetically inheritable


Membership in a group with a common cultural tradition or common

national origin; ethnic traits are learned in social contexts



Making students similar

Maintaining unique characteristics
First or second language speakers
Children with a special ability or disability that sets them apart from
other children; may be giftedness (high performance or excellence in
general intellectual ability, specific academic aptitude, creative or
productive thinking, leadership ability, ability in the visual or
performing arts, and psychomotor ability; may be disabilities in terms
of speech and language disorders, learning disabilities, emotional
and behavior disorders, and sever attention problems

Basic Assumptions in every Classroom:

1.No two learners are exactly the same
2.Children in all classrooms are heterogeneous.
3.Strategies that work with one may not be well for the other.
4.Students background and experiences should be considered when teaching.
5.Community members can contribute to the success of easing out ethnic issues.

Approaches to Multicultural Education (Sleeter & Grant, 2002)

1. Assimilation
Teaching the exceptional and culturally different to assimilate into the cultural mainstream using
transitional bridges in the regular school program

2. Social Harmony
Human relations approaches that attempt to help students of differing backgrounds understand and
accept each other

3. Single-Group Studies
Encourages cultural pluralism by concentrating on the contributions of specific individuals and

4. Cultural Pluralism through Educational Reform

Multicultural approaches that promote pluralism by reforming entire educational programs altering
curriculula, integrating staffs, and affirming family languages

5. Social Reform and Cultural Change

Education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist actively challenges social inequalities

Suggestions to understand multi-cultural learners

1. Learn and become sensitive to and aware of racial, ethnic, cultural and gender groups other than your

2. Never make assumption about an individual based on your perception of that individuals race, ethnicity,
culture or gender.

3. Avoid labeling or stereotyping

4. Get to know each student as a unique individual.
5. Check out your own biases about the people who are different from your race, ethnicity, culture, gender
or socioeconomic status.
6. Plan learning activities within a multicultural framework while making the classroom safe and secured
for all the students.
7. Utilize multicultural instructional materials and strategies when teaching.
8. Promote cooperation and collaboration among your learners, parents and teachers.

Suggestions to Broadening Teaching Perspectives

1.Link up with exchange programs of other countries
2.Join international professional organizations
3.Subscribe to international journals and resources
4.Participate in international conferences, trainings and workshops
5.Conduct comparative research activities

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

IV. The Professionalization of Teaching

Definition of a Professional Teacher
A licensed professional who possesses dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and
professional competences/he adheres to, observes, and practices a set f ethical and moral principles,
standard, and values. (Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers)

Bits of Enacted laws that led to the Professionalization of Teaching

1987 Constitution of the
Republic of the
Philippines Section 1.
Section 5 (4)

Article XIV Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels and shall
take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
The State shall enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement.

Republic Act No. 7722

Section 2.

An Act Creating the

Commission on Higher
Education, Appropriating
Funds Therefore and for Other

The State shall likewise ensure and protect academic freedom and shall promote its
exercise and the observance for the continuing intellectual growth, the advancement
of learning and research the development of responsible and effective leadership, the
education of high-level and middle-level professionals, and the enrichment of our
historical and cultural heritage.

Section 12.

The Commission shall reconstitute and/or organize technical panels for different
disciplines/program areas. They shall assist the Commission in setting standards and
in program and institution monitoring and evaluation. The technical panels shall be
composed of senior specialists or academicians to be approved by the Commission

Republic Act No. 7796

Goal: To inculcate desirable values through the development of moral character with emphasis on
work ethics, self-discipline, self-reliance and nationalism.

An Act Creating the Technical

Education and Skills Development Section 23. Such training program schemes shall include teacher trainors training skills for
entrepreneur development and technology development, cost-effective training in
Authority, Providing for its Powers,
occupational trades and related fields of employment, and value development as an integral
Structure and for other Purposes
component of all skills training programs.
Republic Act No. 9155
An Act Instituting a Framework
of Governance for Basic
Education, Establishing
Authority and Accountability,
Renaming the Department of
Education, Culture and Sports
as the Department of
Education and for other
Executive Order No. 356
Renaming the Bureau of NonFormal Education to Bureau of
Alternative Learning System
Presidential Decree No. 6A
Educational Development
Decree of 1972
Batas Pambansa Blg. 232
An Act Providing for the
Establishment and
Maintenance of an Integrated
System of Education

Section 2. The school shall be the heart of the formal education system. It is where children learn.
Schools shall have a single aim of providing the best possible basic education for all
Section 4. (i) Learning Facilitator is the key-learning support person who is responsible for
supervising/facilitating the learning process and activities of the learner.

One of the functions of the Bureau is to address the learning needs of the marginalized groups of
the population including the deprived, depressed and underserved citizens

The educational system aims to provide for a broad general education that will assist each
individual, in the peculiar ecology of his own society, to (1) attain his potential as a human being; (2)
enhance the range and quality of individual and group participation in the basic functions of society;
and (3) acquire the essential educational foundation for his development into a productive and
versatile citizen.
It is the policy of the State to establish and maintain a complete, adequate and integrated system of
education relevant to the goals of national development.
The educational system aims to develop the professions that will provide leadership for the nation in
the advancement of knowledge for improving the quality of human life.

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Teachers shall be deemed persons in authority when in the discharge of lawful duties and
responsibilities, and shall, therefore, be accorded due respect and protection.
One of the duties of teachers is to participate as an agent of constructive social economic, moral,
intellectual, cultural and political change in his school and the community within the context of
national policies.

the learning process should be based on four pillars of education: learning to know, learning to
do, learning to live together, learning to be.

Republic Act 4760

It is hereby declared to be the policy of this Act to promote and improve the social and economic
status of public school teachers, their living and working conditions, their employment and career
prospects in order that they may compare favorably with existing opportunities in other walks of life,
attract and retain in the teaching profession more people with the proper qualification.

(June 18, 1977)

The Magna Carta for Public
School Teachers

Presidential Decree 1006

(January 1, 1966)

As used in this Act, the term teacher shall mean all persons engaged in classroom teaching, in any
level of instruction, on full-time basis, including guidance counselors, school librarians, industrial arts
or vocational instructors, and all other persons supervisory and/or administrative functions in all
schools; but shall not include school nurses, .
in recognition of the vital role of teachers in nation-building and as an incentive to raise the
morale of teachers, it is imperative that they be considered as professionals and teaching be
recognized as a profession

Providing for the

Professionalization of
Teachers, Regulating their
Practice in the Philippines and
for other Purposes
Republic Act 7836
Philippine Teachers
Professionalization Act of 1994
An Act to Strengthen the
Regulation and Supervision of
the Practice of Teaching in the
Philippines and Prescribing a
Licensure Examination for
Teachers and for other
Republic Act 9293
(February 7, 2004)
An Act Amending Certain
Section of RA 7836

Code of Ethics for

Professional Teachers
(Resolution No. 435, s. 1997)

The State recognizes the vital role of teachers in nation building and development through a
responsible and literate citizenry.
The Board shall prescribe and/or adopt a code of ethical and professional standards for the
practice of the teaching profession.
The registration of a professional teacher commences from the date his name is enrolled in a roster
of professional teachers.
Every registrant shall be required to take his professional oath before practicing as a professional
The teaching profession shall be integrated into one national organization which shall be recognized
by the Board and the Commission as the one and only integrated and accredited association of
professional teachers.
No person shall engage in teaching and/or act as a professional teacher as defined in this Act,
whether in the preschool, elementary or secondary level, unless the person is a duly registered
professional teacher, and a holder of a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional
license or a holder of a valid special/temporary permit.
A special permit may also be issued by the Board to a person who has excelled and gained
international recognition and is a widely acknowledged expert in his or her respective field of
Every teacher shall enjoy academic freedom and shall have the privilege of sharing the product of
his researches and investigations, provided that, if the results are inimical to the declared policies of
the State, they shall be drawn to the proper authorities for appropriate remedial action.
Every teacher shall actively help ensure that teaching is the noblest profession, and shall manifest
genuine enthusiasm and pride in teaching as a noble calling.
A teacher shall recognize that the interest and welfare of learners are his first and foremost concern,

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and shall handle each learner justly and impartially.

A teacher shall place premium upon self-respect and self-discipline of personal behavior in all
relationships with others and in all situations.

Arends, R. L. (1994). Teaching. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bilbao, P. P. B.B. Corpuz, A. T. Llagas, and G. G. Salandanan. (2006). The teaching profession. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing,
Borich, G. D. (2004). The effective teacher. Effective teaching methods. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
McNergney, R. F. and J. M. McNergney. (2001). Education: The practice and profession of teaching. USA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Salandanan, G. S. (2007). Elements of good teaching. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.
Vega, V. A., N. G. Prieto, and M. L. Carreon. (2006). Social dimensions of education. Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing, Inc.

DIRECTIONS: Read each item carefully. Then choose the best answer.
1. What should a teaching philosophy not include?
A. Concept of the human person
B. Concept of what is true and good
C. Concept of what is pleasurable and good
D. Concept of how a learner must be taught
2. A teacher believes that students should be given a wide variety of options from which to choose. What
philosophy of education does this teacher adhere to?
A. Essentialism
B. Existentialism
C. Perennialism
D. Progressivism
3. Which of these is true about a teachers teaching philosophy?
A. It reflects career plans.
B. It is the result and reason for choosing such profession.
C. It manifests ones attitude towards issues and concerns.
D. It is a statement on how learners are perceived and must be dealt with
4. What type of reflection is utilized by a teacher who looks back at what happened previously in her task?
A. Reflection-in-action
B. Reflection-by-action
C. Reflection-on-action
D. Reflection-with-action
5. Which teacher does not demonstrate good moral character?
A. Someone who has acquired attitudes and capitalizes on them.
B. Someone who cares for others unselfishly and in a mature manner.
C. Someone who knows his capabilities and finds ways to harness them.
D. Someone who has reached a level of development appropriate to age.
6. Every teaching philosophy begins with the phrase I believe. Would it make a difference if the teacher
wrote his philosophy of education using the third person pronouns?
A. Yes, because it would mean that it is not his own thoughts.
B. Yes, because the teachers philosophy should imply a personal decision.
C. No, because teaching philosophies may be a combination of several philosophies of education.

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D. No, because they all pertain to the value of teaching and learning and the learner as the center of all
7. Why is ones philosophy of education said to be ones window to the world or compass in life?
A. Because it embodies ones thoughts, beliefs and values that serve as a guide.
B. Because it shows ones attitude and view of the profession.
C. Because it is an articulation of the philosophies of education that are appropriate to any culture.
D. Because it describes the teacher while s/he conducts the teaching-learning process.
8. Which best describes transcendent values?
A. Values that can be passed on from parents to offspring.
B. Values that are independent of time, space and people.
C. Values that depend on the needs of people at a given time.
D. Values that are expressed through spiritual and holy means.
9. Based on Schelers hierarchy of values, what is a life well lived?
A. When we value pleasure values the most.
B. When we combine at least two levels of values.
C. When we subordinate pleasure values to spiritual values.
D. When we give preference to vital values over spiritual values.
10. Value formation is training of the intellect and the will. What does not consist this training?
A. Formation of ideas
B. Judgment and reasoning
C. Yielding to impulse results
D. Concentrating attention on more remote good.
11. Daily assignments are incomplete, oftentimes not understood. What will you do?
A. Call for a conference with the parents of the students.
B. Hold remedial classes to help the problematic students.
C. Detain the delinquent students for non-compliance to assigned tasks.
D. Explain the assignment as clearly as possible before dismissing the class.
12. Which is the best way to show your schools gratitude for the assistance and cooperation extended by the
community leaders?
A. Support community projects.
B. Award a plaque of appreciation to the town mayor.
C. Campaign for the re-election of community officials.
D. Give special discounts from school fees to the children of the officials.
13. How can the community and its officials assist the school?
A. By initiating community projects.
B. By participating in town celebrations.
C. By serving as resource persons in school assemblies.
D. By giving teachers an official post at the community hall.
14. Which of these organizations help in maintaining and uplifting the quality standards of a school?
A. Educational Research and Development Assistance Foundation, Inc. (ERDA)
B. Federation of Accrediting Associations of the Philippines (FAAP)
C. National Organization of Professional Teachers, Inc. (NOPTI)
D. Philippine Association for Teachers of Educational Foundations (PATEF)
15. You are a teacher in a school in Manila. To which organization should you register if you wish to have
access to educational resources like libraries and technologies?
A. ABS-CBN Foundation, Inc.
B. Continuing Education via Television
C. Literacy Coordinating Council
D. The Mendiola Consortium
16. Why should teachers become global teachers?
A. Because the world has become so small as a result of the information highway provided by the internet.
B. Because the increased use of technology in the classroom poses challenges to the contemporary

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Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila

C. Because global education poses a variety of goals ranging from increased knowledge about the
peoples of the world.
D. Because having a wide range of knowledge in the various educational systems gives information of the
prospects for employment.
17. In what way does the Philippine basic education differ from that of Japan and China?
A. Primary education in the Philippines is free and compulsory.
B. Japan and China requires more years in high school education.
C. The entire basic education in the Philippines is provided for by the government.
D. Japan and Chinas curriculum gives emphasis to the development of law-abiding citizens.
18. Which situation does not exemplify multiculturalism?
A. Latino children in Argentina.
B. Immigrant children in a Grade 1 Science class.
C. Australian boys and girls studying the world map.
D. Gifted South African children performing a tribal dance.
19. Which of these fundamental concepts is not further deepened by multiculturalism?
A. Community support is needed by schools.
B. Children in all classrooms are heterogeneous.
C. Transcendent values depend on ethnicity.
D. Differences in race, ethnic and religion are some of the factors that require multicultural approaches.
20. How can you become a truly global teacher?
A. By joining an international professional organization.
B. By facilitating a group of multicultural learners in a Math subject.
C. By becoming technology-literate where using the internet is a breeze.
D. By integrating in my teaching strategies the expanded experiences that I have acquired beyond the
21. Can a Filipino teacher avail of the programs conducted by the Global Teachers Millennium Awards?
A. Yes, because it requires commitment which most of us manifest.
B. Yes, because it is offered to all teachers around the globe.
C. No, because it is offered only to partner countries of the organizing body.
D. No, because Filipino teachers have already required a deep understanding of how the world is
22. Which law gives emphasis to the need of an individual for a broad general education to help him/her cope
in the peculiar ecology of his/her own society?
A. Batas Pambansa 232
B. Executive Order 356
C. Presidential Decree 6-A
D. Republic Act 9155
23. Which of these laws paved the way to the professionalization of teaching?
A. Presidential Decree 6-A
B. Presidential Decree 1006
C. Republic Act 7836
D. Republic Act 9293
24. If your principal hands to you a copy of the Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers, what is s/he expecting
you to learn?
A. The right of a teacher to academic freedom.
B. The rules of proper behavior in her institution.
C. The benefits that you may avail in case of emergency.
D. Your being a professional which commences as soon as your name is registered in the roster of
25. Which best describes a teacher who is a true professional?
A. One who currently teaching and is confronted by the rigors of the job
B. One who possesses a license from the Professional Regulations Commission
C. One who has undergone arduous training and study in a teacher education institution

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D. One who demonstrates the dignity and reputation with high moral values, as well as, technical and
professional competences

12 THE TEACHING PROFESSION A Review Material for the NCBTS-Based Licensure

Examination for Teachers (LET)| Prepared by MARIA RUTH M. REGALADO, PNU-Manila